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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Jainism and their educational implication. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. The need. and Jain system of education. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. 9 . Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. discusses the regional educational development in India. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. In. Lesson 4. Lesson 5. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. Lesson 2. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3.
4 Hunter Commission (1882) 188.8.131.52 Educational implications of Buddhist education 184.108.40.206.1.1.1 220.127.116.11.LESSON 1.1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 18.104.22.168 Aims of Jain system of Education 22.214.171.124.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1.6 Education during British Era 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .126.96.36.199 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 188.8.131.52.5 Jain system of education 184.108.40.206 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 220.127.116.11 1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 18.104.22.168 Features of Buddhist system of Education 22.214.171.124.
has a long past history starting in vedic education. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. both present and future. describe the Jain system of Education 4. in opinion.1.6. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. in morals and in the intellect”. India. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. 1.1. Indian in blood and colour. The history of education passed through Buddhist. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. “a class of persons. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. you will be able to: 1.9 1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.6.3. 1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. That 12 .1.7 1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. 1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. Muslim and British periods.126.96.36.199. but English in taste. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. British system of education presented the modern western model.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. elucidate the education during British Era.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.8 1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.1. Education in India.
There was. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. as it is generally considered to be at present. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. managed entirely by Brahmans. 6. Residential Schools. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. The immediate aim of education. 12. individually. Curriculum. 8. Immediate Aim Vocational. Free and Accessible. from darkness. generally. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Pupils were taught. 14. religious and spiritual. questioning by the pupil. and to agriculture and trade. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. 9. It was not merely intellectual. No State Control on Education. to light. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family.knowledge was real. Individual Teaching. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. 16. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Forests as Centres of Education. however. Religious and Spiritual. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. 5. 4. 13. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Education of Moral. not en masse by the class method. Education was a private affair of the people. Role of Travel in Education. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. the monitorial plan was followed. It was also moral. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. High Status of Teachers. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Where pupils were many. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Teacher as Parents. 11. Method of Study. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. followed by explanation by the teacher. 13 . was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Method of Instruction. 3. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. with grants of land or money. if they thought fit to do so. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. 10. from eternal to immorality 2.
Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. It was suited to the needs of the society. 2. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India.3. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. Wide-Spread Education in Women. They were very cordial and intimate.17. lived a life of celebacy. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. studied Vedas. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . 1. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. It was freely available to all those who wanted.
Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. medium of Pali. use of intoxicating things. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Right means of livelihood 6. Right knowledge 2. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. etc. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. the most significant of which were the following 1.1. 2.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. disease and death of the human beings. watching dances or listening to music. Education was imparted through the. partaking of food at prohibited times. Consequently. I take Refuge to Sangh.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. Right activity 5.C. use of cosmetics. killing of any living being. he was qualified to become a monk. Right speech 4. I take Refuge to Dharma. impure conduct. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. had the right to receive education. taking things without being offered. except the Chandals. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. It was denied only to the ill. which included abstaining from theft. dressed himself in yellow clothes. Right memory 8. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. the student had his head shaved of all hair. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Right thought 3. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. in which. Right contemplation 1. 1. he had to perform the Pababja ritual.4. Right endeavour 7. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. the handicapped. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. every class in society. 15 . the student remained in a state of Shramana. After attaining the age of 20.
7. Even at this stage. After this ritual. aspirations and. and. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. meaning. 2. elephant lore. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. be considered the aim of education It. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. 8. cottage industries. 4. assumptions. Later on. Life is in a flux. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. On this occasion. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. a change is not only total but also perpetual. has no metaphysical value for life. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. geology. Hence. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. etc. etc. arithmetic and religious discussion. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. animal husbandry. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. it is regarded as true”. magic. therefore. control over sensuous activities. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. 5. etc. approach. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period.3. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. knowledge of reviving the dead. objectives of human life. eat food thrice a day. agriculture. 1. archery. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. As reality is becoming. bodily gestures. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. wear three items. women occupied a position inferior to men. changing the goals. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. the presence of the monks was essential. military science. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. nothing is of any permanent consequence. Initially. handicrafts. along with education in script writing. It comprehended education in writing. 3. commerce. a continuous change creating 16 . 6.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. nature. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. archery. Whatever its nature and extent. beg for alms. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. These are called later Buddhist schools. the science of taming and training animals. so long as it successfully does so. medicine.. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. of clothes. depth and range. education was impart in art. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may.4. however.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a..new and peculiar situations. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. 5.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. Jainism insists 17 . Validity is effective and consequences. and to give it a shape that it has today. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. 1. In fact. it is much older than the latter. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. i. whatever works are true and good. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him.1. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. Education must. however. its pessimistic outlook on life. such as. However. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Its chief feature. goes to Vardhaman.5. Write Eight fold path . therefore.e. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas.
3. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. b) Right knowledge. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. Development of personality as an individual. d) To lead a celibate life. and believe in happiness to all. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. 2. 1. e) To renounce the world.1. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. and is to be redeemed and liberated. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. As such.5. but on both. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. 2. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. c) Right conduct. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 18 . 10. thought and deed. 1. 7. 8. it has a foot in both the words. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. 6. 5.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. c) Not to steal. They are: a) Not to injure.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. 9. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. more stress on individual aims. b) Not utter falsehood. Hence. 4. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. 3. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment.
Hence. that would be socially desirable.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Belief in transmigration of soul. Teaching must develop these faculties. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. education should develop sense of discrimination. 5. 4. What are Triratnas ? . 3. 3. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. Teaching should be social and tolerant. therefore. Knowledge is through senses and meditation.5. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 1. education must be action based and ideally oriented.4. practised and not only aspired for. success and love. and should bring happiness to all. 1. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 19 . 8. here and now. Jiva is essentially karmic. 2. 2.
Consequent to Macaulay's Minute.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. Madras. primary 20 . “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. Bombay. North West Province and Punjab. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. However. 1. philosophy and literature of Europe. science. 1.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. 2. with rally and rout. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler.1. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854).6.6. 1953). In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. 1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.6. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. 1. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal.6. and not for life.1. To set up separate departments of. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.
Instead of being a self-sufficient course. 1. In 1882. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. at the primary level. Then the prevalent education was anti-national.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. self-respecting and competent. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. The universities dominated the secondary education. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. At that time M.K. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 .6. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success.education was neglected. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. namely. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. secondary education became a step towards university. Later on.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. To ensure qualitative improvement. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. 1. 1. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature.6. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. they named these schools as polytechnic schools.6. • Universal free primary education. • Secondary education. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life.
The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry.1. all children are to have a common curriculum.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. 10. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. The objective of education was to provide 22 . What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. After this stage.
First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 2. During the Buddhist period. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. 6.1. The system of education was well-organised. Right contemplation. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Right memory. b. etc. Right means of livelihood. questioning by the pupil. archery.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. the science of taming and training animals. military science. Right knowledge. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. arithmetic and religious discussion. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 1. a. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. geology. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. along with education in script writing.1. Right endeavour. It was suited to the needs of the society. education was impart in art. science and English language. followed by explanation by the teacher.. Right thought.education of European literature. Right speech.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. 5. 2. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. 1. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. 23 . Right activity. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. 3. handicrafts. 4. The immediate aim of education. 4. establishment of universities.
b. Sharma. Right faith. Sargent report 12. Right knowledge. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. History of Indian Education System. b. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. (2005). Hence. 9. Aggarwal. a. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 24 . 1937 1. 10. Improvement of Literature. (2009). 1882. c. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C.C. Y. Development of personality as an individual. (1984). R. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. 8.K. 11. Right conduct.1. Development of Educational System in India. Ltd. more stress on individual aims.7. Ltd. Y. Singh. (2007). Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.K. a. J. and Nath. J.
5 1.1 University Education Commission 1.1 1.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.188.8.131.52.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.7 1.4 184.108.40.206.LESSON 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.8 1.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.9 1.3.2 1.2.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.3.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. The 25 .2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 220.127.116.11.2.2.6 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.2.2.
conditions of the teachers. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. analyse the progress of education in free India. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. National Board of Teacher Education 10. 1. National Council for Women’s Education 5. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. technical.2. standard of teaching. explosion of enrolment.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. Kothari (1964-66) 8. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. 2. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. New Educational Policy. 1. examination system. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. you will be able to: 1. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement.2. vocational education. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. expansion of vocational.3.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. 1986 1. medical and legal education. S. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. There had been vast institutional expansion.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. curriculum. Post-graduate 26 .2. technological engineering. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. diversification of courses of studies. girls and women education besides primary. secondary and higher education. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided.
Kothari. the New National Policy on Education.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. A meaningfully Partnership. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.2. Education is the key to our allround development. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . Therefore.S. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3. D. in January 1985. the chairman of University Grants commission. material and spiritual.teaching. 1952. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. Problems of access. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. Education for Equality. 1. The Essence and Role of Education. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. However. National System of Education. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. 1. utility and financial outlay. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. 1. 2. 1966. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. research et.3. 3.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. 4. A. Finally.2.2. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. 1986. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country.3. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. quality. Government of India. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. accumulated over the years. quantity.
It can train practical aptitudes. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women.” Thus. By working with hands. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. 28 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education.2. the concepts of work experience. attitudes. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. the minorities and the handicapped. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. The UNESCO Report. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Thus. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools.
the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. With adequate planning.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. it will conduce self. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. As such. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. “It may be described. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. The Radhakrishnan Commission. the Commission.” the Kothari Commission mentioned.” The Mudaliar Commission. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. Besides. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. In 1955. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. co-ordinations." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. According to. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. if he wishes. “The aim of these colleges. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. The Education Commission. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation.
determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. raising the special facilities. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. Therefore. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W).. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses.ot her. the rigid streaming of courses. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . the. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. The Central Advisory Board of Education. etc. for quality of life in the rural areas. Subsequently. the semester and credit system. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. In addition. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. admission requirements to vocational courses. With a view to relating education to the life.
The Father of Nation. preferably spinning and weaving. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. The wave of Basic Education. 1.2. meaningful. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. which offer scientific. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. which are useful to the community. Commerce. meaningful. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”.and the world of work. manual work resulting in either goods or services. 31 .defined S UP W as “purposive. giving importance to productivity in the national development. According to committee. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. etc. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. which swept the country for over two decades. felt that education should be centred around a craft.. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. who conceived the System of Basic Education. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. technological courses including Agriculture. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. aimed at this goal. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. In short.
enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Some Hints to Teachers 1. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. be that the work involved is: 1. 32 . This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Educative and 3. Work practice. Community work and social service. Productive 2. Clothing 5. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Health and Hygiene 2. The teachers should make use of. locally available materials and tools. 4. Food 3. tools and techniques and 3. Culture and recreation 6. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. 3. as far as possible. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. 2. so that it is educational in essence. Experimentation with materials. Shelter 4. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities.
Merits of the Programme 1. the local community should be actively associated. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. slum clearance. 6. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. Education through work The SUPW should. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. To make education more realistic. 1. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. Check on educated unemployed 4. etc. Community Service In-1972. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. improve discipline.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Reduction of gap in work and education 2.5. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. It can become an instrument to build character. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. removal of illiteracy. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. as far as possible. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood.2. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. Productive Work 33 . The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. inculcate a faith. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages.
Define SUPW 34 . offering first aid. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. helping the adults-in productive work.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. in turn. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . if not productive. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. etc. traffic control. should involve itself in the educational effort. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. skills and better future for the children. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. AICTE was set up in year 4. The community. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
1. Write short note on SUPW. which are useful to the community. 1955 4. meaningful. manual work resulting in either goods or services. b. 1952 3. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 35 . c.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. Radhakrishnan 2.1.2. 2. e. 3. a. 1. f. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. Dr. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.2. d.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 6.
P.K. Ltd. Y. (2009). History and Problems of Indian Education.K. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. and Rao. J. V.. Amala.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. A.1. Singh. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Anupama. B.C.2. History of Indian Education System. (2005).(2005). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. and Nath. (2007). (2007). History of Education. Rao. P. Y. : Sharma.K.H. New Delhi: A. 36 . R. Development of Educational System in India. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt.P.D.
1950. 37 .LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.3. assuring its citizens of justice.3.3. containing 395 articles. democratic republic.3.3.369 words in the English language version. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. procedures.3. Being the supreme law of the country. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.6 1. directive principles and duties of citizens. and liberty. there is an official Hindi translation. for a total of 117. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. equality.3.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. establishing the structure.2 1. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.3.1 Significance of DPSP 1. 1949.9 1.3.1 18.104.22.168.5 1. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.8 1.4 1. it came into effect on January 26.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. Besides the English version. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3.7 1.
