Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

UNIT: 1 – V



Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer



Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56


Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University


67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5



3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education

127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233


5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4


UNIT – I 7 .

8 .

we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Lesson 2. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Jainism and their educational implication. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. Lesson 4. In.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. The need. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. 9 . Lesson 5. and Jain system of education. discusses the regional educational development in India.

10 .

6.5 Jain system of education 1.5.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1 1.3.2 Features of Buddhist system of Education Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.6.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.4 Buddhist system of Education Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.1.LESSON 1.5.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.3.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) Charter Act of 1813 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.6 Education during British Era

describe the Jain system of Education 4. Education in India.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. both present and future.1. elucidate the education during British Era. The history of education passed through Buddhist. British system of education presented the modern western model.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. That 12 .7 1. in morals and in the intellect”. Indian in blood and colour. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. but English in taste. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.9 1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.8 1.1.1. has a long past history starting in vedic education.1.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. Muslim and British periods. “a class of persons. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. in opinion.6. 1. 1. 1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1.6. you will be able to: 1. India.

however. Role of Travel in Education. Forests as Centres of Education. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. 12. 10. not en masse by the class method. and to agriculture and trade. 9. There was. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. followed by explanation by the teacher. Immediate Aim Vocational. as it is generally considered to be at present. 16. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. generally. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. It was not merely intellectual. Individual Teaching. if they thought fit to do so. individually. No State Control on Education. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. It was also moral. The immediate aim of education. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. 8. Method of Instruction. 13. 6. 4. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. from darkness. Method of Study. High Status of Teachers. Free and Accessible. Religious and Spiritual.knowledge was real. 14. Education was a private affair of the people. religious and spiritual. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. 11. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. Teacher as Parents. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 5. Education of Moral. from eternal to immorality 2. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Curriculum. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Residential Schools. managed entirely by Brahmans. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. with grants of land or money. the monitorial plan was followed. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Pupils were taught. Where pupils were many. to light. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. 13 . arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. 3. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. questioning by the pupil.

studied Vedas. It was freely available to all those who wanted. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. They were very cordial and intimate. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . lived a life of celebacy.17.3. 2. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. 1. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. Wide-Spread Education in Women. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. It was suited to the needs of the society. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

he was qualified to become a monk. It was denied only to the ill. use of cosmetics. watching dances or listening to music. the student remained in a state of Shramana. etc. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. the most significant of which were the following 1. dressed himself in yellow clothes.C. Right contemplation 1. partaking of food at prohibited times.4. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. in which. killing of any living being. the student had his head shaved of all hair. disease and death of the human beings. Right endeavour 7. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. which included abstaining from theft. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. use of intoxicating things. impure conduct. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. the handicapped. Education was imparted through the. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. Consequently. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. After attaining the age of 20. 15 . 1.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. I take Refuge to Sangh. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. Right memory 8. Right thought 3. had the right to receive education. 2. except the Chandals. Right activity 5. every class in society. taking things without being offered. I take Refuge to Dharma. Right speech 4. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Right means of livelihood 6. Right knowledge 2. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’.1. medium of Pali. Buddha was concerned about the suffering.

monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. It comprehended education in writing. and. control over sensuous activities. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. bodily gestures. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. however. a change is not only total but also perpetual. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. After this ritual. commerce.3. of clothes. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. geology. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. women occupied a position inferior to men. 7. the science of taming and training animals. As reality is becoming. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. education was impart in art. etc. magic. so long as it successfully does so. Even at this stage. nature. 8. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. cottage industries. etc. therefore. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. These are called later Buddhist schools. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. Initially. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. a continuous change creating 16 . depth and range. 4. medicine. elephant lore. along with education in script writing. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. agriculture. On this occasion. objectives of human life. approach. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. arithmetic and religious discussion. assumptions. etc. Later on. 6. handicrafts. Whatever its nature and extent. animal husbandry. meaning. 2. it is regarded as true”. 3.4. archery. 5. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. military science. aspirations and. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. nothing is of any permanent consequence. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. wear three items. eat food thrice a day. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. 1. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. knowledge of reviving the dead. Life is in a flux. be considered the aim of education It. has no metaphysical value for life. the presence of the monks was essential.. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. Hence. changing the goals. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. archery. beg for alms.

however. 1. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Jainism insists 17 . and its refusal to believe in supreme God. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. goes to Vardhaman. Education must. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. therefore. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. 5. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. it is much older than the latter.1. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. and to give it a shape that it has today. Validity is effective and consequences.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. i.. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. Give your answer as instructed in each question and peculiar situations. whatever works are true and good. In fact. Write Eight fold path . However.5. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. such as. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Its chief feature. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter.e.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. its pessimistic outlook on life.

2. b) Right knowledge. Development of personality as an individual. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. 8. 4. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. rather than the interpretation of the universe. d) To lead a celibate life. 1. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul.5.1. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. c) Right conduct. 9. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. 1. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. and is to be redeemed and liberated. e) To renounce the world. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. thought and deed. 3. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. 5. 10. and believe in happiness to all. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 7. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. 2. c) Not to steal. more stress on individual aims. but on both. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. it has a foot in both the words. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. They are: a) Not to injure. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. 18 . Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Hence. 6.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. As such. 3. b) Not utter falsehood. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul.

and should bring happiness to all. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. practised and not only aspired for. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Teaching should be social and tolerant. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. 5. What are Triratnas ? . 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. 4.4. therefore. education should develop sense of discrimination. the precious principles of life that bring happiness.5. Jiva is essentially karmic. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Teaching must develop these faculties. 1. Belief in transmigration of soul. here and now. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Hence. that would be socially desirable. 1. education must be action based and ideally oriented. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. 19 .5.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. 8. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. success and love.

1953). much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. Bombay. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”.6. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. To set up separate departments of. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. science. philosophy and literature of Europe.6. 1.6. 2. 1.1. 1. primary 20 . The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1.6. and not for life.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. However. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. Madras. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. 1. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. North West Province and Punjab. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. with rally and rout.

The universities dominated the secondary education. Instead of being a self-sufficient course.6. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. In 1882. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. they named these schools as polytechnic schools.K. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). self-respecting and competent. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. • Secondary education.6. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. at the primary level.6.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. To ensure qualitative improvement. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. 1. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of was neglected. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). Later on. 1. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. secondary education became a step towards university. 1. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. namely. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. • Universal free primary education. At that time M.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant.

1.At the primary stage (6-11 years). What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . all children are to have a common curriculum. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The objective of education was to provide 22 . commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. After this stage. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. 10. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11.

and discussion between the teacher and the pupil.. Right contemplation. 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. archery. Right thought. questioning by the pupil. It was suited to the needs of the society. The immediate aim of education. Right means of livelihood. The system of education was well-organised. followed by explanation by the teacher. 6. education was impart in art. 2. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. handicrafts. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. 3. 5. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools.1. Right knowledge. 2. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. During the Buddhist period. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. establishment of universities. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. Right activity. 1. along with education in script writing. b. 4. geology. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. a. science and English language. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. 3. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. 4. Right of European literature. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. 23 . Right endeavour. military science. etc. Right memory. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. the science of taming and training animals. arithmetic and religious discussion.1. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.

Improvement of Literature. more stress on individual aims.K. a. 1937 1. Right conduct. 1882.K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2007). (1984). Development of Educational System in India. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva.1.C. Y. 11. Aggarwal. Singh. 9. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Right faith.C. Ltd. Sargent report 12. a. R. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. b. 10. c. Ltd. Y. 8. 24 .7. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J. b. History of Indian Education System. Hence. Right knowledge. (2009). and Nath. J. Sharma. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Development of personality as an individual. (2005).

7 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.2.1 1.2.8 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.1 University Education Commission 1.LESSON 1.2.3. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.6 1.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.2. The 25 .2 Secondary Education Commission 1.3.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5 1.9 1.4 1.2.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.2.2.

standard of teaching.2. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. analyse the progress of education in free India. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. medical and legal education. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6.3. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. examination system.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. technological engineering. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. 1. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. 1986 1. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. New Educational Policy. you will be able to: 1. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. Kothari (1964-66) 8. There had been vast institutional expansion. explosion of enrolment. S. expansion of vocational.conditions of the teachers.2. diversification of courses of studies. Post-graduate 26 . Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 2. secondary and higher education. curriculum. National Board of Teacher Education 10. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. 1.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. technical. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. National Council for Women’s Education 5.2. girls and women education besides primary.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. vocational education. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service.

1966. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.2. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. However. 1. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. the chairman of University Grants commission. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. D.3. accumulated over the years. A. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Essence and Role of Education. Finally. Government of India. Kothari. 4.3. in January 1985.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964.S. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University.teaching. quantity. 1. the New National Policy on Education. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. utility and financial outlay.2. Problems of access. Therefore. A meaningfully Partnership. quality. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar.2. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. 1986. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. Education is the key to our allround development. 3. 1952. The national system of education envisages common educational structure.3. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. National System of Education. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. 2. Education for Equality. material and spiritual. 1. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . research et.

understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The UNESCO Report.2.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. the minorities and the handicapped. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. the concepts of work experience.” Thus. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. By working with hands. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It can train practical aptitudes. Thus. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. 28 . the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. attitudes. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life.

” The Mudaliar Commission.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. With adequate planning. The Education Commission. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. if he wishes. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. it will conduce self. According to. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. the Commission. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. In 1955. “The aim of these colleges.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. Besides. “It may be described. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. co-ordinations. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. The Radhakrishnan Commission. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . As such. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries.

“For harmonious development of the child’s personality. With a view to relating education to the life. the semester and credit system. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work.. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . the rigid streaming of courses. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. raising the special facilities. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. admission requirements to vocational courses. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). The Central Advisory Board of Education. Therefore. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. Subsequently. the. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs.ot her. In addition. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. etc. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. for quality of life in the rural areas.

which swept the country for over two decades.. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions.and the world of work. preferably spinning and weaving. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. aimed at this goal. etc. According to committee. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. In short. meaningful. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. felt that education should be centred around a craft. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. The Father of Nation. Commerce.2. 1.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. who conceived the System of Basic Education. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. which are useful to the community. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. which offer scientific. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. giving importance to productivity in the national development. manual work resulting in either goods or services. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. 31 . technological courses including Agriculture. meaningful. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past.defined S UP W as “purposive. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. The wave of Basic Education. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”.

Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Health and Hygiene 2. Work practice. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. be that the work involved is: 1. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. The teachers should make use of.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Educative and 3. Community work and social service. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. as far as possible. 4. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Shelter 4. so that it is educational in essence. Experimentation with materials. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Clothing 5. Food 3. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. 3. locally available materials and tools. tools and techniques and 3. 32 . The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Productive 2. 2. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Culture and recreation 6. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom.

6. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. the local community should be actively associated. Reduction of gap in work and education 2.5. slum clearance. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. removal of illiteracy. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. 1. improve discipline. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. It can become an instrument to build character. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Merits of the Programme 1. To make education more realistic. Community Service In-1972. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. Productive Work 33 . Check on educated unemployed 4. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. etc. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. as far as possible. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. inculcate a faith.2. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Education through work The SUPW should. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful.

Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. skills and better future for the children. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. if not productive.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. etc. should involve itself in the educational effort. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. Define SUPW 34 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. helping the adults-in productive work. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. in turn. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. AICTE was set up in year 4. The community. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. offering first aid.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. traffic control.

a. 6. 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. f. 2.2. d. 35 . Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5.1. Radhakrishnan 2. manual work resulting in either goods or services. c. 1. 1. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. which are useful to the community. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. meaningful.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.2. 1952 3.2. Write short note on SUPW. 1955 4. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. e. b. Dr. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.

J. Y. Amala.2.K. (2009).H. History of Education.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.D. A. Singh.P. History and Problems of Indian Education. Rao.C.1. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. (2007). V.P. Ltd. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. 36 . B. and Nath.K. and Rao. History of Indian Education System. Y.K. Anupama. (2007). Publishing Corporation. : Sharma.. P.(2005). New Delhi: A. R. (2005). New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Development of Educational System in India. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

and liberty.369 words in the English language version.3. for a total of 117. 1950.3.3.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3.4 1. Being the supreme law of the country.3. equality.1 powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.9 1.3.6 1. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.5 1. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. it came into effect on January 26. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. containing 395 articles.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. assuring its citizens of justice.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.3. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. 37 .LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. there is an official Hindi translation.7 1. 1949. Besides the English version.8 1. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.3.3.2 1. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.3. procedures. establishing the structure. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. directive principles and duties of citizens.1 Significance of DPSP 1. democratic republic.

spread over a period of 2 years. learn the role of central and state government on education.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. The Assembly met. economic.In the August 14. 2. According to the constitution. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. in sessions open to public. the Drafting Committee was appointed. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. Through them. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. understand our Indian constitution. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. social. On August 29. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. 1947.3. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. 4. legal and environmental. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. 1. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. administrative. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. 1. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. 1950.3. After many deliberations and some modifications.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. 38 . for 166 days. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. you will be able to: 1. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. Dr.3. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. political.3. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. with Dr. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. 1947. 1. Two days later. embodied in Part IV of the constitution.

