Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

UNIT: 1 – V



Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer



Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56


Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University


67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5



3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education

127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233


5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4


UNIT – I 7 .

8 .

Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. Lesson 5.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. In. Lesson 4. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Lesson 2. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Jainism and their educational implication. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. The need. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. and Jain system of education. 9 . Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. discusses the regional educational development in India.

10 . Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE Practical teachings of Jainism Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.6.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.LESSON 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education Buddhist system of Education Methods of Jain system of Education 1.5.5 Jain system of education Education during British Era 1.5.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.

where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. 1. elucidate the education during British Era.1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.6. The history of education passed through Buddhist. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.1.1. Education in India.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1. Muslim and British periods.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.1. in opinion. 1.1. in morals and in the intellect”.1. you will be able to: 1.1.7 1. 1. Indian in blood and colour. describe the Jain system of Education 4. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. has a long past history starting in vedic education. both present and future. India.3. British system of education presented the modern western model. “a class of persons. but English in taste.8 1. That 12 . Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.6.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.9 1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.

the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. followed by explanation by the teacher. and to agriculture and trade. Pupils were taught.knowledge was real. from darkness. from eternal to immorality 2. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. however. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Immediate Aim Vocational. the monitorial plan was followed. 3. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. individually. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. The immediate aim of education. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. 16. It was also moral. 9. 12. Individual Teaching. Free and Accessible. Residential Schools. 13 . and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. 6. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. 10. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Method of Study. 14. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Curriculum. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Religious and Spiritual. with grants of land or money. Forests as Centres of Education. High Status of Teachers. Role of Travel in Education. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 8. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. No State Control on Education. Method of Instruction. It was not merely intellectual. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. 4. to light. There was. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. 13. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. not en masse by the class method. Teacher as Parents. Education was a private affair of the people. religious and spiritual. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Where pupils were many. questioning by the pupil. managed entirely by Brahmans. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. 11. if they thought fit to do so. generally. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Education of Moral. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. as it is generally considered to be at present. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. 5.

Wide-Spread Education in Women. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It was suited to the needs of the society. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. It was freely available to all those who wanted. 2. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony.3. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. studied Vedas. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. They were very cordial and intimate. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. lived a life of celebacy.17.1. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils.

1. every class in society. Right thought 3. Consequently. the most significant of which were the following 1. Right activity 5. impure conduct. use of cosmetics. Right contemplation 1. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. 2. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. I take Refuge to Sangh. except the Chandals. dressed himself in yellow clothes. medium of Pali. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. the student had his head shaved of all hair. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. in which. After attaining the age of 20. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. the student remained in a state of Shramana. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. It was denied only to the ill. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. I take Refuge to Dharma.C. disease and death of the human beings. Right speech 4. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. Right knowledge 2. Right endeavour 7. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. taking things without being offered. which included abstaining from theft. watching dances or listening to music. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. etc. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. Right means of livelihood 6. Right memory 8. he was qualified to become a monk. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles.4. 1. Education was imparted through the. the handicapped. 15 .4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. killing of any living being. had the right to receive education. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. partaking of food at prohibited times. use of intoxicating things.

be considered the aim of education It. changing the goals. so long as it successfully does so. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. the presence of the monks was essential. These are called later Buddhist schools. elephant lore. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. Even at this stage. It comprehended education in writing. 7. handicrafts. agriculture. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. eat food thrice a day. along with education in script writing. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. women occupied a position inferior to men. On this occasion. archery. military science. nothing is of any permanent consequence. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. After this ritual. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. meaning. Later on. 5. depth and range.3. arithmetic and religious discussion.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. knowledge of reviving the dead. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. and. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period.. bodily gestures. beg for alms. 2. As reality is becoming. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. 8. etc. a change is not only total but also perpetual. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. therefore. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. animal husbandry. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. 4. it is regarded as true”.4. objectives of human life. Initially. the science of taming and training animals. Hence. cottage industries. has no metaphysical value for life. magic. etc. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. of clothes. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. archery. aspirations and. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. nature. Life is in a flux. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. commerce. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. a continuous change creating 16 . geology. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. approach. 3. 1. however. medicine. control over sensuous activities. etc. education was impart in art. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. Whatever its nature and extent. 6. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. assumptions. wear three items.

Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and its refusal to believe in supreme God.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. In fact. 5.. Validity is effective and consequences. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. whatever works are true and good. its pessimistic outlook on life. and peculiar situations. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. Jainism insists 17 . and to give it a shape that it has today. i. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. goes to Vardhaman. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Its chief feature. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable.1.e. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. Write Eight fold path . 1.5. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. therefore. However.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. such as. it is much older than the latter. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. Education must.

1. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. c) Right conduct. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 18 . and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. b) Right knowledge. thought and deed. and is to be redeemed and liberated. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Hence. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. 10. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection.5. 3. 5. and believe in happiness to all. 8. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. 4. e) To renounce the world. it has a foot in both the words. As such. 9. 1. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. d) To lead a celibate life. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. They are: a) Not to injure. 1. b) Not utter falsehood. but on both. Development of personality as an individual. 6. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. 3.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. more stress on individual aims. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 7. 2. 2. c) Not to steal. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma.

hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. therefore. 8.4. that would be socially desirable. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. education should develop sense of discrimination. 19 . Hence. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. 2.5. Teaching should be social and tolerant.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 3. 2. What are Triratnas ? . 4. 5. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Belief in transmigration of soul.5. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 3. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . here and now. practised and not only aspired for. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. and should bring happiness to all. Knowledge is through senses and meditation.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. success and love. education must be action based and ideally oriented. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Teaching must develop these faculties. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. Jiva is essentially karmic. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. philosophy and literature of Europe. 1.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.1.6. However.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. 1. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. science. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. Madras. Bombay. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. and not for life.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. 1953). which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. To set up separate departments of.6. 1. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. 1. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. with rally and rout.1. primary 20 . 2.6.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. North West Province and Punjab. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.6.

self-respecting and competent. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies.6. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). namely. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education.6. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. 1. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. secondary education became a step towards university. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. The universities dominated the secondary was neglected. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. In 1882.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams.K. 1. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. • Universal free primary education. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. To ensure qualitative improvement. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant.6. • Secondary education. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. 1.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. at the primary level.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. At that time M. Later on. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education.

1. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? .At the primary stage (6-11 years). Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. After this stage. The objective of education was to provide 22 .7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. all children are to have a common curriculum. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. 10. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

Right endeavour. 6. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. a. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. education was impart in art. along with education in script writing. During the Buddhist period. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. The system of education was well-organised. science and English language. geology.1.1. 4.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.. 23 . so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. the science of taming and training animals. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. establishment of of European literature. 3. Right activity. It was suited to the needs of the society. questioning by the pupil. arithmetic and religious discussion. military science. followed by explanation by the teacher. Right speech. 3. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. etc. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. Right means of livelihood. 2. 1. The immediate aim of education. handicrafts. b. Right contemplation. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Right thought. Right knowledge. 2. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 5.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. archery. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. Right memory. 1.

b. Singh.C. Sargent report 12. R.C. Hence. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Right conduct.K. Sharma. History of Indian Education System. Ltd. more stress on individual aims. Aggarwal. (1984). Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Development of personality as an individual. (2007). J. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. J. a. (2009). Y.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. 24 . Ltd. Improvement of Literature. Right faith.7. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). and Nath. 1882. b. Development of Educational System in India. 10. 11. c. 1937 1. Right knowledge.K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Y.1. 8. 9. a. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva.

2.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.3.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2 1.6 1.LESSON 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.5 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.2. The 25 .1 1.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.8 1.1 University Education Commission Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.4 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner. 1.3.9

Post-graduate 26 . The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. technical. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. girls and women education besides primary.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. examination system. 1. technological engineering. National Board of Teacher Education 10. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education.2. standard of teaching.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. explosion of enrolment. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. 1986 1. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. There had been vast institutional expansion. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. vocational education. medical and legal education. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3. curriculum. analyse the progress of education in free India. 1.conditions of the teachers. S. you will be able to: 1. Kothari (1964-66) 8. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. New Educational Policy.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided.2. 2. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. expansion of vocational. National Council for Women’s Education 5. diversification of courses of studies. secondary and higher education.

1. utility and financial outlay. The national system of education envisages common educational structure.3. 1952.2. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. 1966. 4. the New National Policy on Education. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.S. 2.3. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. A. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. quality. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.teaching.3. quantity. D. 1986.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . The Essence and Role of Education. National System of Education. Education is the key to our allround development. in January 1985. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. A meaningfully Partnership. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. 1. Problems of access. material and spiritual. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education.2. Government of India. Education for Equality. research et. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. 3. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. Kothari. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. accumulated over the years. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. the chairman of University Grants commission.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964.2. 1. Therefore. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. However. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. Finally.

the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. By working with hands. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. the concepts of work experience. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world.2. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. the minorities and the handicapped. The UNESCO Report. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. attitudes. Thus. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. 28 . Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It can train practical aptitudes. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education.” Thus. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work.

“as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. it will conduce self. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. In 1955.” The Mudaliar Commission. With adequate planning.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. The Education Commission. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. Besides. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. if he wishes. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. “The aim of these colleges. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . co-ordinations.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. the Commission. “It may be described. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. According to. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. The Radhakrishnan Commission. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. As such. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries.

. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. With a view to relating education to the life. In addition. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . Subsequently. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. admission requirements to vocational courses. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission.ot her. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. Therefore. The Central Advisory Board of Education. the. for quality of life in the rural areas. the rigid streaming of courses. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). the semester and credit system. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. raising the special facilities. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. etc. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education.

which offer scientific. meaningful. who conceived the System of Basic Education. felt that education should be centred around a craft. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. In short. 31 . which swept the country for over two decades. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken.2. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf.. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. Commerce. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. preferably spinning and weaving. giving importance to productivity in the national development. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. According to committee. The wave of Basic Education. technological courses including Agriculture. which are useful to the community.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. The Father of Nation. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. etc.defined S UP W as “purposive. meaningful. 1. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject.and the world of work. aimed at this goal. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. manual work resulting in either goods or services. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past.

be that the work involved is: 1. Educative and 3. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. so that it is educational in essence. Community work and social service. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. 3. Clothing 5. Experimentation with materials. Productive 2. locally available materials and tools. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Shelter 4. tools and techniques and 3. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. 2. Food 3. The teachers should make use of. 4. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Some Hints to Teachers 1. as far as possible. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Work practice. Health and Hygiene 2. 32 . Culture and recreation 6. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities.

It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. as far as possible.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. Check on educated unemployed 4. To make education more realistic. 6. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. It can become an instrument to build character. inculcate a faith. 1. the local community should be actively associated.2. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Education through work The SUPW should. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. improve discipline. etc. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Productive Work 33 . Merits of the Programme 1. slum clearance. Community Service In-1972.5. removal of illiteracy.

and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. The community. helping the adults-in productive work. Define SUPW 34 . etc. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. offering first aid. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. skills and better future for the children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. AICTE was set up in year 4. in turn.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. if not productive. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. should involve itself in the educational effort. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . traffic control. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. 1955 4. which are useful to the community. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 1952 3. 1. 6.2. Radhakrishnan 2. f.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. meaningful. 1.2. manual work resulting in either goods or services.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5.1. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. 35 . b. Dr. Write short note on SUPW. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. a. d. 2. e. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. c.

Y.K. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). P. Y.. and Nath. Publishing Corporation.(2005). (2009). History of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.D. Amala.H. Rao. Development of Educational System in India. and Rao.1.2. V. B.K.C.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. History of Indian Education System. R. (2005). (2007). J. History and Problems of Indian Education. A. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Singh. Ltd.K. New Delhi: A.P. Anupama. 36 .P. : Sharma. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.

3.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. procedures.369 words in the English language version. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.3.3.1 Significance of DPSP 1.7 1. assuring its citizens of justice.3.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.3.6 1. and liberty.3.4 1.3.3. establishing the structure.2 1. directive principles and duties of citizens. equality.3. Being the supreme law of the country.8 1. 37 .3. Besides the English version. there is an official Hindi translation.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. 1950. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. it came into effect on January 26. democratic republic. 1949.3. for a total of 117. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.9 1.5 1.3. containing 395 articles.1 1. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.

even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.3. political. According to the constitution. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. 1. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Two days later. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. you will be able to: 1. the Drafting Committee was appointed. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. administrative.3. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. Dr. with Dr. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. social. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. economic. The Assembly met. in sessions open to public. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. 1947. 1947. 1950.In the August 14.3. for 166 days. 1. 4.3. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. 38 . 2. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. Through them.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. understand our Indian constitution. On August 29. After many deliberations and some modifications.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. legal and environmental. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. learn the role of central and state government on education. 1. spread over a period of 2 years. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. 3. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. 1947 meeting of the Assembly.

men and women. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. sickness and disablement. Appropriate concentration of wealth. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. No abuse of children. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. Organisation of village panchayat. Minimising inequalities in status. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Article 41. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Condition for dignity of children. Equal justice and free legal aid. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way.government. Equal pay for both sex. Liking wage etc. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. on the basis of equal opportunity. Article 42. Right to work. Article 40. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. in particular. for workers. provide free legal aid. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. and in other cases of undeserved want. Protecting children from exploitation. and shall. That the health and strength of workers. Protecting health of the workers. old age. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Article 39A. Article 43. The State shall endeavour to secure. 39 . Minimising inequalities of opportunities. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. The State shall.

in particular. [declared by or under law made by 40 . Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Uniform civil code for the citizens. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Article 43A. Article 46. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Article 49. Article 48A. to all workers. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. See also Article 21A). establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. in particular. by suitable legislation or in any other way. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Article 47. 2002 for “45. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. The State shall endeavour to provide. in particular. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Article 45. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. work. industrial or otherwise. Article 44. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. a living wage. Note: Subs. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. and. (Original Article 45. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. agricultural. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Participation of workers in management of industries. Article 48. The State shall take steps. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.