1947 meeting of the Assembly. economic. spread over a period of 2 years. Two days later.3. 1. 4. Dr. for 166 days. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. 1. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 1.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. learn the role of central and state government on education. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.3. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. 2.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. political.3. 1950. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. understand our Indian constitution. in sessions open to public. According to the constitution. you will be able to: 1. On August 29. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. with Dr. 38 . After many deliberations and some modifications. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. Through them.3. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. The Assembly met. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. describe the important constitutional articles related to education.In the August 14. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. 1947. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. the Drafting Committee was appointed. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. legal and environmental. social. 1947. administrative. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24.
sickness and disablement. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. men and women. in particular. That the health and strength of workers. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. provide free legal aid. Article 41. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. Equal pay for both sex. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. and shall. old age. Article 40.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Article 43. make effective provision for securing the right to work. on the basis of equal opportunity. Equal justice and free legal aid.government. No abuse of children. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. and in other cases of undeserved want. 39 . for workers. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Article 39A. Article 42. Protecting health of the workers. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Protecting children from exploitation. Right to work. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Liking wage etc. Organisation of village panchayat. The State shall endeavour to secure. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Minimising inequalities in status. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Condition for dignity of children. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. The State shall. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.
by suitable legislation or in any other way. Article 43A. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Article 48. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. The State shall take steps. Participation of workers in management of industries. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. (Original Article 45. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Article 49. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. agricultural. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Article 44. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Article 45. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Article 46. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Article 48A. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. work. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. and. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. in particular. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. The State shall endeavour to provide. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Note: Subs. in particular. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. [declared by or under law made by 40 . 2002 for “45. See also Article 21A). industrial or otherwise. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Uniform civil code for the citizens. to all workers. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. a living wage. in particular. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Article 47.
disfigurement. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. disposal or export. 1. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. Article 50. as the case may be. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus.3. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. Promotion of international peace and security. Article-21A Right to Education. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. Article 51. removal. may be law determine”.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. 2002. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. from spoliation. Separation of judiciary from executive. destruction. 2. Article 45 .Parliament] to be of national importance.
7. ii. caste. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. 3. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. iii. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. 6.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 2002. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. in particular. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. if such person is a minor. from justice and all forms of exploitations. his guardian has given his consent thereto. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. race. 8. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. and. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. 4. 5. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. language or any of them”. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. and shall protect them.” 42 .
the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. The central government determines targets and promotes education.9. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. wherever necessary or desirable. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. 2. Article 351 gives importance to 6.3. the forms. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. and by drawing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. 43 . Educational Reforms From time to time. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. & 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. for its vocabulary.
the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . 7. So as to encourage education on right lines. Production of suitable for children and adults f. the state governments. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. private agencies etc. All India Council of Medical Science. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. 5. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring).3. By starting these projects. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. So that they may work well. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. 8. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Local bodies and private enterprise. 6. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states.. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. The following pilot projects. to achieve the desired ends. etc. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. 4.
Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. is the state responsibility. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. 11. education for women. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. 10. 4. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. etc. Material concerning nation-wide interests. The 45 . Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. reports etc. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. 1. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. research. handicapped. 9. are published by it. 1.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. 3. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. training and statistics. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. books.3. 12. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world.
3. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? .3. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Article 46 4.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 1. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. 46 .7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Article 21A c. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 5. Write short notes on a. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. articles in the Directive principles. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Article 45 b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain Directive principles 2. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. 1.
b. Describe the educational role of State Government. The Directive Principles of State Policy. b. Article 45 . Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Clearing House function 9. 47 . 4. Article 46 5. Ambedkar 2. 2002. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. a.5. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. a. Article-21A Right to Education. Dr. 2002. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Development of Hindi Language 6. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. 3. a. Article 29 and 30 7. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act.3. may be law determine”. 1.
New Delhi: Shipra Publications. (2007). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. S. (2004). B.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. N. Bhatia. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Education in Emerging Indian Society.3.1. K. L. Ghosh. K and Narang C. S. (2009). Dash. (2008). 48 .
22.214.171.124 Why Moral Education 1.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4. Students should be 49 . Christianity.126.96.36.199 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4. Jainism. Islam.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.7 1.6 1. Buddhism etc.4.8 1.4.1 1. religious education should be broad based.188.8.131.52 1.2 1.3. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.4 Moral education 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.4.
duty-consciousness. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66).4. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. know the position of religious education in our country 3.D. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. beauty and goodness so that 50 . It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline.. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. Thus. state meaning and need for moral education 1. integrity. In the complicated and complex society of today. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. you will be able to: 1. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. 1. India' can produce men of character. "In A multireligious society like ours. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher.and dedication. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. According to E. understand the relationship between religion and education 2.4.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion.” Education broadens human outlook. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. religious education and the concept of secularism. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. As result of which.
Viewing the defects of religious education. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. rancour. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. As our country is a country of diverse religions. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. realizes God in himself. Hence. As a matter of fact.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. all citizens are free to follow any creed. Children attend these organizations.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. According to Article 19. 1947 we achieved our freedom. 1. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. castes and creeds.4. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. it is clear that the State has no religion. through religious practices and 51 . They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. 1.3. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. No religious tax can be imposed on them.” From the above. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. Thus.4. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. if not regularly.3. They thought that any kind of narrow. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. In short. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. According to Article 22. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. at least occasionally. religion and democracy are same.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately.
. It helps to modify habits attitudes. It is religious education. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. As a result of which. temperament etc. one fully developed. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. which help him for the development of his character.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. for the development of the individual and the society. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. If unreleased. what is done and what is not done etc. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. which can mould. aggressive. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. Good education. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. when he becomes an adult. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.teachings. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. moral and spiritual values. He also learns about social. and what is evil. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. intellectual and physical faculties of children. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion.
2. which is the basic need of a democratic life. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. 53 . Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. 3. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. If we open the pages of history.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. 1. towards the society. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. This should not be allowed to happen. Therefore. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly.4. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual.3. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds.
Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. they should be discussed in the right earnest. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Since all religions have virtues. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Gurudwara as. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values.4. fellow-feeling. Write Article 22 2. examples of patriotism. 10. therefore.5. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 9. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. churches and mosques 7. 11. For this. stories of moral greatness. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Life histories of great persons of the world.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples.
an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. Asvada (Control of palate). Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together.4. 8. Cultivation of emotions.4. Fearlessness. 3. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. in the home. 2. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 5. 8.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 55 . 6. students. therefore.acquisitiveness). Ahimsa (Non-violence). let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 6. 3. Moral education. 7. Brahmacharya (celebacy). personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Patriotism. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. let men see well of one another. They will play their role effectively. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Purity. It they learn what morality is in their early years. The content of the curriculum. Without moral values. 4. Aparigarha (Non. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. “Let all be happy and free from disease. is that which develops moral values. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. the methods of teaching. 1. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration).5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Service to others. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 7. 5. Swadeshi (Patriotism). 4. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. 2. Self sacrifice. 1.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Satyam (truth). Non-injury.
Asatyam (Non-thieving). The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Discipline. 3. National unity and Spiritual values. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. minutes in the morning for group singing.9. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Good temper.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Efficiency.4. Good manners. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). In the school programme. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . 11. 10. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. discipline. Sharivashram (Physical work). 56 . Integrity. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Secondary Stage 1. 4. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. religions may be included in the syllabus. 1. Simple texts and stories concerning different. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. 2. Unity of mankind. 3. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. should form a normal part of school programme. In other words. 5.4. 5. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. 2. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . 57 . 4. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. 3. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Silent meditation should be encouraged. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. patriotism and self-discipline. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. In this connection. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. University Stage 1. love of humanity.
2. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. b. 4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. a. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. the. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. a. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. a. 2. For this.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. minutes in the morning for group singing. b. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. 1. 1. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.4.4. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. In short.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. Training of Character 3. Discuss the aims of Religious education. Sri Prakasa 6 . 1959 5. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. 58 . The School Assembly should be held for a few.1.4.
L.1. N. J. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). Bhatia. 59 . (2003). K. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Publishing Corporation. Theory and Principles of Education. Pahuja.H. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. N. New Delhi : Siddiqui. B. P. M. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K and Narang C.H. Dash. New Delhi: A. Ltd.C. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). (2004).4.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Anmol Publications Pvt.P.
5 1. disparities between provinces/States.8 1.10 1.12 1.3 184.108.40.206.5.2 1.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.4 1.5.6 1.7 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5.11 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.9 1.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 220.127.116.11 1.. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively. i.e. Although. 60 .18.104.22.168.
5. roads. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. 1. know the education suited to different environments. This leads to separatist movements. 61 . for example. energy.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. 5. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. 7. 4. understand the regional educational development in India 3. 2. etc. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. Accordingly. waters.5. 6. Selfishness of the regional political leaders.1. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. you will be able to: 1.5.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. They therefore. 1. 1. work hard towards this end. 8. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. they take appropriate measures. 3.5.
The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only .5. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. 2. 3. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. some States became educationally far advanced. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. 4.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. Secularism. Therefore. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. on the basis of regional development may be formed. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. 62 . Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. Tight security arrangements should be made. while others remained educationally backward. some average. and. • Separate States (of course viable States). and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II.
since its inception in 1998-99. while some States like Bihar.5. Tezpur. Jammu and Kashmir. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. Guwahati. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT.g.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. books. etc. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Rs. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. Nagaland and NEHU. 63 . efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. Regional Centres of IGNOU. Itanagar. approved proposals worth Rs. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. 1. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. Even in each State. Funds amounting to Rs. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. In the Central sector.After the Planning Process has originated. scholarships. the State Governments. Out of this. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. Central Universities of Assam.480. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. academic buildings.392. NERIST. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. the Union Government. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. These projects are in various stages of implementation. NIT.84 crore was released in 2005-06. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. Silchar. After the attainment of independence. remained under developed. library buildings. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice.14. etc. and provision of informal education to enable those.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. However. Mizoram. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged.. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities.
NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Out of this an amount of Rs.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.8 per cent in 05). while the northern region has only 20 per cent.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Government expenditure on education.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.5. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.500. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.187. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Moreover.261. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.57 crore and Rs.05 crore and Rs. Tezpur University. 64 . A provision of Rs. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. During 2003-04. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.40. too.501. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.
Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18).5. for instance. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Kerala and Gujarat. The Chandigarh Administration. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Andhra Pradesh.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. Karnataka. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. pharma. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. English. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. telecom. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. too. engineering and R&D. health services and welfare of the citizen population. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. notes the study. too. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Medical education. Moreover. too. Karnataka. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. for which 16 sites. Listing the positives. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. To add to the woes.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. Tamil Nadu. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. 1.
They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. the needs. the interests. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. Of course. the working days: an academic . there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the vocations. in which the learners live. 66 . But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. In the same manner. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. the socio-physical conditions.year. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. and so on. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. life-oriented and environment slanted. while the former does not. Then education become realistic and idealistic. The working hours of educational institutions. The living conditions. even actually looking at the watch. when he will not be sure of time. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. For a learner living in a rural area. the curricular subjects. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. Hence it is called as need-based. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. taking the average in the middle. which a non-tribal person cannot do. the teaching methods.
67 .10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.5. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. 2. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. to suit education to different environments? 1. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.5.5. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .
R.G. S.K. remained undeveloped 3. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.2. Educational Development in India. some of areas which were under the native rulers.H. (2008). 60% 1. New Delhi: Authors press. (2001). some States have become more developed than others b. (2002). New Delhi: Anmol Publications. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Dubey.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. and Nair. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.N. Education in Developmental Arena. 68 . C. (2001). Education Scenario in India. A.5. a. S. during the British rule. Giridhar. Salim.
UNIT – II 69 .
secularism and democracy through Indian education. National Integration. school community and mass media. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. 71 . community development. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education.
1 Main features of Socialism 22.214.171.124.1.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.2 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 126.96.36.199 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 188.8.131.52.4 2.1.6 Education for Secularism 2.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 184.108.40.206 2.8 2.1 220.127.116.11.1.3 2.7 2.LESSON 2.
The students may be associated with the management of the school.1. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. socialism and secularism 2. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.1. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. socialistic and secular state. This is the political aspect of democracy. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. understand the concept of democracy. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. 73 .4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. you will be able to: 1.1. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. for the people by the people”. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically.1. 2. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 2. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. 3) Provision of Manual Work.2. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. Democracy thus means power of the people. colour or wealth. In the matter of admitting students in schools. creed. there should be made no distinction of caste. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. Abraham Lincoln. socialism and secularism 2.
9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 12) Visits to Legislatures. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. declamation contest etc. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. There are different brands of socialism. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 11) Student Parliament. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. debates. it soon spread all over the world. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 74 . Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. 2. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. Democracy means 2. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions.. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. may be planned.
2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. oppression and disparity. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. free from exploitation. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work.1. none high”.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. service and cooperation. stationary and uniforms to the needy students.5. Under it. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 2.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 75 . 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 2. the prince and the peasant.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. but on the path of non-violence. the wealthy and the poor. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low.5. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 7) Special facilities for girls. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 2) Socialism aims at equality.1. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.
2.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. Everyone says. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. 11) State schools. Write any two main features of socialism.” In every political and educational corner. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. “India is a secular-country. 76 . According to Holydake. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students.1. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. 5.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. "which seeks the development of physical. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. secularism is being propagated. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’.
Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. people have narrow mindedness. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. A large number of people is uneducated. There is need of making the people open minded.1. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. Equality. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. 2. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. People have different religions and they have different beliefs.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. people started believing in regionalism. 2) It permits freedom of religion. That is why. 5) It implies tolerance. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Moral values have to be imbibed.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. the belief that the state morals. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values.6. During the recent past. 3) It permits freedom of worship.6. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. should be independent of religion. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. 77 .1. 9) It stress free inquiry. 8) It believes in co-existence. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. “Webster further says. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. education etc. fraternity. In this type of prevailing situations.opposed to religious education. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. liberty.
3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.1. Religious Education. While doing so. In the hands of such teachers.6. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based.presented by the students in the gathering. that the central string of all religions is one. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. 1) Moral Education. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. No doubt. In the celebration of each such function. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. There should be some internal checking of the material being. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . tours and trips may be organized. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Patiala. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. 2. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. The very sight of the building. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. students belonging to different religions should be associated. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. education. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . 2. Define Secularism 9.1. No doubt.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. The word “Seculum” means 7. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. The term secularism was first used by 8.
