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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. and Jain system of education. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Lesson 4. discusses the regional educational development in India. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. 9 .HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. The need. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. Lesson 2. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Jainism and their educational implication. Lesson 5. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. In.
1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 184.108.40.206 Jain system of education 220.127.116.11.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1 18.104.22.168.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 22.214.171.124.6.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.6.2 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 126.96.36.199.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.6 Education during British Era 1.1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1.3.LESSON 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.3.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1.6.
being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.6. Muslim and British periods. in opinion. in morals and in the intellect”.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.7 1.1. Indian in blood and colour.1.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1. 1.1.1. British system of education presented the modern western model. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. elucidate the education during British Era. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. has a long past history starting in vedic education. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. describe the Jain system of Education 4.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. India.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. “a class of persons.3. Education in India. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.9 1.1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. The history of education passed through Buddhist. you will be able to: 1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.1.6. That 12 .1. but English in taste. both present and future. 1.8 1.
which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. from darkness. Teacher as Parents. followed by explanation by the teacher. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. 9. Immediate Aim Vocational. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. 10. 5. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Residential Schools. from eternal to immorality 2. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. 12. 16. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. as it is generally considered to be at present. the monitorial plan was followed. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. The immediate aim of education. It was also moral. questioning by the pupil. if they thought fit to do so. Education of Moral. 14. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. 11. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Curriculum. High Status of Teachers. generally. Where pupils were many. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Role of Travel in Education. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. to light. Method of Study. religious and spiritual. with grants of land or money. Education was a private affair of the people. Religious and Spiritual. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. It was not merely intellectual. 4. Individual Teaching. 3. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. individually. managed entirely by Brahmans. not en masse by the class method. 8. Forests as Centres of Education.knowledge was real. 13 . 6. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. There was. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Method of Instruction. Free and Accessible. and to agriculture and trade. Pupils were taught. however. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. No State Control on Education. 13.
Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. 1. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. 2. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Wide-Spread Education in Women. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . studied Vedas. They were very cordial and intimate. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. lived a life of celebacy. It was freely available to all those who wanted. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? .1. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. It was suited to the needs of the society.17.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. besides preparing for worldly pursuits.
etc.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. he was qualified to become a monk.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. in which. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. impure conduct. the most significant of which were the following 1. except the Chandals. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. Right thought 3. 2. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Right speech 4. Right endeavour 7. It was denied only to the ill. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. use of cosmetics. I take Refuge to Sangh. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. killing of any living being. medium of Pali. 1. had the right to receive education. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. I take Refuge to Dharma.C. use of intoxicating things. taking things without being offered. the student had his head shaved of all hair. 15 . Right knowledge 2. dressed himself in yellow clothes. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Right memory 8.4. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. the handicapped. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. disease and death of the human beings. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. every class in society. Right contemplation 1. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Consequently. Right activity 5. After attaining the age of 20. which included abstaining from theft. the student remained in a state of Shramana. partaking of food at prohibited times. Right means of livelihood 6. Education was imparted through the.1. watching dances or listening to music.
nature. archery. On this occasion. military science. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. etc. control over sensuous activities. the presence of the monks was essential. knowledge of reviving the dead. the science of taming and training animals. has no metaphysical value for life. and. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. meaning. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. along with education in script writing. geology. depth and range. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. a continuous change creating 16 . agriculture. commerce. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. magic. however.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. education was impart in art. 8. approach. arithmetic and religious discussion. bodily gestures. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. animal husbandry. archery. 7. As reality is becoming. elephant lore. beg for alms. objectives of human life. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. wear three items. it is regarded as true”. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. so long as it successfully does so. medicine. 3. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. eat food thrice a day. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. 1. changing the goals. 5. handicrafts. women occupied a position inferior to men. Whatever its nature and extent. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. Later on. After this ritual. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. etc. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. 6. Even at this stage. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. therefore. Hence.. 2. aspirations and. a change is not only total but also perpetual. nothing is of any permanent consequence. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. These are called later Buddhist schools. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. It comprehended education in writing. assumptions. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. be considered the aim of education It. of clothes. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. Life is in a flux. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly.4. etc. cottage industries. Initially.3. 4.
its pessimistic outlook on life.1. Jainism insists 17 .new and peculiar situations. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it is much older than the latter.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching.5. 5. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. however. However. Validity is effective and consequences. therefore. such as. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. Write Eight fold path . Education must. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed.. i. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. In fact. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. and to give it a shape that it has today. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. 1. whatever works are true and good.e. Its chief feature. goes to Vardhaman. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6.
9. 18 . As such. 2. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. c) Right conduct. but on both. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. d) To lead a celibate life. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. c) Not to steal. b) Not utter falsehood. 8. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. e) To renounce the world. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. 10. 1. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 1. more stress on individual aims. it has a foot in both the words. 2. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. thought and deed. and is to be redeemed and liberated. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. b) Right knowledge. 5.1. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. 3. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. 4. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. 3. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. Hence. Development of personality as an individual.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone.5. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. They are: a) Not to injure. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. 7. and believe in happiness to all. 6.
Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. Teaching should be social and tolerant. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter.5. Belief in transmigration of soul. Hence.4. 3. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. 3. 8. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Teaching must develop these faculties. 2. education should develop sense of discrimination. practised and not only aspired for. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. 1.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 4. and should bring happiness to all. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 19 . that would be socially desirable. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. 5. here and now. 2. success and love. Jiva is essentially karmic. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. therefore. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.5. What are Triratnas ? . education must be action based and ideally oriented. Knowledge is through senses and meditation.
North West Province and Punjab. Madras. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. with rally and rout. and not for life. 1. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. To set up separate departments of.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. philosophy and literature of Europe.1. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.6. 2.1. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. Bombay.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. 1.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. However. 1.6. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. 1953). primary 20 .3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. science. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.6.6. 1. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians.
6. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools.K. they named these schools as polytechnic schools.6. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. In 1882. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). 1. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . At that time M. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. namely.6.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. self-respecting and competent. 1. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. • Universal free primary education. Later on. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. 1.education was neglected.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. secondary education became a step towards university. Instead of being a self-sufficient course.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. at the primary level. The universities dominated the secondary education. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. To ensure qualitative improvement. • Secondary education. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education.
During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1.At the primary stage (6-11 years). 10. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. all children are to have a common curriculum. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. After this stage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. The objective of education was to provide 22 . What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities.
It was suited to the needs of the society. 2. 3.. Right speech. education was impart in art. Right activity. 4. questioning by the pupil. 1. geology. arithmetic and religious discussion. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. military science. 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Right knowledge. During the Buddhist period. 2. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. 5. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. Right memory. handicrafts. etc.1.education of European literature. along with education in script writing. The immediate aim of education. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. Right contemplation. science and English language. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. 1. the science of taming and training animals. The system of education was well-organised. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. followed by explanation by the teacher. Right means of livelihood. archery. Right thought.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.1. 4. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. 23 . 6. a. Right endeavour. establishment of universities. b. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses.
Ltd.K. Singh.C. Right conduct. 11. R. 9. J. 10. Right faith. History of Indian Education System. (1984). a. Sargent report 12. Y. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Y. c. b. Right knowledge.K. Ltd. Sharma. Hence.C.1. Improvement of Literature. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. 24 . Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 1937 1. (2005). more stress on individual aims. 8. and Nath. a. 1882.7. Aggarwal. J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Development of personality as an individual.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2007). Development of Educational System in India. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. b. (2009).
2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.3.3.5 1.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.3.1 University Education Commission 220.127.116.11.2 Secondary Education Commission 1. The 25 .2.4 1.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.7 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.8 1.2.2.LESSON 18.104.22.168.1 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.2 1.2.6 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.9 1.2.2.
S. There had been vast institutional expansion. 1986 1. Kothari (1964-66) 8.2. National Council for Women’s Education 5. medical and legal education.2. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. New Educational Policy. girls and women education besides primary. secondary and higher education.conditions of the teachers.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. diversification of courses of studies. standard of teaching.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. Post-graduate 26 . The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. expansion of vocational. 1. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. curriculum. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. analyse the progress of education in free India. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. examination system. technical. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. 2. 1. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. technological engineering. National Board of Teacher Education 10. you will be able to: 1. vocational education. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2. explosion of enrolment.3. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7.
Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. in January 1985. Finally. quantity. 4. However. the chairman of University Grants commission. 1952. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States.3.S. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. A. 1986. Therefore. Government of India. the New National Policy on Education. D. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. The national system of education envisages common educational structure.3. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. Education is the key to our allround development. quality. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. 2. accumulated over the years. 3. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. 1. material and spiritual.3. Problems of access. 1. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. research et. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. The Essence and Role of Education.2. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar.2.teaching. National System of Education.2. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. A meaningfully Partnership. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. utility and financial outlay. Education for Equality. Kothari. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. 1966. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. 1.
The UNESCO Report. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the minorities and the handicapped. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. It can train practical aptitudes. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation.” Thus. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. the concepts of work experience. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. By working with hands. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world.2. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. 28 . Thus. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. attitudes.
a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. According to." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. The Education Commission. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. it will conduce self. Besides. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position.” The Mudaliar Commission. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . In 1955. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. The Radhakrishnan Commission.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. if he wishes. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. co-ordinations. As such.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. the Commission. “It may be described. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. “The aim of these colleges. With adequate planning.
the. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. In addition. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. With a view to relating education to the life. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. Subsequently. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. etc. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. for quality of life in the rural areas.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further.ot her.. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. The Central Advisory Board of Education. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . admission requirements to vocational courses. Therefore. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. the rigid streaming of courses. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. the semester and credit system. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. raising the special facilities. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts.
which swept the country for over two decades. 1. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. The wave of Basic Education. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. who conceived the System of Basic Education. which offer scientific. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. preferably spinning and weaving. manual work resulting in either goods or services. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. giving importance to productivity in the national development. According to committee. In short. The Father of Nation. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. technological courses including Agriculture. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence.2. meaningful. meaningful. which are useful to the community.defined S UP W as “purposive. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. aimed at this goal. Commerce. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. etc. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. felt that education should be centred around a craft. 31 .and the world of work. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past..
Productive 2. be that the work involved is: 1. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Shelter 4. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Food 3. The teachers should make use of. 4. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Educative and 3. so that it is educational in essence. Community work and social service. Work practice. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. 3. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. 32 . The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Experimentation with materials. locally available materials and tools. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Clothing 5. tools and techniques and 3. Culture and recreation 6.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. as far as possible. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Health and Hygiene 2. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. 2.
Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Check on educated unemployed 4. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. 6. be allied to the elective chosen by the students.2. It can become an instrument to build character. etc. removal of illiteracy. Education through work The SUPW should. 1. Productive Work 33 . the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. improve discipline. as far as possible. the local community should be actively associated. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Community Service In-1972. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Merits of the Programme 1. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. inculcate a faith. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. To make education more realistic.5.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. slum clearance.
Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. should involve itself in the educational effort.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. if not productive. in turn. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. traffic control. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. Define SUPW 34 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The community. AICTE was set up in year 4. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. etc. helping the adults-in productive work. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. offering first aid. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other .” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. skills and better future for the children. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge.
Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. b. f. 1. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. which are useful to the community. 35 .8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1. 3.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. Write short note on SUPW. 6. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. manual work resulting in either goods or services.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1955 4. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. a. 1952 3. Dr. Radhakrishnan 2.1.2. 2.2. c. meaningful.2. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. e. d.
K.H. : Sharma. P.C. Rao. A.P. and Nath. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. (2007).. (2007). New Delhi: A.1. J. and Rao.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.(2005). History and Problems of Indian Education. R. 36 .2. (2009).P.K. B.K. Y.D. Publishing Corporation. Singh. Development of Educational System in India. (2005). New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. History of Education. Anupama. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. History of Indian Education System. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Y. Amala. V.
4 1. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. directive principles and duties of citizens.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3. equality. there is an official Hindi translation.3.6 1. and liberty.3.2 1.9 1. assuring its citizens of justice. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.3. establishing the structure.1 1. 1949. containing 395 articles.3. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. it came into effect on January 26. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.3.3. 37 .3.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Besides the English version. democratic republic.3.1 Significance of DPSP 1. procedures. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.369 words in the English language version.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124 1.3.7 1. 1950. Being the supreme law of the country.3. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. for a total of 117.8 1.