Article 45 . may be law determine”. as the case may be.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution.Parliament] to be of national importance. Promotion of international peace and security. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2002. removal. from spoliation. disposal or export. Article 50. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Separation of judiciary from executive. 2. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. disfigurement.3. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Article 51. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. destruction. 1. Article-21A Right to Education. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

iii. ii. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. 2002. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. caste. in particular. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. if such person is a minor. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. and. 5. language or any of them”.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. from justice and all forms of exploitations. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. race. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. 6. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. 8.” 42 . Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. 4. his guardian has given his consent thereto. 3. and shall protect them. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. 7. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or.

Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. the forms. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. wherever necessary or desirable. for its vocabulary. 2. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. and by drawing.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions.3. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. The central government determines targets and promotes education.9. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational Reforms From time to time. 43 . & 1. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . Article 351 gives importance to 6.

standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. etc. 8. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. By starting these projects. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. All India Council of Medical Science. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . to achieve the desired ends. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. 5. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. the state governments. 7. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country.. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. The following pilot projects. 4. So as to encourage education on right lines. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. private agencies etc. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. 6. Production of suitable for children and adults f. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). So that they may work well. Local bodies and private enterprise.3.

1. Material concerning nation-wide interests. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education.3. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 1. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. are published by it. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. 3. 11. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. books. etc. The 45 .6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. handicapped. reports etc. education for women. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. 10. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. research. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. is the state responsibility. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. training and statistics. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. 4. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. 9. 12. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms.

3. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Explain Directive principles 2. 46 . The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Write short notes on a. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Article 46 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. articles in the Directive principles. 1.3. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Article 45 b. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 21A c. 1.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 5. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government.

b.5. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 1. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Development of Hindi Language 6. 2002. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Article 45 . embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Article-21A Right to Education. The Directive Principles of State Policy.3. may be law determine”. 3. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. a. a. Clearing House function 9. 47 . Describe the educational role of State Government. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Article 29 and 30 7. Dr. 4. 2002. a. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. b. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Ambedkar 2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Article 46 5.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”.

New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. S. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. K. Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2008). N. Dash. L.1. K and Narang C.3. Bhatia.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 48 . (2004). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2007). (2009). S. B. Ghosh.

5 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4.4. Christianity.4. religious education should be broad based.3.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.3.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India. Buddhism etc.6 Jainism. Students should be 49 . The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.8 1.4.4. Islam.4 Moral education 1.2 1.4.7 1.1 Why Moral Education 1.

it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. According to E. India' can produce men of character. religious education and the concept of secularism. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance.and dedication. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66).. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. Thus. you will be able to: 1. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. beauty and goodness so that 50 . The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. "In A multireligious society like ours. 1. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. integrity. know the position of religious education in our country 3. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.4. state meaning and need for moral education 1. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. duty-consciousness. As result of which.D. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions.” Education broadens human outlook.4. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. In the complicated and complex society of today. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong.

religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. In short. Thus. castes and creeds.4. at least occasionally. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. through religious practices and 51 . no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.” From the above. religion and democracy are same. all citizens are free to follow any creed. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. "In view of the provision in the Constitution.3. According to Article 19. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education.3. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. 1.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. Hence.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. realizes God in himself. 1. They thought that any kind of narrow. Children attend these organizations. According to Article 22. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. As a matter of fact. rancour. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. No religious tax can be imposed on them. it is clear that the State has no religion. 1947 we achieved our freedom. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged.4. As our country is a country of diverse religions. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. if not regularly. Viewing the defects of religious education.

which help him for the development of his character. for the development of the individual and the society. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. intellectual and physical faculties of children. He also learns about social. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. when he becomes an adult. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. It is religious education. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. temperament etc. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. Good education. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. what is done and what is not done etc. It helps to modify habits attitudes. one fully developed. If unreleased.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. aggressive.teachings. As a result of which. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. moral and spiritual values. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). which can mould. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. and what is evil.. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion.

4. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture.3. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. 2. Therefore. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. 3. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. 53 . This should not be allowed to happen. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. which is the basic need of a democratic life. If we open the pages of history. towards the society. 1.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds.

Since all religions have virtues. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. they should be discussed in the right earnest. 10. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. stories of moral greatness. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. examples of patriotism. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. 9. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Gurudwara as. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. For this.5.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 .4. churches and mosques 7. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Write Article 22 2. fellow-feeling. therefore. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Life histories of great persons of the world. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 11.

Asvada (Control of palate). Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. students.4. 2. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 8. 3. They will play their role effectively. therefore.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 55 . 7. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. The content of the curriculum. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow.acquisitiveness). Fearlessness. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Purity. Service to others. Self sacrifice. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. in the home. 5. Cultivation of emotions. Moral education. 3.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 2. 1. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. 5. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Satyam (truth). Brahmacharya (celebacy). is that which develops moral values.4. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Non-injury. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Patriotism. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Aparigarha (Non. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 4. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 6. 6. let men see well of one another. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Without moral values. 4. the methods of teaching. 8. 7. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. 1.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. “Let all be happy and free from disease.

3. 10. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Secondary Stage 1.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. discipline. Good temper. 4. 56 .4. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Asatyam (Non-thieving). The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Sharivashram (Physical work). two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Discipline. 11. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. National unity and Spiritual values. Integrity. The School Assembly should be held for a few. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. 2.9. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. religions may be included in the syllabus. 3. Efficiency. Good manners. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. minutes in the morning for group singing. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. In the school programme. 1. Unity of mankind.

Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education.4. In other words. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. In this connection. University Stage 1. 57 . there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. Silent meditation should be encouraged. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. love of humanity. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . should form a normal part of school programme. 4. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. patriotism and self-discipline. 5. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. 5. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour.

aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. a. b. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. For this. minutes in the morning for group singing.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. the.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.4. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. 1959 5. Training of Character 3. 58 . In short. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. b. 1.1. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. 4. 1. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development.4. 2. Discuss the aims of Religious education. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times.4. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. Sri Prakasa 6 . 2. The School Assembly should be held for a few. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. a.

Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2007). Bhatia. Theory and Principles of Education. N.C. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. K and Narang C.4. L. Dash. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. M. 59 . K. (2008). (2003). N. Pahuja. Publishing Corporation.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Siddiqui. J.1.H. New Delhi: A.P. Ltd. Anmol Publications Pvt. B. (2004).H. P. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.

5.5.12 1.5.1 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.9 1.5.2 1.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1. 60 .3 1. disparities between provinces/States.5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.5.8 1.5 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.7 1.e. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5.4 1.10 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Although. i..11 1.

2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1. 61 . energy. This leads to separatist movements. They therefore. 4.5. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.1. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. etc. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. for example.5. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. know the education suited to different environments. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. 5.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. 8. 6. roads. they take appropriate measures. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. 2. 1. 7.5. 1. 1. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. waters. 3. understand the regional educational development in India 3. Accordingly. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. work hard towards this end.5.

• The country’s borders should be suitably protected. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers.5. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. some average. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. 3. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. 2. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . Tight security arrangements should be made. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. 62 . Secularism.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. 4. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. Therefore. while others remained educationally backward. and. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. • Separate States (of course viable States). some States became educationally far advanced. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. on the basis of regional development may be formed.

efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development.84 crore was released in 2005-06. and provision of informal education to enable those.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.g. 63 .14. Silchar. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. since its inception in 1998-99. Jammu and Kashmir. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. library buildings.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner.. Guwahati. Rs. the Union Government. Even in each State. while some States like Bihar.5. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. etc. 1. These projects are in various stages of implementation. However. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. etc. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Nagaland and NEHU. scholarships. After the attainment of independence. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. In the Central sector. Central Universities of Assam. NIT. NERIST. Regional Centres of IGNOU. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. Tezpur. Mizoram. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. books. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005.392.480. Itanagar. Out of this.After the Planning Process has originated. Funds amounting to Rs. approved proposals worth Rs. academic buildings.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. remained under developed. the State Governments. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted.

Tezpur University. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.57 crore and Rs. 64 . Source: National Portal Content Management Team. Moreover.187.501. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.40. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. During 2003-04.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. too.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Government expenditure on education.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.5. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. A provision of Rs.05 crore and Rs. Out of this an amount of Rs. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.261.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.500. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.8 per cent in 05). there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.

for which 16 sites. pharma. for instance. engineering and R&D. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. The Chandigarh Administration. notes the study. too. Medical education.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . Andhra Pradesh. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. too. To add to the woes. too. Listing the positives. Karnataka. 1. telecom. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level.5. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Moreover. Karnataka. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. English. Kerala and Gujarat. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). health services and welfare of the citizen population. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction.

the needs. Then education become realistic and idealistic. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. the teaching methods. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. taking the average in the middle. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. the vocations. life-oriented and environment slanted. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. The working hours of educational institutions.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. the curricular subjects.year. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. For a learner living in a rural area. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. the interests. The living conditions. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. and so on. when he will not be sure of time. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. in which the learners live. 66 . There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. the socio-physical conditions. even actually looking at the watch. Of course. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. Hence it is called as need-based. the working days: an academic . the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. In the same manner. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. while the former does not. which a non-tribal person cannot do.

11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. 2.5. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. 67 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. to suit education to different environments? 1.5. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.5. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.

Dubey. (2002). S. 60% 1. remained undeveloped 3. and Nair. Salim.5. some of areas which were under the native rulers.G. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. A. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. New Delhi: Authors press.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Giridhar. Education in Developmental Arena. R. C. 68 .2. some States have become more developed than others b. (2008). Teacher and Education in Indian Society.H.N. Education Scenario in India. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. (2001). Educational Development in India. during the British rule.K. a. S. (2001).

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. community development. National Integration. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. school community and mass media. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. 71 .

2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.5.8 2.1.LESSON 2.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.1 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .6 Education for Secularism 2.2 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.4 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.6.3 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.6. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.

In the matter of admitting students in schools. 3) Provision of Manual Work.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. for the people by the people”. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. colour or wealth. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. there should be made no distinction of caste.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. Democracy thus means power of the people. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. creed. 2. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. 73 .2. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. socialistic and secular state.1.1. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. The students may be associated with the management of the school.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. you will be able to: 1. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. socialism and secularism 2. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. socialism and secularism 2. Abraham Lincoln. 2. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and.1. This is the political aspect of democracy. understand the concept of democracy.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy.1.

may be planned. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. debates.. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. 11) Student Parliament. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. it soon spread all over the world. 12) Visits to Legislatures. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. 74 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. declamation contest etc. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. 2. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. Democracy means 2. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students.1. There are different brands of socialism.

but on the path of non-violence. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 2. none high”. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections.5. 2) Socialism aims at equality. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. oppression and disparity.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society.1. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.1. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.5. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. free from exploitation. the prince and the peasant. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. service and cooperation. 75 . 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. stationary and uniforms to the needy students.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. Under it. the wealthy and the poor. 7) Special facilities for girls. 2. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two main features of socialism. 5. 11) State schools.” In every political and educational corner.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. "which seeks the development of physical. 76 . 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. According to Holydake. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. Everyone says. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. “India is a secular-country. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. secularism is being propagated. 2. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders.1. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’.

And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. During the recent past. “Webster further says.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values.1. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. A large number of people is uneducated.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society.6. 5) It implies tolerance. That is why. There is need of making the people open minded.6. In this type of prevailing situations. 77 . Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. 9) It stress free inquiry. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. the belief that the state morals. 2. Equality.1. liberty. should be independent of religion. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. education etc. people started believing in regionalism. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. Moral values have to be imbibed. 8) It believes in co-existence.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. people have narrow mindedness. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. fraternity. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. 3) It permits freedom of worship. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights.opposed to religious education. 2) It permits freedom of religion.

tours and trips may be organized. Religious Education.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. students belonging to different religions should be associated. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. There should be some internal checking of the material being. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures.presented by the students in the gathering. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. education. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. 1) Moral Education. 2. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. Patiala. While doing so. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. that the central string of all religions is one. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. In the hands of such teachers. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. No doubt. In the celebration of each such function. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. The very sight of the building. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles.6.1.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Define Secularism 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. 2. The word “Seculum” means 7. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. No doubt.1.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . The term secularism was first used by 8.

Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. c. 4. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. 3. Socialism aims at equality. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Respect of Individual Personality. Since socialism stands for equality. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Socialism aims at social justice.1. The students may be associated with the management of the school. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Provision of Manual Work. This present age 7. b. creed. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. colour or wealth. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. 4. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. 3. Abraham Lincoln. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. for the people and the people”.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. d. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. 6.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. 5. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. b.1. George Jacob Holydake 80 . 5. Equal Opportunities for Admission. a. Tuition free education b. there should be made no distinction of caste. 2. In the matter of admitting students in schools. a. Power of the people 2.

the belief that the state morals. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.1.” 9. Anmol Publications Pvt. 81 .10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Theory and Principles of Education. Dash. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.C. Ltd. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. a. K and Narang C. It treats all religions on an equal footing. J. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. 10. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. should be independent of religion. B. Bhatia. N. J. New Delhi : Pahuja. It permits freedom of religion. (2008). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. a. b. (2007). b. (2003). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. K. N. Mohanty. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.8. (2005). L. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. education etc. (2004). P.

2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.2.LESSON 2.2 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.8 2.7 2.3 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.1 International understanding in the school 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2.5.4 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.10 2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding

necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. social. mental. 83 . as learners. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. 2. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. application. moral. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. a r e 1. The developmental roles of children. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental.generation to another. social and moral aspects. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. as workers. development.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. emotional. aims and objectives of the school. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. as it is t he aim o f modern education. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3.2. 2. 2. who are placed in his custody. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. you will be able to: 1. skills. It involves physical. understandings. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. Children are the potential wealth of a instructor of school children.2. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. as persons. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. A teacher is first and foremost. 3. and 4. therefore. as citizens.

experiences and acceptance. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. economically effective. member of his community at the outset. 3. physically fit for socially efficient. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social.All education should lead to better behavioural development. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. morally.2. morally. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. socially. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. mentally. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. The following are some of such roles described in brief. inquisitive. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. The students live. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. He has to look after their physical. culturally confident. mental. and aesthetically to become. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. Teacher as a Citizen Next. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. emotionally. 1. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. intellectually. a part of their day in 84 . 2. social and emotional health. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. He is to become an active member. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. motivated. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. 2. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens.

fine art associations. creeds. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 4. 2. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. They will be spending with their parents. languages and religions. Dr. photographic clubs.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. solve them. science club. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. faiths. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. Unless. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. activities of the society into which he is born. It 85 .the school being under the custody of teachers. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. and most of hours. List out the role of teachers towards community development . there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to.2. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. India is a land of many castes. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas.

The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. narrow-minded provincial. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 .5. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. poems. with straight backs and look up at the skies. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. the citizens of the Republic of India. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. Nehruji has explained this as. Let us. 1.” Regarding the role of education. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform.” 2. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. folklore and teaching of social studies. and make into one strong national unit. this integration of the Indian people. stand up straight. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. the study of language and literature. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. should be emphasised. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. social studies. Sampurnanand remarked. At the primary stage the importance of stories. ‘We should not become parochial. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. therefore.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. It should broaden the outlook.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. The only process is the process of education. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. b.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one.2. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. national anthem and other national songs. a. c. Re-orientation of the Curriculum.

Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. languages and literature. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Reverence of National Flag. and picnics. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. educational excursions. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. t he st udent s and t he community. debates. militar y training like the NCC. tours. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. ACC. Taking Pledge. 8. 6. dramatics and youth festivals. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. Co-Curricular Activities. Uniform for School Children. 2. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Textbooks. 5. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Singing of National Anthem. 4. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. 87 . 10.different social sciences. 7. symposia. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. sports. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Student Camps. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. 3. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Scouts and Guides. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. 9. Celebrations of National Days. National Days—January 26.

Students Exchange and Tours. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. region or religion. language. Recognition of Institutions. Admissions. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school.2. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. 14. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. 13. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. 15. v. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted.11. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. 16. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. flora and fauna. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. Admissions to schools. ii. ways of thinking and doing things. 2.5. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. 88 . Educational and Travel Documentaries. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. School Projects. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. colour. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Open-Air Dramas. 12. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. iv. iii.

ix. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. irrespective of national boundaries. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 2. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . camps. Define National Integration 3. vii. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Community dinners. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4.2. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’.vi. cultures and races on equal bases. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. viii.

Radhakrishnan states. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live.. Strong has observed. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .2. 2. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. either plunged in or overshadowed by important as that of a national citizenship. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. This. Therefore.2. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. (b) stories of children of other lands. 5.6.F. Organising of debates and. the international level. C. often in connection with anniversaries. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. 4. Dr. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. 6. Teachers 90 . (c) fairly tales. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. and the healthy development. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1.e.” 2.6. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”.friendships between children of different countries. 2. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. In a very real sense. that war. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. patriotism is not enough. 3. of his body and mind. therefore. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. if it happens.

colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. They should not be propagandists. Indian and American. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. a German.” Well Informed About World Situations. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. an Englishman. Russian. Impartial in their Treatment.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students.

5. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. and help the students to over . It does not prepare students for life. Chronic Poverty . It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. the education function can be carried. majority of people are.2. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. As the school is but a miniature society.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. which results in agitation and aggression language. 3. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. there is wide spread frustration among all people. If this is done. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society.Another major. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. Wide Spread Frustration . A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.2. 2.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. Defects of the educational System . Soon after they leave their educational institutions. understand and indiscipline: 1.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. 4. leading to. Devaluation of Values .

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.democratic nature. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. love. sympathy and good will among the nations. 93 . 3. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. co-operation. 4. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust.2. 5. 2.2. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . fellow feeling.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. etc. 2. community development. 2. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System


Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.


STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency Functions and role of schools in the society Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency Radio as an agency of education Television as an agency of education Press as a medium of education Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”. IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.

9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.

16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together. MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.




1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society


2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.


Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. Moreover. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Now internet is being used. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. Hence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. He taught his students orally. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. To make them achieve their aim. Define community.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. art galleries. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. “All the citizens of the community. In fact. Crow and Crow write. the invention of the printing press. are increasingly used in education. Museums. books. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Emphasising this thing. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. During the course of time.V. Then came newspapers. periodicals. led to the printing of books.3.

Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. A lot of work by way of pre. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. It is also an important source of entertainment. the teacher still occupies. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media.telecast. “Listening participation” in current history. 2. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. languages. dram appreciation.6. music. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. Effective means of presenting music.G. In the emphasis is on sound. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Students listen various talks. Important happening inventions. 2. the place of importance. rather than on picture. social studies. It enlightens public opinion. It stimulates curiosity and interests. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. art. 101 .1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. In collaboration with the experts. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. for the teacher through school broadcasts. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Thus. current affairs and other areas. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Various talks. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts.3. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force.classroom teachers. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. Thus. Reynolds. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. politics. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures.

dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. mathematics. 3. School concerts. travel talks. At present. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. audibility and presentability. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. at drawing room. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. 102 . at play. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. Making learning an open system. 5. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. Participation of local teachers and pupils. plays. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. 4. informal and non-formal education. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. style. Team-teaching demonstrations. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. Before presenting the programme. at any place. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. at recreational centers. speech. development of lessons. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. fol classical music. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. projects or creative activities.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.


Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.


For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.


Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.

2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.

Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4.4.6 2.4.2 2.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.7 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.2 Aims of Non formal education Advantages of Non formal education 2.LESSON Introduction Objectives Formal system of education Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.8 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 . Advantages of formal education Levels of formal education system 2.3.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.

4. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 110 .1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. 6. open university. 4. 8. the family. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. School is. In ancient time in India. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 2. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. 7. the learner are acquainted. 3. it was mostly. 2. his mental alertness. 3.. compare formal and non formal system of education. imparted at the residence of the teacher. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period.4. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. the mass media et.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. starting and ending at -a particular age.4. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. his moral excellence and his social adjustment.4.3. To realize this objective of education.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system.2. 2. the community. 2. open school. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. the temple. 2. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education.4. 9. Education. you will be able to: 1. Education organised by some agency. the most important agency of formal education. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. say the Government or the private enterprise. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises.

Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Through early formal education. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . also called tertiary. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. capacity. Higher Education: Higher education.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. or post secondary education. such as a high school or secondary school.3. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection.a secondary education. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools.3. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world.4. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. diplomas. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Concepts of proportion. third stage. structured education. depending on the jurisdiction. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. the elements of language are first learned. Some education systems have separate middle schools. or academic degrees.4. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society.2. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. 2. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. as well as vocational education and training. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. In general. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence.

Agencies can be classified as 2. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.which will help for nation's development.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. What are levels of formal educational system? . is an important agency of formal education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and remote dwellers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. 3. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. 4.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . 2.4. 2.3.4. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. late beginners etc. children with disabilities.

It is much more responsive to needs and change.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. etc.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. However. Non-formal education includes adult education. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population.. According to Malcolm A. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. “Non-formal education should 113 . unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. staffed. Open university. systematic. i. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. continuing education and on the job oriented education. curriculum. to help themselves.e.formal education. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. admissions. It is functional. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. Therefore. until 1970 it had not been defined. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. adding up to a true learning society. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. Adiseshiah. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. adults as well as children. financially supported life formal education. it is a more effective tool for rural development.learning client take some learning objectives. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. planned. It unlocks the doors of development plans. Thus. systematic. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. one could say that non-formal education is an active. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. open learning. place of instruction. It is deliberate. it has its own valid claim to reality.

” According to H.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. Preparation for future needs. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. To help industrial workers to better their skills. curriculum. To develop in the student. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. Lawrence. 5. admissions. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. national integration. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. age. 7. evaluation etc. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. co-curricular activities.renewal. modes of teaching. 6. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. 2. international understanding.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. i. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status.learning pattern. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.e. 4.4.S. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields.4. socialism. the Ideas of citizenship. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth.4. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them.” 2. Flexibility in various aspects of education. Part-time education. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Process of marketable and vocationalised. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. self. place of education. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. 2. 114 . Covering life span of an individual. 3. It should lay emphasis on the self. exploring.S.

The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Senior Secondary. 5. school dropouts. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. 2. 3.4. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. 8. 115 . Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 3. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. • 2.4. To offer Secondary. Eradication of adult literacy. publication and information dissemination. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 5. Meeting the omissions of formal education.4. 4. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. Universalisation of primary education. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. 10.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans.4.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Technical. 9. in villages and those who live in towns. working adults. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 6. 4. 2. 7.

5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. To make if. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. etc. training centres in factories. Again. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college .. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.full time to learners – can be home. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. centres of correspondence education. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . All-round development i. open space. To better qualifications. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. Institutions for formal education. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. public libraries. factory. To increase knowledge and 2. others are formal and informal. if organised in isolation. 4.4. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. farm. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. etc. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. Radio and television. Therefore.2. self-employment iii. 2.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. library. 3. 2.4.4. effective in modern societal context.

7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two aims of non formal education. institution. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Define non formal education. 6. Teaching to face teaching.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. . radio. Written tests. Give examples of non formal education? . 117 . . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.V. Lecturing T. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Face Contact programmes. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Correspondence lesson. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work.

2. Formal and Non Formal 2.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. 4.” 6. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 118 . The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Open School. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss.4. Secondary level. The school. School 3. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. b. 3. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. Open learning and Correspondence Courses.4. 4. the college and the university come under this category. adults as well as children. 2. Pre-school level. 5. Primary level.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.4. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. 7. 2. Explain the different levels of formal system of education.2. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Higher Secondary level and University level. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. systematic. a. b. Open University. a.

Mohanty. Pahuja. New Delhi : 119 . New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.4. N. Modern Trends in Indian Education. K. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2003). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2007). J. Anmol Publications Pvt. Dash. Bhatia. Ltd. Theory and Principles of Education. L. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. P. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Gupta. Ltd. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.C. N. B. (2005).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. K and Narang C. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2004). (2008).2. S. (2008). Education in Emerging India.

3.3.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.5.6 2.5.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.2 Philosophy of Open University Continuing education for literate adults 2.5.5.LESSON 2.4.4 Open University Agencies of continuing education 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.4 Need for Open University Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .4.7 2.5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5.3 Objectives of Open University Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.5 2.

3. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. 2. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. characteristics of open university 4. Under these circumstances. However. farmers. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. industries.5. you will be able to: 1. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education.5. Any person.2. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . give the meaning.5. This knowledge may be in political field. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3.5.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. 2. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. continuing education is a boon. Thus. economic field or such other fields. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. know the need and objectives of open university. 2. It is a lifelong process.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. For them. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. labourers and half educated individuals. It is a continuous process.

if he gets opportunity to develop them. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Doctors. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Cinema. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. On the other hand. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education.5.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation.3. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Radio and T. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . Persons engaged in health services.directly related to his job.literate person. 2.V. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Thus. Block Development Officers.V. are also contributing their might for the purpose. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. On the other hand. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. Radio. For them too continuing education is essential. T. After the achievement of independence. Throughout the country. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. cultured and progressive. deteriorating to his character and personality.