4. 3. b. This present age 7.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Socialism aims at social justice. creed. 3. Provision of Manual Work. Tuition free education b. 4. for the people and the people”. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. a. In the matter of admitting students in schools. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Since socialism stands for equality. George Jacob Holydake 80 . d. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. The two can move only in the consonance with each other.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. Equal Opportunities for Admission. c.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. 5.1. Abraham Lincoln. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Power of the people 2. Respect of Individual Personality. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. 6. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. 5. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. a. a. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Socialism aims at equality. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. The students may be associated with the management of the school. colour or wealth. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.1. there should be made no distinction of caste. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. 2.
Mohanty. education etc. Modern Trends in Indian Education. 81 .1.C. (2004). Bhatia. b. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. It permits freedom of religion. (2005). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. should be independent of religion. It treats all religions on an equal footing. K and Narang C. New Delhi : Pahuja. (2007). the belief that the state morals. N. L. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. J. K. a. Ltd. b. N. B. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theory and Principles of Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.” 9. Dash. (2008). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2.8. J. a. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 10. (2003). P. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.
1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2 2.1 2.10 2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.5.6. knowledge and experience of one 82 .LESSON 18.104.22.168.2.2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 22.214.171.124 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2.7 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.6.9 2.8 2.3 126.96.36.199 International understanding in the school 188.8.131.52.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.4 2.5.
It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. 2. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. you will be able to: 1. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. who are placed in his custody. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. mental. as it is t he aim o f modern education. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. understandings. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. moral. as persons. skills. 83 . development.2. It involves physical. 2. A teacher is first and foremost. social and moral aspects. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. The developmental roles of children. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. therefore. and 4. 3. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower.generation to another. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. aims and objectives of the school. a r e 1. as citizens. emotional. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. as workers.an instructor of school children.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils.2. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. social. application. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. as learners.
Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. economically effective. morally. intellectually. 2. 3. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. inquisitive. Teacher as a Citizen Next. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. culturally confident. The following are some of such roles described in brief. He is to become an active member. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers.All education should lead to better behavioural development. emotionally. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. a part of their day in 84 . Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. morally.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. He has to look after their physical. member of his community at the outset. socially. The students live. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y.2. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. experiences and acceptance. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. social and emotional health. 1. 2. mental. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. motivated. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. and aesthetically to become. physically fit for socially efficient. mentally.
fine art associations. science club. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. languages and religions. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. Unless. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. faiths. India is a land of many castes. 2. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. List out the role of teachers towards community development . activities of the society into which he is born. and most of hours. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. creeds. Dr. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They will be spending with their parents.2. solve them.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It 85 . the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. photographic clubs. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.the school being under the custody of teachers. 4.
emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. the study of language and literature. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. the citizens of the Republic of India. Nehruji has explained this as. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . Radhakrishnan. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. At the primary stage the importance of stories. The only process is the process of education. should be emphasised. narrow-minded provincial. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration.2. and make into one strong national unit. folklore and teaching of social studies. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. social studies. this integration of the Indian people. poems. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. stand up straight. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. It should broaden the outlook. Let us.5.” 2. a. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. national anthem and other national songs. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. 1. c. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. therefore. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. ‘We should not become parochial. Sampurnanand remarked. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that .” Regarding the role of education. b. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. with straight backs and look up at the skies.is. Political integration has already taken place to some extent.
87 . 2. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. 8. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. ACC. 6. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. sports. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen.different social sciences. tours. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. 9. 3. Reverence of National Flag. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Student Camps. militar y training like the NCC. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Celebrations of National Days. 7. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. dramatics and youth festivals. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. symposia. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. 4. Taking Pledge. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Uniform for School Children. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. 10. 5. and picnics. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Singing of National Anthem. Co-Curricular Activities. Scouts and Guides. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. debates. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. educational excursions. Textbooks. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. languages and literature. t he st udent s and t he community. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. National Days—January 26.
13. region or religion. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. ii. 2. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . Admissions to schools.5. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. 12. flora and fauna. Educational and Travel Documentaries. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country.2. colour. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. iv. Admissions. Students Exchange and Tours. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. Open-Air Dramas. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. 14. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. Recognition of Institutions. ways of thinking and doing things. iii. 88 . language. School Projects. v. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. 16.11. 15.
2. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’.vi. camps. irrespective of national boundaries. ix. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Community dinners.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. viii. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. cultures and races on equal bases. vii. Define National Integration 3. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes.
2. and the healthy development. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. patriotism is not enough. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. Radhakrishnan states. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. the international level. Teachers 90 . Dr. (b) stories of children of other lands. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. In a very real sense. 4. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.6. 5. Therefore. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . C.F. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. if it happens. 6.e. 3. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. that war.” 2.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. often in connection with anniversaries. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.2.friendships between children of different countries. of his body and mind. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. 2. Organising of debates and. (c) fairly tales. Strong has observed. therefore..as important as that of a national citizenship. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes.6. 2.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. This.
Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Indian and American. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background.” Well Informed About World Situations.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Russian. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. an Englishman. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. a German. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. They should not be propagandists. Impartial in their Treatment.
5. which results in agitation and aggression language. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . 3. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. the education function can be carried. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.2.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. Chronic Poverty . 4. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. If this is done. understand and indiscipline: 1. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals.2.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. Wide Spread Frustration . It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. leading to. and help the students to over . As the school is but a miniature society. majority of people are. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly.Another major. Devaluation of Values . students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. there is wide spread frustration among all people.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. 2. Defects of the educational System . It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . It does not prepare students for life. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students.
It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination.2. 5. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. sympathy and good will among the nations. love. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. 4. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding.2. 2.democratic nature. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. community development. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. co-operation. 93 . Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. fellow feeling. 2. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. etc. 2.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 184.108.40.206 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 220.127.116.11 Functions and role of schools in the society 18.104.22.168 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 22.214.171.124 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 126.96.36.199 Radio as an agency of education 188.8.131.52 Television as an agency of education 184.108.40.206 Press as a medium of education 220.127.116.11 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
18.104.22.168 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 22.214.171.124 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
126.96.36.199 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
188.8.131.52 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. led to the printing of books. the invention of the printing press. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. Hence. Define community. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. books. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.3.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Moreover. He taught his students orally. 2. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities.V. are increasingly used in education. During the course of time. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. Museums.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. In fact. “All the citizens of the community. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. periodicals. Now internet is being used. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Emphasising this thing. art galleries. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Then came newspapers. To make them achieve their aim. Crow and Crow write. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations.
Thus. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded.telecast. A lot of work by way of pre. Thus. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. It is also an important source of entertainment. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. music. languages. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. the teacher still occupies. current affairs and other areas. Various talks. Important happening inventions. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1.6.G. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. In collaboration with the experts. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. the place of importance. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. art. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. dram appreciation. 2. politics. Reynolds. 101 . An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. for the teacher through school broadcasts. social studies.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. “Listening participation” in current history. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. It enlightens public opinion. 2. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries.classroom teachers. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. It stimulates curiosity and interests. rather than on picture.3. Effective means of presenting music. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. In the emphasis is on sound. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Students listen various talks.
Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. Participation of local teachers and pupils. at any place. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. at drawing room. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. mathematics. 102 . development of lessons. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. 3. projects or creative activities. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. Before presenting the programme. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Team-teaching demonstrations. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. fol classical music. travel talks. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Making learning an open system. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. informal and non-formal education. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. speech. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. style. plays. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. at recreational centers. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. At present. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. 5. audibility and presentability. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. at play. 4. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. School concerts. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 184.108.40.206 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
220.127.116.11 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 18.104.22.168 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
4.2 22.214.171.124.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.LESSON 126.96.36.199 Levels of formal education system 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206.8 220.127.116.11.4.3.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4 Non formal educational system 18.104.22.168 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.3 Advantages of formal education 2.3.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.1 Characteristics of formal education 22.214.171.124.4.5 2.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.6 2.1 2.
his mental alertness. 8. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. Education associated with a degree or certificate. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim..1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. 5. it was mostly. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. 4. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. 2. 9. 3. School is.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. Education organised by some agency. the mass media et.4. Education. 7. 2. open school.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. In ancient time in India. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. the learner are acquainted. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. compare formal and non formal system of education. the family. 3. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. To realize this objective of education. 2. 6.3. starting and ending at -a particular age. 110 . the community. 2. the most important agency of formal education.4. open university. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught.2. say the Government or the private enterprise. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. imparted at the residence of the teacher.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. you will be able to: 1. the temple. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period.4. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. 4. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school.4.
third stage. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. In general. diplomas. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. the elements of language are first learned. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. Some education systems have separate middle schools. Through early formal education. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal.4.3. 2.2. or post secondary education. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 .2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. or academic degrees.a secondary education. depending on the jurisdiction. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. also called tertiary. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. and relations are formed and developed through normal play.3. Concepts of proportion. capacity. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing .4. Higher Education: Higher education. as well as vocational education and training. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. structured education. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. such as a high school or secondary school.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Agencies can be classified as 2. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 .which will help for nation's development.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and remote dwellers.3. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. 2.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. 2. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. What are levels of formal educational system? . Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. children with disabilities.4. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . late beginners etc. is an important agency of formal education. 3.
Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. However.formal education. systematic. Non-formal education includes adult education. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. etc. It is functional. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. adding up to a true learning society. Adiseshiah. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. to help themselves. it has its own valid claim to reality. place of instruction.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. i.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. It is deliberate.learning client take some learning objectives. staffed.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. one could say that non-formal education is an active. It unlocks the doors of development plans.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. It is much more responsive to needs and change. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. admissions. continuing education and on the job oriented education.e. adults as well as children. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. curriculum. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. According to Malcolm A. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. until 1970 it had not been defined. Open university. Thus. it is a more effective tool for rural development. financially supported life formal education.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. “Non-formal education should 113 . In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. open learning. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. Therefore.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. systematic. planned..
Lawrence. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. exploring. international understanding. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. co-curricular activities. socialism. 7.4.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. admissions. modes of teaching. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. 4.S. 2. place of education. evaluation etc.4.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Covering life span of an individual. 114 . They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. Part-time education. To develop in the student. i.4. To help industrial workers to better their skills. Flexibility in various aspects of education. age. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status.e. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. 3. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth.learning pattern.S. 5. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs.renewal. Process of sharing. national integration.” 2. 2. the Ideas of citizenship. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields.4.” According to H. curriculum. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.be marketable and vocationalised. Preparation for future needs. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. It should lay emphasis on the self. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. self. 6.
4. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. 6.4. school dropouts. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. Technical. Eradication of adult literacy. 2. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. Universalisation of primary education. To offer Secondary. Senior Secondary. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 4. 5. 7. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. • 2. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. 3. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 3.4.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans.4. publication and information dissemination. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized.4.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. working adults. 8. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 5. in villages and those who live in towns. 10. 9. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. 115 .4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 2. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research.
farm. if organised in isolation. public libraries. etc. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. All-round development i. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. effective in modern societal context.4. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. Again. library. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. self-employment iii. 4. etc. 3. Institutions for formal education. factory. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. training centres in factories. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 .full time to learners – can be home.2. To increase knowledge and 2. 2.4. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. 2. centres of correspondence education. To better qualifications.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. open space.. Therefore. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. others are formal and informal. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. To make if. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. Radio and television.4. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies.
Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. 6. 7. List out any two aims of non formal education. radio. Face Contact programmes. Define non formal education. 117 .6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. institution. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. . Give examples of non formal education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Teaching to face teaching. .V. Written tests. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Lecturing T. Correspondence lesson.
The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. 2. Primary level. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. 4. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. 2. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.4. b. adults as well as children. 5. a. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Open University. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. systematic. 118 . Secondary level.4. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. 2. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a.4. the college and the university come under this category. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. 3. 7. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Pre-school level. Formal and Non Formal 2. b. Higher Secondary level and University level.2. Open School. School 3.” 6. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 4. The school.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
Gupta. B. Theory and Principles of Education. Pahuja. L. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. J. (2007). Ltd.C. J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. K. New Delhi : 119 . Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Mohanty. Modern Trends in Indian Education. N. N. (2008). Bhatia. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Dash. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. S. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. P.2. Anmol Publications Pvt.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.4. (2004). (2003). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2005). Education in Emerging India. K and Narang C. (2008).
5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 126.96.36.199 Objectives of Open University 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.5.LESSON 2.5.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 188.8.131.52.3 Continuing education for literate adults 184.108.40.206.3.4 Need for Open University 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.4 Open University 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 220.127.116.11 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.3.1 2.2 2.5.6 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 18.104.22.168.5.5 2.5.7 22.214.171.124.5.
it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. give the meaning. 2. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. 2. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies.3. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. characteristics of open university 4. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools.126.96.36.199. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. 2. It is a lifelong process. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. economic field or such other fields. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. industries. continuing education is a boon. It is a continuous process. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. farmers. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. know the need and objectives of open university. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. labourers and half educated individuals.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. However. Thus. Under these circumstances. Any person.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. This knowledge may be in political field. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. For them. you will be able to: 1.5.
continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. Cinema. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. On the other hand. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening.3. if he gets opportunity to develop them. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. Radio. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. Radio and T. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. Block Development Officers. On the other hand. T. Persons engaged in health services. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Thus. For them too continuing education is essential. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. After the achievement of independence. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Doctors. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons.V. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures.literate person. deteriorating to his character and personality. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. 2.directly related to his job. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans.V. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas.5. cultured and progressive. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. Throughout the country. are also contributing their might for the purpose. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education.