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.3. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. Through them. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. with Dr. Dr. legal and environmental.In the August 14. 1947. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. After many deliberations and some modifications. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. 1947.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. political. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. for 166 days. administrative. learn the role of central and state government on education. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”.3.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. spread over a period of 2 years. the Drafting Committee was appointed. 1. Two days later. 3.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. According to the constitution. 2. 1. 4. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. 38 . you will be able to: 1. understand our Indian constitution. 1. On August 29. in sessions open to public. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24.3. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. economic. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. 1950. social. The Assembly met.
and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. provide free legal aid. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Article 41. in particular. No abuse of children. Liking wage etc. Equal pay for both sex.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. sickness and disablement. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. and in other cases of undeserved want. Right to work. men and women. The State shall endeavour to secure. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way.government. Organisation of village panchayat. Protecting health of the workers. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. and shall. Protecting children from exploitation. Minimising inequalities in status. on the basis of equal opportunity. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Article 42. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Article 40. old age. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. 39 . The State shall. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Equal justice and free legal aid. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. make effective provision for securing the right to work. for workers. Article 43. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Article 39A. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. That the health and strength of workers. Condition for dignity of children.
and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. 2002 for “45. agricultural. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. work. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Article 46. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Participation of workers in management of industries. industrial or otherwise. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. See also Article 21A). Article 48. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Article 44. Article 48A. in particular. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. [declared by or under law made by 40 . The State shall take steps. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. (Original Article 45. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. The State shall endeavour to provide. Provision for free and compulsory education for children.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Article 45. and. a living wage. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. to all workers. Note: Subs. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Article 43A. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. by suitable legislation or in any other way. Article 47. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. in particular. in particular. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Article 49. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds.
may be law determine”. Article 45 .3. Article 51. Promotion of international peace and security. removal. 1. disposal or export. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. destruction. Separation of judiciary from executive. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.Parliament] to be of national importance. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. from spoliation. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Article 50. 2002. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. disfigurement. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. as the case may be. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Article-21A Right to Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. 2. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security.
Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. ii. 7. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. race. 5. 6. 8. language or any of them”. 4. his guardian has given his consent thereto. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. and shall protect them. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. if such person is a minor. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. in particular. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. caste. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. 2002. from justice and all forms of exploitations. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. and. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. iii. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language.” 42 . 3.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”.
style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule.3. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. wherever necessary or desirable. 43 . The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The central government determines targets and promotes education.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. the forms. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational Reforms From time to time. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. & 1.9. for its vocabulary. and by drawing. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.
Production of suitable for children and adults f. All India Council of Medical Science. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. The following pilot projects. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . the state governments. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. private agencies etc. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. 7. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. 4. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc.. 6. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. 8. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. 5. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). to achieve the desired ends. Local bodies and private enterprise. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government.3. So that they may work well. By starting these projects. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. etc. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. So as to encourage education on right lines. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities.
To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. 3. 9. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. is the state responsibility.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. handicapped. are published by it. training and statistics. education for women. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. reports etc. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools.3. 4. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. 10. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. books. 1. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. etc. research. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. The 45 . Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. 11. 1. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 12. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education.
8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. articles in the Directive principles. 46 . Write short notes on a. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Article 21A c. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 1.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Article 45 b.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Article 46 4. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles.3. Explain Directive principles 2. 1. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3.
Ambedkar 2. Article 29 and 30 7. 2002. Development of Hindi Language 6. 47 .5. 2002. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 1. b. Describe the educational role of State Government. 3. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Dr. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. The Directive Principles of State Policy. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article-21A Right to Education. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. a.3. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. a. Article 46 5. b. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Article 45 . may be law determine”. a. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 4. Clearing House function 9. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers.
1. B. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. (2008). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. L. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K and Narang C. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. K. 48 . S.3. Ghosh. Bhatia. (2007). New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2009). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. Dash. S. (2004).
4.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.4.2 1.4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.5 1.1 Why Moral Education 1.4. Students should be 49 .4.4.3.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1. Buddhism etc.1 1.7 1.3.4 Moral education 1. Islam.4.4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Jainism.8 1.3.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.4.4. Christianity. religious education should be broad based.4.6 1.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4.4.
The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. In the complicated and complex society of today. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66).” Education broadens human outlook.and dedication. 1. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions.4. integrity.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. religious education and the concept of secularism.4. India' can produce men of character. state meaning and need for moral education 1. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. Thus. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. beauty and goodness so that 50 . An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. "In A multireligious society like ours. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life.. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.D. duty-consciousness. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. know the position of religious education in our country 3. As result of which. you will be able to: 1. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. According to E.
it is clear that the State has no religion. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. Viewing the defects of religious education. Hence. No religious tax can be imposed on them. religion and democracy are same. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values.3. According to Article 22. rancour. As a matter of fact. through religious practices and 51 . at least occasionally. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. Children attend these organizations. 1947 we achieved our freedom.4. They thought that any kind of narrow. In short.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. 1.” From the above. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education.3. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. if not regularly. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. castes and creeds.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. As our country is a country of diverse religions. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. According to Article 19. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. Thus. realizes God in himself. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. all citizens are free to follow any creed.4. 1. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education.
what is done and what is not done etc. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child.teachings. which can mould. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. moral and spiritual values. intellectual and physical faculties of children.. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. when he becomes an adult. Good education. aggressive. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. It helps to modify habits attitudes. for the development of the individual and the society. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. which help him for the development of his character. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. and what is evil. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. He also learns about social. one fully developed. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. temperament etc. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . If unreleased. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. As a result of which. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. It is religious education. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance.
But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. If we open the pages of history. 1.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. This should not be allowed to happen. Therefore. 2. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. which is the basic need of a democratic life. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible.4. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. 53 . No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society.3. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. 3. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. towards the society. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life.
they should be discussed in the right earnest. 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. therefore. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. churches and mosques 7. Since all religions have virtues. Gurudwara as. For this. Life histories of great persons of the world. Write Article 22 2. 10. stories of moral greatness.4. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. examples of patriotism. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. 11. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.5. fellow-feeling. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 .
students. 3. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Satyam (truth). It they learn what morality is in their early years. Purity. the methods of teaching. Patriotism. 5. 6. 5. “Let all be happy and free from disease.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. therefore.4. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Without moral values. in the home. 7. Ahimsa (Non-violence).4. They will play their role effectively. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Moral education. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 3. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. 2. Fearlessness. 1. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 8. Aparigarha (Non. 4. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Non-injury. Asvada (Control of palate). Cultivation of emotions. 8. 7. Service to others. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). is that which develops moral values. 6. 55 . 2. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’.acquisitiveness). The content of the curriculum. 4. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. 1. let men see well of one another. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Self sacrifice.
2. 1. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. loyalty and self-sacrifice.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. The School Assembly should be held for a few. National unity and Spiritual values. Discipline. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). 11. 3. In the school programme. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. minutes in the morning for group singing. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Sharivashram (Physical work). Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . 56 . The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions.9. Good manners. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. 3. Asatyam (Non-thieving). Secondary Stage 1. Integrity.4. Good temper. religions may be included in the syllabus. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. discipline. 10. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Efficiency. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Unity of mankind. 4. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship.
A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. 57 . University Stage 1. 2. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In other words.4. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. should form a normal part of school programme. 3. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. love of humanity. In this connection. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 5. 4. patriotism and self-discipline. 5. Silent meditation should be encouraged. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. Sri Prakasa 6 .9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. 58 . 2. In short. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. 1. Training of Character 3. b. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.4.1. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.4. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. For this. minutes in the morning for group singing. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. a. a. a.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. the. b. Discuss the aims of Religious education. The School Assembly should be held for a few. 1959 5. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. 1.4. 4.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion.
B. Bhatia.C. P. (2004). M. N. (2007). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2008).H. New Delhi : Siddiqui. (2003). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 59 . L. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. K and Narang C. Dash. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Anmol Publications Pvt. N.P.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Theory and Principles of Education. (2008). K.1.4. New Delhi: A. J. Pahuja. Publishing Corporation. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.H. Ltd.
e.5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.2 1.10 1.1 1. 60 .13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5.4 1.8 1. i.11 1. Although. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5..9 126.96.36.199.5 1.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5.6 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.12 188.8.131.52 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context. disparities between provinces/States.3 1.5.
61 .5. waters. 8. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.5. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. Accordingly. 1. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 2. energy. for example. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. they take appropriate measures. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 6. you will be able to: 1. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. 4.5. roads. 3. 7. etc.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. 1. 5.5. understand the regional educational development in India 3. know the education suited to different environments.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. They therefore.1. work hard towards this end. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. This leads to separatist movements. 1.
it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. 4. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. some average. on the basis of regional development may be formed. Tight security arrangements should be made. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. 2. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region.5. while others remained educationally backward. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. • Separate States (of course viable States). The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. some States became educationally far advanced.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. 3. 62 . Secularism. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. Therefore. and. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only .Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II.
In the Central sector. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. library buildings. etc.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. Jammu and Kashmir.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. remained under developed. Central Universities of Assam.. These projects are in various stages of implementation. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. the Union Government. Tezpur. Rs.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity.After the Planning Process has originated.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted.g. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. Even in each State.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. since its inception in 1998-99. 63 .84 crore was released in 2005-06. NIT. approved proposals worth Rs. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. and provision of informal education to enable those. while some States like Bihar. scholarships. Guwahati.5.14.392. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.480. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. Regional Centres of IGNOU. Itanagar. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. Out of this. Funds amounting to Rs. etc. the State Governments. academic buildings. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. 1. Nagaland and NEHU. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. books. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. Mizoram. NERIST. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. After the attainment of independence. However. Silchar.
501. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. Out of this an amount of Rs. A provision of Rs. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.40. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. Moreover. Tezpur University.261. 64 . Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). Government expenditure on education. too. During 2003-04. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.8 per cent in 05).57 crore and Rs.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).05 crore and Rs. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.500.5. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.187. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.
Kerala and Gujarat. Moreover. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. English. 1. notes the study. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Karnataka. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. To add to the woes. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Medical education. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. health services and welfare of the citizen population. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. telecom. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. The Chandigarh Administration. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. too. Andhra Pradesh. Karnataka. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). engineering and R&D. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. too.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. Listing the positives. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Tamil Nadu. pharma. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. for which 16 sites. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab.5. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. for instance. too.
the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. 66 .year. while the former does not. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. the needs. the socio-physical conditions. life-oriented and environment slanted. which a non-tribal person cannot do. Then education become realistic and idealistic. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. taking the average in the middle. in which the learners live. the working days: an academic . the vocations. the teaching methods. when he will not be sure of time. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. the interests. In the same manner. The working hours of educational institutions. The living conditions. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. and so on. the curricular subjects. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. For a learner living in a rural area. Of course. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. even actually looking at the watch. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. Hence it is called as need-based.
5. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. 2. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. to suit education to different environments? 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. 1. 2.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 67 . There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.
S. Giridhar.N. Salim. New Delhi: Authors press. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. and Nair. (2008). some States have become more developed than others b. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2002). (2001). Educational Development in India. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.G. Education in Developmental Arena.H. Dubey. Education Scenario in India.5.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.K. during the British rule. a. R. 60% 1. remained undeveloped 3. (2001). C. some of areas which were under the native rulers. 68 . A. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.2.
UNIT – II 69 .
community development.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. National Integration. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. school community and mass media. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. 71 . secularism and democracy through Indian education.
2 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.6.3 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.1.LESSON 2.1 2.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.1.4 2.1.7 18.104.22.168.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.6.6.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .9 2.8 2.6 Education for Secularism 22.214.171.124 Main features of Socialism 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.
Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. creed. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Democracy thus means power of the people.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy.1. 73 . 2.1. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. This is the political aspect of democracy. for the people by the people”. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’.1. colour or wealth. Abraham Lincoln. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. 2. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. you will be able to: 1. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. socialism and secularism 2. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. there should be made no distinction of caste.1. 5) Encouragement to Group Work.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. The students may be associated with the management of the school. socialism and secularism 2. understand the concept of democracy.2. 3) Provision of Manual Work.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. In the matter of admitting students in schools. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. socialistic and secular state. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.
There are different brands of socialism. 74 . Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. 11) Student Parliament. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. 12) Visits to Legislatures. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. declamation contest etc. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life.1. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. it soon spread all over the world. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. debates. may be planned. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. 2. Democracy means 2..
the prince and the peasant. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work.1. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 2. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system.5. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. free from exploitation. oppression and disparity. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 7) Special facilities for girls. none high”. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. but on the path of non-violence. 2. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 2) Socialism aims at equality. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 75 .1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. the wealthy and the poor. Under it. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. service and cooperation. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.1.5.
5. “India is a secular-country. Write any two main features of socialism. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. 2.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.1. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. "which seeks the development of physical. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. secularism is being propagated. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values.” In every political and educational corner. Everyone says. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. 11) State schools. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. According to Holydake. 76 . the concept of socialism may be defined as a system.
national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. “Webster further says. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. Equality. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. the belief that the state morals. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state.opposed to religious education. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. 77 . In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values.6. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. 2. A large number of people is uneducated.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. 2) It permits freedom of religion.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is.1. That is why. 8) It believes in co-existence. fraternity.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. Moral values have to be imbibed. 3) It permits freedom of worship. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. 5) It implies tolerance. During the recent past. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2.6. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. There is need of making the people open minded. In this type of prevailing situations. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact.1. education etc. should be independent of religion. 9) It stress free inquiry. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. people have narrow mindedness. liberty. people started believing in regionalism.
The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. In the celebration of each such function. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. students belonging to different religions should be associated. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. The very sight of the building. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. No doubt. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. that the central string of all religions is one.6. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . 1) Moral Education. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. tours and trips may be organized.presented by the students in the gathering. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. education. Religious Education. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. There should be some internal checking of the material being. While doing so. 2. In the hands of such teachers. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. Patiala. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers.1. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved.
The term secularism was first used by 8. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Define Secularism 9. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The word “Seculum” means 7.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . No doubt. 2.1.