The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Equal pay for both sex. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. in particular. Protecting health of the workers. sickness and disablement. on the basis of equal opportunity. Appropriate concentration of wealth. make effective provision for securing the right to work. That the health and strength of workers. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. and shall. Article 42. Liking wage etc. Organisation of village panchayat. Article 41. old age. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Right to work. The State shall. provide free legal aid. 39 . The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. Protecting children from exploitation. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength.government. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. and in other cases of undeserved want. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Equal justice and free legal aid. for workers. Condition for dignity of children. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Article 39A. Article 40. Article 43. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. No abuse of children. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Minimising inequalities in status. men and women. The State shall endeavour to secure. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment.

Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. in particular. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. The State shall take steps. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. a living wage. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. agricultural. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. See also Article 21A). wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. in particular. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 43A. Article 48A. 2002 for “45. [declared by or under law made by 40 . in particular. industrial or otherwise. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Article 44. by suitable legislation or in any other way. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Article 48. Uniform civil code for the citizens. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. Article 46. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Note: Subs. Article 45. (Original Article 45. work. The State shall endeavour to provide. Participation of workers in management of suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Article 47. Article 49. and. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. to all workers.

from spoliation. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. may be law determine”.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. 2. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Separation of judiciary from executive. Article 51. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.Parliament] to be of national importance. Article 50. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. removal. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. disfigurement. Article-21A Right to Education.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . 1. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Article 45 . maintain just and honourable relations between nations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. destruction. 2002.3. Promotion of international peace and security. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. disposal or export. as the case may be.

and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. 8. from justice and all forms of exploitations. 2002. language or any of them”. 7. 4. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. and shall protect them. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. 5. if such person is a minor. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. caste. 6.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 3. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. his guardian has given his consent thereto. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. race. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. and. ii. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. iii. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. in particular. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not.” 42 .

Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 351 gives importance to 6.9. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. the forms. wherever necessary or desirable. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. & 1. 43 . for its vocabulary. The central government determines targets and promotes education.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . 2. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. Educational Reforms From time to time.3. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. and by drawing. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. By starting these projects. So as to encourage education on right lines. All India Council of Medical Science. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. 5. The following pilot projects. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education.3. 6. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. 8. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. the state governments. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. Local bodies and private enterprise. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. 7. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. to achieve the desired ends. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 .. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Production of suitable for children and adults f. 4. private agencies etc. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. etc. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. So that they may work well. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc.

3. 3. 1. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. 11.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. The 45 . research. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 9. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. books. education for women. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. training and statistics. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. handicapped. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. is the state responsibility. 10. reports etc. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. 1. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Material concerning nation-wide interests. etc. 4. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. 12. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. are published by it. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers.

The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Explain Directive principles 2.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles.3. Article 46 4. articles in the Directive principles. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9.3. 46 . Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 1. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Write short notes on a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Article 21A c. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. 5. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Article 45 b. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45.

(Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 47 . Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b.5. Development of Hindi Language 6. Clearing House function 9. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. 3. 2002. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. b.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. a. Article 45 . embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Describe the educational role of State Government. a. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. may be law determine”. Dr. 1. b. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. The Directive Principles of State Policy. 2002. Ambedkar 2.3. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 29 and 30 7. Article-21A Right to Education. Article 46 5. 4. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. a. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

48 . S.1. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd.3. Bhatia. Dash. (2007). B. (2008). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. S. N. L. (2009). (2004). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K and Narang C. Ghosh. Education in Emerging Indian Society. K.

4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Jainism.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.3.4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.4.4 Moral education 1. Christianity.5 1.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism. Why Moral Education 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.2 Buddhism etc.7 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4.4. Islam.1 1. Students should be 49 .3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1. religious education should be broad based.

4. you will be able to: 1. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines.4. "In A multireligious society like ours. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life.” Education broadens human outlook.D. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. beauty and goodness so that 50 .and dedication. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. integrity. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. duty-consciousness. know the position of religious education in our country 3. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. religious education and the concept of secularism. According to E. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. India' can produce men of character. state meaning and need for moral education 1. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. As result of which. In the complicated and complex society of today. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. 1. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion.. Thus. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance.

idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society.4. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education.” From the above.4.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. They thought that any kind of narrow. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. As our country is a country of diverse religions. In short.3. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. According to Article 19. According to Article 22. 1947 we achieved our freedom. Children attend these organizations. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. through religious practices and 51 . Hence. realizes God in himself. religion and democracy are same. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. Viewing the defects of religious education. 1. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. castes and creeds. it is clear that the State has no religion. if not regularly. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. at least occasionally. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. rancour. 1.3. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. Thus. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. all citizens are free to follow any creed. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. No religious tax can be imposed on them. As a matter of fact.

Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. for the development of the individual and the society. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. aggressive. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. temperament etc. As a result of which. moral and spiritual values. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. He also learns about social. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna).” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. which help him for the development of his character.. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. If unreleased. Good education. and what is evil. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary.teachings. intellectual and physical faculties of children. It helps to modify habits attitudes. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. when he becomes an adult. which can mould. one fully developed. It is religious education. what is done and what is not done etc.

Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. 1. If we open the pages of history. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. 2.4. 3. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. This should not be allowed to happen. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel.3. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Therefore. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. which is the basic need of a democratic life.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. towards the society. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. 53 . No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided.

Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Gurudwara as. 11.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . 9. churches and mosques 7. fellow-feeling.5. Since all religions have virtues. Life histories of great persons of the world.4. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 10. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. examples of patriotism. For this. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. stories of moral greatness. therefore. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write Article 22 2.

6. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. let men see well of one another. Non-injury. 6. Asvada (Control of palate). Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. the methods of teaching. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. 7. Without moral values. 1. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Brahmacharya (celebacy).acquisitiveness). Service to others. 8. 2. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 8. is that which develops moral values. They will play their role effectively. Self sacrifice. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Moral education.4. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. The content of the curriculum. Fearlessness. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). 4. students. 4. 5. 3. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. therefore. in the home. 55 . 2. 5. Patriotism. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. “Let all be happy and free from disease. Aparigarha (Non.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 1. Satyam (truth). Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Purity. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness).5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Cultivation of emotions. Ahimsa (Non-violence). 3. Swadeshi (Patriotism).of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”.4. 7.

two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. 11. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Discipline. In the school programme. 1. Efficiency. 56 . Simple texts and stories concerning different. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. 10. Integrity. 3. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . discipline. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Secondary Stage 1. religions may be included in the syllabus. Sharivashram (Physical work). The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. National unity and Spiritual values.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Good manners. 3. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Asatyam (Non-thieving). Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. 4. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability).4. minutes in the morning for group singing.9. Good temper. 2. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Unity of mankind. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. loyalty and self-sacrifice.

love of humanity.4. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 5. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. 4. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. 57 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. University Stage 1. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In other words. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. Silent meditation should be encouraged. 3. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. patriotism and self-discipline. 2. In this connection. should form a normal part of school programme. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage.

Discuss the aims of Religious education. 1. a. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. For this. 1. a. 58 . They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1959 5. The School Assembly should be held for a few. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.4.4.1. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. In short.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. 2. a. b. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. b. minutes in the morning for group singing. the. 2. 4. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Training of Character 3. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. Sri Prakasa 6 . Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.

Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi: A.P. K.H.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Bhatia. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.4. Theory and Principles of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. M. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. 59 . Ltd.C. K and Narang C. N. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2007). Pahuja. (2003).1. J. B. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. P.H. (2008). Dash. (2008). (2004). L. New Delhi : Siddiqui. N.

8 1.11 1. i. 1.12 1.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3 1.4 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.6 1. 60 . there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5..e. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5.9 1.7 1.5.5. disparities between provinces/States. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.2 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. Although.

state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. 1. 1.5. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. for example. energy. They therefore. 61 . 7. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. 2.1. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. work hard towards this end. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 6. waters. Accordingly.5.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1.5.5. you will be able to: 1. 8. they take appropriate measures. This leads to separatist movements. roads. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. 5. 4. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 3. 1. know the education suited to different environments. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. understand the regional educational development in India 3. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. etc. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.

which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . 2. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. and. • Separate States (of course viable States). while others remained educationally backward. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. 62 . The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. on the basis of regional development may be formed.5. education as a fundamental human right was recognized.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. some States became educationally far advanced.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. Secularism. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. 4. 3. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. some average. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. Tight security arrangements should be made. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. Therefore.

books. etc. remained under developed.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. approved proposals worth Rs. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. However. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. while some States like Bihar. 1. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. the Union Government.5.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. Even in each State. the State Governments. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities.After the Planning Process has originated.g. etc. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. Jammu and Kashmir. 63 . Regional Centres of IGNOU. and provision of informal education to enable those.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. scholarships. NIT. In the Central sector. since its inception in 1998-99. NERIST. Rs.480. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. Nagaland and NEHU. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments.14. Tezpur.392. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. These projects are in various stages of implementation. Mizoram. academic buildings. Silchar. Out of this. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. library buildings. Guwahati. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Itanagar. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy.. Funds amounting to Rs. After the attainment of independence. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity.84 crore was released in 2005-06. Central Universities of Assam. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted.

Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. Moreover. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. Out of this an amount of Rs. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu.05 crore and Rs. 64 .42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.8 per cent in 05). too.40. A provision of Rs. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).57 crore and Rs.5. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west).40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.261. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. During 2003-04. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. Government expenditure on education. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.187.501.500. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Tezpur University. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.

Tamil Nadu. The Chandigarh Administration. Karnataka. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. Moreover. To add to the woes. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. pharma. English. too. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. Karnataka. too. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). Listing the positives.5. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. Andhra Pradesh. Kerala and Gujarat. too. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. for which 16 sites.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . The number of teachers in most of the Northern states.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. notes the study. health services and welfare of the citizen population. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. 1. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. engineering and R&D. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. for instance. Medical education. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. telecom. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states.

while the former does not. the vocations. life-oriented and environment slanted. and so on. The living conditions. the curricular subjects. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. In the same manner. the interests. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. Of course. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. The working hours of educational institutions.year. Then education become realistic and idealistic. Hence it is called as need-based. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. the working days: an academic . taking the average in the middle. the socio-physical conditions. the teaching methods. the needs. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. in which the learners live. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. even actually looking at the watch. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. when he will not be sure of time. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. which a non-tribal person cannot do. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. 66 . There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. For a learner living in a rural area. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail.

5. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . 1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. 67 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. to suit education to different environments? 1.5. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.

a. New Delhi: Anmol Publications.K. remained undeveloped 3. Education in Developmental Arena. 68 . (2001). New Delhi: Authors press. Educational Development in India. S. during the British rule. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. A. Dubey. Education Scenario in India. Salim. R. (2002).G. some of areas which were under the native rulers. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.N. 60% 1. and Nair. C. Giridhar. (2008).2.H. some States have become more developed than others b. (2001). New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.5. S.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. community development. National Integration. school community and mass media. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. 71 . characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. semi literate and illiterates. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home.

5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1 Main features of Socialism Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .2 Present situation of Secularism in India Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.6 Education for Secularism 2.1 2.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.7 2.1.4 2.3 2.9 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.

understand the concept of democracy. 2. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. 2. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. In the matter of admitting students in schools. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy.2. socialism and secularism 2. colour or wealth.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. Abraham Lincoln.1. creed.1. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. socialistic and secular state. there should be made no distinction of caste. This is the political aspect of democracy. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.1. Democracy thus means power of the people. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. you will be able to: 1. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. 3) Provision of Manual Work.1. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. 73 . socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. for the people by the people”. The students may be associated with the management of the school. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. socialism and secularism 2.

8) Opportunities for Social Service. declamation contest etc. Democracy means 2. 11) Student Parliament. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. 12) Visits to Legislatures. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. 2. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. 74 . 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. debates. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1..5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. may be planned. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems.1. it soon spread all over the world. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. There are different brands of socialism. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum.

stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 75 . 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.1. service and cooperation.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system.5.1. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. oppression and disparity. free from exploitation. but on the path of non-violence. none high”. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote.5. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. Under it. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 7) Special facilities for girls. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. the wealthy and the poor. 2. the prince and the peasant. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 2.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.

9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. "which seeks the development of physical. Write any two main features of socialism.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 2. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. 5. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values.1. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. “India is a secular-country. 11) State schools. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. secularism is being propagated.” In every political and educational corner. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. According to Holydake. 76 . 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. Everyone says. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

should be independent of religion. In this type of prevailing situations. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. fraternity. education etc.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. people have narrow mindedness. “Webster further says. 8) It believes in co-existence. A large number of people is uneducated. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. 9) It stress free inquiry.opposed to religious education. 3) It permits freedom of worship. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.6.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. 5) It implies tolerance. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. Moral values have to be imbibed. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. the belief that the state morals. There is need of making the people open minded. That is why. liberty. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. 77 . 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. trifles over petty religious matters are caused.1. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. During the recent past. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values.6. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 2) It permits freedom of religion. people started believing in regionalism.1. Equality. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. 2. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing.

service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. that the central string of all religions is one. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. In the celebration of each such function.presented by the students in the gathering. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. students belonging to different religions should be associated. While doing so.6. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. No doubt. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. 2. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. There should be some internal checking of the material being. Religious Education. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. Patiala. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. In the hands of such teachers. education.1. tours and trips may be organized. The very sight of the building. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . 1) Moral Education. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show.Corruption and disbelief are rampant.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The term secularism was first used by 8. 2. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10.1.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. No doubt. The word “Seculum” means 7. Define Secularism 9.