In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (14) information about bringing up young children. Of course.V. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 4. 123 .3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation.3. (13) psychology of child behaviour. 3. (7) folk songs. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 7.. and Radio. we have not been able to achieve our targets. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (6) folk stories. Inspite of the great efforts. (16) liking.5. (17) modern international and national events. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. 6. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. habits of people of other lands. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. These books are not very useful.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (15) music.3. (8) psychology of adults. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as.5. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. 2. 5. (2) basic religious matters. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (10) first aid. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 2. (1) ancient history. especially women. 2.

1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . attendance restrict ion.4. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. of educational opportunities.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. lack of time etc. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. NLM was launched in the year 2.

2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. the higher the degree of openness. it makes use of educational techno logy. 2.unobserved. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. IGNOU was established in the year 6. its education is not class room based but home based. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world.5. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. 5. b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a.4. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. 2. c. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which was the first open university in India? . An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. but 125 . and in teaching. Education is not a once for-all process. No one is too old or too late to learn. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. 4. d. e. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . 3. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification.

5.5. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. who were deprived of t he same earlier. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. cho ice o f co ur ses. 4. 2.4. supplementing the existing provision. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. or who realised too late that they need it. 2. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 4. 3. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. 2. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. 6. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. 2. 3. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. it a ims at wider and hig her. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s.who did not get it.5. Mo re o ver. 126 . Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n.4. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n.

a society. Self instructional materials. 5. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. a state or nation. 3. In the present day world. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. 4. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. you have learnt the concept. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Every day. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. Correspondence tuition. 2. 6.5. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. 1.2. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. semi – literates. Laboratory works.5. 7.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Therefore. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. List out any four methods of Open University? .5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. school drop outs. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve .no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. 2.4. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . 8. 127 . Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . Tutor Comments. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.

The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 8. (1) ancient history. 4. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. agricultural and industrial workers.5. (2) basic religious matters. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. need and characteristics of Open University. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. d. youth. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. b. 8. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 7. which may include house wives. 2.ambitious learners. b. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. 6. Explain the objectives. Broad casting lectures c. cho ic e o f co u r ses. Television Lessons. 7. its education is not class room based but home based. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. 1985. 1988. P r int med ia b. 3. a.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. unskilled workers and other professionals. 128 . a. a.5. 9. 2. aspirants for continuing education. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6.

Recent trends in Non Formal Education. 129 . Ltd. S.K. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.S. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. (2004). R.5. K and Narang C.2. L. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2001). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). Udaiveer. Reddy. Modern Problems of Education. (2004). K.. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

wastage and stagnation.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Training teachers for all levels of education. its causes and remedial measures. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. All which is the need of the hour. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. and teacher education. 133 . pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. In Lesson 2. the education of women. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. examination. Examination reform. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. which may claim the attention of those concerned. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India.

134 .

3.3 New initiatives.LESSON 3.1.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.2 3.5 The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.1 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1.2 EFA – How? Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1. 135 .1.6 3.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.8 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4 3.7 3.

1. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. you will be able to: 1. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. therefore. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. economic or cultural. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures.3. Continuing Education (CE) 1.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). understands the country. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. (EOI) 2. 3. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. education received added importance and significance. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. social.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. directed that. Therefore. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). “The State shall 136 . may be political. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. On the other hand. Eradication of Illiteracy. 2. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate.

As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. Therefore. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. 137 . Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. It enables the parents to send their children to School. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . Continuing Education (CE). Universalization of Retention.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. the national Government under. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Three Stages for Universalization.endeavour to provide. Due to the adoption of democratic system. After the attainment of independence. 3. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Universalization of Enrolment. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. rights and responsibilities. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.

1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. educational enterprise. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. 1990. then to 1976.3. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. It is safe to assure. Therefore. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment.1. This target had to be revised to 1970. 138 . “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. UNESCO Bulletin states. present and future. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. Write Article 45. later to 1988. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. 3. 1995 (for upper primary stage).

etc. 6. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. Education of the Impaired. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. 139 . The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. The Social Education. In order to make the programme of education for all community. their enrolment and retention. 11. Emphasis must be given on health education.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. their social economic status and occupations. problem of literacy. Disabled.1. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). 10.3. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. NAEP. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. sex. adolescent and adult. Early childhood education should be streamlined. slum areas. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. FELF. Apart from primary education. the art of preparing fruit-juice. 3. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. rural areas. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. 9. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. and Women’s education programme should be improved. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). nutrition education and sports and games. 8. 12. Jams and Jellies. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. 5. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. creed. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. Education of Girls. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. 3. By undertaking survey.

If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Wastage and Stagnation.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. 4. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. 3. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.3 NEW INITIATIVES. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Expand MLL and SSA .3. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.3. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.1.1. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3.e. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. it is considered as wastage.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. Familial Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Personal Factors .first stage of education. Social Factors . School Factors .

Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. . can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Define Wastage. . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 142 .

3.1. Societal Factors .The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. Personal Factors . relating to home. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. They are described hereunder :1. in his home.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. School Factors . a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. Family Factors .The following factors. rural or urban 3. school or society.

mid-day meals. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. uniforms. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. stationary. Define Stagnation? 9. 144 . casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education.

improvement of curriculum. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.1. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. 4.1. 145 .7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Hartog Committee. 2. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. b. therefore. a. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. 3. Minimum Levels of Learning b. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. Universalization of Retention 2. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all.” 3. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. 6. 3. a.1. a. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Universalization of Provision b. Universalization of Enrolment c. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.3. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. 3. directed that.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4.. “The State shall endeavour to provide.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation.

Familial Factors c. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Hemchand.1. a. Social Factors 8. (2001). Personal Factor b.N. a.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2008). Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. School Factors d. S. Problems of Elementary Education. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. introduce graded curriculum. (2007). improve examination system. Sharma. S.K. 9. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi: 146 . T. Crescent Publishing Corporation.7. 3. b. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers.K. Disadvantages of Co-education 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.1 3.4.LESSON 3.5 New evaluation procedures 3.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2.2 Grade System 3.2.1 Choice Based Credit System Inspection and Supervision Problems of examination Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education Open book examination 3.3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2.7 Let us sum up 147 .2.4 Question banks 3.2.

10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2.2. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. 3.2. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. 3.8 3. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.2. Besides. 3. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. 4.3.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.2. you will be able to: 1. 3.9 3.2. suggest the new evaluation procedures. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. but on the other.

by providing free education and liberal scholarships. which the educational authorities have to face. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. If the students are in sufficient number. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. 149 . 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage.2. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty.3. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. roadside Romeoism. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. They develop secondary sex characteristics.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations.. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. etc. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. 3. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. hostel facilities. etc. The following steps should be taken up. schools for them wherever necessary. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. They may cause problems relating to discipline. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. etc. waiting rooms for girl students.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. conduct of internal examinations. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too.2. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. public interested in education. appointment of paper-setters. public administrators and statesmen. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. assessment and Finance. 150 .4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.2. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. Instruction. the examination system has an important role to play. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. It is considered as a major sub-system. 3. teachers.

etc. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. introducing objective-based testing. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 3. tabulators. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. values. establishing reliability. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. announcement of results. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. invigilators. etc. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts.4. examiners. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. etc. etc. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. scrutinizers. validity and practicability.printing and distribution of question papers. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. etc. training of examiners. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation.2.

. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. stereotyped questions. lack of objectivity etc. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. Vagaries in making. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. do not appeal to the students and parents.2. Subjects. 152 . 7) In connection with the question papers. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. 2) From the angle of content of education.4. it s a common experience that subjectivity. Rote memorisation. halo-effect. which they are expected to study. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. may also discredit them. takes the place of comprehensive learning. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. it can be said that they become examination-oriented.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. 3. 3) With respect to method of teaching. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation.. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education..

Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Spot valuation. Question Books may be developed in all schools. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests.. may be introduced. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t.a part of internal assessment. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. re-numbering of answer scripts. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. List any two merits of examination. . Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination.develop true love for education. 153 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. revaluation. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. 4. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. etc. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon.

The students can take any course offered in any department. Their interests. skills are given importance. In this system. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. 3. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. The new scheme of assessment. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .2. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. In actual practice.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. It is complicated. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.2. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.2. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . When a person chooses to work extra.3. attitudes. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society.5. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. Every paper is treated equal.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. he is given extra credit points. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there.5. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.

The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. This system reduces comparison of marks. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning.poor.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.5. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. courses can have weightages defined. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. 3. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. An example is a seminar.discipline. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. While designing syllabus. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. poor. Groupism is encouraged. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. or as a 4 credit course. v.good. In the new system.2. These weightages are called credits. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. only the total credits to be earned is specified.

2. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. 3. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. 156 .2.5. However.5. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.5. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. 3.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment.2. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. 3. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3.2. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. In the hierarchy. recruitment. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. 6. List any four new evaluation procedures. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . . Therefore. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.2. However. There are no proper procedures for selection. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately.

When they are fully realised.6. laboratory equipment. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. submitting of the inspection reports. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. etc. in a sense. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. They are. Academic inspection. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools.qualified personnel. school buildings. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. inspecting the class-room teaching.. requirements. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. playgrounds. library books.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. of late. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. wherever necessary. staff. taking up the follow-up programmes. finding out the adequacy of. books are followed. finding out whether the prescribed text. qualifications.. 1. interpersonal relationships and so on. whether the syllabus has been covered. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. in contrast. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. 158 . being realised as two different functions. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. 3. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number.2. etc. disciplinary problems. Separation of Inspection and Supervision.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. complaints and compliments. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work.

bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. Insistence on specialisation in the B. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. aptitude. In the case of departmental candidates. at least. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. modern. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. or. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. M.. 3. Similarly. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. once in five years. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. 159 . There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives.Ed. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life.. In the light of these conceptualisation. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. courses.Ed. their professional knowledge.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. course in either educational. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo.2.

Grade System. a. b. 3. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. d. 4. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. assessment and Finance. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom.2. b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. b. a. Administration.2. 160 . Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 3. 3. a. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. 5. 3. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. c. 2.2. Instruction.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education.

Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6.a part of internal assessment. S. Multiple sets of question paper. 5. b. (2002). K. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . a. b. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. a. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.2.4. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Vaidya. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. 3. 7. R and Sharma. c. Question banks. New 161 . Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. a. History and Problems of Education in India. (2004). b.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. (2005). Open book examinations. K. Problems of Education in India. Educational Reforms.

7 you will be able to: 1.3.2 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education. 3.9 3. 5.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. 3. 162 .LESSON 3.3. 4.3.3 3.4 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3.10 3.5 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. identify the needs of rural India and social.6 3.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.1 3.3.3. 2.

Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . Consequent on the recommendations. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course.g. The. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i.e. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. Similar is the case with some other States. 2. i. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education.e. the Banaras Sanskrit College. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. in Andhra Pradesh.. e.3. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. University Education. The Calcutta Madras. and 3 years of First Degree Course. etc.specialisation programmes 3.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 ..3. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. Commission emphasised to continue.. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. 10 years of general Secondary Education. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. 8 years of general education. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1.

Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. 3. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . 5. to imbibe. b. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. is also a plus point .3.a sense of dignity of labour. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. social. 6. 5) to help for the social. who desire to change from one stream to another. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. educational channels. to prepare.confidence in students. and. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. cultural and economic development of the country. 10. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . historical. However. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 7. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. Provision for transfer of credits to students. economical and political. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. 8. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. habits of hard work and develop .

The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. etc. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. to develop national character.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. The General Educational Spectrum. and that required to enter the tertiary level. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. Sociologically it is undesirable. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. at the other. and. Psychologically. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X.3. on one hand. international understanding. cooperativeness. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum.. cultural and' religious tolerance. Philosophically it is not the conception. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. democratic living. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies.national integration. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. 3. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. 1. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. social justice. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities.

— tube-wells. rural health. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. 3. technical. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. In the matter of language. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. fish culture. In our country. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. Science. physics or mathematics. Biology. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. or other machinery. industrial agricultural production is growing. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. vegetable growing. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. technological. professional. India is a land of—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. horticulture. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. 2. In the vocational spectrum. commerce. 166 . The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. the rural areas have suffered very much. commerce. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. educational and cultural services. such as Agriculture. Commerce and other disciplines. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. Agriculture is the main occupation. and vocations based on dairy-farming. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. medical plants. chemistry. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. All these need for an. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas.3.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education.

Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . 3. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. can be ensured. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. etc. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . 4. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. There had been favourable reaction from the students. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. In this it may be concluded.etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. In this way.. social justice. In time. and 5.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. interests and aptitudes of the students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. and the needs. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits..3. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. the local resources available.

Ltd. J. Anmol Publications Pvt. to imbibe. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. General Educational Spectrum and b. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. New Delhi : 168 .8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. a. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education.C. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.3. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. habits of hard work and develop . 3. N.a sense of dignity of labour.3. S. 3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Modern Trends in Indian Education. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. Dash. a.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. (2007). 3. we studied the history.3. B. a.3. (2008). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2005). Vocational Sepctrum. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. J.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. objectives.K. b. Calcutta University Commission 2. Mohanty.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 3.3. 2. (2001).

Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4.8 3.3 3.5 3.11 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3. Education contributes to human development.12 3.10 3.4.6 3.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.4.13 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”.1 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.LESSON 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail. social and 169 .7 3.

higher education of girls developed immensely. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. cultural and political development of the individual. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. economic. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. analyze the women and distance education. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. although we have miles to go. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. During the year 1937. The relevance of women’s education to social. family. While women constituted only 9. 3.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . For the first time in the history of India. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century.higher education in particular.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. Dr. community and nation is universally acknowledged.4. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. There is a close connection between education and development. Nursing. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. 3. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. particularly 170 . a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. Teaching and Fine Arts. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. Education . you will be able to: 1. These courses were. In the post —independence period.4. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. Home Economics. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2.

Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. Kodaikanal. Mumbai. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.0 Today. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Mother Teresa Women University.2 29.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Coimbatore.N. in our country. out of 9200 and odd colleges. we have more than 1200 institutions. The idea of women’s education for equality. levels and professions.2 22.D.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.65 lakhs in 1994-95.T Women University. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.4. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. Even today. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.0 32.1 31. In 1950-51. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .4. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.women. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. 3. In the rest of the country. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. 3.1 24.0 43. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. Yet. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.9 14.0 16.9 27.4.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1 and 14.54 12.83 47. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.47 65.17 52. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.66 66.4.4. 2.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.46 82. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.53 34. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.73 10. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4.1 respectively.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .36 3.that of boys.44 35. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? . 3. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .34 33.63 Female % 34. 3.4%) prefer Arts subjects. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .56 64.27 89.

distance of the college or university from home. 173 . irrelevance of the content of education. marriage is a very common I factor. what is the need for higher education for her. According to a survey. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. curriculum not suited to their requirements. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. and coeducation may spoil her character.hinders the girls from getting higher education. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. promoted and increased. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. she will only learn fashion. Also. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. The major hurdles. In college. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. Book banks should be established. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. financial difficulty of the parents. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. Thus. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. 3.4. They gave up their studies to enter home life.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. In every third family. particularly. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. etc. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters.

Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. 3.economic disabilities faced by women. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. which is the most dynamic factor of development. resources and socio . is the only tool for realising empowerment. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. Geographic distance of educational institutions.4.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. Education. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Full-time employment. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. space. It is a productive investment. 3. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face.4. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. It also brings about 174 . There are constraints of time. Distance education is a boon to women.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Empowerment in a nutshell. and the limitations of the conventional education system.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. It enables to study.

The major objectives of women's higher education. Empowerment is an active. for full development of our human resources. This can be achieved through reflection.4. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. Women are partners in development.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. education of women must be given priority in national plans. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . 3. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. higher learning. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. empowerment means being assertive. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. on their own. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. education of women is of paramount importance. legal awareness and economic independence. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence.

UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO.4. has to be implemented at the earliest. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. 3. The local administration. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. will encourage them to venture new grounds. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . who are eager to take up courses. Reservation for women. Better opportunities. which had been the sole domain of men. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Scholarships and concessions for women. The educational institutions. especially so in the developing countries. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. which is pending for a long time. 176 . But their number is small.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men.

. Chief Executive. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. But. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities.1%) and architecture and building (38.4. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.000 women in the country. especially in developing countries like African countries. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. 3. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.9%). engineering and related technologies (16.3 percent.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. According to Lindy Hyam. Australia. talents. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. capacities etc. Also. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent.8%). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . IDP Education. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.

C. S. Avinashilingam Deemed University For the family. SNDT Women’s University. R. Coimbatore. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. individuals and society b. Centre for Women’s Studies. 43% 6. Women and Education. Women Education. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. a. Annakodi. Pattanaikj. 2. S.K. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. SNDT Women’s University. (2000). 4. 3. (2007). Rao. (2005). community and the nation. and Swain.4. Women Education. Kodaikanal. 3. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Mumbai.4. A. Coimbatore. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Mother Teresa Women University. (2008).12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. A. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Rajasthan 5. Mumbai. 3. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. and Suryalatha. Mishra. R. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. create the right attitude towards life. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.4. 178 . R. 4.

5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.9 3.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. 3. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .8 3.10 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.11 3. whole.3 3.personality of children in and out of school.7 3.5 3.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. They should be trained.6 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.2 3.

understanding and strong desire for international peace.5. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. 3. Dearth of new technology of teaching. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. and national character. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. social and emotional integration. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. 5. equality and justice. Shorter working hours. Secondary and Higher Secondary level.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. know the pre service and in service training facilities. 4. national consciousness. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. 3. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. understand the training teachers for Primary. 180 . international. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. Lack of physical facilities. you will be able to: 1. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels.5. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students.

Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 .5. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. inservice and extension education programmes. Lop-sided curriculum. Inadequate training in practical skills. and the collegiate teacher education. 3. If the student teachers are working teachers.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. the secondary teacher education. 3.Less qualified teacher educators. At the diploma level. levels. the primary teacher education. the state Government. it is called the In-service teacher education.. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. students. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. it is called the Extension teacher Education. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. who have not been trained earlier. etc. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training.. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities.5. Depending on the levels.Ed. a Diploma course and a Degree course. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier.Ed. higher secondary teacher education. the centre. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. (NCERT) New Delhi. and M.

Also Guidance Bureaux.. Expand NCERT 2. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. collegiate cells. etc. state Institutes of Educat ion. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Education cells.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose .5. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . depart ments etc. Educational teehnology cells. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . non-formal. extensio n service. are established. Evaluation unit. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . 3. Science Education units.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY.

Ed.. laboratories. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. to offer consultative services. which help breaking isolation from one another .• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. despite its vast expansion.Ed. audio visual aids.. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . and 183 . a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . primary and secondary school teachers. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. should be improved on a top priority basis. to prescribe conditions for recognition. and so on. to improve curricular programmes. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. which should include experience in the primary schools too. schools and sister institutions.. material conditions relating to libraries. to ensure teacher competence. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and .

not came up once again. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. and XII. Modern Methods of Evaluation. etc. etc. Psychology of Students. Agriculture. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. methodology and evaluation. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. To meet this exigency. Meanwhile. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. though no pre-service training. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. Induction prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. Workshops. whether they should have professional education or. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. The problem. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. 184 . it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Organisation of Content Courses. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. Modern Techniques of Teaching. Hence.secondary education. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission.

Pre-service training is for those.S. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. M.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Ed. Courses leading to B. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Degree and M. training.A. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. in Education.Ed. Ajmer.. courses and M. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country..7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. State Institutes of Education. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. 3..’s for Ph. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Degree. (Education) and M.’s are elig ible for M. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.Ed.D.A. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. All B Ed. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.Ed.Ed. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.Ed. These facilities are available for regular students.. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.. (Education) are organized by 185 . For re-orienting the teachers. Post-Graduates also undergo B.5.

Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . However.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. of conduct—written or unwritten. Hence the employability of M.). Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.. 4. 3. (Ed. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.A. 6. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . established by tradition and teachers of the past.5. they should be conscientious . 186 .A. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. . 5. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. What is the role of ERIC? . as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned.some Faculties of Education of some Universities.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. (Ed). and B..

The necessity is however this. a.5. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Shorter working hours.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. a. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 6. Bhopal. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 3. 5. Explain code of conduct for teachers. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. 2. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. National Council of Educational Research and Training. 3.5. 3.5. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Ajmer.3. b. 2. 4. 187 . 3. they should be conscientious. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. b. a. However.

Teacher Education. P. J.D. and Teacher Education. A. B. (2003). (2009). New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Teacher Education.5. Ltd Aggarwal. Mohanty.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda.N. Corporation. Publication Pvt. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .3. Tewari. (2010).

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

consuming the right amounts becomes important. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. Since food is the source of nutrients. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. objectives and role of the physical education. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. 191 . preservation of nutrients. nutritional deficiency diseases. If the diet is poor. In lesson 4. common ailments of children. the focus is on the school health programmes. In lesson 1. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. communicable diseases and their prevention. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. objectives. objectives. economic and educational developments. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. The person’s environment is equally important.

192 .

4 4.7 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1. The programmes of school health education are quite important. mental.1.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.5 4. emotional and social.1.1 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.e.6 4.LESSON 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1.1. 193 .1.9 4.11 4.2 4. physical.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.10 4.3 4. It is a miniature society.1.

1. 4. 4. cleanliness and healthful living. explain the importance of First aid 5. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. know the need for sex education. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. To give information regarding health rules.. you will be able to: 1. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 9. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. list the common ailments of children 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 7. content of health education.1. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. 6. to his family and to the community at large. 8. 3. training of teachers and evaluation. training in first aid and etc. To develop certain skills concerning health. To develop healthy health habits among children. 2. 5. 194 .School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. 11. 10. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. understand school health programmes 2. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. e. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 4.g.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. Instruction.

• Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. vaccination. There should be good drainage facilities. direct lighting.C.G. (xii) smoking education etc. “Play-for-all” programmes. Triple Antigen Vaccination. The flooring should not be damp. There should be regular water supply. Arranging better transportation facilities. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. ( iii) sanit at io n. 3. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. (ii) communit y healt h. organisation of school health days. proper doors and windows. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. cleanliness weeks. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. excusing late. B. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. inoculation against cholera.4. The surroundings of schools should be clean. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. arranging class rooms in the ground floors.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. 5.. (v) safety education. Vaccination for small pox. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. etc. (xl) mental health. suitable furniture. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. is imperative. 4..coming or absence. typhoid. The school buildings should be spacious. 2. (viii) first aid. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. First aid facilities should be made readily available. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. Toilet rooms should be amply provided.1. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. play festivals. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. (vi) nutrition education. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. minimizing the travelling distance. as described below 1. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . B. 2.

insect stings. etc. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • Have adequate rest and sleep. burns. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. fractures. • Find out the cases. drowning. D. wounds.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • Keep all rooms clean. and other accidents. bleeding.. sports and games in the interest of their health. C. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. • Close the schools. • When sleeping in groups. poisons. scalds. isolate and notify. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. if epidemic is wide-spread. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. dislocations. fainting (epileptic fit). Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. cuts. • Take nutritious food. 196 .

they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. tuberculosis. chicken pox. Once these germs get into the body. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. List out the Health curriculum 3. backache. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. headache. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. fever. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. which are – cold. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 4. 2. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage..1. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. So they easily get illnesses. water or bodily contact. polio. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. asthma. 4. There are three stages in any communicable disease. measles etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They are: i) The incubation stage.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. cough. Mention the school health programmes. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. pain in the joints. These diseases are called communicable diseases. They have less resistence to diseases than adults.

There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Cold is usually accompanied by running passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. eating food which is not clean. Throat is affected.When a child suffers from scabies. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. After three or four days of fever. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Scabies . Others make the children very weak. The following are the common communicable diseases. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water.It is caused by measles virus. sugar and water. head-ache and cough. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. etc. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Hence liquid diet is recommended. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Common Cold .It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Ear Infections . unhygienic living conditions. This is caused by cold virus. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Children catch cold from persons having cold.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Mumps . Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief.This disease is caused by bacteria. Tonsilitis . cough and fever. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. unhygienic bottle feeding. 198 . The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Diarrhoea . Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. The child may have fever. Measles . The symptoms include cold. Hence it is called a killer disease. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Important salts and water are lost in this process.

The child may also have diarrhoea. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. What are communicable diseases? 6.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. Enlist the common ailments of children. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. Expand DPT . the child may die. face and waist. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. If proper treatment is not given. Shortly.• • • • Chicken Pox . raised pink spots appear on head. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. separate.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the child is not able to breathe. By scratching he causes secondary infections. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Typhoid . So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. As the disease progresses. 199 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. It begins with fever. 5. Diphtheria . The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily.

which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. fainting. man-woman behaviours.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. cuts. In such cases. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. eye injury. 4.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. 5. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. simple fractures. 200 .Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. Wounds . drowning. swelling. 2.4. Cuts and Bruises . films and jokes.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. so-called sex books and periodicals.1. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. It has its rightful place in education too. Drowning . It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. bleeding. sprains. exciting and body-oriented.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. scorpion stings. snakebites. and Community Work and Social Service. head injury. bruises. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. 3.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. wounds. etc. dislocation. Sex is popular. 4. it is a subject of art.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Sprains . which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. and films.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e.g. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. sprains. It is both biological and psychological. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups.1. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. fiction.

sex education is being recommended in schools. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. celibacy are age. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . In secondary schools. The values of life. the religious organisations. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. but preserve them from disaster and disease. 3. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. try experimenting with their bodies. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. the school. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives.old values. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. health.. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. In today's liberal and interactive society. The home. in their ignorance. they would be treading the path of sure doom. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. Hence. B. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. the state and the private and public enterprises should work to give sex education to the young. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. Should the boys and girls. 2.

but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. the school health programmes. What are the major components of Sex Education. when the courses are already overloaded. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. hence. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. 202 . Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. there will no crisis in its implementation. C.1. Teacher education institutions are.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. common ailments of children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. first aid and sex education. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. communicable diseases and their prevention. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.



SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.


STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.


4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:


Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.


Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy


CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 209 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Mention the food nutrients 2. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients.

minerals.2. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s .2. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. If you look at the definition carefully. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients.4. Let us talk about each of these aspects. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . 210 . is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a.

A balanced diet is specific firstly. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age.6.g. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. Even within given States there is considerable variation. activity level and physiological stress. dosa are typical of the south. the social and religious practices of that region. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . In other words. it is also specific to a given activity level .Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. construction labourer). In the case of adults. paratha and poori. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. There is no point. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. People in the east of our country prefer rice. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. in the morning and the other at night. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable.g. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. Preferences/customs are also important. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. moderate or heavy work. sex. for example. These are: region where the person resides and income. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e.sedentary.2. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south.

Balanced diets should also be income-specific. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. If you think of your own religious group. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. One must. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. As income increases. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. taboos related to food may play an important role. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. however. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. however. as important for the rich as for the poor. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. vegetables and fruits. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. In addition to these. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. However. As you read this discussion. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. These determine the acceptability of foods. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. One person may be fond of milk products. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. Having more money. for example. Even among flesh foods. Among the social factors. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. Including these 212 . you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving.planning the diet. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. customs. while another may hate them. fat and sugar tend to increase. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. Judicious selection of food is. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. income plays a vital role. however. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. nuts and dry fruits.

they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . eggs . For this. 8) Walk a while after eating. meat. over-eating or under. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. fruits. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. etc. Define balanced diet. 17. 8. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. mouth. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. if the teachers have good food habits. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. green leaves. List out any two healthy food habits. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. but they should be thrown away. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. 213 . plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only.eating is hazardous. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables.

Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life.2. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Discuss good food habits. In fact. Night blindness. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. When the diet is inadequate. c.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. Bitot’s spots. e.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Conjuctival xerosis. good nutrition is essential for good health. d. Explain food nutrients 4. Beri Beri 4. a. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Vitamin D 5.2. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. b.2. 4. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Corneal xerosis. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3.4. preservation of nutrients.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Keratomalacia 3. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 .

mouth. Health and Nutrition Education. A Text Book of Foods. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. (2009). (2005). 4. Nutrition Science.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. 8. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Nutrition and Dietetics. 7. b. Chopra. (2008). P. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Food should be consumed after eating well. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 .C. minerals. a . S. b. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Sri Lakshmi B. Food and Nutrition Education. (2004). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. R. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. (2008). R. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s.N. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s .6. Food and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra.2. a. Hands.M.

14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings. Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.11 Impact on Education 4.3.3 4.3.8 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.1 4.13 4.1 Impact on social development 4.LESSON 4.6.4 4. 216 .12 4.10 4.3.

adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. understand the importance of small family norm 5. 4.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. There is some difference. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. Population Education. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. his family.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4. population characteristics. state the meaning. family planning and sex education etc. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning.3. 217 . describe the impact of population growth on social.4. his societ y and the world. characteristics and changes for himself. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. the causes of population change. therefore. economic and educational development 3. Whenever we talk of sex education. and the consequences of these processes. community. you will be able to: 1. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. It is a much wider co ncept.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. objectives and need for population education 2. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. the stress is. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education.3.3. It is not sex education. aims at providing the younger generation. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.

4. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the nation and the world.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Define Population Education 2. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. the family. the society.4.3. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.

Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Family is considered as a social unit. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. the family programmes are also handicapped. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion.6. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. 4. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare.3. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. When the family is small. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. which will not be possible without population control.3.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. Every second two thousand children are being born. economic and educational development of the country.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. 4. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. 219 . With the larger families. health and happiness of its citizens.

in parks and other places of public gatherings. pollution of the environment. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. Many students herded in a small room.6. 220 . They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. teacher index. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. lack of proper health care. in cinema halls and theatres.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. there is an inverse relationship between population and development.. organization index and material index. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. 4. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends.6. i. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower.3.3. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. in buses and trains. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. In developing countries. unemployment. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. facility for drinking water. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. The gulf between them is widening further. toilets. 4.e. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. heavy intern I migration etc. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. and so on. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. Swollen cities. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils.

blank verses etc. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. less space facilities.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. and laboratory equipments. less budget for education. can be taken up. 221 . Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. Social Studies Statistics on population education.. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Regional Language. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility.3. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. thus. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. can be studied in science and health education. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. family planning etc. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. essays. bar graphs etc. even text books would be in short supply. There would be poor library facilities. reproduction. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Hindi and English. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. There would be very few audiovisual aids.

causes of deaths etc. 10. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. 7. deaths. 8. 15. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 3. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. 14.3.4. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 2. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Brazil. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Children with the help of parents. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 13. 9. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. United States of America. Children may compare two families. Uttar Pradesh. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 4. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . area and average density of population. Canada. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. China. 11. Bihar. West Bengal. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 5. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 12. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data).

It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. age at marriage. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. 17. preferences for sex. The question. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. 16. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. 18. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very opened in their schools. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Comparing life in various respects in two families. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. values and role children etc. we have no right to stop 223 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people.

The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. on an overall basis. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. The Family Welfare Program. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.were implemented 224 . should be overcome at the intellectual emphasize family planning services. and the child survival components of the news: program. “He who is responsible for population growth. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. continued . fertility levels have declined throughout the country. which education can only do. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. More than 45 years ago. 4.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. the total fertility rate decreased from 6.their entry into the world”. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.. at varying places in different regions. especially the expansion of child immunization services . India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3.3. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage.4-6.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. however. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). Since the program's inception.

men. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. Therefore. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women.earlier than the safe motherhood components. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. a focus on health promotion. expansion of services to unmarried women. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. and nominal fees for services. Local programs vary in their approaches. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. At these meetings. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. reliance on local women as community health workers. In October 1997. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. In April 1996. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. the community appears willing to pay for services. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. Moreover. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. and the World Conference on Women. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994.

community.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. involving the community. economic and educational development 4. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Its main purposes are to create awareness. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. family. 1997). The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. nation and the world. 3. 4.emphasizing the needs of the client.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. 226 . What are the goals of RCH? 4. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. Describe the impact of population growth on social.

7. 5. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. less budget for education. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. b. 227 . bar graphs.4. area and average density of population. b. 3. United States of America. China. 6. a. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. less space facilities. Canada. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures.” 2. a. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. less administrative initiative and leadership talents.3. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. his family. and the consequences of these processes. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. characteristics and changes for himself. Brazil. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. a. the causes of population change. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. 4. population characteristics. his society and the world.

Jayapoorni. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. 228 . Changing attitudes to Education in India. (2005). A. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women.K. Principles of Population Studies.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Centre for Women’s Studies. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Kantikar. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. T. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. V. Modern Problems of Education.3. (2002). Ltd. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Udaiveer. Reddy. (2005). Ltd. Bhende. (1992). J. N. Coimbatore. (2004).4.

3 Indigenous games 4.11 19.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5 4.3 4.9 Major games 4.4.1 Minor games 4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.4 Lead up games 4.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .2 4.4 4.8.4.

2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. full records of physical activities should be maintained. as it should 230 .1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. 4.4. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. The concept of physical education has been made broader. the youth of the country. which forms its most valuable assets. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools.4. team spirit. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. perseverance. you will be able to: 1. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. classify the different types of games. leadership and balance in defect.4. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. social fitness. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. moral fitness and emotional fitness.4. mental alertness. 4. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body.

leadership. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Therefore. They go hand in hand. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. The educational efforts at home. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. team spirit. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Every individual is a part of society. To be more precise. They are inseparably united together.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. obedience to rules. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual.

H. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. Physical exercises.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. game and sports. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. Rousseau states. a sound health. Regarding the significance of physical education. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. 4. Just like Education. C. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. pleasing manners.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. Buck has observed that 232 .” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks.” The Secondary Education Commission.” Montaigue writes.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it.4. mo ral. nor body but the whole man. ment al. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical.

5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. elegance. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Froebel says. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. efficiency and character.” In brief. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. happiness. strength.4. initiative. etc. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments.” 4. 233 . Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. we must exercise the whole human being. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. endurance.a properly directed physical education should result in health. resourcefulness and smartness. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. coordinative abilities. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. flexibility and power. speed. “If we wish to develop the whole being.

Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. its adherents and its enemies. If no opportunity is provided to the students. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. poetry and painting.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. 234 (i) (ii) . Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. in greater or lesser degree. Every age has its artists. should help in the spiritual development of the student.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. these fundamental things have always been present. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. including all racial groups and historical ages. Tournaments foster this sentiment. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. systems of government. While wars. plagues and famines. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. they may form gangs. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups.

sacrifice. B. self. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. to develop tolerance. etc. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. 2. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems.\ to develop perseverance. respect for rules. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. 3. obedience. Write any two importance of Physical Education. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. bravery and interest in games and sports. 235 . to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly.

Be self-confident. injuries among pupils should be made.4. 236 1. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. 6. 4. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. 12. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. defects. Emergency care procedures should be followed. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Be well-prepared. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration.4. Always keep the whistle ready. and readmission after they have recovered. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. 9. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 10.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there.H. . Keep the field ready for the activities. Be in the uniform. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Inform health principles. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Haag. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must.4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 11. Posture screening should be done. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. 13. Act as a leader. 5. students. 16. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 3. 14. 15. and. is essential. 2. 7. Usually parents. 8. Be punctual. Be sportive. 4.

4. Moreover.4.8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 237 . chasing. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play.4. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. As such they are well enjoyed by children. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. Such inst incts as imitation. their development is handicapped. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. less equipment and less expense. frolic and jo y. Indigenous games. 4. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. 2. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. Lead up games. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. 3.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. the play.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4.

with implements or without implements. under ball pass Relay. on mountain tops and on river beds. driving. For each game the rules are many. pitching. dribbling. Tennikoit. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Dodging. On lawns. While many of them are played in the open playfields. Khokho.With a very few rules. stopping. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Soft Ball. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. bowling etc. benefit in playing minor games. Jump the stick clay and so on. skipping.. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. Jumping. Ball Badminton. Shuttle Badminton. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. They are rules approved by the International Associations. hitting. boosting. snatching the kerchief. Tennis. Cricket. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. 238 . Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. finding the partner. Hockey.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. catching. wherever the kids assemble.8. couple tag. the number of players and substitutes. Volley Ball. They are played for a shorter duration. Except a few games.4. some of them are played indoors. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. women take part most of the games. Kabaddy etc. trapping. heading. over ball pass Relay. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. zig zag relay. muffling. The dimension of the posts and nets. 4. the play equipment. Hopping. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. spiking. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. on sea-shore. Throwing. the games can be modified according to convenience. on hard courts. These games require varied skills such as running. Basket Ball.

festivals connected with religion and public functions. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Kho-kho. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. 7. List out some major games.4. On occasions like marriage. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. While observing the players in action. birth.4. these games being popular.4. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. death. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. and . What do you mean by lead up games? 239 .8. An example for indigenous game is 8. For example. Games may be classified as 6. 4. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. they are in existence. They have an abundant social value.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. All the fundamental tactics. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm.

Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 3.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. b. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 2.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. to develop physical stamina. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 4. to secure physical health b. 4.4. b. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. a. 5. 2. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. d. c. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities.4. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education.4. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. a. aims and objectives and need of physical education. b. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. 4. 4. Minor and Major 240 .4. a. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Posture screening should be done. a. 3. Schools should help students to keep them mentally.

6. Basket Ball.C. Hockey. (2005). (2008). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Krishna murthy. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. Khokho. J. Aggarwal. Kabaddy 7. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2009). New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Volley Ball. Foot-ball. Tennikoit. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Tennis. Health. J. Handbook of Physical Education. G. 4. J. Physical Education and Sports. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. 241 . Shuttle Badminton. (2008).12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Ball Badminton.4. Cricket. Khokho 8. Mohanty. Soft Ball.K.

5.1 Natural Environment 4.5.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.6 4.10 4.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.9 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .LESSON 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.1 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.8 4.7 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.2 4.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.

aesthetic and educational factors. social. economic. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Knowledge. 3. Participation. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. 6. role of teacher in environmental conservation. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. The best place to start such learning is school. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment.educat ion for the environment. Awareness. list out the types of environment 3. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. political. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. population explosion and resource depletion could be. 2. 3. 4. you will able to: 1. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.5. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. education about the environment and education through the environment. 2. 243 . it covers the following elements: 1.5. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Broadly. Details are given below: I. Attitude. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Evaluation Ability. Skills. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. 4.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1.5. Essential knowledge about the Environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. 4.

its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. heat sink and wind flow in cities. D. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Oxidants Other pollutants. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. F. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. a. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. 2.B. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. • Biological magnification E. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. 244 . its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle.

Control of population growth a. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Intrauterine device iii. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. 2. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. 2. B. 4. The pill ii. Birth control through education b. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. III. economic. c. Persuasion: i. The human ecosystem II. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. 3. Sterilisation. Family planning ii. Socio-economic measures. Use of medical science i. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Abortion iv.3. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 .