Tuition free education b. Socialism aims at equality. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.1. Respect of Individual Personality. colour or wealth. for the people and the people”. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 6. creed. a. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. 4. The students may be associated with the management of the school. George Jacob Holydake 80 . Since socialism stands for equality. 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1. a. Power of the people 2. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Equal Opportunities for Admission. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. b. 3. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. there should be made no distinction of caste. 5.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 2. 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. d. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. b. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Socialism aims at social justice. c. Abraham Lincoln. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Provision of Manual Work. This present age 7. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. 4. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.
(2003). Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Pahuja. (2008). P.C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Mohanty. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. should be independent of religion. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. b. 81 . J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2004). L. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. the belief that the state morals. N. a.8. Bhatia. b. K and Narang C. Ltd. B. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. N. a. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. It permits freedom of religion. Ltd. It treats all religions on an equal footing. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. Dash. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 10. (2005). Anmol Publications Pvt. J.1. (2007).” 9. education etc.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.
2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.5.LESSON 2.4 2.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 126.96.36.199 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.1 2.2 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2.10 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.3 188.8.131.52.2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2.8 184.108.40.206.2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.9 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 220.127.116.11.
as it is t he aim o f modern education. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. as persons. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. therefore. The developmental roles of children. 2. understandings. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. mental. as workers. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. 2. development. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. 2.generation to another. social and moral aspects. It involves physical. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. moral. emotional. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. aims and objectives of the school.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. as learners.an instructor of school children. 3. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. skills. who are placed in his custody. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. a r e 1. and 4. you will be able to: 1. as citizens.2. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. application. 83 . social. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values.2. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. A teacher is first and foremost.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms.
morally. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. 2. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. motivated. 2. mentally. Teacher as a Citizen Next. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. socially. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. The students live. He has to look after their physical. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. 1. experiences and acceptance. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. morally. member of his community at the outset. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers.2. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. 3. intellectually. and aesthetically to become. mental. inquisitive.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. economically effective. emotionally. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. He is to become an active member. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. social and emotional health. The following are some of such roles described in brief. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. a part of their day in 84 . Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. culturally confident. teacher has to play the role of a citizen.All education should lead to better behavioural development. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. physically fit for socially efficient.
They will be spending with their parents.2. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. science club. It 85 . games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. solve them. 4. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. and most of hours. fine art associations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. 2. Unless. photographic clubs. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. India is a land of many castes. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. languages and religions. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. List out the role of teachers towards community development . helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. Dr. faiths. activities of the society into which he is born. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. creeds.the school being under the custody of teachers.
At the primary stage the importance of stories. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. a. folklore and teaching of social studies. Let us. therefore.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. social studies. b.2. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. this integration of the Indian people. with straight backs and look up at the skies. stand up straight. narrow-minded provincial. ‘We should not become parochial. The only process is the process of education. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. should be emphasised.” 2. Sampurnanand remarked. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. poems. 1.is.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. Radhakrishnan. national anthem and other national songs. c. the study of language and literature. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. and make into one strong national unit. It should broaden the outlook. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer.” Regarding the role of education. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that .5. Nehruji has explained this as. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. the citizens of the Republic of India. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961.
Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. symposia. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Uniform for School Children. tours. Taking Pledge. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Reverence of National Flag. 8. Textbooks. 10. languages and literature. sports. and picnics. t he st udent s and t he community. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. ACC. educational excursions. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. National Days—January 26. 7. 2. 3. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. 4. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. debates. dramatics and youth festivals. Celebrations of National Days. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. militar y training like the NCC. Scouts and Guides. 5. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Singing of National Anthem. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. 9. Student Camps. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. 87 . Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country.different social sciences. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. 6. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Co-Curricular Activities.
88 . 15. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. iii. iv. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. 13. 2. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. region or religion. School Projects.2. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. 14. language. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. Admissions. Students Exchange and Tours. ways of thinking and doing things. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. colour. ii. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. flora and fauna. v. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Educational and Travel Documentaries.11. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. 12. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Open-Air Dramas. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. 16.5. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Admissions to schools. Recognition of Institutions. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i.
educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define National Integration 3. vii.vi. cultures and races on equal bases. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. 2. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Community dinners. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. irrespective of national boundaries. viii.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. ix. camps.
” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. 2. Dr.F. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live.e.6. 4.6.2. C. This. 3. (b) stories of children of other lands. (c) fairly tales. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. Therefore. 5.friendships between children of different countries. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. that war. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. often in connection with anniversaries. and the healthy development. of his body and mind. therefore. patriotism is not enough.as important as that of a national citizenship.. In a very real sense. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. Strong has observed. Organising of debates and. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Teachers 90 . 6. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. Radhakrishnan states.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding.2. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. 2. if it happens.” 2. the international level. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”.
should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Indian and American. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Russian. They should not be propagandists. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. a German. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. an Englishman. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Impartial in their Treatment.
factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. Wide Spread Frustration . they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. there is wide spread frustration among all people.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . majority of people are. As the school is but a miniature society. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. Defects of the educational System . Chronic Poverty . Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well.2. Devaluation of Values . Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .Another major. If this is done. It does not prepare students for life. 2.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. 4. the education function can be carried. leading to. Soon after they leave their educational institutions.2.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. understand and indiscipline: 1. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. which results in agitation and aggression language. and help the students to over . 5. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. 3.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. 2. fellow feeling. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. 5. sympathy and good will among the nations. community development. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner.2. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. 93 . 4. love. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. 2.2. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. 3. co-operation. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.democratic nature.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 18.104.22.168 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 22.214.171.124 Functions and role of schools in the society 126.96.36.199 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 188.8.131.52 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 184.108.40.206 Radio as an agency of education 220.127.116.11 Television as an agency of education 18.104.22.168 Press as a medium of education 22.214.171.124 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
126.96.36.199 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 188.8.131.52 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
184.108.40.206 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
220.127.116.11 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. To make them achieve their aim. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. led to the printing of books. “All the citizens of the community. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Hence.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. In fact. are increasingly used in education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Emphasising this thing. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times.V. Define community. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. Then came newspapers. Now internet is being used. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. books. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. art galleries. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Museums.3.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. periodicals. Crow and Crow write. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. He taught his students orally. 2. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Moreover. the invention of the printing press. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . During the course of time. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher.
Thus. Important happening inventions. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. A lot of work by way of pre. art. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. Students listen various talks. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries.6. the place of importance. 101 . As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. Reynolds. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. social studies. politics. 2. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. music. rather than on picture. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force.telecast. Thus.classroom teachers. dram appreciation. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. In collaboration with the experts. for the teacher through school broadcasts. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Effective means of presenting music. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. It is also an important source of entertainment. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. current affairs and other areas.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. 2.G. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Various talks.3. the teacher still occupies. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. It enlightens public opinion. languages. “Listening participation” in current history. In the emphasis is on sound.
Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. development of lessons. 102 . School concerts. Before presenting the programme. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. mathematics. style. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. 5. 4. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. at recreational centers. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. projects or creative activities. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. at drawing room. at play. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. plays. Making learning an open system. At present. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. fol classical music. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. informal and non-formal education. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. Team-teaching demonstrations. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. travel talks. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. 3. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. audibility and presentability. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. speech. Participation of local teachers and pupils. at any place. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 18.104.22.168 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
22.214.171.124 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 126.96.36.199 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .188.8.131.52 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 184.108.40.206.6 220.127.116.11 Advantages of Non formal education 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124.1 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4 Limitations of formal education 126.96.36.199.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.LESSON 188.8.131.52 Levels of formal education system 2.4.7 2.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.8 184.108.40.206.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.4.
4.4. his mental alertness.4. imparted at the residence of the teacher. say the Government or the private enterprise. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.3. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. 4.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. the family. the temple. open school. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. School is. In ancient time in India. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. 6. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions.4. 110 . It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. Education associated with a degree or certificate. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. compare formal and non formal system of education. To realize this objective of education. it was mostly. 4. starting and ending at -a particular age. the mass media et. you will be able to: 1. 2. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 7. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 8. the learner are acquainted.2.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. the community. Education organised by some agency. 2. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. 2. 3.. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. 5. Education. 2. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. open university. 2. 3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. the most important agency of formal education. 9.
is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. or post secondary education. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 .4.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. and relations are formed and developed through normal play.4. also called tertiary. Through early formal education. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. depending on the jurisdiction. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. diplomas. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. such as a high school or secondary school. capacity. Concepts of proportion. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence.a secondary education. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling.3. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. as well as vocational education and training. third stage.2. structured education. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. 2. or academic degrees. the elements of language are first learned. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Higher Education: Higher education.3. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. In general. Some education systems have separate middle schools.
Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . 4. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. late beginners etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. What are levels of formal educational system? . children with disabilities.3. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. Agencies can be classified as 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. 2.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. is an important agency of formal education. and remote dwellers.which will help for nation's development. 2.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. 3. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Write any two characteristics of formal education? .
it has its own valid claim to reality. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. staffed. open learning. systematic.formal education.learning client take some learning objectives. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. place of instruction. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. However. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. one could say that non-formal education is an active. Thus. etc. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. It is functional. Adiseshiah. It unlocks the doors of development plans. It is much more responsive to needs and change. It is deliberate. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. adults as well as children. Open university. “Non-formal education should 113 .” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. i. financially supported life formal education. work and the opportunity to put learning to use.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. planned. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.e. admissions. until 1970 it had not been defined. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. to help themselves. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. systematic. Therefore.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. it is a more effective tool for rural development. curriculum. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. continuing education and on the job oriented education.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. adding up to a true learning society. According to Malcolm A.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon.. Non-formal education includes adult education.
6.learning pattern.” According to H. place of education. age.be marketable and vocationalised.4. co-curricular activities. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. 7. admissions.” 2. i.S. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. exploring. Covering life span of an individual. national integration. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge.4. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. curriculum. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.4. Process of sharing. self. international understanding. 4. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. 114 . 3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 5. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs.S. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. Part-time education. Lawrence. It should lay emphasis on the self. Preparation for future needs. evaluation etc. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things.e. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. 2. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. the Ideas of citizenship. modes of teaching. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. To develop in the student. To help industrial workers to better their skills.renewal. 2.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. Flexibility in various aspects of education. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. socialism.4.
To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research.4. Eradication of adult literacy. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Universalisation of primary education.4. 6. 5. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 9. publication and information dissemination. school dropouts. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. To offer Secondary.4. • 2. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. 2. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. 4. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 8.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. 3. 10. 2. Technical. in villages and those who live in towns. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 3. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 5. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. working adults. 115 . 4. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 7. Senior Secondary.4.
training centres in factories. Therefore. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home.2. centres of correspondence education. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. others are formal and informal. 2.full time to learners – can be home. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. public libraries. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. Institutions for formal education. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. Again. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. open space. etc. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. factory. farm. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . To better qualifications. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute.4. All-round development i. library. effective in modern societal context.4.. To make if. if organised in isolation. 2. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. Radio and television. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. etc. To increase knowledge and 2. self-employment iii.4. 3. 4.
117 . period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. 6. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Lecturing T. List out any two aims of non formal education. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Correspondence lesson. radio. 7. Give examples of non formal education? . Face Contact programmes.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define non formal education. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Written tests. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.V. . Teaching to face teaching. . institution.
Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. 4. adults as well as children. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.4. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. a. Pre-school level. Higher Secondary level and University level. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. 118 . Formal and Non Formal 2.” 6. 7. Secondary level. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. School 3. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. b. Open University. 2. 2.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.4. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. The school. a.4. systematic. 3.2. the college and the university come under this category. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Primary level. Open School. b. 4. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. 2. 5.
New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ltd. Education in Emerging India.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. K. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2003). S. Gupta. Pahuja. N. Anmol Publications Pvt. J. (2007). (2008). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Theory and Principles of Education. Mohanty. (2004). L. Dash. P. Ltd. New Delhi : 119 . B. K and Narang C.C. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2005). N. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2008).2. Bhatia.4. J. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
220.127.116.11.5.4 Need for Open University 18.104.22.168.1 Characteristic features of open University 22.214.171.124.5.1 2.2 2.4.4 Open University 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.3 Objectives of Open University 126.96.36.199.5.5.5 188.8.131.52 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.LESSON 2.5.7 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.3.6 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 184.108.40.206.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.
you will be able to: 1. 2. continuing education is a boon.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. However. give the meaning. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. It is a lifelong process. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. This knowledge may be in political field. It is a continuous process. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. know the need and objectives of open university.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. For them. Under these circumstances.5. Any person.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. Thus. industries. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. farmers.5. economic field or such other fields.2.5. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. 2. characteristics of open university 4. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies.5. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. labourers and half educated individuals.3.
It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Radio. if he gets opportunity to develop them. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . On the other hand. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. For them too continuing education is essential. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. cultured and progressive. are also contributing their might for the purpose.3. Persons engaged in health services. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. 2.5. Thus. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Doctors.V. On the other hand. Radio and T. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. T. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Cinema. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Throughout the country. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature.literate person.V. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. Block Development Officers. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. deteriorating to his character and personality. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans.directly related to his job. After the achievement of independence. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest.
5. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. we have not been able to achieve our targets. (13) psychology of child behaviour. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (7) folk songs. (10) first aid.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 4. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. 5. (6) folk stories.5. (2) basic religious matters. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (15) music. 2.3. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 3. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. Of course. 6.V. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. 2. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. These books are not very useful. (16) liking. and Radio.. habits of people of other lands.3. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. especially women. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 7. 123 . (17) modern international and national events. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (14) information about bringing up young children. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (8) psychology of adults. Inspite of the great efforts. (1) ancient history. 2.
4. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. lack of time etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It also attempts to pr ovide equality.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. NLM was launched in the year 2. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.5. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y.5.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. attendance restrict ion. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. of educational opportunities. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . 2. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. its education is not class room based but home based. d. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course.4. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 2. IGNOU was established in the year 6. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. c.5. 3. but 125 . it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. Education is not a once for-all process. b. Which was the first open university in India? . 4. it makes use of educational techno logy. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs.unobserved. e. No one is too old or too late to learn.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 5. the higher the degree of openness. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. and in teaching. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? .
5. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. it a ims at wider and hig her. or who realised too late that they need it. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 2.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l.who did not get it. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 3. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 126 . To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n.4. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. 3. 2. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. supplementing the existing provision. Mo re o ver. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. 2. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. 2. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. cho ice o f co ur ses. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all.5. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 5.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc.4. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 4. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. 4. 6.
5.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. a state or nation. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Therefore. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 2. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Every day. 1. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . you have learnt the concept. 7. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. 3. Laboratory works. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 2. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. 5. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. 8. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. 6. List out any four methods of Open University? . Correspondence tuition.4. semi – literates. a society. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. In the present day world. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . 127 . school drop outs.2. 8. 4. Tutor Comments. Self instructional materials.5.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 3. 7. Television Lessons. 2. Broad casting lectures c. a. b. 1988. 9. (2) basic religious matters. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. P r int med ia b. 4. cho ic e o f co u r ses. d. aspirants for continuing education. 7. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. 8. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. youth. Explain the objectives. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (1) ancient history. unskilled workers and other professionals.5.5. which may include house wives. 1985. its education is not class room based but home based.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. (4) the fundamentals of economics. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. a. agricultural and industrial workers. 2. 128 . To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals.ambitious learners. 8. b. a. 6. need and characteristics of Open University. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n.
Reddy. (2004). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). (2001). Modern Problems of Education. L. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. 129 .S. K.K. R. (2004). K and Narang C. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.2. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.5. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Udaiveer. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Recent trends in Non Formal Education.. S. Ltd.
UNIT – III 131 .
and teacher education. examination. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. Examination reform. which may claim the attention of those concerned.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. wastage and stagnation. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. Training teachers for all levels of education. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. All which is the need of the hour. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. 133 . The problems pertaining to the aim of education. its causes and remedial measures. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. the education of women. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. In Lesson 2.
1.LESSON 3.5 3.1 EFA – For whom? 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 220.127.116.11.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1.2 EFA – How? 18.104.22.168.2 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1. 135 .1.1.3 New initiatives.8 3.3.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1 3.6 3.3.4 3.7 3.1.
describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. 3. economic or cultural. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. social.3. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Eradication of Illiteracy. therefore. (EOI) 2. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. education received added importance and significance.1. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. “The State shall 136 . directed that. you will be able to: 1. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3.1. Therefore. may be political. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. Continuing Education (CE) 1. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. On the other hand. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. understands the country. 2.
The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Three Stages for Universalization. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. 137 . After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage.endeavour to provide. Universalization of Retention. 3. the national Government under. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. After the attainment of independence. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Therefore. It enables the parents to send their children to School. Universalization of Enrolment. Continuing Education (CE). rights and responsibilities. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education.
1990. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. 1995 (for upper primary stage). we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. Therefore. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is safe to assure. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. present and future. This target had to be revised to 1970. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. educational enterprise.1. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. then to 1976.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. Write Article 45. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. UNESCO Bulletin states. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. 3. 138 . While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. later to 1988.
we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. 5. adolescent and adult. 8. 3. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. rural areas.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. 139 . Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. their enrolment and retention. Early childhood education should be streamlined. Emphasis must be given on health education. problem of literacy. slum areas. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. NAEP. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). The Social Education. Apart from primary education. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. creed. By undertaking survey. 11. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. nutrition education and sports and games. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. 9. 6. their social economic status and occupations.3. 3. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Disabled. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. Education of Girls. 10. FELF. sex. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). etc.1. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. Jams and Jellies. Education of the Impaired. 12. and Women’s education programme should be improved. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2.
Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Wastage and Stagnation. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Expand MLL and SSA . Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.1. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.e.3. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.1.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. 4. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3.
Social Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. School Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. it is considered as wastage. Personal Factors . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. Familial Factors .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.first stage of education.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .
Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Enumerate the causes of Wastage.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. . 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. 142 . Define Wastage. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. school or society.The following factors. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . Personal Factors . in his home. relating to home.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.3. Societal Factors . rural or urban 3. School Factors . They are described hereunder :1. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. Family Factors . are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.1.
—provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. 144 . etc. mid-day meals. uniforms.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . stationary. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Stagnation? 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education.
and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. 3. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. directed that. 145 . 2. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. a.1. a. 4. 6. therefore. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. 4. Universalization of Provision b. Universalization of Retention 2. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. 3. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. b.” 3. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. Hartog Committee. “The State shall endeavour to provide. Universalization of Enrolment c.1.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc.. a.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.1. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. 3. improvement of curriculum.3. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment.
(2001). (2008).N. Social Factors 8. Familial Factors c. T.7.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Crescent Publishing Corporation. improve examination system. Sharma. Problems of Elementary Education. School Factors d. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Hemchand. 3. a. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 9. introduce graded curriculum. b.K. S. a. S.K. (2007). New Delhi: 146 .1. Personal Factor b.
22.214.171.124 Advantages of Co-education 126.96.36.199.7 Open book examination 3.2 3.2.7 Let us sum up 147 .188.8.131.52.2.2.1 3.2.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2.2 Grade System 3.2.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 184.108.40.206 Problems of examination 220.127.116.11.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.6.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 18.104.22.168.3.4.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.4.4 Question banks 3.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.5 New evaluation procedures 3.LESSON 3.
8 3. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. 3. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.3. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.3. 4.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2.2. Besides. 3. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. but on the other. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. 3.9 3. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2.2.2. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. you will be able to: 1.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. suggest the new evaluation procedures. 3. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.2. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2.
They develop secondary sex characteristics. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. etc. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. etc. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. which the educational authorities have to face. If the students are in sufficient number. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers.. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. roadside Romeoism. 3. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement.2. 149 . also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. They may cause problems relating to discipline. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. waiting rooms for girl students. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. etc.3. hostel facilities.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. The following steps should be taken up. schools for them wherever necessary.
2. teachers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. the examination system has an important role to play. public interested in education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. assessment and Finance. 3. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. It is considered as a major sub-system. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. public administrators and statesmen. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. conduct of internal examinations. 150 . With the mass growth of educational enterprise. Instruction.2. appointment of paper-setters.
announcement of results. training of examiners. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters.printing and distribution of question papers. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. introducing objective-based testing.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. etc.4.2. invigilators. etc. establishing reliability. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. etc. etc. validity and practicability. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. values. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. 3. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . examiners. etc. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. tabulators. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. scrutinizers.
The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. do not appeal to the students and parents. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. 2) From the angle of content of education. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education.4.. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. it s a common experience that subjectivity. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview.2. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. stereotyped questions. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. may also discredit them.. halo-effect. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. 7) In connection with the question papers.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. 3) With respect to method of teaching.. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. Rote memorisation. 3. lack of objectivity etc. which they are expected to study. 152 . it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. Vagaries in making. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. takes the place of comprehensive learning. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. Subjects.
Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. re-numbering of answer scripts. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. List any two merits of examination. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Spot valuation.a part of internal assessment..Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. . 153 . Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination.develop true love for education. revaluation. 4. etc. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Question Books may be developed in all schools. may be introduced.
5. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth.5. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. 3. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. Their interests. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. In this system.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. In actual practice. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.2. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests.3. skills are given importance.2. attitudes.2. When a person chooses to work extra. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. Every paper is treated equal. The new scheme of assessment. It is complicated. he is given extra credit points. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. The students can take any course offered in any department.
dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. instead of specifying number of paper/courses.good. 3. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. In the new system.poor. or as a 4 credit course. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. only the total credits to be earned is specified.discipline. An example is a seminar. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. This system reduces comparison of marks. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. These weightages are called credits.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 .5. poor. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. v. While designing syllabus. courses can have weightages defined. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects.2. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. Groupism is encouraged.
5. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992.2. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.2. However.5.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.2. 156 . the need for re-evaluation should not arise. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. 3. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. 3. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. 3.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. List any four new evaluation procedures. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. In the hierarchy. Therefore. recruitment.5. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • .2. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. However.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. 6. 3.2. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. There are no proper procedures for selection.3. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.
They are. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. qualifications. in contrast. laboratory equipment. library books. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. books are followed.6. disciplinary problems. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. complaints and compliments. 1. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools..2. being realised as two different functions. of late. 158 . requirements. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. etc. playgrounds. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. etc. When they are fully realised. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. wherever necessary. submitting of the inspection reports.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. finding out the adequacy of. in a sense.. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. school buildings. inspecting the class-room teaching. whether the syllabus has been covered. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. finding out whether the prescribed text. taking up the follow-up programmes. interpersonal relationships and so on. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. Academic inspection. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. 3. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. staff.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is.qualified personnel.
a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them.. M. Insistence on specialisation in the B. once in five years. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection.2. 159 . to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. In the light of these conceptualisation. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. In the case of departmental candidates. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. their professional knowledge.. or. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. aptitude. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. modern. courses. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. 3. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. Similarly.Ed. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. course in either educational. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. at least. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors.Ed.
Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 160 . It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Grade System. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. b.2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. 3. b. 3. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. b. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. 3. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. d. a. 3. Administration.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Instruction.2. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. assessment and Finance. a. 4. 2. 5.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. c. 3.2.
Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Question banks. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. a. b. Vaidya.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Educational Reforms. 7. K. b. (2002). (2004). Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. S.a part of internal assessment. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. c. K. (2005). New 161 . Open book examinations. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. a. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. a. 5.2. History and Problems of Education in India. Multiple sets of question paper. R and Sharma. b. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. 3.4. Problems of Education in India.
3.4 22.214.171.124.7 3.LESSON 3. 162 .3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3.3. you will be able to: 1. identify the needs of rural India and social.10 3. 5.3.6 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 126.96.36.199 3.5 3. 3.3.2 3. 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.1 3. 2.3. 4.3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.9 3.3 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. impact of Higher Secondary Education.
Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates..g. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. University Education. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education.specialisation programmes 3. 10 years of general Secondary Education. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. Consequent on the recommendations.3.. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. 8 years of general education. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. The. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. The Calcutta Madras. 2.. the Banaras Sanskrit College. and 3 years of First Degree Course. e.e. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. etc. Similar is the case with some other States. Commission emphasised to continue. in Andhra Pradesh. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission.e. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. i.3.. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre.
is also a plus point .a sense of dignity of labour. 8. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. to imbibe. who desire to change from one stream to another. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. 3. Provision for transfer of credits to students. educational channels. However. social. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. habits of hard work and develop . 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. and.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. 6. economical and political. 5. 10.3. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 7. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . 5) to help for the social. cultural and economic development of the country. b. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students.confidence in students. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. to prepare. historical.
cultural and' religious tolerance. to develop national character. and that required to enter the tertiary level. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. and.3. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. etc. social justice. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. cooperativeness.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. democratic living. 3. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Sociologically it is undesirable. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. international understanding. 1.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. Philosophically it is not the conception. at the other. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. The General Educational Spectrum.national integration.. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. on one hand. Psychologically. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities.
Science. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. fish culture. industrial agricultural production is growing. All these need for an. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. vegetable growing. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. and vocations based on dairy-farming. 2. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. commerce. Commerce and other disciplines. In the matter of language.3. the rural areas have suffered very much. such as Agriculture. 3. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. horticulture. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. India is a land of villages. educational and cultural services. or other machinery. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. professional. In the vocational spectrum. technical. medical plants. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. physics or mathematics.— tube-wells. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. technological. In our country. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. rural health. chemistry. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. 166 . The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. Biology. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. Agriculture is the main occupation. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. commerce.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected.
.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. can be ensured. social justice.etc. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. In this way. In this it may be concluded. and 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. 4. interests and aptitudes of the students. the local resources available. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. and the needs. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. In time. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. 3. etc. There had been favourable reaction from the students. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? ..3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. a. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 3. 3. Ltd. 2. a. General Educational Spectrum and b.3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2001). 3.3. J.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2008). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. b. Modern Trends in Indian Education.3. (2007). J. habits of hard work and develop .8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. b. New Delhi : 168 . a. Dash.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. we studied the history. Mohanty. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. (2005).a sense of dignity of labour.3.3. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. Vocational Sepctrum. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3.K. S. N. Anmol Publications Pvt.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. objectives. Calcutta University Commission 2.C. B. 3. to imbibe. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4.