4. 2. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Since socialism stands for equality. 3. Tuition free education b. Abraham Lincoln. Equal Opportunities for Admission. The students may be associated with the management of the school. 3. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. George Jacob Holydake 80 . c. 6. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. d. 4. 5. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. Power of the people 2. b. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. a. 5. a. b. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. colour or wealth. for the people and the people”. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. a. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. This present age 7. Socialism aims at social justice. Respect of Individual Personality.1. In the matter of admitting students in schools. creed.1. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Provision of Manual Work. Socialism aims at equality.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. there should be made no distinction of caste. secularist and socialistic attitude among students.

8. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions.1. 81 .C. J. Theory and Principles of Education. B. 10. Modern Trends in Indian Education. It treats all religions on an equal footing. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2008). should be independent of religion. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. (2005). b. a. (2003). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. J.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. the belief that the state morals. New Delhi : Pahuja.” 9. Bhatia. K and Narang C. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Mohanty. P. It permits freedom of religion. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. b. a. Ltd. education etc. K. L. N. Dash. (2007). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. N. (2004). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

2.2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.9 2.LESSON 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.6. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.4 2.1 2.6.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.1 International understanding in the school Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2.7 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.

moral. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. a r e 1. understandings. 83 .an instructor of school children.generation to another. as learners. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values.2. and 4. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. as workers. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. as citizens. who are placed in his custody. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. development. aims and objectives of the school. 2. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. emotional. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. social and moral aspects. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. A teacher is first and foremost. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. 3. application. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. 2. as persons. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. social. The developmental roles of children. 2. It involves physical. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. you will be able to: 1. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils.2. mental. as it is t he aim o f modern education. therefore. skills.

and aesthetically to become. mental. inquisitive. motivated. experiences and acceptance. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. The following are some of such roles described in brief. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. socially. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. The students live. mentally. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. 2. culturally confident. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. 3. Teacher as a Citizen Next. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. He has to look after their physical.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. 2. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. intellectually. emotionally.All education should lead to better behavioural development. He is to become an active member. morally. 1. economically effective. a part of their day in 84 . physically fit for socially efficient. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. member of his community at the outset. morally. social and emotional health.2. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society.

creeds.2. List out the role of teachers towards community development . This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. languages and religions.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. Dr. 2.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. 4. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. photographic clubs.the school being under the custody of teachers. They will be spending with their parents. faiths. solve them. and most of hours. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. activities of the society into which he is born. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. Unless. fine art associations. It 85 . science club. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. India is a land of many castes. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly.

national anthem and other national songs. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. a. Radhakrishnan. therefore. At the primary stage the importance of stories. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. Nehruji has explained this as. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. Sampurnanand remarked. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. it cannot be built by chisel or communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform.” 2.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. ‘We should not become parochial. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. folklore and teaching of social studies. and make into one strong national unit. 1. the citizens of the Republic of India. Let us. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. this integration of the Indian people.” Regarding the role of education. It should broaden the outlook. should be emphasised.2. with straight backs and look up at the skies. poems.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one.5. stand up straight. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. b. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. narrow-minded provincial. the study of language and literature. The only process is the process of education.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . social studies. c.

Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. 6. debates. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. Celebrations of National Days. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. 3. National Days—January 26. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. Uniform for School Children. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. Co-Curricular Activities. 8. 2. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Singing of National Anthem. and picnics. Student Camps. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Textbooks. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. militar y training like the NCC. sports. languages and literature. 87 . 7. Reverence of National Flag. 10. 5. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ACC. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. tours. Scouts and Guides. t he st udent s and t he community. 4. educational excursions. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. dramatics and youth festivals. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Taking Pledge. symposia. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved.different social sciences. 9.

colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. 12. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. 88 .5. language. v. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i.2. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. ways of thinking and doing things. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. ii. Recognition of Institutions. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. School Projects. iii. Admissions. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. region or religion. iv. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 2. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country.11. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. Students Exchange and Tours. 14. 13. 15. Educational and Travel Documentaries. 16. Admissions to schools. colour. Open-Air Dramas. flora and fauna. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own.

irrespective of national boundaries. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes.2.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. 2. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . viii. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. Define National Integration 3. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. vii. Community dinners. ix. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. cultures and races on equal bases. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4.

3.e. patriotism is not enough. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. that war. (b) stories of children of other lands. and the healthy development. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. Teachers 90 .friendships between children of different countries. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child.2. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it.6. if it happens.6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. the international level. In a very real sense.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. of his body and mind. 2. 5. 6.2. Dr. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. Radhakrishnan states. This. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. Organising of debates and. 4. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Strong has observed.F.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. C. (c) fairly tales. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. often in connection with anniversaries.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.” 2. therefore. lectures on the working of UNO and other important as that of a national citizenship. Therefore..

They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Russian.” Well Informed About World Situations. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Impartial in their Treatment. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. an Englishman. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Indian and American. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should not be propagandists. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. a German.

Soon after they leave their educational institutions. majority of people are. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. 4.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. As the school is but a miniature society. Chronic Poverty .Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. leading to. 5. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. It does not prepare students for life.2. 3. Defects of the educational System . The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. Wide Spread Frustration .7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. there is wide spread frustration among all people. 2.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. Devaluation of Values . which results in agitation and aggression language. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.Another major. If this is done. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.2. and help the students to over . Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. understand and indiscipline: 1. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. the education function can be carried.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them.

9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. etc.2. 3. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. 5. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. 2. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. 2. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. fellow feeling.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. love. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.2.democratic nature. 93 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. 2. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. 4. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. community development. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. co-operation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. sympathy and good will among the nations. List out six characteristics of a good teacher.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System


Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.


STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency Functions and role of schools in the society Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency Radio as an agency of education Television as an agency of education Press as a medium of education Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”. IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.

9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.

16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together. MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.




1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society


2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.


It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. the invention of the printing press.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. Crow and Crow write. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. To make them achieve their aim.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define community. Moreover. Museums. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. He taught his students orally. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room.V. “All the citizens of the community. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. are increasingly used in education. art galleries. Emphasising this thing. periodicals. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. During the course of time.3. Now internet is being used. Hence. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. 2. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Then came newspapers. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. led to the printing of books. books. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. In fact. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T.

It is also an important source of entertainment. dram appreciation. A lot of work by way of pre. rather than on picture. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom.G. Reynolds. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. music.telecast. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Thus. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Important happening inventions. It enlightens public opinion. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. languages. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. politics.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Thus. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students.classroom teachers. 2. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures.3. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. Students listen various talks. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. current affairs and other areas. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. In the emphasis is on sound. “Listening participation” in current history. social studies. 2. Various talks. In collaboration with the experts. art. It stimulates curiosity and interests. 101 . As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”.6. the teacher still occupies. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. Effective means of presenting music. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. the place of importance. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries.

While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Making learning an open system. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. at drawing room. at any place. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. School concerts. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. plays. informal and non-formal education. Participation of local teachers and pupils. 5. 4. audibility and presentability. mathematics. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. projects or creative activities. travel talks. 102 . Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. 3. development of lessons. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. style. Before presenting the programme. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. fol classical music. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. at recreational centers. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. Team-teaching demonstrations. speech. At present. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. at play.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.


Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.


For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.


Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.

2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.

Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 . 2.4.6 2.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.3 Advantages of formal education Aims of Non formal education 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.1 2.4.5 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.LESSON 2.2 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE Characteristics of formal education 2.3.4.

.4. 110 . imparted at the residence of the teacher. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. Education associated with a degree or certificate. In ancient time in India. Education organised by some agency. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. you will be able to: 1. the family. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college.2. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. 7. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. the most important agency of formal education. say the Government or the private enterprise. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. it was mostly.4. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 2. the temple. his mental alertness. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. 9. open university. compare formal and non formal system of education. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 5. 3. the mass media et.4. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. 2.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. Education.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. 4. 2. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. 8. 6. 4. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the learner are acquainted. To realize this objective of education.4. 3. the community. 2.3. open school. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. starting and ending at -a particular age. School is. 2.

depending on the jurisdiction. Through early formal education. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. or academic degrees. and relations are formed and developed through normal play.3. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Some education systems have separate middle schools. also called tertiary.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. 2.2. Higher Education: Higher education. Concepts of proportion.a secondary education.4.4. as well as vocational education and training. or post secondary education. diplomas. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. capacity. In general.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . such as a high school or secondary school.3. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . third stage. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. the elements of language are first learned. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. structured education.

children with disabilities. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. 4. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.3. 3. What are levels of formal educational system? . and remote dwellers.4. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Agencies can be classified as 2. 2. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. late beginners etc.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. is an important agency of formal education. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.4. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.which will help for nation's development.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities.

mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. financially supported life formal education. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. According to Malcolm A. adults as well as children. staffed. systematic. However. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word.learning client take some learning objectives. planned. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. “Non-formal education should 113 . to help themselves.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured.formal education. etc. i. Thus. continuing education and on the job oriented education. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. adding up to a true learning society. place of instruction. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population.e. It is functional. it has its own valid claim to reality.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. Adiseshiah..” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. open learning. one could say that non-formal education is an active.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. Therefore. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. admissions. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. curriculum. Non-formal education includes adult education. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. until 1970 it had not been defined.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. It unlocks the doors of development plans. it is a more effective tool for rural development. It is much more responsive to needs and change. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. systematic. It is deliberate. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. Open university.

4. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth.renewal.” 2. Lawrence. 3. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. international understanding. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. 114 .4. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. To help industrial workers to better their skills. national marketable and vocationalised. It should lay emphasis on the self. 2. co-curricular activities.” According to H. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. i. Part-time education. age. the Ideas of citizenship. socialism. Flexibility in various aspects of education. place of education. self. Preparation for future needs. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. curriculum. Process of sharing. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. 5. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.S.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.4. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them.learning pattern. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. 2. admissions. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. 7. evaluation etc. Covering life span of an individual.4. To develop in the student. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. 6. exploring.S. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.4.e. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. modes of teaching.

4. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 10. in villages and those who live in towns. 5. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. 7. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. • 2. To offer Secondary. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society.4. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2.4. 5.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. working adults. 9. 3. 4. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. Senior Secondary. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. school dropouts. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 8.4. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 2. 3.4. 6. Technical. 2. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. Universalisation of primary education. publication and information dissemination.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Eradication of adult literacy. 115 .

farm. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. All-round development i. library. 2. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . To make if. if organised in isolation.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. 2. 4. To better qualifications. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. 3.. public libraries.4. Again. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . training centres in factories. factory. self-employment iii.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii.2. etc. etc. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. effective in modern societal context. To increase knowledge and 2. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. Therefore.full time to learners – can be home. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. Institutions for formal education.4.4. open space. centres of correspondence education. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. others are formal and informal. Radio and television.

period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Lecturing T. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give examples of non formal education? . Written tests. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.V. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. . Define non formal education. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. 6. Correspondence lesson.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. . Teaching to face teaching. institution. 7. List out any two aims of non formal education. Face Contact programmes. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. 117 . radio.

To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Formal and Non Formal 2. 2.4. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. systematic. 4. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Open School.2. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. 2. 118 . Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Primary level. Pre-school level. 2. Higher Secondary level and University level. The school.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 7.4. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. 4. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. b.” 6. b. School 3. the college and the university come under this category. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.4. Explain the different levels of formal system of education.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. 3. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. 5. adults as well as children. Open University. a. Secondary level. a. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal.

Education in Emerging India. (2005). Ltd. J. (2008). Bhatia. L. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. N. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Dash. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.4. S. K and Narang C. Mohanty. P. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C. Gupta. New Delhi : 119 .2. K. Ltd. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. N. J. (2004). Pahuja. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2007). (2008). B. (2003).

4.3.4 Need for Open University 2.5.5 2.5.1 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults Objectives of Open University 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.4.2 Methods of teaching in Open University System Agencies of continuing education 2.5.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.5.7 2.3.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.4 Open University 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.LESSON 2.

All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. know the need and objectives of open university. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. This knowledge may be in political field. continuing education is a boon. understand the meaning of continuing education 2.5. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. 2. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. It is a continuous process. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education.5. Any person. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts.3. Thus. For them. 2. give the meaning. It is a lifelong process.2. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. economic field or such other fields. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. farmers. characteristics of open university 4. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. labourers and half educated individuals. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. 2.5. you will be able to: 1. However. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. Under these circumstances.5. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. industries. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other.

family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. On the other hand. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Radio. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Persons engaged in health services. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. deteriorating to his character and personality.directly related to his job. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Doctors.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. if he gets opportunity to develop them.V.V. T. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. cultured and progressive. Cinema. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education.literate person. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. On the other hand. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. are also contributing their might for the purpose. Throughout the country. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Block Development Officers. Radio and T.5. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. 2. After the achievement of independence.3. For them too continuing education is essential. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Thus.