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. 3. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. (UNESCO. Water pollution abatement. Air pollution abatement ii. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. 246 . Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. 1983). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Define Environmental Education.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. e) Recycling. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education.

any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. telex. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain.5. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. Any constituent or condition of the environment. A change in one brings about a change in the other. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. -other. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4.5. Biological environment The biological environment.5.5. 4. a. way is called environmental or ecological factor. animals and other organisms (biotic). These are biotic components. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . b. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. to his needs.other components of the environment.5.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . He modifies according”. fax agricultural apparatus. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. They interact with each.5.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. includes the plants.4.

industrial pollut io n. supplying timber for various uses. biogas plants. need for conservation. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . change in climate may be added. are the topics which may be taught in History. nuclear warfare. History The rise and fall. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. use of medicinal plants. natural way of controlling pests. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. noise pollution. (ii) Air pollution. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. social studies. importance of nitrogen cycle. over exploitation of ground water. preventing siltation of dams. food chain and food-web. alternate sources of energy. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. t heir role in preventing pollution. nuclear energy. ozone depletion. mineral survey. of civilizations. solar cookers. relation between population and pollution. population. desertification 248 . noise control. windmills. water scarcity. extinction of species. sources. air pollutants from industries. balance of nature. evolution. reasons. wars and hazards of war. trees reducing noise pollution. maintaining the ecological diversity. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. preserving the watersheds. greenhouse effect. excellent recreation sites. effects o f CFC. ozone layer deplet ion. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. use of pesticides. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. river systems. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife.. effects. need for bio-diversity. acid rain. sources of pollut ion.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. etc. role of trees in building economy. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. etc. explosion deforestation. industrial survey.

7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 5. 6. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 3. 8. Organising conferences. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Peepal and Tulsi. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Providing. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 249 . 4. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. animal and plants. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. aims and scope. 13.may be inc ded in Geography. 9. 4. 14. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 12.5. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. 10. group discussions and seminars. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 11. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 2. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 7.

5. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Don’t burn any waste. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. especially plastics. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June.Send their waste oil. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Reuse carrier bags. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. or form a car pool for everyday travel. all these can cause serious pollution. 6. Use public transport wherever it is possible. it will cause pollution. used oils down the drain. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Never put any left over chemicals. If it is done. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. World Environmental falls on 250 . Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide.

and 251 . To arrange for visiting speakers. etc.mat erials. values and habits. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. diversity and stability. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio .4. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. etc. deforestation. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions.5. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. concern for others). nuclear wars. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. orderliness and beauty).8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. To provide materials needed for practical work. dest roying nat ural habitats.). The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. Social responsibilit y (common good. Concern for species. rather than conquest and mastery. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. To arrange visits or expeditions. Harmony with the nature .. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. CFCs. Att itudes of balance towards nature. (cleanliness. potable water. Conservation of natural resources. The groups may exchange. depletion of ozone. viz. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. To provide reference materials for children’s use. developing desirable attitudes. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. loss of bio-diversity.

List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.5. 252 . 4. 4.5. 8. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. preserving natural cycles.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.

Nanda. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Knowledge. b. Publications Pvt. effects. To provide materials needed for practical work. (2007). (1997). specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise.2. Organising conferences. Ltd. group discussions and seminars. sources of pollution. b. (2004). New Delhi : Sharma. greenhouse effect. Education for values.. Y. 4. Modern Problems of Education. Ltd. air pollutants from industries.K. Providing. a. 5. water scarcity. Social responsibilit y (common good. June 5 7. new problems from science and technology. Environment and Human Rights. acid rain. over exploitation of ground water. T.K. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . a.K. Awareness. 6. importance of nitrogen cycle. Environmental Education. reasons. Anmol Publications Pvt. Rapid population growth. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion.\ 4. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. New Delhi : Authors Press.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu.5. a. 8. (ii) Air pollution. a. b. Environmental Education. concern for others). S. (2007). explosion deforestation. 3. S. To provide reference materials for children’s use. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. ozone layer deplet ion. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. sources. population. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Udaiveer. relat ion between population and pollution.K. Kuldeep. b. importance of trees in the production of oxygen.

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Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.



STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism Idealism and aims of Education Idealism and Curriculum Idealism and methods of teaching Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism Naturalism and aims of Education Naturalism and Curriculum Naturalism and methods of teaching Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

259 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to

” 5. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm.1. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. the emancipation of spirit. It is self-realisation. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. According to Rusk'. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says.3." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. in fact.our life. should be universal in nature.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. enrichment and transmission of culture. man is essentially a moral being. Education must contribute to development of culture. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. Universal Education. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. Therefore. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. The universe is regarded as a thought process. Spiritual Development. Education according to idealism. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. moral. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality.

He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. He carries the child from darkness to light. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race.” 5. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students.1. so subjects like Religion. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. According to idealism. Ethics. 3. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct.” He is thus. Learning through discussion. So he should embody. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. Learning through questioning. For intellectual development. It considers teacher as. 4.3.3. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. a spiritual guide for the child. subjects like Languages. hygiene. 5. He sets the environment in which education takes place. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . However. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. So health. an indispensable necessity.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. So cognition (knowing). Herbert advocated instruction method. Learning through imitation.the spiritual qualities of mankind. According to Frobel. Learning through lecturing. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. The plant can grow. and collation (striving) should find due place. the school is a garden. Philosophy. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. Learning through reading. 5. History.1. For this no particular method has been suggested. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. affecting (feeling). no doubt. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. Mathematics etc. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Science. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. friend and guide. should be there. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. 2. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all.

Perfection of Human Machine. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. text books. time tables. formal lessons or examinations.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.4. In the words of Ross. 2.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. Ross explains.perfection and beauty. curricula.1. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. "Education should make 263 • . It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.1. 5.preservation.

o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Education should. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. education should develop the child into Joyous. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. There is no place for religious and moral education. rational harmoniously balanced. 4. It stresses basic sciences. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. It emphasises physical and health education 5. is based on the nature of the child. Zoology. Botany etc Language. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. geography should also be included in the curriculum. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Arithmetic. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. “Education finds its purpose. subjects like history. Naturalistic curriculum. therefore. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. 264 . It is based on the psychology of the child. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. useful and mature child.4. Therefore. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Biology. Literature. • 5. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Chemistry. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. In all.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3.1.

Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Learning through observation. Heuristic method. a supplier of materials and opportunities. 5. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. the stage. he should be taught by experience alone. 2.5.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. a provider of an ideal environment.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Here the emphasis is on the individual method.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. Dalton Plan. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . It discards all rigid. 5.1. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Rousseau says. Learning through experience. Learning by doing. 3. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.4. 4. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .1.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. In the . Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.4.

Continuous Growth. social and moral aspects. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Geography. of human personality is in terms of his physical.5.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life.absolutism of idealism. 5. 5.5. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism.1. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Social Science. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Agriculture.1. History. All Round Development of an Individual. Personal Social Adjustment. Vocational and 266 . Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Subjects. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. intellectual. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. The aim of educational development. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Physical training. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Sciences. The individual has not only to adjust himself. diversified and flexible. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Social Efficiency. is true. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education.

Learning by Doing. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching.Technical Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. should find proper place. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. a senior partner and a sincere guide. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity.” 5. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. The subjects. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. He must be trained. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. He has to be active. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. 5. a teacher occupies an important position. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. alert and resourceful.5. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.5. activities and experience should be integrated properly.1.1. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.

4. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. literary or humanistic education. rich and happy. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Crafts. 4. Music and Dance. Astrology. 5.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Education is preparation for a complete living.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Art.1. 5. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. History.6. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. 5. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Literature. specific. 2. Chemistry. practical. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic.1. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Psychology. Mathematics. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Study of Subjects like Language. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. It favours child-centered. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable.5. Sex Education. Geography are unnecessary 268 . liberal. 2. 3. The basic tenets of realism are 1. 3. Population Education. intellectual. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Biography Philosophy. scientific and psychological education. Biology.6.1.

They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .5. certainly and clearly.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. easily and pleasantly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.6.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.

History.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Agriculture. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. e. pragmatism and realism. c. in this lesson. naturalism. a.1. Rousseau 5. Universal Education 2. Learning through reading. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Vocational and Technical Education. Education according to pragmatism. a. Tours / Excursion e. Languages. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Self Realisation b. 5.1. a. Social Science. 3. Learning through imitation. b.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Geography. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Learning through lecturing.5. Learning through questioning.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. d. Physical training. & curriculum. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4.1. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Learning through discussion. Experimentation d. Sciences. has no end other than growth. 5. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Child centered c. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Learning through experience b. 6. 5.

5.P. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004). K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Pahuja.1. Narang C.P. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.H. R. K. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. P. New Delhi : Bhatia. (2003). Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. N. O. of Pathak. P. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. (2007). Theory and Principles of Education.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. 271 . Ltd. L. Publishing corporation. Aims of Education Aims of Education 5.4 Views about teacher 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.2 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.2 Curriculum Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.3.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.3.3 Methods of teaching 272 .4 Views about teacher 5.2 Curriculum 5.5.1 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.3 Methods of teaching Aims of Education 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.

9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. an artist. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.2. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.2.5. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. economic and political reconstruction in our country.6 5. content and methods. 5. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2. 273 .” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. 5.2.2. 3. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.2.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. mind and spirit.7 5. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. 2. Tagore was a poet. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. Gandhiji was primarily a social.5. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. you will able to: 1. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.8 5. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.2.4 Role of the teacher 5.2. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.

His scheme of education is life centred. "I attach more. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. mind and soul of children He further observed." Dignity of Labour. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. nor the gross animals body.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education.supporting. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. self-restraint and service of humanity. 274 . Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. It really provides opportunity for character building. righteousness. 'Man is neither mere intellect. strength of mind. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. In the words of Gandhiji.3. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations.2. it is education of life. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji.intellectual and physical faculties of the children.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. through life and for life. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. 5. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self.

the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Mother-tongue.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme.2. Music. the realization of the ultimate reality. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. gardening. General Sciences. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. Only good individual forms a better society. metal work. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Art. Drawing and Hindustani. Individual and Social Aims. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. "Development of the moral character. 5. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner.Training for Leadership. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. leather work have been suggested. According to Gandhi. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered.3. wood work.

What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.2.2. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.3. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. men of 276 . Basic education is other wise known as 4.3. proficient. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.trained.

He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. 3. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 .3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. He also advocates freedom for the child. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. 5. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Education must be child centered. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots.knowledge. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. That is why. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST.

He was deadly against untouchability. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.4.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Gandhi in 1937.2.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.2. He was a true patriot.” Like all other ideals.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. he was a true Vedantist 5. 5.2. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. • Cult of non-violence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.3. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. • Education should involve manual work. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. • Ideal of citizenship. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He believed in the oneness of humanity.K. 5.

Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. 279 . deeper in. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Therefore. It should help. wider in range. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. That way only. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. International Understanding.4." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. sentiment.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Civics. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. International understanding. Tagore said. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. them solve problems of day to day life. Zoology. stronger in power than ever before.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . he said. Botany. Chemistry. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History.2. could help in forging unity among all. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Dance.Language and Literature . Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. (vi) Philosophy. complete manhood could be attained. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Religion and Psychology. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. etc. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Music. the more dedicated and devoted. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. "Mankind must realise a unity. It should help the learner have good physique. Geography.

4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. 5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.2.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.2. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. 5.4." 5. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. In 1921. Tagore rightly says.4.2. Activity Method Heuristic Method. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.4. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.” He further says.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. 280 .

281 . What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. race. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3.g. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. 9. 10. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. It is open to all irrespective of country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e.

liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. character forming and assimilation of ideas." He was against the theoretical type of education. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. man making. Education for Self-realization. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. work and deeds come out of it. Education for strong Moral Character. He believed in to learning or selflearning. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. Education should make a person self-reliant. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Purity of thought. Freedom.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. 2. Education for Self-reliance. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. Concept of Education. Book learning. 4. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge.5.2.” 5.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court.2. 3.5. According to him. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man.

Discussion Method. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. 5. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Every individual should be trained for concentration. The teacher should be the facilitator. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.5.5. That will serve the purpose of education fully. 283 .5.2. 6. engineering and technical subjects. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion.5. Secondly he wanted Science.2. Religion. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. And above all. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. 5. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . A physically strong person is the need of the society. 5. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. Of course. philosopher and guide to the students He.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study.2. Thirdly he wished that games. Education for Physical Development. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Philosophy and Theology. Swami. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth.the learners on different students in the discussion.

Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. 5. Write short notes on Basic education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. We have seen that Tagore. and pragmatist . In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature.6 LET US SUM UP We have.2. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. 3. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. legs. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1.2. Gandhiji as a Idealist. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. 2. 284 . 5. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. Their educational ideas. ears and eyes. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda.Substantiate your answer. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. naturalist. of course. in this lesson. 12.

Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. b. Explain Vishwabharathi. Self-Study b. a. f. Basic education. Teaching while Walking b. c. 1937 7. 10. e. Activity Method b. metal work. Self realization. 5. Heuristic Method.4. 5. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. a. Learning by Doing c. 9. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. wood work. Activity Method d. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. Education should involve manual work. Nai Talim 4.2. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Discussion Method 285 . Meditation and concentration c. Cult of non-violence. Debate and Discussion Method. Technique of Correlation 6. a. 8. Ideal of citizenship. leather work have been suggested. gardening. a. 3. d. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. 5. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. 11. c.