188.8.131.52 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.2 3.LESSON 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 184.108.40.206.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4.4.6 3.5 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.12 3.1 3.10 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”.220.127.116.11. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.8 3.3 3. social and 169 .4.9 3.13 3.11 3. Education contributes to human development.7 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4.4.4.
analyze the women and distance education. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. economic.4. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. you will be able to: 1. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. family. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. There is a close connection between education and development. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. cultural and political development of the individual.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. Home Economics. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. These courses were. The relevance of women’s education to social. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Teaching and Fine Arts. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. Education . 3. although we have miles to go. In the post —independence period. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. particularly 170 . With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way.4. community and nation is universally acknowledged.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. For the first time in the history of India. higher education of girls developed immensely. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. During the year 1937. 3.higher education in particular. While women constituted only 9. Nursing. Dr. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University.
T Women University. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . Mother Teresa Women University. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. 3. In the rest of the country.4. levels and professions. out of 9200 and odd colleges.0 16. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. 3. we have more than 1200 institutions. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. in our country.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.4.2 22.9 27.women. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. Kodaikanal.65 lakhs in 1994-95. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. In 1950-51. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.2 29. Even today.N. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.1 31.1 24.D. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. Yet.9 14.0 Today.0 32.0 43. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Coimbatore. The idea of women’s education for equality. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).4. Mumbai. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.
4.17 52. 2.54 12.1 respectively.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.63 Female % 34.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.47 65. 3. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .4.that of boys. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.34 33.73 10. 3. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .44 35.56 64. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.36 3.1 and 14.83 47. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.27 89. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.4.66 66.4%) prefer Arts subjects.46 82.53 34.
Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. According to a survey. In college. she will only learn fashion. etc. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. Thus. irrelevance of the content of education. They gave up their studies to enter home life. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. curriculum not suited to their requirements. The major hurdles.4. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized.hinders the girls from getting higher education. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. promoted and increased. financial difficulty of the parents. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. and coeducation may spoil her character. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. particularly. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. Also. Book banks should be established. 3. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. what is the need for higher education for her. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. 173 . distance of the college or university from home. marriage is a very common I factor. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. In every third family. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education.
Geographic distance of educational institutions. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. is the only tool for realising empowerment. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. It also brings about 174 . Education.4. space.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. It enables to study. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Full-time employment. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. 3. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace.4. and the limitations of the conventional education system. There are constraints of time. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life.economic disabilities faced by women. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Empowerment in a nutshell. It is a productive investment. resources and socio .8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Distance education is a boon to women. which is the most dynamic factor of development. 3. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests.
which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. 3. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. empowerment means being assertive. The major objectives of women's higher education. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. education of women must be given priority in national plans. on their own. higher learning. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. education of women is of paramount importance.4. for full development of our human resources. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. Women are partners in development. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. legal awareness and economic independence. This can be achieved through reflection.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. Empowerment is an active. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex.
The local administration. 3.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. which is pending for a long time. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . especially so in the developing countries. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. Better opportunities. The educational institutions. Reservation for women. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. who are eager to take up courses. has to be implemented at the earliest. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. which had been the sole domain of men. Scholarships and concessions for women.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim.4. But their number is small. will encourage them to venture new grounds. 176 . may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance.
where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. especially in developing countries like African countries..3 percent. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. IDP Education. Also. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Chief Executive.9%). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. But.4.000 women in the country.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. 3. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. According to Lindy Hyam. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. capacities etc. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management.8%). CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? .11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. engineering and related technologies (16. talents. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Australia.1%) and architecture and building (38. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.
R. Women Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Mumbai. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. S. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. (2005).K. Rajasthan 5. A. Mother Teresa Women University. 4. Kodaikanal. Rao. (2008). Pattanaikj. Coimbatore. community and the nation. 3. and Swain.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. SNDT Women’s University. SNDT Women’s University. Women and Education. Mumbai.to the family. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Annakodi. create the right attitude towards life. R.C. Mishra. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. 3.4. S. Women Education. R. A. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. (2007). (2000). 178 . 43% 6. individuals and society b.4. Coimbatore. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. and Suryalatha. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3.4. 4. 2. Centre for Women’s Studies. a.R.
They should be trained.5.LESSON 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.3 3.6 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5.4 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.11 3.7 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5.5.5 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.2 18.104.22.168.5.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.9 3.10 3.personality of children in and out of school.1 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient. whole.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.22.214.171.124. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .8 3.5.
understanding and strong desire for international peace. Dearth of new technology of teaching. social and emotional integration. 180 . Lack of physical facilities. equality and justice. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. 5. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. and national character. list out the agencies of teachers education 3.5. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. international. you will be able to: 1. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. 3. understand the training teachers for Primary.5. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. 4. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. know the pre service and in service training facilities. Shorter working hours. 3.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. national consciousness. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching.
a Diploma course and a Degree course. If the student teachers are working teachers. the state Government. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. it is called the In-service teacher education. Inadequate training in practical skills. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Depending on the levels. and the collegiate teacher education. etc. inservice and extension education programmes.5. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. 3. it is called the Extension teacher Education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors.Less qualified teacher educators..5. students. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. Lop-sided curriculum. the primary teacher education.Ed. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. (NCERT) New Delhi. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. the centre. 3. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. who have not been trained earlier. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels..Ed. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. the secondary teacher education. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. higher secondary teacher education.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. levels. At the diploma level. and M. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate.
• the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose .5. non-formal. state Institutes of Educat ion. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . Education cells. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . are established. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. extensio n service.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Also Guidance Bureaux. Evaluation unit.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Educational teehnology cells. collegiate cells. depart ments etc. Science Education units. Expand NCERT 2. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training..
to offer consultative services.. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . despite its vast expansion. degree.Ed. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. should be improved on a top priority basis. to improve curricular programmes. schools and sister institutions. and 183 . Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified .Ed. which help breaking isolation from one another . which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. to prescribe conditions for recognition. primary and secondary school teachers. audio visual aids. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. to ensure teacher competence. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. and so on.. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. which should include experience in the primary schools too. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . material conditions relating to libraries. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas.. laboratories.
To meet this exigency. Psychology of Students. etc. Workshops.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. 184 . though no pre-service training. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. Modern Methods of Evaluation.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Meanwhile. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Organisation of Content Courses. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Modern Techniques of Teaching.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications.secondary education. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. and XII. etc. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. whether they should have professional education or. Agriculture. Hence. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. methodology and evaluation. The problem. Induction Courses. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. not came up once again. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering.
Pre-service training is for those.S. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.. Courses leading to B.Ed. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. Ajmer.D.5. State Institutes of Education. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.’s are elig ible for M. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.Ed.Ed. training. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.. courses and M. All B Ed. 3. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.Ed. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. (Education) and M. M. in Education. These facilities are available for regular students. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. Point out two defects in primary teacher training .’s for Ph. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.A. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.Ed.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Degree and M. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.A..Ed. (Education) are organized by 185 .. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. For re-orienting the teachers.. Degree. Post-Graduates also undergo B.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier...
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.some Faculties of Education of some Universities.A. 3.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. and B.. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them.A. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. . they should be conscientious . Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. (Ed. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. 4. established by tradition and teachers of the past.. Hence the employability of M.). So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 186 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. 6. However. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. of conduct—written or unwritten. (Ed). Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . What is the role of ERIC? . 5.
3. these problems are not as such cannot be solved.5. b. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. 3. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. they should be conscientious. a.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. Bhopal.3.5. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Shorter working hours. 5. 6. 3. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. a. 2. National Council of Educational Research and Training. Discuss the problems of teacher education. The necessity is however this. a. However. 187 . 2.5. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. Ajmer. Dearth of new technology of teaching. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. 4. 4. b. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Explain code of conduct for teachers.
5. B. P. (2010). (2003).3. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Mohanty. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . Tewari. Teacher Education. Corporation.D. J. Ltd Aggarwal. and Teacher Education. Teacher Education. Publication Pvt.N. A.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. (2009).
UNIT – IV 189 .
The person’s environment is equally important. communicable diseases and their prevention. In lesson 4. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. nutritional deficiency diseases. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. the focus is on the school health programmes. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. objectives. objectives and role of the physical education. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. If the diet is poor. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. objectives. consuming the right amounts becomes important.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. preservation of nutrients. In lesson 1. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. Since food is the source of nutrients. common ailments of children. economic and educational developments. 191 .
126.96.36.199 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community. mental.1. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.11 188.8.131.52 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.10 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1. It is a miniature society.e.6 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.2 4.1. physical.3 4.8 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1 4.9 4.5 4. 193 .1.1. emotional and social.LESSON 4.1.4 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1.
you will be able to: 1.1. 8. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. 6. 10..2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner.g. 7. 4. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. cleanliness and healthful living. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. content of health education. 2. understand school health programmes 2. to his family and to the community at large.1. To develop healthy health habits among children. explain the importance of First aid 5. e. 3. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. know the need for sex education. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 9. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. 4. To develop certain skills concerning health. training of teachers and evaluation. 4. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. To give information regarding health rules. Instruction. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 11. list the common ailments of children 3. training in first aid and etc. 194 . 5. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health.
typhoid. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. 2. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. First aid facilities should be made readily available. B. proper doors and windows. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. cleanliness weeks. minimizing the travelling distance. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. direct lighting.. 5. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. 4. (xii) smoking education etc. (ii) communit y healt h. The surroundings of schools should be clean.4. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes.. play festivals. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . There should be regular water supply. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students.G. etc. 2. Vaccination for small pox. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. “Play-for-all” programmes. organisation of school health days. There should be good drainage facilities. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. 3. vaccination.1. inoculation against cholera. ( iii) sanit at io n. Arranging better transportation facilities. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. as described below 1.C. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. The school buildings should be spacious. suitable furniture. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. (viii) first aid. (xl) mental health. excusing late. (vi) nutrition education. B. (v) safety education. is imperative. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. Triple Antigen Vaccination. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. The flooring should not be damp.coming or absence.
if epidemic is wide-spread. dislocations. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Have adequate rest and sleep. isolate and notify. scalds. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. and other accidents. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. poisons. cuts. • When sleeping in groups. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. etc. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. bleeding. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. • Take nutritious food. • Close the schools. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. sports and games in the interest of their health. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. wounds. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. • Keep all rooms clean.. C. • Find out the cases. insect stings. fainting (epileptic fit). burns. drowning. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. fractures. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. D.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. 196 .
fever. These diseases are called communicable diseases. asthma. Once these germs get into the body. backache. They are: i) The incubation stage. tuberculosis. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. Mention the school health programmes. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. 4.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. chicken pox. cough. List out the Health curriculum 3. There are three stages in any communicable disease. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. headache. pain in the joints. So they easily get illnesses.1. polio. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. water or bodily contact. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. which are – cold. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. measles etc. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases.1. 2. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • .
Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Measles . Diarrhoea . Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. sugar and water. Hence liquid diet is recommended.It is caused by measles virus. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. After three or four days of fever. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. unhygienic living conditions. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Mumps . Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. This is caused by cold virus.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. cough and fever. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. 198 . Ear Infections . Others make the children very weak. Scabies . Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. unhygienic bottle feeding. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. The following are the common communicable diseases. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. etc. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear.This disease is caused by bacteria. head-ache and cough. The symptoms include cold.When a child suffers from scabies. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. The child may have fever. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. eating food which is not clean. Hence it is called a killer disease. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Tonsilitis . Important salts and water are lost in this process. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Common Cold . Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Throat is affected. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system.
Diphtheria . The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Typhoid . The child may also have diarrhoea. 199 . raised pink spots appear on head. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. the child may die. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child.• • • • Chicken Pox . It begins with fever. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. By scratching he causes secondary infections. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are communicable diseases? 6.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Enlist the common ailments of children. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. 5. face and waist. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. Expand DPT .This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. the child is not able to breathe. separate. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. As the disease progresses. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Shortly. If proper treatment is not given.
dislocation. 2.1.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. Sex is popular. 3.4. exciting and body-oriented.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Cuts and Bruises . bruises.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. 5.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. scorpion stings. 4. Sprains . which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. and films. snakebites. eye injury. films and jokes. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. wounds. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. 4.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. It has its rightful place in education too. Wounds . Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. drowning. fainting. fiction. man-woman behaviours. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. 200 . Sex is but an integral part of human personality. so-called sex books and periodicals. head injury.g.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. swelling. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. sprains. sprains. In such cases. bleeding. simple fractures. it is a subject of art.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. and Community Work and Social Service.1. It is both biological and psychological. etc. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. cuts. Drowning . The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work.
the religious organisations. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. health. The values of life.. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. celibacy are age. in their ignorance. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. the school. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. sex education is being recommended in schools. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. The home. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. 3. In today's liberal and interactive society. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A.old values. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. In secondary schools. they would be treading the path of sure doom. but preserve them from disaster and disease. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. B. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. try experimenting with their bodies. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. Should the boys and girls. Hence. 2. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child.
when the courses are already overloaded. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. communicable diseases and their prevention. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. Teacher education institutions are.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. there will no crisis in its implementation. 202 . first aid and sex education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. hence. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. the school health programmes. common ailments of children. offering sex education as a part of their curricula.1. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. C. What are the major components of Sex Education. 4. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future.1) 2) 3) as a separate course.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 184.108.40.206 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
209 . What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Mention the food nutrients 2.
Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . minerals. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. 210 . you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . But how do we select these foods? The major aim. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.2.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . If you look at the definition carefully. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s.2. Let us talk about each of these aspects. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day.4.
typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. for example. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. construction labourer). But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. Even within given States there is considerable variation.g. sex. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . 4. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. activity level and physiological stress.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier.one in the morning and the other at night. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . Those in the west also tend to eat rice. moderate or heavy work. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. dosa are typical of the south. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. In other words. it is also specific to a given activity level . A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. the social and religious practices of that region. paratha and poori. Preferences/customs are also important. A balanced diet is specific firstly. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables.2.6.sedentary. These are: region where the person resides and income. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. There is no point. In the case of adults. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. People in the east of our country prefer rice. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e.g. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body.
vegetables and fruits. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. however. As you read this discussion. Judicious selection of food is. Among the social factors. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. fat and sugar tend to increase. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. In addition to these. for example. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. income plays a vital role. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another.planning the diet. however. as important for the rich as for the poor. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. Including these 212 . Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. These determine the acceptability of foods. One must. If you think of your own religious group. while another may hate them. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. One person may be fond of milk products. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. customs. Even among flesh foods. Having more money. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. As income increases. nuts and dry fruits. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. taboos related to food may play an important role. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. however. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. However. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese.
over-eating or under. but they should be thrown away. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. eggs . plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. if the teachers have good food habits. mouth. 17. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . etc. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. fruits. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.eating is hazardous. green leaves. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. List out any two healthy food habits. 8. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. meat. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. Define balanced diet.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. For this. 8) Walk a while after eating. 213 . 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect.
Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. preservation of nutrients.2. e. b. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Bitot’s spots. Keratomalacia 3.4. Conjuctival xerosis. Beri Beri 4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 .10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Discuss good food habits. good nutrition is essential for good health. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. Vitamin D 5. When the diet is inadequate. d. In fact. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. c.2.2. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. 4. 4. Explain food nutrients 4.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Corneal xerosis. Night blindness. a.
mouth.C. (2009). C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. Chopra. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. P. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. A Text Book of Foods. (2005). U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . a .M. minerals. Hands. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. 7.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. R. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. b. Nutrition Science. Nutrition and Dietetics. Food and Nutrition Education. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. S.6. R.2. a. Health and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. 4. Sri Lakshmi B. Food and Nutrition Education. b. (2008). Food should be consumed after eating well. 8. (2008). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 .N. (2004).
216 .3.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.12 4.9 4.4 4.3.3 Impact on Education 4.3.7 220.127.116.11 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.3.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3.3 4.2 4.3.5 4.1 Impact on social development 4.1 18.104.22.168.6.3.11 4.13 4.3.2 Impact on economic development 4.8 4.6.LESSON 22.214.171.124.
correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. state the meaning. 217 . describe the impact of population growth on social. community. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. aims at providing the younger generation.3. It is a much wider co ncept. his societ y and the world.3. objectives and need for population education 2. therefore. Whenever we talk of sex education. the stress is. There is some difference. his family.3.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. and the consequences of these processes. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. family planning and sex education etc. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. economic and educational development 3. It is not sex education.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. characteristics and changes for himself. you will be able to: 1. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.4. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. Population Education. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. the causes of population change. understand the importance of small family norm 5. population characteristics. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. 4.
5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Population Education 2. the society. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.3. 4. the family. List out any two objectives of Population Education.4. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. the nation and the world. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3.
4. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. social welfare schemes can be implemented well.3. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. With the larger families.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. economic and educational development of the country. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. Family is considered as a social unit. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. When the family is small. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. which will not be possible without population control. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. the family programmes are also handicapped. 4. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty.3. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. Every second two thousand children are being born. health and happiness of its citizens. 219 .6.
In developing countries. heavy intern I migration etc.6. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. Swollen cities. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. in buses and trains. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. organization index and material index. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. in cinema halls and theatres.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified.e. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. toilets. in parks and other places of public gatherings. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. Many students herded in a small room.. 220 . pollution of the environment. lack of proper health care.3. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. i. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. 4. unemployment.6.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. teacher index. facility for drinking water. 4.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too.3. and so on. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. The gulf between them is widening further.
essays. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. and laboratory equipments. family planning etc. bar graphs etc. 221 .7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Hindi and English. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. less space facilities. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. There would be very few audiovisual aids. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. blank verses etc. thus. can be taken up. less budget for education.. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. Regional Language. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. reproduction. Social Studies Statistics on population education. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme.3. can be studied in science and health education. There would be poor library facilities. even text books would be in short supply.
15. 9. Bihar. 10. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. 2.3. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 7. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Uttar Pradesh. 8. 3. United States of America. 12. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends.4. West Bengal. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Brazil. 5. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Canada. Children may compare two families. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. They may arrange them as per average density of population. 4. China. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. 11. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Children with the help of parents. deaths. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. 13. area and average density of population. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. causes of deaths etc.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 14. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled.
These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. we have no right to stop 223 . preferences for sex. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. age at marriage. values and role children etc. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.be opened in their schools. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4.3. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. 16. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. 17. Comparing life in various respects in two families. The question. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. 18. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife.
The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. which education can only do. “He who is responsible for population growth. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. More than 45 years ago. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. continued .4-6. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.3. and the child survival components of the news: program.their entry into the world”.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.to emphasize family planning services. The Family Welfare Program. 4. at varying places in different regions. especially the expansion of child immunization services . The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.. on an overall basis.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . fertility levels have declined throughout the country. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.were implemented 224 . however. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. Since the program's inception.
and the World Conference on Women.earlier than the safe motherhood components. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. expansion of services to unmarried women. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. a focus on health promotion. In April 1996. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. and nominal fees for services. At these meetings. Local programs vary in their approaches. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. men. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. reliance on local women as community health workers. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. Moreover. Therefore. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. In October 1997. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. the community appears willing to pay for services.
Its main purposes are to create awareness. 226 . Describe the impact of population growth on social. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. nation and the world.3. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. economic and educational development 4. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. 4. involving the community.emphasizing the needs of the client. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. family. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. What are the goals of RCH? 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. 3. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers.3. community. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1997). Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum.
Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. his society and the world. and the consequences of these processes.3. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Brazil. b. a. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified.” 2. the causes of population change. area and average density of population. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. a. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. characteristics and changes for himself. 7. b. 227 . increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. China. Canada. 4. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. less space facilities. less budget for education. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. bar graphs. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. a. 5. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. his family.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. 6. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. 3. population characteristics.4. United States of America.
A. 228 . Principles of Population Studies. Modern Problems of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. T. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. (2005). Bhende. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Reddy. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women.K. V. (2002).3. Ltd. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Jayapoorni. Ltd.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. (2005). New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. (1992). N. (2004). J. Centre for Women’s Studies. Coimbatore. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Udaiveer. Kantikar.4.
4 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11.3 Indigenous games 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4.2 Major games 18.104.22.168.1 4.4 Lead up games 22.214.171.124 4.6 4.4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4.10 4.8.3 4.7 4.11 19.1 Minor games 4.LESSON 4.4.
you will be able to: 1.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. as it should 230 . team spirit. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. which forms its most valuable assets. classify the different types of games. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. mental alertness.4. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. The concept of physical education has been made broader. leadership and balance in defect. state the meaning of Physical Education 2.4. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. 4. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. social fitness. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. the youth of the country.4. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. full records of physical activities should be maintained. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. moral fitness and emotional fitness. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. perseverance.4. 4.
Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. leadership. They go hand in hand. Every individual is a part of society. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. team spirit. To be more precise. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Therefore. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 .contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. obedience to rules. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. The educational efforts at home. They are inseparably united together. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice.
“The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. Physical exercises. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. Regarding the significance of physical education. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field.” The Secondary Education Commission. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. H. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. a sound health. Just like Education. ment al. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. 4.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it.” Montaigue writes. pleasing manners. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind.4. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. game and sports. Rousseau states.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. nor body but the whole man. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. Buck has observed that 232 . mo ral. C.
physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. happiness. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. efficiency and character. “If we wish to develop the whole being.” In brief. etc. elegance. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. Froebel says.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society.a properly directed physical education should result in health. resourcefulness and smartness. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments.4. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. flexibility and power. endurance. 233 . Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. coordinative abilities. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. initiative. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. speed. we must exercise the whole human being. strength.” 4.
they may form gangs. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. its adherents and its enemies. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Every age has its artists. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. including all racial groups and historical ages. Tournaments foster this sentiment. should help in the spiritual development of the student. in greater or lesser degree.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. poetry and painting. If no opportunity is provided to the students. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. plagues and famines. 234 (i) (ii) . Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. systems of government. While wars. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. these fundamental things have always been present. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities.
etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. self. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. bravery and interest in games and sports. Write any two importance of Physical Education. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. B. to develop tolerance. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. respect for rules. 2. obedience. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.sacrifice.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. 235 .\ to develop perseverance. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education.
Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Act as a leader. Be sportive. 6. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 8. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Always keep the whistle ready.4. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Inform health principles. 5. Be well-prepared. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Usually parents. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. and readmission after they have recovered. Haag. 236 1. 9. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. 3. is essential. 15.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. injuries among pupils should be made. defects. . 4. Be self-confident. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. 16.4. Keep the field ready for the activities. 7. and. 4. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Be punctual. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Posture screening should be done. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 12. 14. 13. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.4. 11. students.H. 10. 2. Be in the uniform.
frolic and jo y. 4. 4. Moreover. As such they are well enjoyed by children. 1. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. 2. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. 3. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. less equipment and less expense. Such inst incts as imitation.4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8. the play. their development is handicapped. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. Indigenous games. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Lead up games. 237 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors.4. 4. chasing.
Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. On lawns. benefit in playing minor games. hitting. Jump the stick clay and so on. Volley Ball. couple tag. Hopping. stopping. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. the games can be modified according to convenience. Khokho. women take part most of the games. For each game the rules are many. These games require varied skills such as running. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Kabaddy etc. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging.. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. dribbling. The dimension of the posts and nets. zig zag relay. Tennikoit. Dodging. wherever the kids assemble. Shuttle Badminton. Hockey. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. under ball pass Relay. Jumping.8. heading. They are played for a shorter duration. bowling etc. the play equipment.With a very few rules. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Ball Badminton. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Soft Ball.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. muffling. 238 . Except a few games. snatching the kerchief. pitching. some of them are played indoors. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. They are rules approved by the International Associations.4. trapping. Basket Ball. While many of them are played in the open playfields. Cricket. boosting. Tennis. 4. on hard courts. Throwing. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. on mountain tops and on river beds. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. driving. over ball pass Relay. the number of players and substitutes. spiking. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. catching. finding the partner. skipping. on sea-shore. with implements or without implements.
8. death.8. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. On occasions like marriage. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. 4. Games may be classified as 6. 7. List out some major games.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. they are in existence. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. these games being popular. They have an abundant social value. While observing the players in action. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game.4. Kho-kho.4. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. festivals connected with religion and public functions. birth. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. All the fundamental tactics. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. and . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. An example for indigenous game is 8.4.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. For example.
It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. 3. aims and objectives and need of physical education. c. b.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. 2.4. a. 2. Minor and Major 240 . a. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Briefly discuss the different types of games. to secure physical health b. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 4. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. d. b. 5. Posture screening should be done. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education.4.4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. 4. a. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. b. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. a. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. 4. 4.4. to develop physical stamina. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. physically and emotionally fit and alert. 3.
J. Shuttle Badminton. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Physical Education and Sports. Tennis. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Ltd. Handbook of Physical Education. Tennikoit. (2005). Kabaddy 7. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. 241 . New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2008). Foot-ball. Hockey.K. Basket Ball. Krishna murthy.C.4. (2008). Health. Mohanty.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Aggarwal. Volley Ball. Khokho. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. 4.6. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. G. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Soft Ball. (2009). Ball Badminton. J. J. Khokho 8. Cricket.
5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.1 Natural Environment 4.5.LESSON 4.5.2 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.3 126.96.36.199.5.5.1 188.8.131.52 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.11 184.108.40.206 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.2 Manmade Environment 4.4 4.5.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.8 4.6 4.10 4.9 4.5.
Skills. 4. 3. economic.educat ion for the environment. list out the types of environment 3. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Details are given below: I.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. aesthetic and educational factors. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Evaluation Ability. you will able to: 1.5. education about the environment and education through the environment. population explosion and resource depletion could be. social. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. 4. role of teacher in environmental conservation.5. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Participation.5. Awareness. 5. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. Knowledge. 3. Essential knowledge about the Environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. 4.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. it covers the following elements: 1. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. The best place to start such learning is school. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. Attitude. 243 . political. 2. Broadly. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. 6. 2.
heat sink and wind flow in cities. D.B. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Oxidants Other pollutants. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. 244 . a. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. F. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. • Biological magnification E. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. 2. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog.
Control of population growth a. The human ecosystem II. Family planning ii. 2. Sterilisation. 4. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Persuasion: i. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. c. Abortion iv. economic. B. III. 2. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material.3. Use of medical science i. Birth control through education b. 3. Intrauterine device iii. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. The pill ii. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Socio-economic measures. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A.
List out the major causes of Environmental problems. e) Recycling. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Air pollution abatement ii. Water pollution abatement. Define Environmental Education. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. 3. 246 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (UNESCO. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 3. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. 1983).