3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. (14) information about bringing up young children. 2. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. especially women. (15) music.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (2) basic religious matters. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (10) first aid. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. Inspite of the great efforts. 3. we have not been able to achieve our targets.5. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life.V. (6) folk stories. 5. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. 7. habits of people of other lands. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (17) modern international and national events. 6. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. (7) folk songs. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (4) the fundamentals of economics.3. (13) psychology of child behaviour. Of course. and Radio.3. 2. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. 123 . (16) liking. (8) psychology of adults. 4. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (1) ancient history.. These books are not very useful. 2.5.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. of educational opportunities. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y.4.5. attendance restrict ion. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. NLM was launched in the year 2. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . What is the objectives of NLM? 3. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. 2. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . lack of time etc.

unobserved. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? .2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. d. but 125 . 3. c. e. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. IGNOU was established in the year 6. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. 2. the higher the degree of openness. 5. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. 4. Education is not a once for-all process. and in teaching. it makes use of educational techno logy. its education is not class room based but home based. Which was the first open university in India? . b.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. No one is too old or too late to learn. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.

In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 3. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. Mo re o ver. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. 2. supplementing the existing provision. 3. 5. 4. 2. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced.5. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . annu al wr it t en examinat io n. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. or who realised too late that they need it.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. 4. 126 . 6. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n.5. it a ims at wider and hig her. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. cho ice o f co ur ses. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 2.4. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all.who did not get it.4. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 2. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.5. 1. Tutor Comments. 3.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Self instructional materials. semi – literates. you have learnt the concept. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Therefore. 6. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. 5. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. 7. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Every day. Laboratory works.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. 2. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. a society. In the present day world. school drop outs. List out any four methods of Open University? .5. Correspondence tuition. t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. 127 . 8. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living.4. a state or nation. 4.

ambitious learners. 6. 2. 8. 9. agricultural and industrial workers.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. Explain the objectives. (2) basic religious matters. Broad casting lectures c. its education is not class room based but home based. need and characteristics of Open University. youth. b. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 8. d. aspirants for continuing education. (1) ancient history. 1985. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. a. P r int med ia b. 7. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals.5. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. a. 4. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. a.5. which may include house wives. cho ic e o f co u r ses. 128 . To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. unskilled workers and other professionals. 3. 2. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. 1988. Television Lessons. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 7.

(2004). Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Ltd. Modern Problems of Education.5. S. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. Reddy. K and Narang C. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2001)..S. (2007). K. Udaiveer. R. 129 . L. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2004).2.K.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. its causes and remedial measures. Examination reform. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. In Lesson 2. wastage and stagnation. Training teachers for all levels of education. and teacher education. which may claim the attention of those concerned.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. All which is the need of the hour. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. the education of women. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. examination. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. 133 .

134 .

LESSON 3.1 3.7 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.3.3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3 New initiatives.6 3.2 EFA – How? 3.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1.1.4 3.1.8 3.2 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.5 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation. Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1.1. 135 .1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.3.

social. 2. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE).1. education received added importance and significance. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. Therefore. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. economic or cultural. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. “The State shall 136 . know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. directed that.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. you will be able to: 1.1. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. On the other hand. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. therefore. 3. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. may be political. Continuing Education (CE) 1. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). Eradication of Illiteracy. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures.3. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. understands the country.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. (EOI) 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.

Universalization of Retention.endeavour to provide. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Continuing Education (CE). it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Therefore. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. 3. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . the national Government under. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. 137 . The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Universalization of Enrolment. It enables the parents to send their children to School.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. rights and responsibilities. Three Stages for Universalization. After the attainment of independence. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child.

” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. 1990. This target had to be revised to 1970. UNESCO Bulletin states. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. 1995 (for upper primary stage). It is safe to assure. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. present and future. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. 138 . Write Article 45.1.3. Therefore. 3. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. later to 1988. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. then to 1976. educational enterprise. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing.

Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). 10. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. Early childhood education should be streamlined. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. Education of the Impaired. slum areas. The Social Education. By undertaking survey. 12. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 3. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. Apart from primary education. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. their social economic status and occupations. etc. FELF. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. creed. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. Disabled. 3. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme.1. 9. their enrolment and retention. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7.3. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Education of Girls. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. sex. NAEP. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Emphasis must be given on health education. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. 139 .The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. 6. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. the art of preparing fruit-juice. 5. Jams and Jellies. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. and Women’s education programme should be improved. nutrition education and sports and games. 8. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. 11. problem of literacy. rural areas. adolescent and adult.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Expand MLL and SSA . Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. 4. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. 3.3.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.e. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.1.1. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Wastage and Stagnation.3. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4.

Familial Factors . School Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .first stage of relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. it is considered as wastage. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. Social Factors . Personal Factors .

occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . 142 . Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Define Wastage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. 7. .

Societal Factors . rural or urban 3. Personal Factors .5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. school or society. They are described hereunder :1. School Factors .3.The following factors. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. relating to home. in his home. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.1. Family Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.

mid-day meals. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. 144 . stationary. etc.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . uniforms. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Stagnation? 9. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Hartog Committee. Universalization of Provision b. 6. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA.3. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. Universalization of Enrolment c.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. 3.1. b. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. 2. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. 3. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. 3.. Universalization of Retention 2. a. therefore.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 4. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. a. Minimum Levels of Learning b. 145 . “The State shall endeavour to provide. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. a. 4. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA.1.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. improvement of curriculum. directed that.” 3.1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.

7. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2008). S.1.N. Crescent Publishing Corporation.K. a. New Delhi: 146 . a. School Factors d. improve examination system. 3. introduce graded curriculum. b. (2001). Problems of Elementary Education.K. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. (2007). T. Social Factors 8. Hemchand. 9. Personal Factor b. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Sharma. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Familial Factors c.

5.2.2 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.4.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.7 Open book examination 3.1 Problems of examination 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE Let us sum up 147 .2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.LESSON 3.2 Grade System 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.1 3.5 New evaluation procedures Inspection and Supervision Question banks 3.1 Choice Based Credit System Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination The problem of reform of Examination 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.4.

but on the other.2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. 3. 4. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.2. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.2.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. 3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. you will be able to: 1. Besides. 3. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. suggest the new evaluation procedures.2. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .9 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3.8 3.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.

They may cause problems relating to discipline. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. The following steps should be taken up. etc.2. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. If the students are in sufficient number. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. They develop secondary sex characteristics. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. waiting rooms for girl students.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. roadside Romeoism. hostel facilities. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. etc. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. etc. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage.3. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. schools for them wherever necessary. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. 3. which the educational authorities have to face. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. 149 .

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. public administrators and statesmen.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. It is considered as a major sub-system. the examination system has an important role to play. public interested in education. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. 3. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.2. 150 . school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. Instruction. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. the net-work of examination system has also become vast.2. teachers. conduct of internal examinations.4. assessment and Finance. appointment of paper-setters.

etc. invigilators. training of examiners. etc. validity and practicability. etc. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. examiners. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. etc. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts.4. scrutinizers.2. establishing reliability. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. announcement of results. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. introducing objective-based testing. values. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. tabulators.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters.printing and distribution of question papers. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. 3. etc. pursuing objective-oriented instruction.

6) With reference to scoring procedure. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. lack of objectivity etc. stereotyped questions. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. 2) From the angle of content of education. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc.. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. halo-effect. takes the place of comprehensive learning. which they are expected to study.. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. Rote memorisation. it s a common experience that subjectivity. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally.4.. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. 7) In connection with the question papers. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. 3) With respect to method of teaching. may also discredit them. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed.2. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. Subjects. Vagaries in making. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. 152 . 3.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. do not appeal to the students and parents.

Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. 153 . Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. . Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. List any two merits of examination. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. re-numbering of answer scripts. revaluation. Spot valuation.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination.develop true love for education. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. etc. may be introduced.a part of internal assessment. 4. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students.

say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.2. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . In actual practice. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure.2. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination.3. he is given extra credit points.5. When a person chooses to work extra. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. skills are given importance. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. 3. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. The students can take any course offered in any department. The new scheme of assessment. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. attitudes. It is complicated. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there.2. In this system. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .5. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. Their interests. Every paper is treated equal.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination.

While designing syllabus. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning.2. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. In the new system. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. These weightages are called credits.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. poor. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. courses can have weightages defined. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses.good.discipline. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. only the total credits to be earned is specified. Groupism is encouraged. 3. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal.poor. or as a 4 credit course. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. This system reduces comparison of marks. v. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses.5. An example is a seminar. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects.

It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.5.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.2. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. However. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. 3. 156 .2. 3. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.5.2. 3. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.5. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. There are no proper procedures for selection. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.2. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. recruitment. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. 6. However. 3. In the hierarchy. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Therefore. . and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.5. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. What is the reason for introducing grade system? .3. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . List any four new evaluation procedures.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions.2. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.

it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now.6. Academic inspection. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools.2. staff. They are. disciplinary problems. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. being realised as two different functions. school buildings. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. etc. wherever necessary. 1.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. playgrounds. When they are fully realised. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. qualifications. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. submitting of the inspection reports. complaints and compliments. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. interpersonal relationships and so on. inspecting the class-room teaching.. library books. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. finding out the adequacy of. of late. requirements. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools.qualified personnel. laboratory equipment. in contrast. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. 158 . There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. 3. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. taking up the follow-up programmes. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. whether the syllabus has been covered. books are followed. etc. finding out whether the prescribed text.. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. in a sense.

. Insistence on specialisation in the B. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors.2. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. once in five years. aptitude. or. modern. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. In the case of departmental candidates. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. their professional knowledge. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. course in either educational. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Similarly. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. 159 . There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives..a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors.Ed. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. courses. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. M.Ed. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. at least. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. 3. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. In the light of these conceptualisation. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field.

our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. b. 5. 4.2. Administration. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.2. a. 2. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. assessment and Finance. a. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. 3. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. b. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. c. Instruction. 160 . d. 3. Grade System.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. a. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 3.2.

(2004). Educational Reforms. 7. 3. 5. b.4. Vaidya.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Problems of Education in India. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. K. a. Multiple sets of question paper. Open book examinations. a. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. c. New 161 . Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. History and Problems of Education in India. b. (2005). and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Question banks. R and Sharma.2. a. b. K. (2002). S. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.a part of internal assessment. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .

11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3.2 3.1 3.9 3.3.6 3.4 3. 3.3. identify the needs of rural India and social.3. 2.7 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3.10 3.3. 162 .3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3. 4.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3. 5.3.8 3. you will be able to: 1.3.LESSON 3.

This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. 10 years of general Secondary Education.. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education.. The.e. in Andhra Pradesh. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage.3. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. i. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. University Education. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. Commission emphasised to continue.. and 3 years of First Degree Course. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. Similar is the case with some other States. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course.specialisation programmes 3. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i.e. 8 years of general education. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Consequent on the recommendations. the Banaras Sanskrit College. 2.. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. The Calcutta Madras. e.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.3.g. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. etc. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education.

3. to imbibe. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. 6. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students.a sense of dignity of labour. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . Provision for transfer of credits to students. 5) to help for the that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4.confidence in students. 10. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. cultural and economic development of the country. and.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. is also a plus point . educational channels. 7. who desire to change from one stream to another. to prepare. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students.3. b. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. 5. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. However. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. social. 8. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. economical and political. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. historical. habits of hard work and develop . It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9.

cooperativeness. Psychologically. etc. at the other. democratic living. to develop national character.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum.3. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. Philosophically it is not the conception.. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. social justice.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. and that required to enter the tertiary level. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. international understanding.national integration. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. Sociologically it is undesirable. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. 1. 3. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. on one hand. The General Educational Spectrum. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. and. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. cultural and' religious tolerance. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone.

All these need for an. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. Commerce and other disciplines. chemistry. India is a land of villages. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. Biology. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative.3. educational and cultural services. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. trade and public services are expanding—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. rural health. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. physics or mathematics. 3. or other machinery. fish culture. horticulture. Science. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. professional. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. technical. 166 . the rural areas have suffered very much.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. commerce. vegetable growing. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. industrial agricultural production is growing. technological. In the vocational spectrum. In the matter of language. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. Agriculture is the main occupation. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. commerce. and vocations based on dairy-farming. medical plants. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. 2. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs.— tube-wells. such as Agriculture. In our country.

3. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. the local resources available. 3. etc.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. In this it may be concluded. 4. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. and 5. There had been favourable reaction from the students.etc. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In time. can be ensured. social justice. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. and the needs. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . interests and aptitudes of the students. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely .. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society.. In this way. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States.

N. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Vocational Sepctrum. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. (2005).11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.K. to imbibe. b.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. New Delhi : 168 . New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. J. Anmol Publications Pvt. a. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. Mohanty. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. a. a.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. 3. (2001). S. Ltd. (2007).3. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Dash. 3. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.3. (2008).3. habits of hard work and develop . we studied the history. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. General Educational Spectrum and b.a sense of dignity of labour. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.3.C. 3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. objectives. B.3. 2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. J. b. Calcutta University Commission 2.