(15) music. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. habits of people of other lands. 5. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. 123 . 2.3. 4.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (10) first aid. (1) ancient history. especially women. 7. Inspite of the great efforts. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (14) information about bringing up young children.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons.5. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 3. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. 2. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. 6. Of course. we have not been able to achieve our targets. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities.5. These books are not very useful. (2) basic religious matters. (6) folk stories. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (7) folk songs. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (17) modern international and national events. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (16) liking.V. 2. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge.. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories.3.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (8) psychology of adults. and Radio. (13) psychology of child behaviour.
The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . It also attempts to pr ovide equality. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. of educational opportunities.5. attendance restrict ion. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . What is the objectives of NLM? 3. 2.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. lack of time etc. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. NLM was launched in the year 2.4.
instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . 3. it makes use of educational techno logy.unobserved. its education is not class room based but home based. and in teaching.5. IGNOU was established in the year 6.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. 5. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. c. No one is too old or too late to learn. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. b. but 125 . it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. Education is not a once for-all process.4. e. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. Which was the first open university in India? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. d. 2. 4. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. the higher the degree of openness. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs.
assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 2. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l.5. 6. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 4. or who realised too late that they need it. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1.4. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 126 . They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. 3. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 3. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. Mo re o ver. supplementing the existing provision. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. cho ice o f co ur ses. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. 5. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 4. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 2. it a ims at wider and hig her.4. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books.who did not get it. 2. 2. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n.5. who were deprived of t he same earlier. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n.
Therefore.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. In the present day world. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve .5. a society. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. you have learnt the concept. Tutor Comments. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. school drop outs. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 8. 8. Laboratory works. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. 3. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Every day. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. 7. 1. Correspondence tuition. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . List out any four methods of Open University? . cha ng e t heir life compet ence. 127 . 5.5. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. 2. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. 2. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 4. a state or nation. semi – literates.2.4. Self instructional materials.
Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. b. 8.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 4. (2) basic religious matters. 7.ambitious learners. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. youth. need and characteristics of Open University. aspirants for continuing education.5. 2. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. which may include house wives. 8. Television Lessons. a. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 1988. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. d. agricultural and industrial workers.5. 7. 3. (1) ancient history. 128 . b. its education is not class room based but home based. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 9. Explain the objectives. 1985. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. 6. (4) the fundamentals of economics. a. 2. cho ic e o f co u r ses. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. P r int med ia b. a. unskilled workers and other professionals. Broad casting lectures c.
K and Narang C. R.S. (2004). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Modern Problems of Education. L. (2007). New Delhi: Rajat Publication. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.5. (2004). S.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.K. Reddy. Udaiveer. K. 129 . Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ltd.2.. (2001). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
UNIT – III 131 .
examination. Training teachers for all levels of education. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. wastage and stagnation. which may claim the attention of those concerned. its causes and remedial measures. 133 . and teacher education. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. Examination reform. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. In Lesson 2.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. All which is the need of the hour. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. the education of women. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision.
The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.3.3 New initiatives.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.7 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 188.8.131.52.1 3.1. 135 .1.1.6 184.108.40.206 3.LESSON 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.220.127.116.11 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.3.5 3.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.2 EFA – How? 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.4 3.8 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.
describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. directed that. Therefore. you will be able to: 1.1. On the other hand. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI).3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE).1. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. “The State shall 136 . may be political. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. social. (EOI) 2. 2. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. 3. understands the country. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. economic or cultural.3. Continuing Education (CE) 1. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. therefore. Eradication of Illiteracy. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. education received added importance and significance. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly.
The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties.endeavour to provide. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. the national Government under. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Universalization of Retention. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. After the attainment of independence. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Three Stages for Universalization. Continuing Education (CE). This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . Therefore. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. It enables the parents to send their children to School. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. 3. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. Universalization of Enrolment. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. rights and responsibilities. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. 137 . Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Due to the adoption of democratic system.
Therefore. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. 1990. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence.3. UNESCO Bulletin states.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. Write Article 45. 138 .1. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. It is safe to assure. present and future. 3. This target had to be revised to 1970. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. then to 1976. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1995 (for upper primary stage). we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. later to 1988. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. educational enterprise. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society.
139 . The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. 6. etc. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. nutrition education and sports and games. 10. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. Apart from primary education. Emphasis must be given on health education. the art of preparing fruit-juice. slum areas. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. By undertaking survey.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). their enrolment and retention.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. 3. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. NAEP. 3. Jams and Jellies. their social economic status and occupations. 9. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Early childhood education should be streamlined. The Social Education. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. Education of the Impaired. 11. and Women’s education programme should be improved. FELF. 8. Disabled. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1.3. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. 5. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. 12.1. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. problem of literacy. adolescent and adult. creed. rural areas. Education of Girls. sex.
1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.1. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Expand MLL and SSA . Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.3.e. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Wastage and Stagnation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. 3.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. 4. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 .3 NEW INITIATIVES.
The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . it is considered as wastage. School Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.first stage of education. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. Familial Factors . Personal Factors . Social Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 142 . Define Wastage. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. .
3. Societal Factors . School Factors . They are described hereunder :1. rural or urban 3.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . relating to home.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Personal Factors . It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.1. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.The following factors.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. Family Factors . in his home.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. school or society.
uniforms. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. etc. stationary. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. mid-day meals. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 144 . Define Stagnation? 9. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship.
Universalization of Enrolment c. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. 2.1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. 3. 145 . Universalization of Provision b. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. directed that. “The State shall endeavour to provide.1. Minimum Levels of Learning b.. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. therefore. a. Hartog Committee. 4.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. 4. 3. 3. improvement of curriculum. 6. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. a.1. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Universalization of Retention 2. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.” 3.3. b. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. a.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education.
9.K. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Problems of Elementary Education.7. Familial Factors c. Social Factors 8.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.1. improve examination system. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. introduce graded curriculum. Crescent Publishing Corporation. (2007). Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. School Factors d. T. Hemchand. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. a. b.K. Sharma. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. (2008). Personal Factor b. New Delhi: 146 . 3.N. S. a. (2001). S.
18.104.22.168.6 Inspection and Supervision 22.214.171.124.2 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 126.96.36.199.5.5.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 188.8.131.52 Merits and demerits of examination 3.7 Open book examination 3.2 Grade System 3.2.LESSON 184.108.40.206.4 The problem of reform of Examination 220.127.116.11 New evaluation procedures 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 18.104.22.168 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 22.214.171.124 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3 Modern reforms of examination 126.96.36.199.2.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.1 Problems of examination 188.8.131.52 Let us sum up 147 .5.1 3.4 Question banks 3.2.
2.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .3. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.2.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. suggest the new evaluation procedures.3.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. Besides. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. but on the other. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .2.2.2. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.2. you will be able to: 1. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.2.8 3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. 3. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. 3. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. 3. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.9 3. 4.
about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. hostel facilities. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. etc. They develop secondary sex characteristics. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. They may cause problems relating to discipline. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions.2. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. schools for them wherever necessary. The following steps should be taken up. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. 149 . other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life.. waiting rooms for girl students.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. etc. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. roadside Romeoism. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. etc. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. If the students are in sufficient number. which the educational authorities have to face. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. 3.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations.3.
It is considered as a major sub-system. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4. assessment and Finance.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. conduct of internal examinations. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. 150 . public administrators and statesmen. public interested in education. teachers. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. appointment of paper-setters. Instruction. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents.2. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them.2. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. the examination system has an important role to play.
training of examiners. etc. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness.printing and distribution of question papers. etc. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. etc. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. etc.4. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. etc. announcement of results.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation.2. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. values. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. invigilators. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . introducing objective-based testing. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. examiners. validity and practicability. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. tabulators. establishing reliability. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. scrutinizers. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. 3. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees.
takes the place of comprehensive learning. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. not meant to be assessed in the examinations.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. it s a common experience that subjectivity. 152 . Subjects.4. which they are expected to study. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. halo-effect. 2) From the angle of content of education. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. do not appeal to the students and parents.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. may also discredit them. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. 3) With respect to method of teaching. 7) In connection with the question papers.. Rote memorisation. stereotyped questions.2. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. Vagaries in making. lack of objectivity etc. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public.. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. 3. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. it can be said that they become examination-oriented.. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation.
and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions.develop true love for education. 153 . Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. re-numbering of answer scripts. . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. revaluation. Spot valuation. may be introduced. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. List any two merits of examination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc..a part of internal assessment. 4.
Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . Advantages More autonomy is given to students. In this system. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. The new scheme of assessment. Every paper is treated equal. 3. he is given extra credit points. skills are given importance. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.2.5.2. attitudes. The students can take any course offered in any department. Their interests.2. In actual practice. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society.5. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. When a person chooses to work extra. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. It is complicated. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure.3. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times.
The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. The human error of evaluation is ± 10.5. only the total credits to be earned is specified. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal.discipline. poor. 3. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. or as a 4 credit course. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. These weightages are called credits. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. In the new system. v. An example is a seminar. Groupism is encouraged.2.poor. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . This system reduces comparison of marks. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. courses can have weightages defined. While designing syllabus.good. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits.
with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. 3. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency.2.2. 3. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.5. However.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.2.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. 3. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.5. 156 .5. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.
Therefore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. recruitment. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India.2. However. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. In the hierarchy. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. .2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. There are no proper procedures for selection. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.3. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . 3.5.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. 6. List any four new evaluation procedures. What is the reason for introducing grade system? .
in contrast.6. library books. 3. inspecting the class-room teaching. taking up the follow-up programmes. staff. playgrounds. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. etc. finding out the adequacy of..2.qualified personnel. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect.. 158 . etc. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. When they are fully realised. They are. complaints and compliments. school buildings. Academic inspection. qualifications. laboratory equipment. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. of late. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. requirements. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. whether the syllabus has been covered. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. books are followed. being realised as two different functions.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. disciplinary problems.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. in a sense. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. 1. submitting of the inspection reports. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. interpersonal relationships and so on. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. finding out whether the prescribed text. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. wherever necessary.
bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. their professional knowledge. In the light of these conceptualisation. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. M. courses. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. Insistence on specialisation in the B. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. modern. Similarly. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace.2. 3. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. aptitude.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. 159 . attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. once in five years. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions.. In the case of departmental candidates. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose.Ed.Ed. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision.. or. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. at least. course in either educational.
2. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. b. c. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Administration. a. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. a. 3. Grade System. d. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.2. 5.2. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. assessment and Finance.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. a. 3. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. 160 . 3. b. Instruction. b.2. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 3. 3. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. examination reforms and supervision and inspection.
b. b. S.2. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. 5. History and Problems of Education in India. Multiple sets of question paper. a. b. New 161 . and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. 7. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Vaidya. K. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.4.a part of internal assessment. a.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Open book examinations. (2004). a. K. Problems of Education in India. Question banks. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. Educational Reforms. 3. (2005). (2002). R and Sharma. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. c.
4 3.3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.7 3.3. 4.3. identify the needs of rural India and social. 162 . 5.9 3.3.6 184.108.40.206 3.1 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3.3. you will be able to: 1.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3.2 220.127.116.11 3.LESSON 3.10 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3 3.3. 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. impact of Higher Secondary Education. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. 2.
But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. University Education.e. and 3 years of First Degree Course. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. e. in Andhra Pradesh.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. Similar is the case with some other States. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. Commission emphasised to continue. 2. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. 10 years of general Secondary Education. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country.. Consequent on the recommendations.. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. The Calcutta Madras. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education.g. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines.e. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. 8 years of general education. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. the Banaras Sanskrit College.. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre.3. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses .3. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. i. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. etc. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 .. The.specialisation programmes 3.
3. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. 7. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. b. to imbibe. historical. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation.a sense of dignity of labour. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities .4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. 10. 6. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. to prepare. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. economical and political. social. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. habits of hard work and develop . 5. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. Provision for transfer of credits to students. is also a plus point .3. 8. 5) to help for the social. However. and. who desire to change from one stream to another. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . educational channels.confidence in students. cultural and economic development of the country.
because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. etc. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. 1. and that required to enter the tertiary level.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. Psychologically. at the other. Philosophically it is not the conception. and.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. Sociologically it is undesirable. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies.national integration. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies.3. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 .. cooperativeness. The General Educational Spectrum. democratic living. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. to develop national character. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. cultural and' religious tolerance. international understanding. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. 3. on one hand. social justice. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission.
commerce. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. 2. technological. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. All these need for an. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. technical. educational and cultural services. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. vegetable growing. Science. such as Agriculture. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. 166 . fish culture.— tube-wells. rural health. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. industrial agricultural production is growing. medical plants. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. professional. the rural areas have suffered very much. India is a land of villages. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. Agriculture is the main occupation.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected.3. or other machinery. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. commerce. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. In the vocational spectrum. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. physics or mathematics. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. horticulture. In the matter of language. 3. chemistry. In our country. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. and vocations based on dairy-farming. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. Commerce and other disciplines. Biology.
Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. In time. interests and aptitudes of the students. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. 3. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. There had been favourable reaction from the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . In this it may be concluded. can be ensured. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits.etc. In this way. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. the local resources available. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. 4. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States.. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised.3. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . social justice. and 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. etc.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. and the needs.