The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions.5. telex.other components of the environment. Any constituent or condition of the environment. -other. A change in one brings about a change in the other. He modifies according”.5. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds.5. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. Biological environment The biological environment.5. They interact with each.5. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. includes the plants. animals and other organisms (biotic). to his needs.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. a. fax agricultural apparatus. way is called environmental or ecological factor. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism.5. b.4. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. 4. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. These are biotic components.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.
role of trees in building economy. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. over exploitation of ground water. effects. excellent recreation sites. ozone layer deplet ion. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. preventing siltation of dams. supplying timber for various uses. industrial pollut io n. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. t heir role in preventing pollution. alternate sources of energy. explosion deforestation. windmills.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. balance of nature. acid rain. water scarcity. greenhouse effect. river systems. natural way of controlling pests. etc. social studies. air pollutants from industries. industrial survey. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. food chain and food-web. biogas plants. (ii) Air pollution. sources of pollut ion. wars and hazards of war. noise pollution. change in climate may be added. need for bio-diversity. need for conservation. nuclear energy. sources. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. are the topics which may be taught in History. ozone depletion. extinction of species. noise control. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. mineral survey.. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. effects o f CFC. importance of nitrogen cycle. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. evolution. History The rise and fall. maintaining the ecological diversity. reasons. nuclear warfare. preserving the watersheds. use of medicinal plants. of civilizations. trees reducing noise pollution. use of pesticides. solar cookers. etc. desertification 248 . role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. relation between population and pollution. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . population.
249 . Peepal and Tulsi. 2. 9. 7. 5. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 6.5.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. 4. 12. Developing habits of cleanliness among students.may be inc ded in Geography. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. 13. 10. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Providing. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 14. 3. aims and scope. group discussions and seminars. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 8. Organising conferences. 4. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 11. animal and plants. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs.
so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. or form a car pool for everyday travel. World Environmental falls on 250 . Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Reuse carrier bags. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure.Send their waste oil. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Never put any left over chemicals. all these can cause serious pollution. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. If it is done. 5. 6. it will cause pollution. especially plastics. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Don’t burn any waste. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. used oils down the drain.
CFCs. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Harmony with the nature . Concern for species. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. orderliness and beauty). The groups may exchange. dest roying nat ural habitats. developing desirable attitudes. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . diversity and stability. values and habits. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. To arrange for visiting speakers.). and 251 . rather than conquest and mastery. loss of bio-diversity. etc. Social responsibilit y (common good. depletion of ozone. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. deforestation. To arrange visits or expeditions. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. Att itudes of balance towards nature. To provide reference materials for children’s use. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. (cleanliness. etc.4. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. Conservation of natural resources.. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems.mat erials. viz.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions.5. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. potable water. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. concern for others). To provide materials needed for practical work. nuclear wars. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. To discuss the approach to problems or topics.
Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills.5. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. 8. preserving natural cycles. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. 4. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 252 .5.5. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3.
a. sources. Publications Pvt. Education for values. Rapid population growth.K. Environment and Human Rights. a. over exploitation of ground water. Knowledge. Y. population. reasons. importance of nitrogen cycle. Nanda. Ltd. Awareness. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. importance of trees in the production of oxygen.K. relat ion between population and pollution. New Delhi : Authors Press. concern for others).2. sources of pollution. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. explosion deforestation. b. To provide reference materials for children’s use. 4.5. Environmental Education. S. Anmol Publications Pvt. greenhouse effect. a. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. T. S. b. (2004). June 5 7. ozone layer deplet ion. Kuldeep. effects. Social responsibilit y (common good. 6. Ltd. To provide materials needed for practical work. (2007). group discussions and seminars. (1997). 8.\ 4. Environmental Education.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . water scarcity. Udaiveer. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 5. (ii) Air pollution. Providing. New Delhi : Sharma. acid rain.. b. air pollutants from industries. b. (2007). Organising conferences. a. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Modern Problems of Education.K. new problems from science and technology.K. 3.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 220.127.116.11 Idealism and aims of Education 18.104.22.168 Idealism and Curriculum 22.214.171.124 Idealism and methods of teaching 126.96.36.199 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 188.8.131.52 Naturalism and aims of Education 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and Curriculum 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and methods of teaching 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 22.214.171.124 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
126.96.36.199 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 188.8.131.52 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
our life.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. It is self-realisation. Spiritual Development. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. Therefore. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm.1. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self.3. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . Education must contribute to development of culture. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. man is essentially a moral being. The universe is regarded as a thought process.” 5. promote and transmit it to rising generation. the emancipation of spirit. should be universal in nature. Universal Education. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. Education according to idealism. in fact. According to Rusk'. moral. enrichment and transmission of culture.
Learning through lecturing. an indispensable necessity.3. He sets the environment in which education takes place. and collation (striving) should find due place.1. affecting (feeling).the spiritual qualities of mankind.1. It considers teacher as. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. 5. Ethics. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. should be there. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. 3. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. no doubt. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. Philosophy. Science. For intellectual development. subjects like Languages. Learning through imitation. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. So he should embody. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. 2. History. Learning through discussion. a spiritual guide for the child. The plant can grow. 4. According to idealism. Learning through questioning. Learning through reading. Herbert advocated instruction method.” 5. Mathematics etc. So cognition (knowing). class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. hygiene. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 .The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. 5. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct.” He is thus. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. However. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. so subjects like Religion. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection.3. friend and guide. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. He carries the child from darkness to light. So health. the school is a garden. For this no particular method has been suggested. According to Frobel.
formal lessons or examinations. text books.1. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.preservation. curricula.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. 2.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. In the words of Ross.1. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. Ross explains.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. "Education should make 263 • . time tables.perfection and beauty. Perfection of Human Machine.
264 . It emphasises physical and health education 5. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour.4. education should develop the child into Joyous. “Education finds its purpose. Chemistry.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Zoology. In all. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Therefore. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Education should. Botany etc Language. subjects like history. rational harmoniously balanced.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. 4. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3.1. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. therefore. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Literature. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Naturalistic curriculum.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. It is based on the psychology of the child. There is no place for religious and moral education. Biology. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Arithmetic. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. • 5. is based on the nature of the child. It stresses basic sciences. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. useful and mature child.
4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher.1. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. 5. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Rousseau says. Learning through observation.1. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. 3. 2. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. It discards all rigid. 5. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Dalton Plan. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a supplier of materials and opportunities. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1.5. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers.1. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Learning by doing.4. In the . Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. Learning through experience. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. a provider of an ideal environment. he should be taught by experience alone. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. 4. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Heuristic method. the stage.
5. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. diversified and flexible. All Round Development of an Individual. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning.1. Vocational and 266 . Sciences.absolutism of idealism. Continuous Growth. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. 5. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems.1. Personal Social Adjustment. Subjects. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. is true. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Geography. Physical training. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. intellectual. Agriculture. History. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Social Efficiency. The aim of educational development.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Social Science. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. social and moral aspects. 5. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages.5. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously.
It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. a senior partner and a sincere guide. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. should find proper place. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. alert and resourceful. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Methods of teaching should not be fixed.5. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . activities and experience should be integrated properly. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. a teacher occupies an important position. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences.1. He has to be active.Technical Education.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. The subjects. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. 5. He must be trained.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. Learning by Doing.” 5. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher.5.
Chemistry. Biology. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Sex Education. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. specific. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Crafts. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. History. practical. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Education is preparation for a complete living. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. scientific and psychological education. Mathematics. liberal.5. intellectual. The basic tenets of realism are 1. 5.1. 3. Biography Philosophy. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Literature. 2. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. 5.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. 3. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. 4.6. It favours child-centered. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Music and Dance. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. literary or humanistic education. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. 2. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Study of Subjects like Language. Population Education. Art.6. rich and happy. 4.1.1. Astrology. 5. Psychology.
6. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.1.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. easily and pleasantly. certainly and clearly.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.
5. a. Learning through reading. b. Learning through experience b. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Universal Education 2. History. Learning through lecturing. Tours / Excursion e.1. Child centered c. Self Realisation b. a. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Agriculture. Learning through questioning. d.5. Learning through discussion.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.1. c. pragmatism and realism. & curriculum. 5. in this lesson. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Experimentation d. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. has no end other than growth. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Sciences.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Geography. Languages. e. a. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. naturalism. Learning through imitation.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Education according to pragmatism. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Rousseau 5. Social Science. Demonstration and Observation 270 . 3. 5. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Vocational and Technical Education. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Physical training. 6.
New Delhi : A. (2007). O.5.P. New Delhi : Bhatia. N. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.H. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. R. L.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman.1. Narang C. (2003). Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. Pahuja. of Pathak.P. Foundations of Education. P. P. Publishing corporation. (2004). Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Ltd. Theory and Principles of Education. K. 271 .
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.2.2 Curriculum 18.104.22.168 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 22.214.171.124.2.2.2 5.2 Curriculum 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 126.96.36.199.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.3 Methods of teaching 272 .1 Aims of Education 5.4 Views about teacher 5.2.3 Methods of teaching 5.1 Aims of Education 5.3.4. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.3.LESSON 188.8.131.52 5.2.5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.4 Views about teacher 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 184.108.40.206 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2.
9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.2.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.2.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.7 5. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.5. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. you will able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. an artist. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. content and methods. economic and political reconstruction in our country. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. 5. Gandhiji was primarily a social. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.2.2. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.2. mind and spirit. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. 273 .2.2.8 5. 5. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.4 Role of the teacher 5.2. 2. Tagore was a poet.6 5.5. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.
It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. In the words of Gandhiji. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. nor the gross animals body.2. 5. self-restraint and service of humanity.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. "I attach more. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education.3. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim." Dignity of Labour. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. It really provides opportunity for character building. it is education of life. righteousness. His scheme of education is life centred. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. strength of mind.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage.supporting. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. mind and soul of children He further observed. 274 . importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. through life and for life. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. 'Man is neither mere intellect. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations.
development of the whole all were directed: towards. Music. According to Gandhi. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . "Development of the moral character.3. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving.Training for Leadership. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Drawing and Hindustani. leather work have been suggested. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Mother-tongue.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. the realization of the ultimate reality. 5. Only good individual forms a better society. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Art. metal work.2. Individual and Social Aims. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. General Sciences.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. gardening. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. wood work.
3. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Basic education is other wise known as 4. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.2. proficient. men of 276 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.trained. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.3. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.2.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. That is why. He has an experimental approach towards life 2.2.knowledge. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots.3. Education must be child centered. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . He also advocates freedom for the child. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. 3. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. 5. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
Gandhi in 1937. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. He was deadly against untouchability.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. 5. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. He was a true patriot. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. He believed in the oneness of humanity.4.2.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.K.” Like all other ideals.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. • Cult of non-violence. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. 5.2.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. • Education should involve manual work. • Ideal of citizenship. he was a true Vedantist 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.
Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. Dance. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. It should help.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . them solve problems of day to day life. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Geography. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. wider in range. Botany. Music. etc.2. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. stronger in power than ever before. That way only. he said. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. (vi) Philosophy. could help in forging unity among all. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. 279 .4. It should help the learner have good physique. Religion and Psychology. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Therefore. Zoology. Chemistry. Tagore said.Mother tongue and other Indian languages." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. International understanding. International Understanding. the more dedicated and devoted. Civics.Language and Literature . "Mankind must realise a unity. sentiment. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. deeper in. complete manhood could be attained.
5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.2. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. Tagore rightly says. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.” He further says." 5. 5. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. Activity Method Heuristic Method. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. 280 . Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.4.4. 5. In 1921. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.2. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.4.2. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service.
Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. 281 . Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. It is open to all irrespective of country. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.g. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. 9. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. 10. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. race. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore.
Education should develop strong moral character of the individual.5. Purity of thought. Education for Self-reliance. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Education for Self-realization. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life.2. Concept of Education. Freedom.” 5. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Education for strong Moral Character. character forming and assimilation of ideas.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. According to him. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. man making. Education should make a person self-reliant. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. 4.5. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. 3. Book learning.2. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man." He was against the theoretical type of education.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. He believed in to learning or selflearning. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. 2. work and deeds come out of it.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only.
Education for Physical Development. engineering and technical subjects. Of course.5. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. 5. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one.5. 6. Discussion Method. Philosophy and Theology.2. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. philosopher and guide to the students He. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. 283 . There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Thirdly he wished that games. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses.2. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Education should help in the physical development of an individual.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. 5. 5.5. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. That will serve the purpose of education fully.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Secondly he wanted Science. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.2. And above all. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses.the learners on different students in the discussion.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. A physically strong person is the need of the society. The teacher should be the facilitator.5. Swami. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Religion. Every individual should be trained for concentration.
curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. of course. Gandhiji as a Idealist. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. Their educational ideas. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. 5. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims.2. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. 2. and pragmatist . ears and eyes.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. 284 . What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. naturalist. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. Write short notes on Basic education. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Substantiate your answer. 5. 12.2. legs.6 LET US SUM UP We have. We have seen that Tagore. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. 3. in this lesson.
d. 8. leather work have been suggested.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discussion Method 285 . Where the whole world forms its one single nest. wood work. c. 9. Teaching while Walking b. Explain Vishwabharathi. b. a. Debate and Discussion Method. a. Nai Talim 4. Self-Study b. 10. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda.2. 5. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. c. 5. Technique of Correlation 6. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. 1937 7. 3. metal work. Ideal of citizenship. 5. Heuristic Method. a. Basic education. Activity Method b. Learning by Doing c. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. gardening.4. e. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Meditation and concentration c. Education should involve manual work. Cult of non-violence. 2. Activity Method d. a. 11. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Self realization. f.
(2004). Dhiman. K. O. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. L. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.5. K and Narang C. Publishing Corporation. Foundations of Education.P. (2002).H. Ltd. N. Theory and Principles of Education. P. P. 286 .9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A. (2007). (2007). on Bhatia. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. Pahuja. B. (2003). N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. J. New Delhi : Aggarwal.2. Anmol Publications Pvt. C.
3.6 5.10 5.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.2 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.11 220.127.116.11 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.5 5.LESSON 5.7 5.3.3. In this lesson.8 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.1 5.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.4 18.104.22.168 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .9 5.3.3 5.
3. 5. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. While education is learning. One is the individual process and the other is the social process.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. In the former sense. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. there is a large number of communities. in fact .3. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society.A. In the words of Kerney and Cook. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. Curriculum is intimately related to education.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. Both the processes are integrated. In it. state the meaning of curriculum 2. curriculum signifies situations for learning. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. in the form of new experience. From the latter point of view. Since the demands. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. maintained or eliminated. A g o o d curricu lu m. living in the hilly area. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. you will be able to: 1. new behaviour may be acquired. in Russia or in Japan. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. the plain area. in the U. curriculum. is a means to the process.under the direction of the school.. Then in a big country like India. While education is a process.S. it is identical wit h socializat ion. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture.3. 5. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. the plateau area and 288 . the desert area.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. present behaviour may be modified. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5.
5. environment. Again. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. therefore. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. irrespective of their needs and environment. and 289 . physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. according to modern trends in the educational process. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. too. democratic and socialistic country. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. However. customs and needs. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. the learning capacity of children. From a slave-country we became secular. it is. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. differs from individual to individual. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. It must differ from locality and from society to society. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained.3. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. Besides craft.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. studying therein.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. In fact . aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule.
eg. Vocational Efficiency. unambiguous and functional. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. 3. Understanding Objective. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. 1. unsatisfactory.. etc. individual or Social and so on. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. 5. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. e.3.. etc. etc. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. They speak of perfect goals. 2. specific.. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. They are visionary goals e.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . Application Objective. moral.. They may be ultimate or proximate. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. Knowledge Objective. Goals of Primary Education. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. The word “Curere” means 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. aims. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. of classroom. remote or immediate.g. Goals of Secondary Education.g. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. in instructional objectives. uninspiring and unscientific. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. emotional. social. they depend on the political. 290 . What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. They are achievable.g. tangible. general or specific. aesthetic and spiritual development. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. They speak of immediate purposes of education. social. Self Realisation. which may or may not be attained. National Integration.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. So it is inadequate. e. 4.
as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. According to Crow and Crow. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. in the class rooms. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. heavy fire. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. capacities. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. abilities.3. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. on the playing fields. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.5. educationists. needs. Raymont rightly says. The interests.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. finding them very interesting and captivating. Crow and Crow remarks. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. but it includes the totality of experiences.” 291 .
” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. Due to these variations and differences. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. mental. moral. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. They often waste it or rather kill it. capacities and abilities. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. time in a useful manner.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. urges. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. aptitudes. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . tendencies. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure.
293 . Similarly. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. development of professional capability at all levels.curricular. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. 3. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. administrative programme need be planned. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. 2. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. phased preparation. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. To ensure success of the process. organized.
9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. 10. workshop. 17. 11.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. Run.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. 5. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. a. Child Centred Education b. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. laboratory. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . principles of curriculum construction.3. 1937 19. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. 12. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. in the class room. library. Relation with Life c. 5. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. 18. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum.
Bhalla. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. S.K. Lakshmi. (2007). Curriculum and Instruction. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. P.5.S.3. S. 295 . Curriculum Development. Innovations in Education. N. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. D. and Sarita Kumari. (2007). (2007). (2001). New Delhi : Authorspress.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi : Isha Books.
6.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .7.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 188.8.131.52.LESSON 5.8 5.1 5.9 5.7.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.3 5.2 184.108.40.206 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.5 220.127.116.11 5.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 18.104.22.168.4.
in the economic reconstruction of society. tolerance for the opinions of others. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student.5. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. 4. honesty. explain the concept of scientific attitude.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. you will be able to: 1. 297 . 3. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. We mean curiosity.during the second half of this century.4. 5. newer and newer industries started growing. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. open-mindedness. 2.4. 5. Gradually. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . superstition or emotion. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. know the importance of science education.4.
Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. seminars and symposiums. 4. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Through examinations. 6. 2. as well as of the society. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Through newspapers. Principles are formulated. Thinking and memory develops. 5.4. 4. Schemes of teaching science. 3. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Central science workshop. 5.4. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. 3. 5. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. 6. Selection for science education. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 2.So that. Love for truth enhances. Devotion towards nature increases. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. 7. stipends and appreciations in various ways. After such experience and training. Promotion of science clubs. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. 5. Organisation of science fairs. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 .
Enquiry teaching is. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. In the inquiry approach. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. For laboratory and workshop techniques.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. They experience natural phenomenon.4. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. sex or religion. 7. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. 5.6. therefore. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. After presenting the problem. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon.4. Write any two advantages of Science Education.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. 5. essential that teachers. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. should provide opportunities to. each child to “enquiry skill building”. Training of science teachers. They encounter many social events as they grow. It is. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind.needs and conditions. They ask many questions about the objects they see. objectivity. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look.
stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. 5.Herma Wouk. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. stern pursuit of accurate data.books. 6.6. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Social sciences.4. 3.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. commands or orders. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. Giving less directions. if they like. 5.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1.4. test. . The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Evidence. 2. Adopting creative models of teaching. It requires consistent thinking. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Appreciating pupils ideas. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. to ask questions and experience things. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 300 . 4. . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 3. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? .
Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. The students observation. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. keen observation. and emphasized during the learning process . For instance. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. of vast resources running waste. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience.7. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. These include open mindedness.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. neighbourhood. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. practiced. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. therefore should be unbiased and objective. 5. To achieve this we should understand what it means. (Vaidya 2007). see and feel the need of developing this attitude. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. These characteristics of any scientific 301 .4. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. school and society at large. friends. critical thinking and suspended judgments. to develop among the learners.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. it must be encouraged. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen.(Smith 2008). The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately.
looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. 5. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. understanding and logic.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. or superstitions. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. rumor. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. intuition or wishful thinking”. 2007).4. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions.7. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. The intention to respect another’s point of view. In considering a situation or a problem. 302 . Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. he studies all aspects of it. think and work it”. (Das. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth.
4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. 5. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.7.7. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .4. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.4. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. but to begin only after careful planning. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. • 5.
• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. it must be encourages. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 304 .8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience.4. 5. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude.
New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. (2008). a. N. (2000). A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. 3. Yadav. b.4. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Planning of activities 5. b. The intention to respect another’s point of view. 5. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Adopting creative models of teaching. (2006). a. Love for truth enhances. 16. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Study of superstitions d. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. New Delhi : Anmol Publications.S. 305 . Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.4. a. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Reflections on Scientific attitude. b.5.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the importance of science education 14. M. Vaidya. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. S. Wide reading b. 4. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. 2. Rao. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. objectivity.4. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. a.B (2008). D. 5. Proper example of the teacher c.
22.214.171.124 5. actively.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5. you will be able to: 1.5. 2. 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.5.7 5.4 5.3 5.5.5 5.5.5. 306 .5. objectives and characteristics.5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.5.LESSON 5.1 5.9 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.10 5. state the concept.8 5.6 5. areas of institutional planning.2 5.
and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. each teacher. and. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. which become the bases for further planning at the district. and every student in the process of educational planning. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. and supplement planning from above. • to involve teachers and school administrators. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. in the task of educational planning.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. 5. 5. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution.3. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. every parent. executive as well as public. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. every teacher. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. Institution should be regarded as the unit. teachers and students is not lost sight of. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. • To make institutional planning more successful.5.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning.5. State and national levels from below. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. • to make planning development-oriented. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. and each student are regarded as separate entities.
approved after making necessary modifications. Examinations. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. which will be discussed in the general. Classwork. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. it becomes the basis for school inspection. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. council and. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services.5. 5. Syllabus.5. etc.• implemented. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. 308 . The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. Co-curricular activities. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5.curricular Activities. (2) Co. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. and Personnel services. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.
Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Preparation of models. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Editing the school magazine. etc. Courts. 2. Fair distribution of syllabi.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. etc. Organising play-for-all programmes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1. Running science clubs. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Equipping of laboratory and library. Conducting of educational. Undertaking remedial instruction services. 3. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. hobby-centres. scientific and historical excursions.No. Organisation of Students’ Association. Organisation of Self-Government Days. etc. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Improving the subject competence of teachers. etc. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Organisation of class-room libraries. Improving the internal assessment. Organisation of Pupils. Preparation of instructional material. etc. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . charts and apparatus.
teacher-teacher. parents.5. teacher-managing body. teachers. administrator-pupil. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. and solidarity. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. students’ associations. parent-teacher associations.” The human relationships in. etc. Administrator-State. teacher-pupil. ii. and —pupil-pupil. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. teacher-State. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. science teachers’ associations. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. which are divided as the in. understanding. pupils.5. headmasters associations. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. administrator-administrator. administrator-supervisor. pupil310 . co-operation. involving mainly human materials. teacherinspector.
to attend. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. to accomplish. supervision. social sciences and other disciplines. V. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 311 . As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. administrator. organisation and management. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. teacher-parent. and to serve. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. pupil-community leader. To administer means to manage. supervision and superintendence. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions.State. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. teacher-community leader.5. pupil-inspector. now-a-days.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. to carry out. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. etc. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. organisation. pupil-parent. Good. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. control. It is also being modernized to become a technique. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. pupil-non-official functionaries. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. According to C. It covers personnel and material management. superintendence.
Any good management will always have good public relations. 4.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. Cost-Benefit Analysis . 7. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. 12. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . Better Human Relationships . Democratic Management . Decision Making . it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.The manager should have leadership traits. Worker Participation . Leadership .He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. Communication . low.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 10. 8. 3. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. Economic Management . 5. Socio-Scientific Approach .This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 2. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. This is the latest democratic trend in management.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. He should be an artist in human relationships. 13. 9. 6. it is not worth-while. Those.Of all the approaches.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. If it is more.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. without this the efficacy will be handicapped.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . 11. who occupy the managerial positions. The relationship should change from master. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. Rapport between the Management and Employees . should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. Motiviation . Liasion with the Public .Management should be efficient and economical 312 . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. If the cost benefit ratio is less.
improvement of teaching methods. and cooperative performance should be ensured. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. 18. 19. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . objective. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. 14. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management.g. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too.These two are.too. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. 313 .10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. 5. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept.5. enrichment of curricula. 5.5. to improve the quality of education it provides. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
Tarachand and Prakash. Singh. e. H. a. Communication 5. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. 314 . Examinations. APH Publishing Corporation. f. R. (1995). a. b.K. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. b. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.5.5.M. Syllabus. it becomes the basis for school inspection. d. Instruction. and Personnel services. Decision Making b. 2.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Classwork. (2003). 4. Fundamental of Educational Management. c. a. Motiviation d. Leadership c.5. In group and Out group 5. S. NUEPA. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. a. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. b.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Co-curricular activities. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. (2001). Educational Administration.
3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.Pre-service and In-services facilities. Communicable diseases . social Impact 3. physical education and environmental education 5.3 Directive Principles . Buddhist and Jain system of education. 1.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. nutritional requirement.Religious and Modern Education 1. Code of conduct for teachers.CORE PAPER . higher education. Inspection and Supervision 3. Community and Mass Media 2. Preservation of nutrients.3 Educational Influences of Home.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.Preventive measures. wastage and Stagnation 3.I. Examination reforms.1 Gurukula system of education.1 Primary Education : Education for all. 2.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. School.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Realized the problems of school education.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.5 Regional Educational Development in India .2 Nutritional deficiencies. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . 4. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Common ailments of Children. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. Balanced diet.1 School Health Programme. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.4 India's Secular Policy .Article 45 . women education and teacher education in India. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. New evaluation procedures. First Aid. Economic 315 .teachers should have : 1. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .1 Inculcation of Socialism.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. population education. Sex-education 4. Healthy Food Habit 4.
Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. 7. Taneja V. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. (1999) Culture. (2005) Foundations of Education. Naturalism and Pragmatism .5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. curriculum and teacher's role 5.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Socialization.S. Realism.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . REFERENCE 1.K. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. B. 316 .R.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. R. Ram S. and Dash B. Sharma. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. New Delhi: NCERT 3. Mahatma Gandhi. Saraswathi T. Prof.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.N. Delhi : University Publications 2. Pandy V. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. and Sharma R. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. 5.C.4 4. T. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. and Human Development. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.Aim. Hemchand. (2004) Problems of Education in India.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Tagore 5.K. Mishra. Ghanta R.1 Idealism. and Mohanty R. Curriculum and national goals .5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms.4.K. Kalan Paper Packs 10. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.K. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.N. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.
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