4.LESSON 3.5 3.11 3.3 but the lighting of a fire”.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.9 3. social and 169 .4.7 3.4.4. Education contributes to human development.4.10 3.1 3.4.13 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.8 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.2 3.4.6 3.

women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. The relevance of women’s education to social. cultural and political development of the individual. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. you will be able to: 1. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. analyze the women and distance education. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. community and nation is universally acknowledged. During the year 1937. Dr. In the post —independence period. For the first time in the history of India.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. Teaching and Fine Arts. Nursing. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. Education . Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877.higher education in particular.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. family. While women constituted only 9. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. There is a close connection between education and development. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. These courses were. higher education of girls developed immensely.4. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women.4. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. Home Economics. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. economic. 3. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. 3. particularly 170 . although we have miles to go.

ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.T Women University. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Yet. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.4. 3. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Mumbai. Kodaikanal.D.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.1 24. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.65 lakhs in 1994-95. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Mother Teresa Women University. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.1 31.N.women.0 32. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.9 14. In 1950-51. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.4. in our country. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.0 16. 3. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. out of 9200 and odd colleges.0 Today.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.4. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .0 43. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. Even today. we have more than 1200 institutions. In the rest of the country. Coimbatore.2 22. levels and professions.9 27. The idea of women’s education for equality.2 29.

66 66. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . 3.4.4. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.44 35.1 and 14.54 12.53 34.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.73 10.36 3.27 89.4%) prefer Arts subjects. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.34 33. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. 3.63 Female % 34.that of boys. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.56 64. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? . GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.1 respectively.83 47.17 52.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. 2.4.46 82. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .47 65.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .

Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. financial difficulty of the parents. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. irrelevance of the content of education.4. she will only learn fashion. etc. what is the need for higher education for her. marriage is a very common I factor. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. In every third family. distance of the college or university from home. In college. and coeducation may spoil her character.hinders the girls from getting higher education. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. The major hurdles. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. Thus. particularly. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Also. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. 173 . Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. They gave up their studies to enter home life. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. promoted and increased. According to a survey. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. Book banks should be established. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. curriculum not suited to their requirements. 3. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided.

and the limitations of the conventional education system. 3. Full-time employment. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. is the only tool for realising empowerment. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Geographic distance of educational institutions.4.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. Education.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. There are constraints of time. space. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests.economic disabilities faced by women. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. resources and socio . learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. 3. It enables to study. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. Distance education is a boon to women. It also brings about 174 . Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Empowerment in a nutshell. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. It is a productive investment.4.

on their own. for full development of our human resources. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. This can be achieved through reflection. higher learning. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future.4.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. empowerment means being assertive. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. education of women must be given priority in national plans. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. 3. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. The major objectives of women's higher education. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. legal awareness and economic independence. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. Empowerment is an active. education of women is of paramount importance. Women are partners in development.

Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. Reservation for women. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. which had been the sole domain of men. Better opportunities. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. will encourage them to venture new grounds. which is pending for a long time. Scholarships and concessions for women. 3. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. has to be implemented at the earliest. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. But their number is small. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. The educational institutions. The local administration.4. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. especially so in the developing countries. 176 . More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. who are eager to take up courses.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also.

8%).Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Chief Executive. talents. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates.1%) and architecture and building (38. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. But. Also. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. especially in developing countries like African countries. engineering and related technologies (16.3 percent. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. capacities etc. IDP Education. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities.9%).000 women in the country.. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. Australia. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.4. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. According to Lindy Hyam. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations.

4.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. S. R. 43% 6. 3. 3. 2. Coimbatore. individuals and society b.4.C. SNDT Women’s University.R. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. S. (2007). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Women and Education. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Women Education. the family.4. (2008). Rajasthan 5. community and the nation. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. and Swain.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. (2000). Mother Teresa Women University. Centre for Women’s Studies. A. R. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. and Suryalatha.K. Mumbai. Kodaikanal. Mishra. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. create the right attitude towards life. (2005). A. SNDT Women’s University. Annakodi. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Rao. Women Education. Pattanaikj. 4. Coimbatore. 178 . a. 3. Mumbai.

Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.10 3.3 3.8 3.2 3.5. whole.5.5.5.personality of children in and out of school. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5 3.11 3.1 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.6 3.9 3.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.7 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5. They should be trained.LESSON 3.5.

Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. 3.5.5. 5. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Lack of physical facilities. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the training teachers for Primary. national consciousness.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. understanding and strong desire for international peace. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. you will be able to: 1. Dearth of new technology of teaching. international. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. equality and justice. Shorter working hours. 4. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. 180 . Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. 3. social and emotional integration. and national character. know the pre service and in service training facilities.

the secondary teacher education. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training.Ed. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. the primary teacher education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . Inadequate training in practical skills. Lop-sided curriculum.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. levels. At the diploma level. and M. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . the centre. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B.5. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. inservice and extension education programmes. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them..Ed.Less qualified teacher educators. If the student teachers are working teachers.5. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. 3. it is called the In-service teacher education. students. a Diploma course and a Degree course. (NCERT) New Delhi. 3. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. the state Government. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. and the collegiate teacher education. who have not been trained earlier.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. higher secondary teacher education. Depending on the levels. etc.. it is called the Extension teacher Education. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching.

• the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Expand NCERT 2. Educational teehnology cells.5. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Education cells. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Also Guidance Bureaux. depart ments etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Evaluation unit. Science Education units. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . state Institutes of Educat ion. etc. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . 3. non-formal. are established.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. collegiate cells. extensio n service.

to ensure teacher competence. audio visual degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training .. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. material conditions relating to libraries. degree. laboratories. schools and sister institutions.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. which help breaking isolation from one another . a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission.Ed. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. which should include experience in the primary schools too. and so on.Ed.. to improve curricular programmes. despite its vast expansion. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. should be improved on a top priority basis. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. to offer consultative services.. primary and secondary school teachers. to prescribe conditions for recognition. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . and 183 . The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed .

methodology and evaluation. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. Agriculture. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Induction Courses. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Meanwhile. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. 184 .Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. To meet this exigency. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. not came up once again. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed.secondary education. Modern Techniques of Teaching. and XII. Hence. etc. The problem. whether they should have professional education or. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. Modern Methods of Evaluation. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Organisation of Content Courses. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Psychology of Students. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. etc. though no pre-service prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. Workshops.

Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.Ed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.Ed. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. All B Ed. Degree and M. 3. M.’s are elig ible for M. These facilities are available for regular students. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education..Ed. (Education) and M. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . Courses leading to B. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. in Education. Degree. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications..Ed.. Pre-service training is for those. For re-orienting the teachers.5..CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. training. Post-Graduates also undergo B.. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. State Institutes of Education. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.D.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.A. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. Ajmer. courses and M. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B..S.Ed. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.Ed. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. (Education) are organized by 185 .’s for Ph. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.A.

and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . . However..some Faculties of Education of some Universities. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.). 6..5. and B. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. 3. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. 5.A. 186 . 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.A. (Ed). (Ed. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. Hence the employability of M. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. What is the role of ERIC? .List any two code of conduct for teachers? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 4. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . they should be conscientious . Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. established by tradition and teachers of the past. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. of conduct—written or unwritten.

and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 187 . Ajmer. 3.5. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. b. 2. 4. a. 3. 2. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Bhopal. However. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. National Council of Educational Research and Training.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 6. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.5. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. b. a. Explain code of conduct for teachers. 4. Shorter working hours. 5. The necessity is however this. 3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. they should be conscientious.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. a. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. 3.5.3.

Corporation. P.5. (2009). Teacher Education.D. Teacher Education. B. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. J. A. Publication Pvt. Tewari.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . and Teacher Education. (2003).3. Mohanty.N. Ltd Aggarwal. (2010).

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

In lesson 1. Since food is the source of nutrients. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. If the diet is poor. 191 . The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. economic and educational developments. nutritional deficiency diseases. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. preservation of nutrients. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. objectives. objectives. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. objectives and role of the physical education. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. our attention shifts to physical education – its need.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. In lesson 4. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. consuming the right amounts becomes important. common ailments of children. the focus is on the school health programmes. The person’s environment is equally important. communicable diseases and their prevention.

192 .

4 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. emotional and social.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1.10 4. mental.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.1.11 4.7 4.9 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.5 4.3 4.1. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1 4. It is a miniature society. 4.2 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody.e. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.LESSON 4. 193 . physical. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.1.1.

To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. 4. 4. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. To develop healthy health habits among children.. 11.g. 4. know the need for sex education. 5. content of health education. you will be able to: 1.1. training in first aid and etc. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. 2. 194 . Instruction.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. cleanliness and healthful living. understand school health programmes 2. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 6. explain the importance of First aid 5. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 9. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. 8. To give information regarding health rules. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. training of teachers and evaluation. 7.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. to his family and to the community at large.1. 3. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. list the common ailments of children 3. 10. e. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. To develop certain skills concerning health.

• Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. vaccination. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. inoculation against cholera. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. 4. proper doors and windows.coming or absence. B. Vaccination for small pox.C. (vi) nutrition education. 2. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. ( iii) sanit at io n. minimizing the travelling distance. There should be good drainage facilities.1. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. typhoid. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. arranging class rooms in the ground floors.G. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. direct lighting. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. is imperative. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. Arranging better transportation facilities. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. (v) safety education. 5. B. The surroundings of schools should be clean. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. (viii) first aid. organisation of school health days. (xl) mental health. excusing late. First aid facilities should be made readily available.. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases..4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. 2. The flooring should not be damp. “Play-for-all” programmes. 3. Triple Antigen Vaccination. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. The school buildings should be spacious. etc. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided.4. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. (ii) communit y healt h. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. (xii) smoking education etc. cleanliness weeks. suitable furniture. as described below 1. play festivals. There should be regular water supply.

• Keep all rooms clean. wounds. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. etc. C.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. D. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. cuts.. bleeding. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. • When sleeping in groups. fractures. dislocations. and other accidents. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Find out the cases. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. if epidemic is wide-spread. drowning. burns. scalds. • Close the schools. sports and games in the interest of their health. • Take nutritious food. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. fainting (epileptic fit). insect stings. • Have adequate rest and sleep. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. isolate and notify. 196 . poisons.

headache. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. They are: i) The incubation stage. water or bodily contact. tuberculosis. 4. which are – cold. There are three stages in any communicable disease. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. asthma. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease.. These diseases are called communicable diseases.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school.1. pain in the joints. 2. cough.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. Once these germs get into the body. So they easily get illnesses. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. 4. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. backache. measles etc. polio. List out the Health curriculum 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Mention the school health programmes. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. fever. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. chicken pox.1.

Diarrhoea . Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Common Cold . Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Children catch cold from persons having cold. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body.This disease is caused by bacteria. head-ache and cough. unhygienic living conditions.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. 198 . Scabies . Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Important salts and water are lost in this process. This is caused by cold virus. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. The symptoms include cold. The following are the common communicable diseases. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Others make the children very weak. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children.It is caused by measles virus. etc. cough and fever. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. sugar and water. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Measles . Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Hence liquid diet is recommended. unhygienic bottle feeding. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. After three or four days of fever. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Ear Infections . eating food which is not clean. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Mumps . Throat is affected. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Hence it is called a killer disease. The child may have fever. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light.When a child suffers from scabies.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Tonsilitis . Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless.• • • • Chicken Pox . 5. Shortly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Typhoid . Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. It begins with fever.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. By scratching he causes secondary infections. If proper treatment is not given. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The child may also have diarrhoea. raised pink spots appear on head. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. the child may die. As the disease progresses. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Diphtheria . The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. face and waist. What are communicable diseases? 6. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. 199 . the child is not able to breathe. Expand DPT . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Enlist the common ailments of children. separate.

snakebites.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. In such cases. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. swelling. Sprains . simple fractures. fainting. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. Sex is popular.1. head injury. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. etc. Cuts and Bruises . It is essential for ensuring better family life in future.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. it is a subject of art. 3. fiction. cuts.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. films and jokes. eye injury.1.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. so-called sex books and periodicals. scorpion stings.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. bruises. sprains.4. 2. bleeding. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. Drowning . It is both biological and psychological. wounds. sprains.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. and films. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. 4.g. man-woman behaviours. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. and Community Work and Social Service. dislocation. 200 . exciting and body-oriented. 4. It has its rightful place in education too. 5. drowning. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. Wounds .

Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . In today's liberal and interactive society. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. but preserve them from disaster and disease.old values. The home. The values of life. 3.. try experimenting with their bodies. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. health. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. celibacy are age. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. Hence. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. Should the boys and girls. In secondary schools. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. the religious organisations. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. B. the school. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. 2. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. in their ignorance. sex education is being recommended in schools. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. they would be treading the path of sure doom. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. There is another reason for making children aware of their to give sex education to the young. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education.

communicable diseases and their prevention. hence.1. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. common ailments of children. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. offering sex education as a part of their curricula.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. 202 . 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. 4. there will no crisis in its implementation. Teacher education institutions are. when the courses are already overloaded. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. the school health programmes. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. What are the major components of Sex Education. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. C.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. first aid and sex education.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.



SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.


STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.


4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:


Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.


Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy


CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the food nutrients 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 209 . Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3.

5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s .2. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . minerals. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a.2. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. Let us talk about each of these aspects. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. If you look at the definition carefully. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet.4. 210 .

The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. In the case of adults. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress).g. paratha and poori. for example. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. moderate or heavy work.6. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. dosa are typical of the south. People in the east of our country prefer rice. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. construction labourer). There is no point. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods.g. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. A balanced diet is specific firstly. Preferences/customs are also in the morning and the other at night. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately.2. sex. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. In other words. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. activity level and physiological stress. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex).sedentary. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). Even within given States there is considerable variation. 4. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. the social and religious practices of that region. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. These are: region where the person resides and income. it is also specific to a given activity level . The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems.

It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. Including these 212 . however. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. income plays a vital role. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. One person may be fond of milk products. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. If you think of your own religious group. As income increases. nuts and dry fruits. as important for the rich as for the poor. fat and sugar tend to increase. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Even among flesh foods. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. taboos related to food may play an important role. These determine the acceptability of foods. Among the social factors. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. customs. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. Judicious selection of food is. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. for example. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. As you read this discussion. One must. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. however. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. However. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. In addition to these.planning the diet. while another may hate them. however. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. Having more money. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. vegetables and fruits. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese.

7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. List out any two healthy food habits. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . mouth. over-eating or under. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. fruits. meat. etc. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. 213 . but they should be thrown away. green leaves. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. Define balanced diet. 8. if the teachers have good food habits. 17. eggs .eating is hazardous. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. For this. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 8) Walk a while after eating. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. 7) One should eat what is needed to live .

8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. c. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Discuss good food habits.2. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. 4. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Corneal xerosis. e. Keratomalacia 3. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . b.4. Vitamin D 5. Night blindness. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Bitot’s spots. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. a. In fact.2.2. preservation of nutrients. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Beri Beri 4. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain food nutrients 4. Conjuctival xerosis. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. d. good nutrition is essential for good health. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. When the diet is inadequate.

A Text Book of Foods. (2009). (2008).N. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. R. a.M. minerals. Hands. Sri Lakshmi B. S. Food should be consumed after eating well. b. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . R.C. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. a .6. Nutrition and Dietetics. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.2. Chopra.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. (2004). 7. (2005). Food and Nutrition Education. P. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Health and Nutrition Education. Nutrition Science. (2008). Food and Nutrition Education. 8. 4. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. mouth. b. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.

3.13 4.3 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.7 4.3.1 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5 4.3.10 Impact on economic development 4.LESSON 4.3.3 Impact on Education Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.8 4.3.4 4.3. 216 .2 4.12 Impact on social development 4.3.

3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. population characteristics. 4.4. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. It is a much wider co ncept.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Whenever we talk of sex education. There is some difference. you will be able to: 1. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education.3. 4. aims at providing the younger generation.3. therefore. state the meaning. objectives and need for population education 2. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. 217 . understand the importance of small family norm 5. Population Education. family planning and sex education etc.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. the causes of population change. economic and educational development 3. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. describe the impact of population growth on social. It is not sex education. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. the stress is. characteristics and changes for himself. community.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. and the consequences of these processes.3. his societ y and the world. his family. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning.

5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.4. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well.3. Define Population Education 2. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. the society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the family.3.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. List out any two objectives of Population Education. the nation and the world. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

With the larger families. 4. economic and educational development of the country. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. 4. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development.3. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. Family is considered as a social unit.3. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. When the family is small. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. Every second two thousand children are being born. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. the family programmes are also handicapped. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. health and happiness of its citizens. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. 219 . If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. which will not be possible without population control. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries.6.

” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. toilets. are the results of demographic pressures on social life.. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. In developing countries. 220 .e. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. 4. and so on. Many students herded in a small room.6. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too.6.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. in cinema halls and theatres. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. teacher index.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. unemployment. pollution of the environment. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. heavy intern I migration etc. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. organization index and material index. Swollen cities.3.3.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. lack of proper health care. in parks and other places of public gatherings. facility for drinking water. The gulf between them is widening further. 4. in buses and trains. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. i.

Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. can be taken up. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. even text books would be in short supply. Regional Language. thus. Hindi and English. There would be poor library facilities. can be studied in science and health education. less budget for education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. essays. and laboratory equipments. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.. bar graphs etc.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. 221 . less administrative initiative and leadership talents.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. reproduction. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. family planning etc. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies.3. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. blank verses etc. less space facilities. Social Studies Statistics on population education. There would be very few audiovisual aids. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue.

Brazil. 9. 8. Canada. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 14. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. 2. They may arrange them as per average density of population. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. West Bengal. Children may compare two families. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. United States of America.4. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 .8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. China. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 3. Bihar. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 7. 12. 5. causes of deaths etc. 13. area and average density of population. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes.3. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 10. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. deaths. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 11. 4. 15. Children with the help of parents. Uttar Pradesh.

The question. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. we have no right to stop 223 . Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. 18. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. Comparing life in various respects in two opened in their schools. age at marriage. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. 17. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. values and role children etc.3. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. preferences for sex. 16. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village.

“He who is responsible for population growth. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.were implemented 224 . The Family Welfare Program.4-6.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.3. especially the expansion of child immunization services .their entry into the world”. More than 45 years ago. on an overall basis.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. which education can only do. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. Since the program's inception. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school emphasize family planning services. continued . is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. however. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). fertility levels have declined throughout the country. 4. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. and the child survival components of the news: program.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. at varying places in different regions. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.

The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. expansion of services to unmarried women. Moreover. Local programs vary in their approaches. and nominal fees for services. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. At these meetings. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. the community appears willing to pay for services. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Therefore. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. men. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. and the World Conference on Women. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. a focus on health promotion. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 .earlier than the safe motherhood components. In October 1997. In April 1996. reliance on local women as community health workers. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. community. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. Its main purposes are to create awareness. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. family.3. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. 1997). nation and the world. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.3. economic and educational development 4. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. 226 . Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. Describe the impact of population growth on social. involving the community.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. What are the goals of RCH? 4.emphasizing the needs of the client. 3.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.

” 2. less budget for education. and the consequences of these processes. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. his society and the world.3. 4. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 3. population characteristics. Canada. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. China. a. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Brazil. his family. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. characteristics and changes for himself. 227 . Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff.4. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. 6. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. b. bar graphs. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. United States of America. a. less space facilities.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. b. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. a. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. the causes of population change. 7. area and average density of population. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. 5.

Principles of Population Studies. (2004).K.3. 228 . (2002). Reddy. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. A. Bhende. Centre for Women’s Studies. Modern Problems of Education. (2005). V. J. (2005). Jayapoorni. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Kantikar. Modern Trends in Indian Education.4.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. T. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Ltd. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. (1992). N. Coimbatore. Ltd. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Udaiveer.

4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4 Indigenous games 4.LESSON 4.4.6 4.4.2 Major games 4.1 Minor games 4.7 4.5 4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.10 19.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4 Lead up games 4.1 4.4.2 4.8.3 4.4.

and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. 4. 4. as it should 230 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. full records of physical activities should be maintained. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. The concept of physical education has been made broader.4. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. team spirit. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. perseverance. classify the different types of games.4.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness.4. moral fitness and emotional fitness. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. mental alertness. leadership and balance in defect. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. which forms its most valuable assets.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. social fitness. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.4. the youth of the country. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. you will be able to: 1.

It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Every individual is a part of society. They go hand in hand. obedience to rules. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. leadership. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. To be more precise. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. They are inseparably united together. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. team spirit. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Therefore. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. The educational efforts at home.

Just like Education. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system.” The Secondary Education Commission. a sound health. C. Physical exercises. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. Regarding the significance of physical education. 4. game and sports. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. ment al. Buck has observed that 232 . Rousseau states. “Physical education does neither train up the soul.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks.4. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side.” Montaigue writes. nor body but the whole man. mo ral. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. pleasing manners. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. H. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical.

coordinative abilities. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. happiness. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. strength.a properly directed physical education should result in health. efficiency and character. resourcefulness and smartness. Froebel says. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. endurance.” In brief. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. we must exercise the whole human being. 233 .” 4. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society.4. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. speed. “If we wish to develop the whole being. etc. initiative. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. flexibility and power. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. elegance. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life.

students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Every age has its artists. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. While wars.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. its adherents and its enemies. these fundamental things have always been present. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. they may form gangs. poetry and painting. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. If no opportunity is provided to the students. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. including all racial groups and historical ages. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Tournaments foster this sentiment. systems of government. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. 234 (i) (ii) . in greater or lesser degree. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. plagues and famines.

(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. 3. Write any two importance of Physical Education.sacrifice. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. obedience. 2. B. bravery and interest in games and sports. self. to develop tolerance. etc.\ to develop perseverance. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 235 . to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. respect for rules.

students. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. 3. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.4. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. 6. Keep the field ready for the activities. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. 9. Usually parents. 10. is essential. 16. 15.4. 7. 4. 236 1. Be well-prepared. and readmission after they have recovered. 11. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Be punctual. Inform health principles. 12. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 4. injuries among pupils should be made. Be self-confident. Haag. Always keep the whistle ready. Be sportive. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. 13. defects. Act as a leader. 8. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. . Emergency care procedures should be followed. and. 5.H.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 14. Posture screening should be done.4. Be in the uniform. 2.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there.

Indigenous games. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 1. 4. frolic and jo y. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games.8. less equipment and less expense. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun.4. 3.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. 4. their development is handicapped.4. Lead up games.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. 2. 237 . the play. Moreover. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. 4. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. chasing. Such inst incts as imitation. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.

benefit in playing minor games. stopping. Except a few games. Throwing. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. The dimension of the posts and nets. They are played for a shorter duration. pitching. For each game the rules are many. skipping. Tennikoit. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. couple tag. Jumping. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. dribbling. the games can be modified according to convenience. bowling etc. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Hopping. Soft Ball. Hockey. 4. Kabaddy etc. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. on sea-shore. Shuttle Badminton. heading. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. on mountain tops and on river beds. under ball pass Relay. the play equipment. They are rules approved by the International Associations. 238 . hitting. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. catching. Dodging. over ball pass Relay. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. zig zag relay. driving. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Ball Badminton. muffling. On lawns.4. Cricket.. some of them are played indoors. finding the partner. Volley Ball. with implements or without implements. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. These games require varied skills such as running.With a very few rules. Tennis. boosting. Khokho. snatching the kerchief. on hard courts. While many of them are played in the open playfields. the number of players and substitutes. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. women take part most of the games. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. trapping.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles.8. Jump the stick clay and so on. spiking. Basket Ball. wherever the kids assemble.

7. On occasions like marriage. For example. An example for indigenous game is 8. List out some major games. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. festivals connected with religion and public functions. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. they are in existence. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. these games being popular. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.8. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. They have an abundant social value.4. and . Games may be classified as 6. birth. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. All the fundamental tactics. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. death. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial.8.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Kho-kho. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. While observing the players in action. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. 4.

b. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. physically and emotionally fit and alert.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. Minor and Major 240 . d. b. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. a. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. aims and objectives and need of physical education. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Briefly discuss the different types of games. 5. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.4. 4. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. to develop physical stamina. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. a.4. 2. 4.4. c. 3. a. a. Posture screening should be done. 3. 2. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. b. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. to secure physical health b. 4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4.4.

Hockey. Tennis. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Ltd. 4. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. G. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Tennikoit. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2009). Basket Ball. Khokho.K. Shuttle Badminton.6. (2005). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2008). Cricket. Mohanty. Foot-ball. Kabaddy 7. Ball Badminton. Soft Ball. Khokho 8. Volley Ball. Health.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Krishna murthy.C. Aggarwal. Handbook of Physical Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. Physical Education and Sports.4. 241 . New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. (2008). J. J.

1 4.4 4.5.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .6 4.3 4.5.LESSON Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.1 Natural Environment 4.2 4.5.9 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems. ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.7 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.8 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.5.11 4.5.

6. Skills. 4.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. 3.5. 243 . 5. it covers the following elements: 1. aesthetic and educational factors. population explosion and resource depletion could be. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. Awareness. Essential knowledge about the Environment. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Broadly. 4. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment.5. The best place to start such learning is school. Details are given below: I. political. Knowledge. 4. list out the types of environment 3. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. education about the environment and education through the environment.5. role of teacher in environmental conservation. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Participation. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. 3. 2. Evaluation Ability. you will able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. 2. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. economic. social.educat ion for the environment. Attitude.

Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. • Biological magnification E. F. 244 . mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation.B. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. 2. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. a. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. D. Oxidants Other pollutants. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog.

2. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. The human ecosystem II. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material.3. III. Sterilisation. Family planning ii. 2. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. 3. Persuasion: i. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. economic. Intrauterine device iii. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Control of population growth a. Use of medical science i. B. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Socio-economic measures. c. The pill ii. 4. Abortion iv. Birth control through education b. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (UNESCO. Planning human intervention on the natural processes.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. 3. 1983). Define Environmental Education. 3. Water pollution abatement. 246 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. e) Recycling. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Air pollution abatement ii. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection.

telex. a. animals and other organisms (biotic). fax agricultural apparatus. Biological environment The biological environment. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. way is called environmental or ecological factor. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. b. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain.5. 4. A change in one brings about a change in the other. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . includes the plants. -other. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. They interact with each.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 .5.other components of the environment. These are biotic components. Any constituent or condition of the environment.4.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. He modifies according”.5. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. to his needs. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.

evolution. nuclear warfare. water scarcity. change in climate may be added. trees reducing noise pollution.. reasons. ozone layer deplet ion. social studies. need for conservation. History The rise and fall. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. solar cookers. role of trees in building economy. over exploitation of ground water. preventing siltation of dams. (ii) Air pollution. river systems. need for bio-diversity. of civilizations. industrial pollut io n. noise control. nuclear energy. desertification 248 . t heir role in preventing pollution. use of pesticides. biogas plants. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. sources. preserving the watersheds. noise pollution. mineral survey. are the topics which may be taught in History. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. food chain and food-web. sources of pollut ion. importance of nitrogen cycle. etc. alternate sources of energy. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . use of medicinal plants. air pollutants from industries. maintaining the ecological diversity. greenhouse effect. wars and hazards of war. effects. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. explosion deforestation. are the topics which may find place in Zoology.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. extinction of species. excellent recreation sites. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. effects o f CFC. balance of nature. etc. acid rain. relation between population and pollution. ozone depletion. windmills. supplying timber for various uses. natural way of controlling pests. industrial survey. population.

Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 5. 13. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 9. 8. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 7. 11. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 3. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 249 . treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 2. 12. Peepal and Tulsi. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. aims and scope. Providing. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Organising conferences. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 4. 6. Developing awareness about environmental issues. group discussions and seminars.may be inc ded in Geography. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 14. animal and plants.5. 10. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. 4. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment.

Never put any left over chemicals. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. used oils down the drain. Reuse carrier bags. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. 6. 5. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. all these can cause serious pollution. Don’t burn any waste. World Environmental falls on 250 .Send their waste oil. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. If it is done. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. or form a car pool for everyday travel. especially plastics. it will cause pollution. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products.

4. Social responsibilit y (common good. Conservation of natural resources. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. (cleanliness. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Harmony with the nature . depletion of ozone. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. prevention of irretrievable loss of species.5. diversity and stability. loss of bio-diversity. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. To arrange for visiting speakers.mat erials. orderliness and beauty). viz. developing desirable attitudes. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. etc. potable water. dest roying nat ural habitats. values and habits. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil.). To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. The groups may exchange. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. etc. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. nuclear wars.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. Concern for species. and 251 . To arrange visits or expeditions. concern for others). rather than conquest and mastery. deforestation. CFCs. To provide reference materials for children’s use. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. To provide materials needed for practical work. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. Att itudes of balance towards nature.. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem.

4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. 8. 4.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. preserving natural cycles. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.5. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. 252 .5. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.

b. air pollutants from industries. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. over exploitation of ground water. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Modern Problems of Education. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Organising conferences. greenhouse effect. acid rain. June 5 7. (2004). Environmental Education. Knowledge. Publications Pvt. water scarcity. effects. explosion deforestation.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu.K.2. 4.K. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. (2007). S. relat ion between population and pollution. Anmol Publications Pvt. Udaiveer. 8.5. (1997). Social responsibilit y (common good. Y. (ii) Air pollution. importance of nitrogen cycle. new problems from science and technology. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. reasons. New Delhi : Authors Press. concern for others). New Delhi : Anmol 253 . Rapid population growth. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications.\ 4.K. group discussions and seminars. ozone layer deplet ion. a. Ltd. 5. b. a.. 3. Environment and Human Rights. New Delhi : Sharma. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Awareness. Kuldeep. Providing. To provide materials needed for practical work. 6. sources. S. b. Nanda. (2007). Education for values. To provide reference materials for children’s use. population. a.K. T. a. Ltd. Environmental Education. b. sources of pollution.

254 .




Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.



STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism Idealism and aims of Education Idealism and Curriculum Idealism and methods of teaching Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism Naturalism and aims of Education Naturalism and Curriculum Naturalism and methods of teaching Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

259 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to

intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. According to Rusk'. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. The universe is regarded as a thought process. enrichment and transmission of culture. promote and transmit it to rising generation." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. Universal Education. man is essentially a moral being. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self.3. Therefore.our life.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. should be universal in nature. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. the emancipation of spirit. Education must contribute to development of culture.” 5. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve.1. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. Spiritual Development. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. It is self-realisation. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. in fact. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. Education according to idealism. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. moral.

no doubt. He carries the child from darkness to light. Herbert advocated instruction method. and collation (striving) should find due place. 4. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. It considers teacher as. Learning through reading. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. So cognition (knowing).1. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. Science. However. According to idealism. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. should be there. Learning through lecturing.the spiritual qualities of mankind.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. For this no particular method has been suggested. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. 5. According to Frobel. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. For intellectual development. hygiene. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection.3. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. The plant can grow. So he should embody.3. Mathematics etc.1. so subjects like Religion. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. 2. affecting (feeling). 5. 3. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . a spiritual guide for the child. Learning through imitation. History. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. an indispensable necessity.” 5. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. So health. the school is a garden.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. He sets the environment in which education takes place.” He is thus. friend and guide. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Learning through questioning. Ethics. Philosophy. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. subjects like Languages. Learning through discussion.

1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.perfection and beauty. In the words of Ross.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.4. 5. Perfection of Human Machine.1. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms.preservation. "Education should make 263 • . Ross explains. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. text books. curricula. formal lessons or examinations. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.1. time tables. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum.1. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. his interests and inborn tendencies 2.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. • 5. Education should. Arithmetic. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. education should develop the child into Joyous. 4. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Zoology. “Education finds its purpose. Naturalistic curriculum. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. therefore. It is based on the psychology of the child. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. 264 . is based on the nature of the child. rational harmoniously balanced. There is no place for religious and moral education. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Chemistry. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Therefore. Botany etc Language. In all. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. It stresses basic sciences. Literature. useful and mature child. Biology. subjects like history.4. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction.

naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. It discards all rigid. he should be taught by experience alone.1.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. 5. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. 2. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. a provider of an ideal environment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher.1. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. In the . the stage. Dalton Plan. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.4. Learning through experience. 4. Learning through observation. Heuristic method.1. 3. Rousseau says. 5. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Learning by doing. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .5. a supplier of materials and opportunities.

5. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Personal Social Adjustment. Agriculture. 5.1. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Subjects. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. All Round Development of an Individual. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. The aim of educational development. Geography. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Physical training. Social Efficiency.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. diversified and flexible.1. History. of human personality is in terms of his physical.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Vocational and 266 .5. intellectual. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. social and moral aspects. is true. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Sciences. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Social Science. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons.absolutism of idealism. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Continuous Growth.5. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared.

5.1. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. activities and experience should be integrated properly. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. a senior partner and a sincere guide.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. He must be trained. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child.5. a teacher occupies an important position. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .1. Learning by Doing. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. alert and resourceful.Technical Education. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences.” 5. should find proper place. He has to be active. The subjects. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.

Education must cultivate scientific outlook.5.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. scientific and psychological education.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education.1. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Literature. 5. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. It favours child-centered. Education is preparation for a complete living. Study of Subjects like Language. rich and happy. 5.6. Astrology. 4. Biography Philosophy. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. practical. literary or humanistic education. Music and Dance. liberal. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 3. Mathematics. Psychology. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist.1. specific. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Biology. Chemistry. Population Education. 3. Geography are unnecessary 268 . The child should be provided complete knowledge of society.1. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. 2. Art. Sex Education. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. intellectual. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. 5. 4. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things.6. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. 2. History. Crafts.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. certainly and clearly. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.1.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. easily and pleasantly.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6.1.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.

naturalism. Universal Education 2. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Self Realisation b. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Learning through lecturing.5. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Child centered c. Geography.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Learning through imitation.1. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. History. Learning through discussion. Physical training. Learning through questioning. Agriculture. a.1. has no end other than growth. Vocational and Technical Education. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Experimentation d. 6. b. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. 3. Education according to pragmatism. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. in this lesson. a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. d. e. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Tours / Excursion e. Social Science. Learning through reading. 5. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. 5.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.1. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Learning through experience b. Sciences. a. c. pragmatism and realism. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. 5. & curriculum. Rousseau 5. Languages.

N. (2007). P. New Delhi : Bhatia. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.H. New Delhi : A.1. Pahuja. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman.5. (2007).P. R. P. K. Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. of Pathak. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. L. O. (2003). 271 . Publishing corporation.P. (2004). Ltd. Theory and Principles of Education. Foundations of Education.

4.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.LESSON 5.3 Methods of teaching 5.2.1 Aims of Education Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education Curriculum 5.2.3 Methods of Teaching EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2.3.1 Aims of Education Views about teacher 5.3.2 5.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji Methods of teaching 272 .1 Aims of Education 5.5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2 Curriculum 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5. Idealist and Pragmatist Educational Philosophy of Tagore Views about teacher 5.

273 .2. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.2. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. 2. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. content and methods.2. you will able to: 1. mind and spirit.7 5.6 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.2.8 5. an artist. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.2. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.4 Role of the teacher 5. 3.5.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.2.2. Gandhiji was primarily a social. economic and political reconstruction in our country. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. 5.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.5.2. Tagore was a poet. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.

mind and soul of children He further observed. through life and for life.2. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. In the words of Gandhiji. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. 274 . He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. nor the gross animals body. It really provides opportunity for character building. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. strength of mind.supporting. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations." Dignity of Labour. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. 'Man is neither mere intellect. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. His scheme of education is life centred. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. righteousness. it is education of life. 5. "I attach more. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. self-restraint and service of humanity. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect.3.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality.intellectual and physical faculties of the children.

2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. "Development of the moral character. metal work. 5. According to Gandhi. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy.Training for Leadership. Mother-tongue. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders.3. General Sciences. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . Art. Only good individual forms a better society. the realization of the ultimate reality. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development .2. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. wood work. leather work have been suggested. Drawing and Hindustani. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. development of the whole all were directed: towards. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. gardening. Music. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Individual and Social Aims. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner.

all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.trained. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. proficient. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Basic education is other wise known as 4.3. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.3. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.2. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. men of 276 .

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. Education must be child centered. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. 3.knowledge.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He also advocates freedom for the child. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 .2. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. That is why. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. 5. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots.

he was a true Vedantist 5. 5. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. He was a true patriot. 5.3. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.2. • Cult of non-violence.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. • Education should involve manual work. • Ideal of citizenship.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.2.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. Gandhi in 1937. He believed in the oneness of humanity. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. He was deadly against untouchability. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .K.” Like all other ideals. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.

Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. International understanding. sentiment. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. "Mankind must realise a unity. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Geography.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. Zoology. Tagore said.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. deeper in.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner.Language and Literature .4. International Understanding. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. (vi) Philosophy. complete manhood could be attained. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. That way only. Therefore. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. wider in range. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. the more dedicated and devoted. Civics. Botany. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. It should help the learner have good physique. Religion and Psychology. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Dance.2. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. he said. Music." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. 279 . etc. could help in forging unity among all. them solve problems of day to day life. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Chemistry. It should help. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. stronger in power than ever before.

280 .2. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.4. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. Let individualised methods be used for teaching.4. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.2. 5. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service." 5.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.4.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. Activity Method Heuristic Method. 5.” He further says. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. Tagore rightly says. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.2. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. In 1921. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11.g. 10. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. 281 . 9. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. It is open to all irrespective of country. race. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore.

liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Education should make a person self-reliant. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. 3. Purity of thought.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court.2. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. character forming and assimilation of ideas. man making. Concept of Education. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only.” 5. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge.2. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Education for strong Moral Character. Education for Self-realization." He was against the theoretical type of education. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself.5. work and deeds come out of it. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Education for Self-reliance. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only.5. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. 4.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. 2. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . He believed in to learning or selflearning. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. According to him. Book learning. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Freedom.

Of course. Thirdly he wished that games. That will serve the purpose of education fully.5. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts.2. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Discussion Method.the learners on different students in the discussion. And above all. philosopher and guide to the students He. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Education for Physical Development. Every individual should be trained for concentration. 5. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Religion. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.2.5.2. engineering and technical subjects. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. 283 . A physically strong person is the need of the society. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. 5. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. 5. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. 6. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Swami. The teacher should be the facilitator. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Secondly he wanted Science. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.5. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.5. Philosophy and Theology.

Write short notes on Basic education. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. Gandhiji as a Idealist. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda.6 LET US SUM UP We have. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands.Substantiate your answer. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Their educational ideas.2. We have seen that Tagore. ears and eyes. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. 12. 284 .2. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. legs. in this lesson. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. and pragmatist . 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. 2. 3. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. naturalist. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. 5. of course.