Ltd. (2005). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. habits of hard work and develop . Anmol Publications Pvt.3. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Calcutta University Commission 2. N. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.3. (2007).3. we studied the history. S. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. b.3. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. objectives. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.K. b. 3. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. J.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. Vocational Sepctrum. Mohanty. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4.C. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. (2001). Education in the Emerging Indian Society.3. 3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. General Educational Spectrum and b. J. a. a. B.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Dash.a sense of dignity of labour. New Delhi : 168 . Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. to imbibe.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2008). 3. a. 2. Modern Trends in Indian Education.
1 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal. Education contributes to human development.3 3.9 3.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.LESSON 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.2 3.4.4. social and 169 .12 3.4.6 3.4.5 3.11 3.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 18.104.22.168.4.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.10 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4.13 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 22.214.171.124 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 126.96.36.199.8 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”.4.
state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. 3. family. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. you will be able to: 1.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. During the year 1937. 3. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. Dr. There is a close connection between education and development. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. Education . known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. Nursing. community and nation is universally acknowledged. although we have miles to go. Home Economics. particularly 170 .3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century.4.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. These courses were. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. For the first time in the history of India. higher education of girls developed immensely. Teaching and Fine Arts. analyze the women and distance education. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. cultural and political development of the individual. economic. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. While women constituted only 9. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. In the post —independence period.higher education in particular. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far.4. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. The relevance of women’s education to social. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered.
meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.2 29.9 27. we have more than 1200 institutions.N.1 24.T Women University.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.4. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. out of 9200 and odd colleges. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.9 14. Mother Teresa Women University. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.0 Today. Even today. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.4. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.0 16.0 32.4. In 1950-51. Yet. levels and professions. Mumbai. in our country. The idea of women’s education for equality. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. Coimbatore.D. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.0 43. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.women. 3. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.2 22.1 31. 3.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.65 lakhs in 1994-95. In the rest of the country. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. Kodaikanal.
1 and 14. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .4.34 33.63 Female % 34.46 82.that of boys. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .83 47.1 respectively.27 89.53 34.47 65.4.66 66. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.36 3.17 52. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. 2.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. 3.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .4%) prefer Arts subjects. 3.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.54 12. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.73 10.56 64. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.44 35.
Thus. 173 . promoted and increased. what is the need for higher education for her. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. financial difficulty of the parents. curriculum not suited to their requirements. Also. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. particularly. 3. marriage is a very common I factor. she will only learn fashion.4. In every third family. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. distance of the college or university from home. Book banks should be established. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. etc. In college. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. irrelevance of the content of education. and coeducation may spoil her character. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. They argue that when their daughter need not earn.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. According to a survey.hinders the girls from getting higher education. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. The major hurdles. They gave up their studies to enter home life. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations.
and the limitations of the conventional education system.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. It is a productive investment. It also brings about 174 . 3. 3. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. There are constraints of time.4.4. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. space. is the only tool for realising empowerment. Distance education is a boon to women. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Empowerment in a nutshell. resources and socio . Geographic distance of educational institutions.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. It enables to study.economic disabilities faced by women. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Education. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Full-time employment. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life.
As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated.4. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. legal awareness and economic independence. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. higher learning. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. education of women must be given priority in national plans. for full development of our human resources. The major objectives of women's higher education. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . education of women is of paramount importance. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. This can be achieved through reflection. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. 3. Women are partners in development. Empowerment is an active.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. on their own. empowerment means being assertive. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex.
More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. 3. The local administration. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. especially so in the developing countries. But their number is small. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. which is pending for a long time. will encourage them to venture new grounds. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. has to be implemented at the earliest. Better opportunities.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .4. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. The educational institutions. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. which had been the sole domain of men. Scholarships and concessions for women. Reservation for women. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. who are eager to take up courses. 176 . more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out.
especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . IDP Education. Australia. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. especially in developing countries like African countries. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. 3. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. According to Lindy Hyam.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Also. But. talents. capacities etc.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem.3 percent. Chief Executive. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests.9%). The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%).. engineering and related technologies (16.000 women in the country. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability.4. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.8%). CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 .1%) and architecture and building (38. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.
to the family. (2005). New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. a. A. (2008). S.R. create the right attitude towards life. Centre for Women’s Studies. individuals and society b. 4. Rajasthan 5.C. SNDT Women’s University. 4.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Mother Teresa Women University. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. R. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Women and Education. 3.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Pattanaikj. R. and Suryalatha. R. Women Education. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Rao. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. 178 . New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. S. Women Education.K. (2007). community and the nation. and Swain. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. Coimbatore. A. SNDT Women’s University.4. Mumbai. 3. 2. Kodaikanal. Annakodi. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.4.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. (2000). Coimbatore. 3. 43% 6. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women.4. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Mumbai. Mishra.
2 3.10 188.8.131.52.5.6 3.1 3.5.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.11 3.5.personality of children in and out of school.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. whole.5.5.9 3.3 3. so as to enable them to acquire 179 . As is the case with others pursuing different arts. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5.8 3.5 3.5.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.7 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.LESSON 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient. They should be trained.4 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5.
They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. 180 . Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. social and emotional integration. you will be able to: 1. Shorter working hours. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. 4. international. know the pre service and in service training facilities. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. 3. and national character. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. 5.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching.5. understanding and strong desire for international peace.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. understand the training teachers for Primary.5. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. national consciousness. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. Lack of physical facilities. equality and justice. 3.
Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. Lop-sided curriculum. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education..5.Less qualified teacher educators. a Diploma course and a Degree course. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. and the collegiate teacher education.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. (NCERT) New Delhi.. Depending on the levels. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. and M. At the diploma level. it is called the Extension teacher Education.Ed. inservice and extension education programmes. Inadequate training in practical skills. etc. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. the centre. higher secondary teacher education. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching.Ed. 3. the state Government. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . 3. who have not been trained earlier. If the student teachers are working teachers. it is called the In-service teacher education. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. levels. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. the primary teacher education. the secondary teacher education.5. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. students.
depart ments etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. etc. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 .5. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory .6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. extensio n service. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education.. Evaluation unit. non-formal. Education cells. Also Guidance Bureaux. are established. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . collegiate cells. Expand NCERT 2. state Institutes of Educat ion. Educational teehnology cells. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. Science Education units. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? .
for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. should be improved on a top priority basis. laboratories. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. to prescribe conditions for recognition. primary and secondary school teachers. and so on. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards.. material conditions relating to libraries. to ensure teacher competence. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . to offer consultative services.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . schools and sister institutions. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. which help breaking isolation from one another . every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240.Ed. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . to improve curricular programmes. audio visual aids.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . despite its vast expansion. degree.Ed.. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life.. and 183 . which should include experience in the primary schools too.
secondary education.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. Modern Techniques of Teaching. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. etc. not came up once again. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. Workshops. though no pre-service training. Organisation of Content Courses. Induction Courses. etc. To meet this exigency. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. The problem. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Meanwhile. Modern Methods of Evaluation. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Agriculture. methodology and evaluation. 184 . Psychology of Students. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. Hence. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . and XII. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. whether they should have professional education or.
Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. M. Pre-service training is for those. training. (Education) and M. For re-orienting the teachers.A.Ed.A.’s for Ph.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. These facilities are available for regular students. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. Courses leading to B. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. Ajmer. courses and M. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.Ed..Ed...Ed.. Degree. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.Ed. Degree and M.. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.. in Education.. State Institutes of Education. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.S. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.’s are elig ible for M. All B Ed.. Post-Graduates also undergo B.D.Ed. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. (Education) are organized by 185 . Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.
. What is the role of ERIC? . However. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. . 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. (Ed). Hence the employability of M. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .List any two code of conduct for teachers? . this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.A. 186 . Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. 3.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. established by tradition and teachers of the past. 5. 4. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. (Ed. they should be conscientious . Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. and B. of conduct—written or unwritten. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.A.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.).5. 6.
Discuss the problems of teacher education. However. 2. 4. Bhopal. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. Explain code of conduct for teachers.5.5. 6. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. a. Dearth of new technology of teaching. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. they should be conscientious. 3. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education.3. b. 3. National Council of Educational Research and Training.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. Ajmer. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. 5. 187 . and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 3. The necessity is however this. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. b. 3.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. Shorter working hours. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. a. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. a.
Mohanty. Teacher Education. A.D. P. Publication Pvt. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. and Teacher Education.N.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. Tewari. (2003). Corporation. B.3. Teacher Education.5. (2010). J. Ltd Aggarwal. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . (2009).
UNIT – IV 189 .
Since food is the source of nutrients. The person’s environment is equally important. communicable diseases and their prevention. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. 191 . the focus is on the school health programmes. In lesson 1. nutritional deficiency diseases. objectives and role of the physical education. objectives. If the diet is poor. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. consuming the right amounts becomes important. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. common ailments of children. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. preservation of nutrients. objectives. economic and educational developments. In lesson 4.
1.6 4.1.11 4.1.1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time. It is a miniature society.1.1.5 4.8 184.108.40.206 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.3 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.LESSON 4. physical.1.9 4.7 4.1. mental. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i. The programmes of school health education are quite important. 193 .1.4 4.e.1 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody.2 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. emotional and social.1.
Instruction. 194 . cleanliness and healthful living. 6. understand school health programmes 2. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. know the need for sex education. 4. training of teachers and evaluation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 7. 5. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4.g. 2. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. to his family and to the community at large. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases.. To give information regarding health rules. explain the importance of First aid 5. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. To develop healthy health habits among children.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. 3. 11. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. e. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. you will be able to: 1.1. training in first aid and etc.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. To develop certain skills concerning health. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. content of health education. 10. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12.1. 4. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. list the common ailments of children 3. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. 8. 4. 9. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation.
(ii) communit y healt h. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. 2. B. play festivals. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . Toilet rooms should be amply provided. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes.. as described below 1. “Play-for-all” programmes.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. (viii) first aid.4. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. (xl) mental health. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises.G.1. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. minimizing the travelling distance. (vi) nutrition education. The school buildings should be spacious. 2.coming or absence. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. There should be good drainage facilities. organisation of school health days. There should be regular water supply. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body.. First aid facilities should be made readily available. Arranging better transportation facilities. typhoid. The surroundings of schools should be clean. excusing late. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. etc. (xii) smoking education etc. Vaccination for small pox. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. is imperative. 5. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. 4. (v) safety education. vaccination. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. 3. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. inoculation against cholera. proper doors and windows. cleanliness weeks. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1.C. Triple Antigen Vaccination. B. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. direct lighting. The flooring should not be damp. suitable furniture. ( iii) sanit at io n.
• Keep all rooms clean. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. wounds. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. dislocations. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. • When sleeping in groups. fractures. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. if epidemic is wide-spread. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. C. D.. isolate and notify. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. poisons. 196 . Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. drowning. fainting (epileptic fit). cuts. • Find out the cases. bleeding. sports and games in the interest of their health. etc. and other accidents. scalds. burns. • Have adequate rest and sleep. insect stings. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. • Close the schools. • Take nutritious food.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. measles etc. which are – cold. They are: i) The incubation stage. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. headache.1. Mention the school health programmes. fever.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. 4. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. List out the Health curriculum 3. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage.1. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. backache. pain in the joints. chicken pox. So they easily get illnesses. Give your answer as instructed in each question b..6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. asthma. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. cough. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. Once these germs get into the body. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. These diseases are called communicable diseases. water or bodily contact. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. tuberculosis. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. 2. There are three stages in any communicable disease. polio. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people.
Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Others make the children very weak. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. Mumps . The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough.When a child suffers from scabies. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. The child may have fever. Measles .One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Hence it is called a killer disease. cough and fever. unhygienic living conditions. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. This is caused by cold virus. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. head-ache and cough. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Ear Infections .This disease is caused by bacteria. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. eating food which is not clean. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. etc. Tonsilitis . After three or four days of fever. The symptoms include cold. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Diarrhoea . Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Throat is affected. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Hence liquid diet is recommended. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. sugar and water. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Common Cold . 198 . The following are the common communicable diseases. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Some suffer cold due to allergy. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Scabies .It is caused by measles virus. Important salts and water are lost in this process. unhygienic bottle feeding.
What are communicable diseases? 6. face and waist. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. the child may die. Shortly. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. By scratching he causes secondary infections. separate. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. Expand DPT .This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. the child is not able to breathe. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. 199 . 5.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. It begins with fever. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Typhoid . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Diphtheria . Enlist the common ailments of children. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. raised pink spots appear on head. The child may also have diarrhoea.• • • • Chicken Pox . A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. As the disease progresses. If proper treatment is not given.
films and jokes. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. sprains. sprains. exciting and body-oriented. it is a subject of art.4. It is both biological and psychological. head injury. Cuts and Bruises . In such cases. so-called sex books and periodicals. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. simple fractures. and films. wounds. eye injury. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. scorpion stings.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. It has its rightful place in education too. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. Wounds . Sex is but an integral part of human personality. Sprains .7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e.g. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. cuts. 200 . bleeding. man-woman behaviours. bruises.1. Sex is popular. dislocation. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. etc. 4. fiction.1.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. drowning.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. 2. Drowning . Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. swelling. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. fainting.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. 4. 3. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. and Community Work and Social Service. 5.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. snakebites.
the state and the private and public enterprises should work together.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. In secondary schools. celibacy are age. they would be treading the path of sure doom.. sex education is being recommended in schools. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. The values of life. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. In today's liberal and interactive society. Should the boys and girls. but preserve them from disaster and disease. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community.old values. the school. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. B. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. try experimenting with their bodies. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. 2. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. health. Hence. the religious organisations. in their ignorance. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. The home. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . 3.
The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. the school health programmes.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. when the courses are already overloaded. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. common ailments of children. 4. there will no crisis in its implementation. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. Teacher education institutions are. 202 . offering sex education as a part of their curricula. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. hence. first aid and sex education. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. C. What are the major components of Sex Education. communicable diseases and their prevention. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 220.127.116.11 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
Mention the food nutrients 2. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 209 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4.
you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.2. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s .4. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. Let us talk about each of these aspects. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. 210 . U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s .2. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. minerals. If you look at the definition carefully. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods.
where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. the social and religious practices of that region. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. These are: region where the person resides and income. In the case of adults. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). Preferences/customs are also important.sedentary.2. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. Even within given States there is considerable variation.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. construction labourer). Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable.g. People in the east of our country prefer rice. sex. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. it is also specific to a given activity level . In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals .1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. paratha and poori. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. moderate or heavy work. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. Those in the west also tend to eat rice.g. dosa are typical of the south. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. There is no point. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. In other words. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. activity level and physiological stress.one in the morning and the other at night. for example. A balanced diet is specific firstly.6. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). 4.
You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. nuts and dry fruits. These determine the acceptability of foods. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Even among flesh foods. income plays a vital role. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. fat and sugar tend to increase. however. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. while another may hate them. In addition to these. If you think of your own religious group. however. One person may be fond of milk products. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. however. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. One must. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. Among the social factors. As income increases. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. As you read this discussion. as important for the rich as for the poor. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. Having more money. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. Including these 212 . for example. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. taboos related to food may play an important role. customs. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Judicious selection of food is.planning the diet. vegetables and fruits. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. However.
but they should be thrown away. 17. List out any two healthy food habits. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. 8) Walk a while after eating. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 8. if the teachers have good food habits. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. over-eating or under. Define balanced diet. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. For this. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well.eating is hazardous. eggs .7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 213 . 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. meat. green leaves. etc. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. fruits. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. mouth.
Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Corneal xerosis. 4. Beri Beri 4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. c. b. Conjuctival xerosis. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Bitot’s spots. d. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. preservation of nutrients.4. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. good nutrition is essential for good health. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. When the diet is inadequate. Vitamin D 5.2. Night blindness.2. Keratomalacia 3. Discuss good food habits. a.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain food nutrients 4. 4.2.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. e. In fact.
Chopra. 7. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. R. R. 4.2. 8. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. Food and Nutrition Education. b. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . b.C. Food should be consumed after eating well. (2008). A Text Book of Foods. Nutrition and Dietetics. minerals. Sri Lakshmi B. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s .M. (2004). (2008). vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. mouth. (2005).N. P. a .11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. S. Health and Nutrition Education. (2009). Food and Nutrition Education.6. a. Hands. Nutrition Science.
3.3 Impact on Education 4.8 4.13 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.LESSON 4.9 4.3. 216 .3 18.104.22.168.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 22.214.171.124 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.126.96.36.199.10 4.1 4.12 4.3.2 4.7 4.5 188.8.131.52.3.4 4.3.1 Impact on social development 4.6.11 4.3.
” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. you will be able to: 1. 4. It is a much wider co ncept. Whenever we talk of sex education. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. Population Education. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. his societ y and the world. population characteristics. understand the importance of small family norm 5. describe the impact of population growth on social.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. state the meaning. his family. 217 . the causes of population change.3. 4. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. community.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. There is some difference.3.3. aims at providing the younger generation. economic and educational development 3. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. therefore. objectives and need for population education 2. and the consequences of these processes. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. characteristics and changes for himself. the stress is. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. It is not sex education. family planning and sex education etc. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India.4.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Population Education 2.3.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the nation and the world. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. the society. the family.3. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 4.
6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. Family is considered as a social unit. 4.3. health and happiness of its citizens.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country.3. 219 . No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. With the larger families. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. which will not be possible without population control. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. 4. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. economic and educational development of the country. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems.6. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. Every second two thousand children are being born. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. the family programmes are also handicapped. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. When the family is small. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population.
facility for drinking water. unemployment. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. in buses and trains.6.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. in parks and other places of public gatherings. 220 . 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. organization index and material index. lack of proper health care. The gulf between them is widening further. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. Many students herded in a small room. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.e. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom.. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. toilets. teacher index. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. Swollen cities. heavy intern I migration etc. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. pollution of the environment. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective.3. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. i. in cinema halls and theatres. and so on. 4.6. In developing countries. 4.3.
less space facilities. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Social Studies Statistics on population education. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. can be taken up. It has got to be integrated with other subjects.3. There would be poor library facilities.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. There would be very few audiovisual aids. reproduction. less budget for education. Regional Language. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. family planning etc. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. blank verses etc. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. 221 . A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. bar graphs etc. Hindi and English. and laboratory equipments. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. can be studied in science and health education. thus. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. even text books would be in short supply.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. essays. less administrative initiative and leadership talents.
grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 7. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Bihar. Uttar Pradesh. 5. West Bengal. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Children may compare two families. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. 2. causes of deaths etc. 13. deaths. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. China. United States of America. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 11. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 3. Canada.3. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . 15. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. area and average density of population. 14. 10.4. Brazil. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 8. They may arrange them as per average density of population. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 12. 4. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. 9. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Children with the help of parents. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times.
How will you correlate Population Education? 5. 18. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. values and role children etc. Comparing life in various respects in two families. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. The question. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. we have no right to stop 223 . 17. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. 16.3.be opened in their schools. preferences for sex. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. age at marriage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size.
The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. Since the program's inception. More than 45 years ago. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. The Family Welfare Program. at varying places in different regions.were implemented 224 . is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. on an overall basis.their entry into the world”. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . should be overcome at the intellectual levels. continued .. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. and the child survival components of the news: program. 4.4-6. especially the expansion of child immunization services . “He who is responsible for population growth.3. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. which education can only do. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3.to emphasize family planning services. however. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). fertility levels have declined throughout the country.
At these meetings. Local programs vary in their approaches. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. and the World Conference on Women. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. a focus on health promotion. the community appears willing to pay for services. In April 1996. reliance on local women as community health workers. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. Moreover. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. and nominal fees for services. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. expansion of services to unmarried women. Therefore. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. men. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. In October 1997. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994.earlier than the safe motherhood components. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media.
improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future.emphasizing the needs of the client. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. family. 226 . involving the community. Its main purposes are to create awareness. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. community. economic and educational development 4. 1997). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. 3. What are the goals of RCH? 4. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. nation and the world. Describe the impact of population growth on social. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum.3. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. 4. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion.
4. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 227 . population characteristics. area and average density of population. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. the causes of population change. Canada. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. United States of America. a. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. his society and the world. b. bar graphs. 3. less space facilities.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. less budget for education. less administrative initiative and leadership talents.3. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 5. characteristics and changes for himself. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.” 2. 7. 6. his family. China. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. a. 4. b. a. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. and the consequences of these processes. Brazil.
Modern Trends in Indian Education. Coimbatore. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. (2005). Ltd. (2004). J. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Principles of Population Studies.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. (2005).K. Kantikar. T. A. Centre for Women’s Studies. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Modern Problems of Education. Jayapoorni. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Udaiveer. N. Bhende.4. Ltd. 228 . (2002). Reddy. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. V.3. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (1992). Changing attitudes to Education in India.
8.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 184.108.40.206 4.4.4 4.9 4.3 220.127.116.11.11 19.8.6 18.104.22.168 Major games 4.10 22.214.171.124.4.1 Minor games 4.3 Indigenous games 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 126.96.36.199 4.5 188.8.131.52 Lead up games 4.LESSON 4.1 4.
The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. team spirit. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. moral fitness and emotional fitness. you will be able to: 1. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. social fitness.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. perseverance. which forms its most valuable assets.4. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. full records of physical activities should be maintained. leadership and balance in defect. as it should 230 . the youth of the country. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind.4.4. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. 4. mental alertness.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. The concept of physical education has been made broader. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools.4. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. 4. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. classify the different types of games.
Every individual is a part of society. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. leadership. To be more precise. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Therefore. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . The educational efforts at home. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. They are inseparably united together. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. team spirit. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. They go hand in hand. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. obedience to rules.
physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. Just like Education.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. ment al. pleasing manners.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. C.” The Secondary Education Commission. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. nor body but the whole man. Regarding the significance of physical education. H. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. mo ral. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. Physical exercises. Buck has observed that 232 .4. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. Rousseau states. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. “Physical education does neither train up the soul.” Montaigue writes. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. a sound health. game and sports. 4. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India.
4.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. strength. 233 . It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. flexibility and power. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. happiness. speed. endurance. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. “If we wish to develop the whole being. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. initiative. elegance. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. etc. we must exercise the whole human being. efficiency and character.” 4.a properly directed physical education should result in health. resourcefulness and smartness. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. coordinative abilities. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. Froebel says. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life.” In brief.
including all racial groups and historical ages. If no opportunity is provided to the students. these fundamental things have always been present. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. systems of government. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. its adherents and its enemies. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. poetry and painting. Tournaments foster this sentiment.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. they may form gangs. While wars. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. in greater or lesser degree. plagues and famines. Every age has its artists. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. 234 (i) (ii) .
Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. 235 . to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. Write any two importance of Physical Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. obedience. 2. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education.sacrifice. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination .(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. etc. respect for rules. to develop tolerance.\ to develop perseverance. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. B. 3. self. bravery and interest in games and sports.
Keep the field ready for the activities. and readmission after they have recovered. Be self-confident. 9. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed.4. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Always keep the whistle ready. defects. 3. 14. is essential. students.H. Act as a leader. Be punctual. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. 2. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 7. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Usually parents. Haag. Be in the uniform. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. 13. Be sportive. 10. 4. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Inform health principles. 4. Be well-prepared. 6. 15. 16. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. . Posture screening should be done. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of.4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. and. 8. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 5. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 236 1. injuries among pupils should be made. 12. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 11. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured.4.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there.
Such inst incts as imitation. Moreover. their development is handicapped. Indigenous games. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. 4. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. 3. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.4. 4.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. 2. 1.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. the play.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 237 . less equipment and less expense. chasing. Lead up games. frolic and jo y. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely.8.
The dimension of the posts and nets. Shuttle Badminton. women take part most of the games.. Soft Ball. on sea-shore.With a very few rules. zig zag relay. bowling etc. Dodging. Tennikoit.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. They are played for a shorter duration. on mountain tops and on river beds. snatching the kerchief. Basket Ball. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. For each game the rules are many. over ball pass Relay. wherever the kids assemble. They are rules approved by the International Associations. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. pitching. boosting. benefit in playing minor games. dribbling. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. These games require varied skills such as running. some of them are played indoors. the play equipment. Ball Badminton. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Khokho. muffling. driving. spiking. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Volley Ball. Except a few games. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. Kabaddy etc. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Jumping. finding the partner. hitting. Throwing.8. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Tennis. couple tag. While many of them are played in the open playfields. stopping. on hard courts.4. heading. Hockey. the number of players and substitutes. Jump the stick clay and so on. trapping. the games can be modified according to convenience. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. catching. skipping. Cricket. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. under ball pass Relay. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Hopping. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. with implements or without implements. On lawns. 4. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. 238 .
death. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. While observing the players in action. On occasions like marriage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. All the fundamental tactics. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. festivals connected with religion and public functions.8. and . 4. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game.8.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. List out some major games. An example for indigenous game is 8.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. they are in existence.4. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. Kho-kho. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.4. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. these games being popular. For example. birth. Games may be classified as 6.4. 7. They have an abundant social value. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 .
Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Minor and Major 240 .11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 3. b. to secure physical health b. Posture screening should be done. d. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. 4.4. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. 4. 3. c. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.4. 5. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 2. 2. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. a. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. aims and objectives and need of physical education. b. a. a.4. 4.4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. to develop physical stamina. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. b. a. 4.
J. Shuttle Badminton. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Tennikoit.K.6. G. Khokho. Mohanty. Ball Badminton. 4. Khokho 8. Cricket. Ltd. J. J. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Kabaddy 7. Tennis. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Health.4. Hockey.C. 241 . (2008). Handbook of Physical Education. Foot-ball. (2009). New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Physical Education and Sports. Aggarwal. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2008). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Volley Ball. Soft Ball. (2005). Krishna murthy. Basket Ball. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
2 Manmade Environment 4.5.7 4.10 4.5.1 4.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.5.9 4.5.3 184.108.40.206 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .220.127.116.11 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .6 18.104.22.168.4 4.11 4.LESSON 4.5.1 Natural Environment 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.
5. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Attitude. Knowledge. population explosion and resource depletion could be. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. social. list out the types of environment 3. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. 2. Details are given below: I. Participation. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values.educat ion for the environment. Evaluation Ability. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. 3. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. economic. 4.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. political. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. you will able to: 1. 6. 3. Broadly. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. education about the environment and education through the environment. role of teacher in environmental conservation. Skills. The best place to start such learning is school. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.5. 4. aesthetic and educational factors. 4. 5. it covers the following elements: 1.5. Essential knowledge about the Environment. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. 243 . Awareness.
Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur.B. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. 2. F. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Oxidants Other pollutants. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. heat sink and wind flow in cities. D. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. 244 . Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. • Biological magnification E. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. a.
Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Abortion iv. The human ecosystem II. B. The pill ii. 4. Birth control through education b. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 .3. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. economic. 2. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. 2. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Use of medical science i. Sterilisation. c. Intrauterine device iii. 3. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. III. Control of population growth a. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Family planning ii. Socio-economic measures. Persuasion: i.
List out the major causes of Environmental problems. e) Recycling. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Water pollution abatement. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. 1983). Air pollution abatement ii. 3. 2. 246 . 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Environmental Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. (UNESCO.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection.
This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.5.other components of the environment. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .5. to his needs. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. He modifies according”. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. 4. These are biotic components.5.5.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . A change in one brings about a change in the other. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.5. Biological environment The biological environment.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. a.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. telex. Any constituent or condition of the environment. animals and other organisms (biotic). It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. -other. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. includes the plants.5. They interact with each.4. b. way is called environmental or ecological factor. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. fax agricultural apparatus. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds.
extinction of species. acid rain. food chain and food-web. desertification 248 . Geography Topics like importance of forest areas.. importance of nitrogen cycle. greenhouse effect. sources of pollut ion. nuclear warfare. nuclear energy. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. biogas plants. noise pollution. trees reducing noise pollution. of civilizations. are the topics which may be taught in History. alternate sources of energy. over exploitation of ground water. explosion deforestation. balance of nature. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. wars and hazards of war. need for bio-diversity. (ii) Air pollution. reasons. ozone layer deplet ion. preserving the watersheds. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. role of trees in building economy. excellent recreation sites. river systems. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. need for conservation. noise control. natural way of controlling pests. social studies. evolution. History The rise and fall. t heir role in preventing pollution. solar cookers. etc. effects o f CFC. effects. water scarcity. preventing siltation of dams. industrial pollut io n. population. change in climate may be added.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. ozone depletion. maintaining the ecological diversity. air pollutants from industries. use of pesticides. industrial survey. windmills. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. supplying timber for various uses. sources. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. mineral survey. use of medicinal plants. relation between population and pollution. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . etc. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees.
Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Developing awareness about environmental issues. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 5. 3. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 14. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Peepal and Tulsi. Providing. 11. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 4. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education.5. 9. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. aims and scope. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant.may be inc ded in Geography. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 13. Organising conferences. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 6. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 10. 7. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 2. 4. 249 . 8. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. animal and plants. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. group discussions and seminars. 12.
it will cause pollution. all these can cause serious pollution. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Don’t burn any waste. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. World Environmental falls on 250 .Send their waste oil. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Reuse carrier bags. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. or form a car pool for everyday travel. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. 6. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Use public transport wherever it is possible. used oils down the drain. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Never put any left over chemicals. 5. especially plastics. If it is done.
dest roying nat ural habitats. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. The groups may exchange. nuclear wars. values and habits.mat erials.. depletion of ozone. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. Conservation of natural resources. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. Concern for species. etc. potable water. rather than conquest and mastery. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. loss of bio-diversity. To provide reference materials for children’s use. developing desirable attitudes. Social responsibilit y (common good. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. concern for others). Att itudes of balance towards nature.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry.5. orderliness and beauty). To arrange visits or expeditions. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. To arrange for visiting speakers. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. To provide materials needed for practical work. (cleanliness. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . viz. diversity and stability. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil.). and 251 . etc. deforestation. CFCs.4. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. Harmony with the nature . According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems.
9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. 252 . Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. 4. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. 4. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. preserving natural cycles. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.5. 8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
To provide materials needed for practical work. (1997). S. b. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Modern Problems of Education. 6. sources of pollution. air pollutants from industries. b. group discussions and seminars. Ltd. greenhouse effect. (2007). a. Social responsibilit y (common good. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . a. effects. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Providing. concern for others).2. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. 4. New Delhi : Authors Press. Organising conferences. over exploitation of ground water.. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. relat ion between population and pollution. population. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. ozone layer deplet ion. Education for values. Environmental Education. T. Y. a. explosion deforestation. 3. Anmol Publications Pvt. reasons.\ 4.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Publications Pvt. Nanda. 5. a. water scarcity. new problems from science and technology. (ii) Air pollution.K. Awareness. Udaiveer. b. acid rain. (2007).5. S. Environmental Education. To provide reference materials for children’s use. New Delhi : Sharma.K. Kuldeep. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Knowledge. b. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications.K. June 5 7. importance of nitrogen cycle. sources. (2004). Environment and Human Rights. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Rapid population growth. 8.K.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 22.214.171.124 Idealism and aims of Education 126.96.36.199 Idealism and Curriculum 188.8.131.52 Idealism and methods of teaching 184.108.40.206 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and aims of Education 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and Curriculum 22.214.171.124 Naturalism and methods of teaching 126.96.36.199 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 188.8.131.52 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
184.108.40.206 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 220.127.116.11 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
enrichment and transmission of culture. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. The universe is regarded as a thought process. the emancipation of spirit." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure.1. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. Education must contribute to development of culture. in fact. Universal Education. According to Rusk'. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. should be universal in nature. Spiritual Development. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. Therefore.our life. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted.” 5. man is essentially a moral being. Education according to idealism. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. moral. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . It is self-realisation.3. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe.
Learning through reading. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . Learning through discussion.the spiritual qualities of mankind. Learning through imitation. History.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. friend and guide. He carries the child from darkness to light. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. So cognition (knowing). the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. a spiritual guide for the child. According to idealism. hygiene. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race.” 5. 5. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. Learning through lecturing. For intellectual development. no doubt. an indispensable necessity. Ethics. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. 4. 2. Herbert advocated instruction method. Philosophy. So he should embody. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. For this no particular method has been suggested. According to Frobel.” He is thus. He sets the environment in which education takes place. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. However. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. so subjects like Religion. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. and collation (striving) should find due place. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming.3. So health.1. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. 5. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. Science. the school is a garden.3. Mathematics etc.1. Learning through questioning. 3. should be there. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. affecting (feeling). while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. The plant can grow. It considers teacher as. subjects like Languages. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only.
curricula. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. 2. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. Ross explains. formal lessons or examinations. text books. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. "Education should make 263 • . List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. time tables. 5.1. In the words of Ross. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. Perfection of Human Machine.perfection and beauty. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. 5.preservation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4.
Chemistry. “Education finds its purpose. It is based on the psychology of the child.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. subjects like history. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Biology. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. It emphasises physical and health education 5. • 5. Botany etc Language. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment.1. Naturalistic curriculum. 4. education should develop the child into Joyous. therefore. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Zoology. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Literature. is based on the nature of the child. Arithmetic. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Therefore. There is no place for religious and moral education. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. In all. 264 . rational harmoniously balanced. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Education should. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Education also aims at helping the individual t.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour.4. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. useful and mature child. It stresses basic sciences. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality.
1. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. a provider of an ideal environment. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Learning by doing. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. a supplier of materials and opportunities. he should be taught by experience alone. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Rousseau says. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. In the . and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . the stage. 5.1. Dalton Plan. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development.1. Heuristic method.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. It discards all rigid. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.5. 2. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Learning through experience. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. Learning through observation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. 4.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place.4. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. 3. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching.4. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .
Continuous Growth. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Vocational and 266 . Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. History. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order.5.absolutism of idealism. 5.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. intellectual.1. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously.5. 5. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Geography.1. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. social and moral aspects. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Social Science. Subjects. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Social Efficiency. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Personal Social Adjustment. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Physical training. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. diversified and flexible. The aim of educational development. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. is true. Sciences. Agriculture.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. All Round Development of an Individual. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences.
a teacher occupies an important position. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. He must be trained. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .” 5.5. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. should find proper place. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher.1. He has to be active. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.Technical Education. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.5. alert and resourceful.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. activities and experience should be integrated properly. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy.1. The subjects. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Learning by Doing. 5. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. a senior partner and a sincere guide. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child.
4. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects.1. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Study of Subjects like Language. Literature. Crafts.1. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Astrology.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. 2. 3. Biography Philosophy. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. liberal. 5. 5. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Sex Education. practical. 5. scientific and psychological education. Geography are unnecessary 268 .5. 4. Art. rich and happy. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. 3. literary or humanistic education. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Psychology. History. Mathematics. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. intellectual.1. Education is preparation for a complete living. Biology. specific.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Chemistry. Music and Dance.6. It favours child-centered. Population Education. The basic tenets of realism are 1. 2.6. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind.
certainly and clearly.6.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. easily and pleasantly.1.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .6.
Demonstration and Observation 270 .1. a. Geography. e. Sciences. Child centered c. Experimentation d.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5. Rousseau 5. Social Science. d. b. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Agriculture. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Learning through lecturing. 5. Physical training. a. History. Vocational and Technical Education. 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. 3. has no end other than growth. Learning through questioning. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. naturalism. Learning through experience b. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression.1. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.7 LET US SUM UP We have. c. pragmatism and realism. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. in this lesson. Learning through imitation. Universal Education 2. Education according to pragmatism. Tours / Excursion e. Self preservation & Self expression 4. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. & curriculum. Languages.1. Learning through discussion. a. 6. Self Realisation b.5. Learning through reading. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism.
Ltd.H. Anmol Publications Pvt. 271 . P. P. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : A. Theory and Principles of Education. K.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Pahuja. (2007).1. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. O. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. N. R. L.P. (2007). New Delhi : Bhatia. (2004).P.5. Publishing corporation. Foundations of Education. of Pathak. (2003). Narang C.
18.104.22.168 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.22.214.171.124. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.4.1 Aims of Education 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 126.96.36.199 Methods of teaching 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.3.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.1 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 188.8.131.52 Methods of Teaching 5.4. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.4.4 Views about teacher 5.4.2 Curriculum 5.2 Curriculum 5.2.1 Aims of Education 184.108.40.206.2.2 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .LESSON 220.127.116.11.2.2.4 Views about teacher 18.104.22.168.2.3.
273 . we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life.2. 5. economic and political reconstruction in our country. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. 5.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.5. an artist.6 5. Tagore was a poet.5. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.2.2. 3. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.7 5. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.2.8 5. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. mind and spirit. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.2. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2.4 Role of the teacher 5.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. 2. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. Gandhiji was primarily a social. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. you will able to: 1. content and methods.
intellectual and physical faculties of the children. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji.2. It really provides opportunity for character building. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. nor the gross animals body. "I attach more. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. it is education of life. mind and soul of children He further observed. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands." Dignity of Labour. 5. 'Man is neither mere intellect. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. self-restraint and service of humanity. through life and for life.supporting. In the words of Gandhiji. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education.3. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. strength of mind. righteousness. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. His scheme of education is life centred. 274 . Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education.
the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. gardening. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Music.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education.3. metal work. Drawing and Hindustani. General Sciences. "Development of the moral character. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders.Training for Leadership. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . 5. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Mother-tongue. Only good individual forms a better society. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.2. leather work have been suggested. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. the realization of the ultimate reality. According to Gandhi. Art. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. wood work. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Individual and Social Aims. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme.
3. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. Basic education is other wise known as 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. proficient. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.trained. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. men of 276 .
Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. He has an experimental approach towards life 2.2. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. He also advocates freedom for the child.knowledge. 3.3. That is why. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. Education must be child centered. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji.
He was a true patriot.” Like all other ideals. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.4.K. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. • Ideal of citizenship. He was deadly against untouchability.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. 5.2. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. • Cult of non-violence. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.2.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. Gandhi in 1937. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. 5. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. he was a true Vedantist 5. He believed in the oneness of humanity.3. • Education should involve manual work. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.
etc. complete manhood could be attained. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Chemistry. could help in forging unity among all. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. International Understanding. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Therefore. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. wider in range. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Music.4. 279 . deeper in. Religion and Psychology. Tagore said. "Mankind must realise a unity. That way only. Dance.2. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. International understanding. It should help the learner have good physique. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. It should help. them solve problems of day to day life. he said.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. (vi) Philosophy. Civics. sentiment. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. stronger in power than ever before. Zoology.Language and Literature . Botany. Geography. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. the more dedicated and devoted.
Tagore rightly says. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. Activity Method Heuristic Method." 5. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.2. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.4. In 1921.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. 280 . Let individualised methods be used for teaching. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. 5. 5. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.4. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.2. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.2. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.4.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.” He further says.
9. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. It is open to all irrespective of country. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. 281 . 10.g. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. race. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1.
The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Book learning.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.2." He was against the theoretical type of education.5. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. According to him. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only.2. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . 2. Concept of Education. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building.” 5. Education for Self-reliance. Freedom. work and deeds come out of it. 4. Purity of thought. 3.5. He believed in to learning or selflearning. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Education for strong Moral Character.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. character forming and assimilation of ideas. man making. Education for Self-realization. Education should make a person self-reliant. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man.
5. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. philosopher and guide to the students He. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.the learners on different students in the discussion. Discussion Method. That will serve the purpose of education fully.2. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Philosophy and Theology. And above all. Education for Physical Development. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study.5. Of course. The teacher should be the facilitator. 6. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. 283 . Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth.5.5. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. 5. Secondly he wanted Science.5.2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Every individual should be trained for concentration. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Swami. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses.2. Religion. 5.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Thirdly he wished that games. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. A physically strong person is the need of the society. engineering and technical subjects.
Write short notes on Basic education. of course. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. 3.Substantiate your answer. in this lesson. 12. 284 . begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Gandhiji as a Idealist. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. 5. ears and eyes.2. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda.2. naturalist. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. We have seen that Tagore. 5. and pragmatist .6 LET US SUM UP We have. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. Their educational ideas.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. legs. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. 2.
a. 3. 10. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Nai Talim 4. 11. e. Cult of non-violence. Ideal of citizenship. d. Basic education. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 5. Learning by Doing c. Education should involve manual work. 8. Explain Vishwabharathi. b. Meditation and concentration c.4. Heuristic Method. c. f. wood work. 9. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. 5.2.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. 2. a. c. Self realization. 1937 7. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Activity Method d. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. a. 5. a. metal work. Discussion Method 285 . leather work have been suggested. Technique of Correlation 6. gardening. Activity Method b. Teaching while Walking b. Self-Study b. Debate and Discussion Method.
K. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. (2002). P.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. New Delhi : A.2. 286 . New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2003). Pahuja. L. K and Narang C. N. C. N. Theory and Principles of Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. P. J.5. (2004). on Bhatia. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Aggarwal. B. (2007). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. Ltd.H. Publishing Corporation. Dhiman. O.P. Anmol Publications Pvt.
1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3.6 5.3.10 5.7 5.8 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.11 5.3.9 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 . we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.LESSON 5.3.2 5.3.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.3. In this lesson.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.4 5.3 5.1 5.3.
5.3. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. In it. new behaviour may be acquired. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. in fact . living in the hilly area. maintained or eliminated. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. there is a large number of communities.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. in the form of new experience.S. While education is a process. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. Since the demands. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. you will be able to: 1. state the meaning of curriculum 2. 5. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. it is identical wit h socializat ion.3. the desert area. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. is a means to the process. the plateau area and 288 .A. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. curriculum signifies situations for learning. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. While education is learning. From the latter point of view. in Russia or in Japan. Curriculum is intimately related to education.3. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. curriculum. A g o o d curricu lu m. Then in a big country like India.under the direction of the school.. Both the processes are integrated. In the words of Kerney and Cook. present behaviour may be modified. In the former sense.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. the plain area. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. in the U. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.
The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. However. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. It must differ from locality and from society to society. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. In fact . the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. therefore. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. and 289 . the learning capacity of children. From a slave-country we became secular. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. Besides craft. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. customs and needs. 5. differs from individual to individual.3. it is. too. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. according to modern trends in the educational process. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. studying therein. democratic and socialistic country. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. irrespective of their needs and environment. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. environment.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. Again.
individual or Social and so on. 5. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture.g. e. Self Realisation. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education.g.g. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . 290 . They speak of immediate purposes of education. general or specific. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. uninspiring and unscientific. 2. social. Understanding Objective.. unambiguous and functional. remote or immediate. 1. which may or may not be attained. The word “Curere” means 2. in instructional objectives. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Vocational Efficiency. Goals of Secondary Education. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. They are achievable.. specific. Application Objective. etc. e. 3. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. So it is inadequate. unsatisfactory. emotional. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. Knowledge Objective. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes.. social. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed.. they depend on the political. of classroom.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. aesthetic and spiritual development. 4. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. etc. moral.3. National Integration. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They may be ultimate or proximate. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. aims. eg. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. tangible.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. Goals of Primary Education. etc. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. They speak of perfect goals. They are visionary goals e.
Crow and Crow remarks. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. Raymont rightly says. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. finding them very interesting and captivating. capacities. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others.” 291 . in the class rooms. heavy fire. The interests.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. but it includes the totality of experiences.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. abilities. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. needs. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. According to Crow and Crow.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. educationists. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future.5. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. on the playing fields. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other.3. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization.
tendencies. time in a useful manner. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. capacities and abilities. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. mental. aptitudes.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. Due to these variations and differences. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. urges. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. moral. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. They often waste it or rather kill it.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects.
phased preparation. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. organized. 2. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. To ensure success of the process. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. administrative programme need be planned. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. 293 . reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel.curricular. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. 3. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. development of professional capability at all levels. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. Similarly.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1.
10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. library. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . 5. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils.3. laboratory. 18. 5. 17. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Child Centred Education b.3. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. 1937 19. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. Run. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. in the class room. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. workshop. 10. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. principles of curriculum construction.3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Relation with Life c. 12. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. a.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 11.
Lakshmi. New Delhi : Isha Books. 295 . (2007). S. (2001).K. S. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Curriculum Development.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. and Sarita Kumari.3. Curriculum and Instruction. P. Bhalla. N. D. New Delhi : Authorspress. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.S. Innovations in Education. (2007).5. (2007).
4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.7.1 188.8.131.52 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.1 Developing scientific outlook 184.108.40.206.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.9 220.127.116.11 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.5 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.10 5.4.7 Scientific Attitude 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4.4.4 5.4.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.LESSON 5.8 5.2 126.96.36.199 5.
3. 5. honesty. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. Gradually. tolerance for the opinions of others. superstition or emotion.during the second half of this century. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. open-mindedness.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. in the economic reconstruction of society. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. know the importance of science education. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively.4. 4. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. 297 . explain the concept of scientific attitude. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.4.5. 2. 5. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . newer and newer industries started growing. you will be able to: 1. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. We mean curiosity. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student.4.
Principles are formulated. 2. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work.So that. 6. 3. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Central science workshop. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Devotion towards nature increases. seminars and symposiums. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. After such experience and training. Through newspapers. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. stipends and appreciations in various ways. 4. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Through examinations. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction.4. 7.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Organisation of science fairs. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 6. Love for truth enhances. 4. 3. as well as of the society. Schemes of teaching science. Selection for science education. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. 5. Promotion of science clubs. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 2.4. 5. Thinking and memory develops.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 5. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 5.
sex or religion. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. After presenting the problem.4. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. objectivity. 5. Write any two advantages of Science Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It is. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Training of science teachers. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. 5. essential that teachers. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind.4. Enquiry teaching is. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. In the inquiry approach.needs and conditions.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature.6. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. 7. They encounter many social events as they grow. each child to “enquiry skill building”. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. should provide opportunities to. They experience natural phenomenon. For laboratory and workshop techniques. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. They ask many questions about the objects they see. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. therefore.
Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. 2. commands or orders. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. It requires consistent thinking. 5. 6.6. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. if they like. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 5. Appreciating pupils ideas. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. to ask questions and experience things. Evidence.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. stern pursuit of accurate data.books. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. 3. 5.4.Herma Wouk. test. Adopting creative models of teaching. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook.4. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. 300 . Social sciences. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. . stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Giving less directions. 3.
see and feel the need of developing this attitude. critical thinking and suspended judgments. it must be encouraged. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. school and society at large. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. (Vaidya 2007). They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. To achieve this we should understand what it means. These characteristics of any scientific 301 .1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. friends. These include open mindedness. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. For instance. keen observation. to develop among the learners. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. therefore should be unbiased and objective. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.(Smith 2008). 5. practiced. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience.7. The students observation.4. of vast resources running waste. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. and emphasized during the learning process . of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. neighbourhood. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude.
think and work it”. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. 302 . The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. rumor. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. (Das. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. or superstitions.7. The intention to respect another’s point of view.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. 5. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. In considering a situation or a problem. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. he studies all aspects of it. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. understanding and logic. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge.4. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. 2007). Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. intuition or wishful thinking”. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias.
They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . but to begin only after careful planning. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.4. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. 188.8.131.52. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. • 5.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.
8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. 5. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience.4. 5. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. it must be encourages. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. 304 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
B (2008). a. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. Planning of activities 5. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. objectivity. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. 2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Adopting creative models of teaching. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. a. b. The intention to respect another’s point of view. (2008). Wide reading b. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.4. 5. 305 .11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Study of superstitions d. 5. Yadav. (2000). 3. D.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Reflections on Scientific attitude.4. S. M. 16. Love for truth enhances.5. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Rao. a. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. (2006). a. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 4. Vaidya. Discuss the importance of science education 14. b.4.S. Proper example of the teacher c. N. b. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications.
5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. actively.8 5.5 5. objectives and characteristics.5. areas of institutional planning. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. 306 . state the concept.LESSON 5.5.6 5.5. 2.5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.3 5. you will be able to: 184.108.40.206 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5.5.2 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.4 5.9 5.1 220.127.116.11.10 5.11 5. 5.
because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. every teacher. Institution should be regarded as the unit. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. which become the bases for further planning at the district. • to make planning development-oriented. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. and.5.5.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. every parent. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. • To make institutional planning more successful. • to involve teachers and school administrators. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. 5. and each student are regarded as separate entities. and every student in the process of educational planning. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level.3. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . 5. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. executive as well as public. and supplement planning from above. each teacher. teachers and students is not lost sight of. State and national levels from below. in the task of educational planning. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n.
The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. and Personnel services. Classwork.5. which will be discussed in the general.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes.• implemented.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. (2) Co. Syllabus. Examinations. Co-curricular activities. it becomes the basis for school inspection. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. etc. 5. 308 . council and. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. approved after making necessary modifications.curricular Activities. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction.5. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members.
Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Undertaking remedial instruction services. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Equipping of laboratory and library. Preparation of models. Preparation of audio-visual aids.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. scientific and historical excursions. 2. charts and apparatus. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. etc. 3. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Organisation of Pupils. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. Courts. Organising play-for-all programmes. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. hobby-centres. Improving the internal assessment. etc. Fair distribution of syllabi. Organisation of Self-Government Days. 1. Conducting of educational. etc.No. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Organisation of class-room libraries. Preparation of instructional material. Organisation of Students’ Association. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Editing the school magazine. Running science clubs.
administrator-pupil. administrator-supervisor. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. which are divided as the in. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. students’ associations. pupil310 .5. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. teacher-managing body. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. pupils.” The human relationships in. understanding. science teachers’ associations. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. etc. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system.5. parent-teacher associations. parents.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. teacher-State. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. and solidarity. teacher-pupil. administrator-administrator.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. involving mainly human materials. teacherinspector. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. co-operation. ii. and —pupil-pupil. teachers. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. Administrator-State. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. teacher-teacher. headmasters associations.
8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. now-a-days. organisation.State. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. According to C. It covers personnel and material management. to carry out. administrator. teacher-parent. pupil-parent. etc. pupil-inspector. 311 . Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. To administer means to manage." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. control. superintendence. to accomplish. supervision. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. to attend. Good. V. organisation and management. social sciences and other disciplines. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. pupil-community leader. and to serve. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. supervision and superintendence.5. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. teacher-community leader. pupil-non-official functionaries. It is also being modernized to become a technique. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences.
10. 11.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. Those.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic.Management should be efficient and economical 312 .This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. 3. Economic Management . Better Human Relationships .Any good management will always have good public relations. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. The relationship should change from master. low.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. 9.Of all the approaches.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees.The manager should have leadership traits. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. 12. Leadership . It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. Communication . He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. 2. Decision Making . 6. Rapport between the Management and Employees . Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . Liasion with the Public . 4. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. If it is more. 13. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. Worker Participation .The manager should take his subordinates into confidence.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. it is not worth-while. 5.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. Democratic Management . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. Motiviation . If the cost benefit ratio is less. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. who occupy the managerial positions. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. Socio-Scientific Approach . should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. 7.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. He should be an artist in human relationships. Cost-Benefit Analysis .He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. This is the latest democratic trend in management. 8.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.5. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. 14. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. and cooperative performance should be ensured.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. 18. enrichment of curricula. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning.5. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 19. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work.g. to improve the quality of education it provides. objective.These two are. 313 . 5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions.too. improvement of teaching methods. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions.
Examinations. Classwork. Co-curricular activities. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. APH Publishing Corporation. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. b. S. Fundamental of Educational Management. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. (2001). Syllabus. 4. Decision Making b. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. d.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Tarachand and Prakash.5. 2. Singh. it becomes the basis for school inspection. f. (2003). and Personnel services. R. Educational Administration.5. NUEPA. a.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. e. (1995). b. a. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. Communication 5. H. In group and Out group 5.K. a. Motiviation d. a. 314 . c. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Instruction.5. b.M. Leadership c. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House.
wastage and Stagnation 3.teachers should have : 1. Sex-education 4. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.CORE PAPER . social Impact 3. School.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. higher education. New evaluation procedures. Code of conduct for teachers. Buddhist and Jain system of education.1 School Health Programme. Common ailments of Children. population education. physical education and environmental education 5.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. 1. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Examination reforms. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. First Aid. Inspection and Supervision 3. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Communicable diseases .Religious and Modern Education 1. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.1 Gurukula system of education.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .2 Nutritional deficiencies. women education and teacher education in India.4 India's Secular Policy .5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.1 Primary Education : Education for all. Realized the problems of school education.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Preservation of nutrients. Healthy Food Habit 4.3 Educational Influences of Home. Economic 315 .3 Directive Principles .1 Inculcation of Socialism. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.Preventive measures.Article 45 . 2.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. nutritional requirement.I. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.Pre-service and In-services facilities. Balanced diet.5 Regional Educational Development in India . 4. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. Community and Mass Media 2.
Mishra. (1999) Culture.1 Idealism. and Mohanty R. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Tagore 5.K.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. curriculum and teacher's role 5.C. Taneja V.R. Curriculum and national goals .N. R. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.K.K. Ghanta R.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms.4 4. REFERENCE 1.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. (2005) Foundations of Education.S.K. and Dash B. Hemchand.N. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Mahatma Gandhi.Aim.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. T. Ram S.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Delhi : University Publications 2. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.4. Realism. 316 . B. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. New Delhi: NCERT 3. (2004) Problems of Education in India. 7. Naturalism and Pragmatism . Pandy V. Sharma. 5. Saraswathi T. and Sharma R. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. and Human Development. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. Socialization. Prof.
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