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2007). N.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. P. 286 . P. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : A. J. Foundations of Education. on Bhatia.P. O. B. Pahuja. N. Publishing Corporation. Ltd. (2004). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. C. L. K and Narang C. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2007). New Delhi : Aggarwal.2. Dhiman. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. (2003).5.H. (2002). K.

3.3.7 5. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.4 5.9 5.6 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.LESSON 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.11 5.2 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.10 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 . Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.3 5.3.3. In this lesson.8 5.3.5 5.

there is a large number of communities. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. in the U. new behaviour may be acquired. it is identical wit h socializat ion. A g o o d curricu lu m. is a means to the process. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. curriculum signifies situations for learning. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. In the words of Kerney and Cook. in fact . curriculum also offers a wide contrast. While education is learning.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. in the form of new experience.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. Then in a big country like India. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. While education is a process. One is the individual process and the other is the social process.A.under the direction of the school. curriculum. maintained or eliminated. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’.3. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. in Russia or in Japan. 5. Both the processes are integrated. 5. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. In it. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. In the former sense.3. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. From the latter point of view. you will be able to: 1. the desert area.. living in the hilly area. Since the demands. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society.3. the plateau area and 288 . the plain area.S. present behaviour may be modified. Curriculum is intimately related to education. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. state the meaning of curriculum 2. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion.

5. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. Besides craft. the learning capacity of children. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. and 289 . Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. therefore. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. From a slave-country we became secular. In fact . aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. too. It must differ from locality and from society to society. irrespective of their needs and environment.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality.3. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. customs and needs. environment. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. it is. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. differs from individual to individual. However. democratic and socialistic country. studying therein. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. Again. according to modern trends in the educational process. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs.

specific. moral. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. 2. etc.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. etc. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception.. Application Objective. 5.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. 290 . remote or immediate. Knowledge Objective. The word “Curere” means 2. individual or Social and so on. They may be ultimate or proximate. unsatisfactory. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. aims. Goals of Secondary Education. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery.. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. 3. uninspiring and unscientific. Understanding Objective. They are achievable. etc. They are visionary goals e. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. social. They speak of perfect goals. social. which may or may not be attained. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. Self Realisation. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . eg.g.g. National Integration. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. general or specific. of classroom. they depend on the political.g. Vocational Efficiency. So it is inadequate. emotional. in instructional objectives. 4. aesthetic and spiritual development.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. e. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. Goals of Primary Education. tangible. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived.. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. e. unambiguous and functional. They speak of immediate purposes of education.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country.

” 291 . but it includes the totality of experiences. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. capacities. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other.3. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children.5. Raymont rightly says. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. heavy fire. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. abilities.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. The interests. finding them very interesting and captivating. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. needs. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. According to Crow and Crow. Crow and Crow remarks.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. in the class rooms. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. on the playing fields. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. educationists. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. The old and prevalent curriculum is under.

Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. aptitudes.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. tendencies. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. mental. Due to these variations and differences. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. time in a useful manner. They often waste it or rather kill it. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. urges. capacities and abilities. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. moral.

there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. administrative programme need be planned. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. 3. 293 . provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. development of professional capability at all levels. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. Similarly. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. phased preparation. To ensure success of the process.curricular. 2. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. organized. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations.

Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. workshop. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. Run. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. principles of curriculum construction. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . 18. 17. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. 1937 19.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum.3. a. 11. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Child Centred Education b.3. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. 12.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. library. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. in the class room. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Relation with Life c. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. laboratory.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. 10. 5.

Lakshmi.3.S. Curriculum and Instruction. (2007). New Delhi : Authorspress. P.5. D. Bhalla. S. Curriculum Development. (2007). and Sarita Kumari.K. 295 . (2001). (2007). N. S. Innovations in Education. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. New Delhi : Isha Books.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.

2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.10 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE Scientific Attitude 5.4 5.1 5.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4.LESSON 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.5 5.4.2 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.

3. 5. We mean curiosity. 2.4. you will be able to: 1. 4. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. 297 . yet real advancement in this area was achieved . Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. newer and newer industries started growing.during the second half of this century. 5. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings.5. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. know the importance of science education. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking.4. open-mindedness. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. tolerance for the opinions of others. Gradually. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. in the economic reconstruction of society.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. honesty. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. superstition or emotion. explain the concept of scientific attitude.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not.

Avenues open for newer and newer vocations.4. 5. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Thinking and memory develops. After such experience and training. 4. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. 4. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. 5. 7. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 5. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 3. models and scientific instruments for laboratories.4. Central science workshop. 2. Organisation of science fairs. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 3. Through newspapers. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. 6. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. 5. Schemes of teaching science. Principles are formulated. Love for truth enhances. 6.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Selection for science education. Devotion towards nature increases. Through examinations. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Self-confidence and self-reliance develop.So that. seminars and symposiums. 2. Promotion of science clubs. as well as of the society.

prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. sex or religion. They experience natural phenomenon. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. should provide opportunities to. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Write any two advantages of Science Education. They encounter many social events as they grow. 7.needs and conditions. Training of science teachers. They ask many questions about the objects they see. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. objectivity. After presenting the problem. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations.4. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. essential that teachers. In the inquiry approach.6. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 .4. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. therefore. Enquiry teaching is. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. each child to “enquiry skill building”. 5. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. For laboratory and workshop techniques. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. It is. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

3. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to ask questions and experience things. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”.4. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. .Herma Wouk. 3.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. 5. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. if they like. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Appreciating pupils ideas.6.4. Adopting creative models of teaching. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. 2. test. 6.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. . What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Giving less directions. Social sciences. stern pursuit of accurate data. 4. It requires consistent thinking. Evidence. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook.books. commands or orders. 300 .

The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. school and society at large.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. practiced. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. it must be encouraged. friends.(Smith 2008). In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. of vast resources running waste. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”.4. To achieve this we should understand what it means. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. and emphasized during the learning process . In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. These include open mindedness. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. The students observation. therefore should be unbiased and objective. For instance. neighbourhood. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. (Vaidya 2007). These characteristics of any scientific 301 . see and feel the need of developing this attitude.7. to develop among the learners. critical thinking and suspended judgments. keen observation. 5. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude.

or superstitions. rumor. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes.7. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. (Das. intuition or wishful thinking”. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. 2007). He is patient and reserved in his judgement. 5. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. In considering a situation or a problem. 302 . he studies all aspects of it. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. The intention to respect another’s point of view.4. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. think and work it”. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. understanding and logic.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them.

An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. but to begin only after careful planning. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.7. 5. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil.4. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.7. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity.4. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. • 5.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.

manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. it must be encourages. 5. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. 304 . The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory.

objectivity. Vaidya. a. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Yadav. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. Planning of activities 5.4. New Delhi : Anmol Publications.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Rao. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. D. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Reflections on Scientific attitude. a.S. 3. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. a. 5. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. 5. N. 16.4. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. b. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. (2000). Proper example of the teacher c. M. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. b.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Love for truth enhances. (2008). 4. (2006). S. Adopting creative models of teaching. Wide reading b.4. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Study of superstitions d. 305 . a. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs.5. b.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. 2.B (2008).

actively. you will be able to: 1.10 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.5.5.5. areas of institutional planning.5.11 5.8 5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5. 306 . 5.3 5.5.4 objectives and characteristics. 2.7 5.5.2 5.LESSON 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.1 5.5.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions. state the concept.9 5.6 5.

Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. every teacher. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. 5. each teacher. • to make planning development-oriented. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. which become the bases for further planning at the district. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. executive as well as public. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. and every student in the process of educational planning.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. and each student are regarded as separate entities.5.5.3. • to involve teachers and school administrators. teachers and students is not lost sight of. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. State and national levels from below. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. every parent. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. 5. and supplement planning from above. • To make institutional planning more successful. and. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. Institution should be regarded as the unit. in the task of educational planning.

approved after making necessary modifications.5. Syllabus. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. (2) Co. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. etc. it becomes the basis for school inspection.• implemented. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. Classwork. Examinations. which will be discussed in the general.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members.curricular Activities. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services.5. 5. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. 308 . and Personnel services. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. council and. (3) TeachingLearning Aids.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. Co-curricular activities.

Equipping of laboratory and library. Conducting of educational. Improving the internal assessment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.No. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Running science clubs. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Preparation of models. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . etc. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. etc. charts and apparatus. Organisation of Pupils. Preparation of instructional material. Editing the school magazine. Fair distribution of syllabi. Courts. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Organisation of Self-Government Days. scientific and historical excursions. 2. Preparation of audio-visual aids. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. etc. 3. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Celebrating of national and international festivals. 1. Organising play-for-all programmes. hobby-centres. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Organisation of Students’ Association. Organisation of class-room libraries.

teacher-teacher. teacherinspector. Administrator-State. pupil310 . Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. teacher-managing body. co-operation. administrator-pupil. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. and —pupil-pupil. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. pupils. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. involving mainly human materials. and solidarity.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school.5. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. students’ associations. which are divided as the in. ii. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group and out-group relationships are as given below i. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. teacher-pupil. teachers. etc. teacher-State. headmasters associations. understanding. parent-teacher associations. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. science teachers’ associations. administrator-supervisor. administrator-administrator. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. parents.” The human relationships in.5.

Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. and to serve. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. to accomplish. teacher-parent. control. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. pupil-community leader." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. 311 . and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. It covers personnel and material management. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.5. organisation. social sciences and other disciplines. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. to attend. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is also being modernized to become a technique. administrator. teacher-community leader. To administer means to manage. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. to carry out. pupil-parent. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. According to C. V. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. organisation and management. now-a-days. supervision and superintendence. pupil-inspector.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. Good.State. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. pupil-non-official functionaries. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. etc. supervision. superintendence.

Communication . He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. 13. 3. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. Leadership . 9.The manager should have leadership traits.Of all the approaches. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. The relationship should change from master. 10. Decision Making . who occupy the managerial positions. 5. 12. This is the latest democratic trend in management.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. Those. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. Motiviation . it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. it is not worth-while.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . 11.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 6. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. 2. Rapport between the Management and Employees .Modern Management Techniques At this juncture.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Better Human Relationships .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship .This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. Socio-Scientific Approach . He should be an artist in human relationships. 4.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner.Any good management will always have good public relations. 7. If the cost benefit ratio is less. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. Economic Management . 8. Democratic Management . low. If it is more. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. Worker Participation . Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . Cost-Benefit Analysis . Liasion with the Public .This is an important aspect of modern management techniques.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.

Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. 18. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. 5. improvement of teaching methods.5. and cooperative performance should be ensured. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. characteristics and areas of institutional planning.5. objective. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. to improve the quality of education it provides. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. 313 . Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. 5.These two are.too. 14. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . 19.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. enrichment of curricula. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.g. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.

Leadership c. (2001). Communication 5. d.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Educational Administration. Examinations. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. a. b.K. Syllabus. and Personnel services. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. e. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. R. b. 314 .5. Motiviation d. f. b. APH Publishing Corporation. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. a.5. In group and Out group 5. 2. Fundamental of Educational Management. NUEPA. (2003). a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Decision Making b. (1995). Singh.M. 4. a.5. S. Instruction. c. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Tarachand and Prakash. Classwork. Co-curricular activities. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. H.

Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. Balanced diet.1 School Health Programme. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .3 Educational Influences of Home. 1. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. Preservation of nutrients.Preventive measures.5 Regional Educational Development in India . UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. population education. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. Economic 315 . First Aid.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.Article 45 . Sex-education 4.3 Directive Principles . Buddhist and Jain system of education.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. School.I.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. wastage and Stagnation 3. Realized the problems of school education. Code of conduct for teachers.4 India's Secular Policy .Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.Religious and Modern Education 1.2 Nutritional deficiencies. Healthy Food Habit 4. social Impact 3. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. 2.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .CORE PAPER . Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Inspection and Supervision 3. 4.1 Gurukula system of education. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.teachers should have : 1. physical education and environmental education 5. Communicable diseases . New evaluation procedures.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.1 Inculcation of Socialism. higher education.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Common ailments of Children. women education and teacher education in India. nutritional requirement. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.1 Primary Education : Education for all. Examination reforms.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Community and Mass Media 2.Pre-service and In-services facilities.

316 .R. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. T. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. 7.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. and Dash B. Realism.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. Mahatma Gandhi.Aim. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.4 4. Socialization.K. Ghanta R.S. Sharma.K.K.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Naturalism and Pragmatism .N. Curriculum and national goals .5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Hemchand. Ram S.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. (1999) Culture. REFERENCE 1. R. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Kalan Paper Packs 10. New Delhi: NCERT 3. (2004) Problems of Education in India. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. and Mohanty R.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.N. Pandy V. B.C. Saraswathi T.1 Idealism. and Human Development. Delhi : University Publications 2.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. (2005) Foundations of Education. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Taneja V. Tagore 5. Prof. 5.4. and Sharma R. Mishra. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.K. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.

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