Heuristic Method. 5. b. 5. Learning by Doing c. 10. Teaching while Walking b. Self-Study b. a. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Nai Talim 4. 3. Activity Method b. Activity Method d. Ideal of citizenship. 11. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Meditation and concentration c. 9. a. leather work have been suggested. c. wood work. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. c. Debate and Discussion Method. Technique of Correlation 6. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. a. Explain Vishwabharathi. a. 1937 7. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Cult of non-violence. gardening. metal work. Discussion Method 285 . Basic education. d.4. Education should involve manual work. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. 8. e.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 5. Self realization. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12.2. 2. f.

Dhiman. O. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education.H. C.P. B. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Aggarwal. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2004).2. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. K and Narang C. New Delhi : A. Pahuja. 286 . J.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. P. N. Ltd. (2002). (2007). (2003). N. (2007). Foundations of Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. K. on Bhatia. L. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. P.5. Theory and Principles of Education.

11 5.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.4 5.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3.3.2 5.7 5.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.6 5.3.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.LESSON 5.3.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum. In this lesson.9 5.3.8 5.5 5.3.1 5.10 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.3.3 5.

in the U. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. maintained or eliminated. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. it is identical wit h socializat ion. In the former sense. living in the hilly area. state the meaning of curriculum 2. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. you will be able to: 1. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. is a means to the process.3. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . in Russia or in Japan. the plateau area and 288 . Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. Curriculum is intimately related to education. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. In it. curriculum signifies situations for learning. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. From the latter point of view. In the words of Kerney and Cook. A g o o d curricu lu m. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. 5. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. While education is learning. present behaviour may be modified. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society.3.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. curriculum. in fact . and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. Since the demands.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Both the processes are integrated. the plain area.. While education is a process.A.3. Then in a big country like India. the desert area. there is a large number of communities. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. new behaviour may be acquired. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. in the form of new experience.under the direction of the school. 5.S.

A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. In fact . allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. 5. customs and needs. However. environment. It must differ from locality and from society to society. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. therefore. studying therein. Besides craft.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. democratic and socialistic country. and 289 . The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. From a slave-country we became secular. Again. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. it is. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr.3. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. differs from individual to individual. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. the learning capacity of children. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. according to modern trends in the educational process. too. irrespective of their needs and environment.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule.

e. They may be ultimate or proximate. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. individual or Social and so on. emotional. social.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture.3. They speak of perfect goals.g. uninspiring and unscientific. aesthetic and spiritual development. eg. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students.. of classroom.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. 1. Goals of Secondary Education. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. unsatisfactory. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. unambiguous and functional. Self Realisation.g. 290 . They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. etc. etc. remote or immediate. social. 4. Application Objective.. specific. e. National Integration. They are achievable. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Vocational Efficiency. tangible. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. 5. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. Goals of Primary Education. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. 2. The word “Curere” means 2. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. moral... The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . They are visionary goals e. etc. general or specific. They speak of immediate purposes of education. in instructional objectives.g. So it is inadequate.. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. 3. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. Understanding Objective. which may or may not be attained. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Knowledge Objective. they depend on the political. aims. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical.

Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. The interests. Crow and Crow remarks. in the class rooms. heavy fire. needs. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. educationists. on the playing fields. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. Raymont rightly says. According to Crow and Crow. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. but it includes the totality of experiences. capacities. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. finding them very interesting and captivating.3. abilities. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects.” 291 .” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.5.

urges. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. capacities and abilities. time in a useful manner. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. aptitudes. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. mental. Due to these variations and differences. They often waste it or rather kill it. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. moral. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. tendencies. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children.

learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. 293 . analysis and concretise the curricular elements. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. To ensure success of the process. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. 3. organized. 2. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1.curricular. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. administrative programme need be planned. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. Similarly. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. phased preparation. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. development of professional capability at all levels. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 18. 10. Run. workshop. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. in the class room.3. principles of curriculum construction. Child Centred Education b. 11. laboratory. a. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 12. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. library. Relation with Life c. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum.3. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.3. 17.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. 1937 19.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16.

Bhalla. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. D. New Delhi : Isha Books. (2001). P.S. and Sarita Kumari.5. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Lakshmi.3. N. (2007). Curriculum and Instruction. S. 295 . S. Innovations in Education. Curriculum Development.K. (2007). (2007). New Delhi : Authorspress.

7 Scientific Attitude 5.3 5.8 5.4.2 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.10 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.7.1 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4.5 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4.9 5.7.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook Developing scientific outlook

2.4.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. 297 . willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. in the economic reconstruction of society. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.4.4. tolerance for the opinions of others. newer and newer industries started growing. Gradually. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . yet real advancement in this area was achieved . explain the concept of scientific attitude. We mean curiosity.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. 5. know the importance of science education.during the second half of this century. 4. honesty. you will be able to: 1. superstition or emotion. 3. open-mindedness. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. 5.5. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age.

6. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 2. stipends and appreciations in various ways.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Through examinations. 2. 3. 4. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. seminars and symposiums. 3. 5. Thinking and memory develops.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Promotion of science clubs. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. After such experience and training. 5. Selection for science education. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. 6.4. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations.So that. Organisation of science fairs. 5. 4. Schemes of teaching science. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Devotion towards nature increases. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases.4. Central science workshop. Through newspapers. 7. 5. Love for truth enhances. as well as of the society. Principles are formulated. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. models and scientific instruments for laboratories.

6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. 7. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4.6. They ask many questions about the objects they see. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. 5. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. essential that teachers. therefore. should provide opportunities to. It is. each child to “enquiry skill building”. After presenting the problem. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. sex or religion. For laboratory and workshop techniques. objectivity. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. 5. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. They experience natural phenomenon. Enquiry teaching is.4.needs and conditions. In the inquiry approach. Training of science teachers. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. They encounter many social events as they grow. Write any two advantages of Science Education.

300 . The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. It requires consistent thinking. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”.4. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Adopting creative models of teaching. to ask questions and experience things. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Evidence. 6.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Appreciating pupils ideas. test. stern pursuit of accurate data. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . commands or orders. . stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. .Herma Wouk. 5. 4. if they like. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook.books. 2. 3.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Giving less directions. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook.6. 5.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. 5. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Social sciences.

7. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed.(Smith 2008). The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. These include open mindedness. practiced. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. critical thinking and suspended judgments. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. The students observation. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. friends. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . school and society at large. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. 5. neighbourhood. keen observation. to develop among the learners. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. For instance.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. To achieve this we should understand what it means. therefore should be unbiased and objective. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts.4. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. and emphasized during the learning process .Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. it must be encouraged. of vast resources running waste. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. (Vaidya 2007). The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience.

understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof.7. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. The intention to respect another’s point of view. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. 2007). Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. 302 . Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. or superstitions. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. think and work it”. 5. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions.4. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. intuition or wishful thinking”. he studies all aspects of it. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. (Das. understanding and logic. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. In considering a situation or a problem. rumor.

4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . • 5. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.4.7. but to begin only after careful planning.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.4. 5. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.7. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. it must be encourages. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. 304 . 5. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education.4. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. 5. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude.

a. S. 5. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Yadav. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. (2006). (2008). Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. 4.4. Planning of activities 5.B (2008). Adopting creative models of teaching. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. a. D.4. a. Reflections on Scientific attitude. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. 16. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. 305 . Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. 5.5. Study of superstitions d. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. 3. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Love for truth enhances. N. Rao. (2000). objectivity. a. M. b. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools.S. b. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. 2. Proper example of the teacher c. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. b. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Wide reading b.4. Vaidya.

New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.6 5.10 5.4 5.7 5.LESSON 5.5.5. you will be able to: 1.5.2 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5. 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE objectives and characteristics.5.5 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. 2.3 5. 306 .5.8 5. actively. areas of institutional planning.9 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions. state the concept.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.

• To make institutional planning more successful. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. • to involve teachers and school administrators. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. in the task of educational planning. 5.5. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. and every student in the process of educational planning. and supplement planning from above. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. and each student are regarded as separate entities. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. and. • to make planning development-oriented. executive as well as public. which become the bases for further planning at the district. each teacher. Institution should be regarded as the unit. 5. State and national levels from below. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator.5. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. every parent. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. every teacher. teachers and students is not lost sight of. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.3.

approved after making necessary modifications. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. Classwork.5. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. and Personnel services. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers.curricular Activities. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction.• implemented.5. Syllabus. council and. (2) Co. Examinations. 308 . The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. Co-curricular activities. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. which will be discussed in the general. etc. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. 5.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. it becomes the basis for school inspection.

What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Running science clubs. hobby-centres. Organisation of class-room libraries. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Courts. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Improving the internal assessment. etc. 2. Organisation of Self-Government Days. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. scientific and historical excursions. 3. Organising play-for-all programmes. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Fair distribution of syllabi. Preparation of models. Organisation of Students’ Association. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. etc. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. etc. etc. 1. Organisation of Pupils. Equipping of laboratory and library. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Preparation of instructional material. Editing the school magazine. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Conducting of educational. charts and apparatus. etc. Preparation of audio-visual aids.No.

teacher-managing body. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. ii. involving mainly human materials. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. administrator-administrator. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. etc. administrator-supervisor. administrator-pupil. parent-teacher associations. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. which are divided as the in. teacher-State. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also.” The human relationships in. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. and —pupil-pupil. co-operation. understanding. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective and out-group relationships are as given below i.5. pupil310 . and solidarity. science teachers’ associations. students’ associations. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. Administrator-State. teachers.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. teacherinspector. teacher-pupil. pupils. parents. headmasters associations.5. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. teacher-teacher.

and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. etc.5. organisation and management. superintendence.State. social sciences and other disciplines. pupil-parent. 311 . School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. pupil-non-official functionaries. It is also being modernized to become a technique. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. to carry out. Good. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. to attend. According to C. now-a-days. teacher-community leader. control. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. pupil-inspector. To administer means to manage. teacher-parent. supervision. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. administrator." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. supervision and superintendence. and to serve. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It covers personnel and material management. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. V. pupil-community leader. to accomplish. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. organisation.

12.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 5. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. 11. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. Cost-Benefit Analysis . Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. 2. Leadership . 10. 13. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. 9. 3. 7. Socio-Scientific Approach . 4. If it is more.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . low. The relationship should change from master.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. who occupy the managerial positions. it is not worth-while. Rapport between the Management and Employees . He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.Any good management will always have good public relations.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. Decision Making .The manager should have leadership traits.Of all the approaches.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. 8. Democratic Management . Motiviation .The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. Economic Management . This is the latest democratic trend in management. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. Those.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. If the cost benefit ratio is less. He should be an artist in human relationships. 6. Better Human Relationships . Communication . Liasion with the Public .This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. Worker Participation .

indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. 14. improvement of teaching methods. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 19. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. 313 . the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. 5. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained.5. enrichment of curricula.These two are. 5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17.too.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. 18.5. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too.g. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. objective. and cooperative performance should be ensured. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. to improve the quality of education it provides. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc.

Communication 5. Classwork. Fundamental of Educational Management. Tarachand and Prakash. b. S. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.5. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Leadership c. it becomes the basis for school inspection. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. H. e. Singh. Examinations. b. d. Educational Administration. Instruction. c.M. a. (2001).5. 2. Decision Making b. Motiviation d. (2003). 314 . b. 4. a. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. In group and Out group 5. NUEPA. Syllabus. f.5.K. APH Publishing Corporation. R. Co-curricular activities.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. and Personnel services. (1995). Teacher and Education in Indian Society.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. a. a.

1 Inculcation of Socialism.Pre-service and In-services facilities. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.1 Primary Education : Education for all. Economic 315 . 1.1 Gurukula system of education. higher education. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. Buddhist and Jain system of education. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. Examination reforms. Community and Mass Media 2. School. Realized the problems of school education. 4. social Impact 3.CORE PAPER . Code of conduct for teachers. Common ailments of Children.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Sex-education 4. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Balanced diet.Article 45 . Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. physical education and environmental education 5.Religious and Modern Education 1. wastage and Stagnation 3.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.teachers should have : 1.5 Regional Educational Development in India . First Aid.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.4 India's Secular Policy . Healthy Food Habit 4. Communicable diseases .4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.Preventive measures. 2. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . New evaluation procedures. Preservation of nutrients. Inspection and Supervision 3. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.1 School Health Programme. nutritional requirement.2 Nutritional deficiencies.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.I.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.3 Educational Influences of Home. women education and teacher education in India.3 Directive Principles .5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. population education.

(1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Sharma.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Mahatma Gandhi. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.4 4. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Tagore 5. Ghanta R. New Delhi: NCERT 3. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . 5. Taneja V. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.C.K. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.4.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Curriculum and national goals . T. Kalan Paper Packs 10.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. 316 .4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Saraswathi T. Ram S.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Naturalism and Pragmatism .K.1 Idealism. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. B. (1999) Culture.N. (2005) Foundations of Education. and Dash B.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.N. Socialization. 7.K. Mishra. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Hemchand. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. Prof. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.R. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. Realism. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. REFERENCE 1.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. and Mohanty R. (2004) Problems of Education in India. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. and Human Development.Aim.K. Pandy V.S. and Sharma R. R. Delhi : University Publications 2.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful