Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

UNIT: 1 – V



Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer



Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56


Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University


67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5



3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education

127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233


5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4


UNIT – I 7 .

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Lesson 4. Lesson 2. Lesson 5. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Jainism and their educational implication. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. 9 . of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. In. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. and Jain system of education. discusses the regional educational development in India. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. The need. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. regional imbalances and variations in different environment.

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1.1.2 Practical teachings of Jainism Buddhist system of Education 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.6.6 Education during British Era Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.LESSON 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education Methods of Jain system of Education Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1 1.5 Jain system of education Hartog Committee (1929) 11 . Hunter Commission (1882) 1.1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.

you will be able to: 1. “a class of persons.6. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.1. 1. India.1. but English in taste. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.1. British system of education presented the modern western model. in morals and in the intellect”.1.1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1. has a long past history starting in vedic education. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.1. That 12 .8 1. in opinion. Muslim and British periods.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. The history of education passed through Buddhist. elucidate the education during British Era. 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.7 1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. both present and future. describe the Jain system of Education 4. Education in India.3. Indian in blood and colour.9 1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.

Education of Moral. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Residential Schools. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Education was a private affair of the people. 4. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Religious and Spiritual. High Status of Teachers. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. followed by explanation by the teacher. 8. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. 5. Free and Accessible. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Forests as Centres of Education. to light. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. 12. 16. generally. with grants of land or money.knowledge was real. No State Control on Education. It was not merely intellectual. 11. Teacher as Parents. Curriculum. as it is generally considered to be at present. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. The immediate aim of education. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. however. managed entirely by Brahmans. and to agriculture and trade. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. not en masse by the class method. Method of Study. 3. Method of Instruction. 13 . 6. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Role of Travel in Education. from darkness. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. It was also moral. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. religious and spiritual. 13. 9. Immediate Aim Vocational. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. the monitorial plan was followed. questioning by the pupil. if they thought fit to do so. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. There was. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Individual Teaching. 10. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. Where pupils were many. 14. Pupils were taught. individually. from eternal to immorality 2. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas.

Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.1. They were very cordial and intimate. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. It was freely available to all those who wanted. Wide-Spread Education in Women. 2. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. It was suited to the needs of the society. 1. studied Vedas. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. lived a life of celebacy.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today.3. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent.17. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 .

Right memory 8. Right speech 4. 15 . except the Chandals. the student had his head shaved of all hair. Right means of livelihood 6. Right activity 5. taking things without being offered.4. Consequently. disease and death of the human beings.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. he was qualified to become a monk. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. watching dances or listening to music. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. the handicapped. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Right knowledge 2. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. Right thought 3. every class in society.C. partaking of food at prohibited times.1. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. the most significant of which were the following 1. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. the student remained in a state of Shramana. 2. had the right to receive education. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. 1. I take Refuge to Sangh. Right contemplation 1. medium of Pali. use of intoxicating things. use of cosmetics. dressed himself in yellow clothes. killing of any living being. I take Refuge to Dharma. impure conduct.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. After attaining the age of 20. which included abstaining from theft. Right endeavour 7. Education was imparted through the. in which. It was denied only to the ill. etc.

the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. agriculture. 5. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. After this ritual. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. beg for alms. however. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. changing the goals. 2. magic.3. therefore. archery. the science of taming and training animals. Life is in a flux. As reality is becoming. has no metaphysical value for life. These are called later Buddhist schools. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. Even at this stage. archery. be considered the aim of education It. etc. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. meaning. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. along with education in script writing. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. eat food thrice a day.. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. 1. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life.4. 8. 7. education was impart in art. it is regarded as true”. and. approach. handicrafts. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. commerce. Hence. elephant lore. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. knowledge of reviving the dead. nothing is of any permanent consequence. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. control over sensuous activities. military science. animal husbandry. depth and range. Later on. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. Initially. 6. of clothes. aspirations and. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. women occupied a position inferior to men. It comprehended education in writing. the presence of the monks was essential. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. cottage industries. wear three items. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. bodily gestures. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. geology. 4. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. Whatever its nature and extent. a change is not only total but also perpetual. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. 3. assumptions. nature. a continuous change creating 16 . Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. arithmetic and religious discussion. etc. so long as it successfully does so. On this occasion. etc. medicine. objectives of human life.

Write Eight fold path .new and peculiar situations.e. In fact. Its chief feature. its pessimistic outlook on life.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. However. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. however. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. Jainism insists 17 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Validity is effective and consequences. therefore. and to give it a shape that it has today. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. it is much older than the latter..5. Education must.1. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. 5. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. whatever works are true and good. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. 1. i. such as. goes to Vardhaman.

Development of personality as an individual. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. 8. 18 . e) To renounce the world. but on both. Hence. 10. it has a foot in both the words. 7. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. d) To lead a celibate life. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. thought and deed. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. 3. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. c) Right conduct. rather than the interpretation of the universe. and believe in happiness to all. 5. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. They are: a) Not to injure. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. 9. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. b) Not utter falsehood. 2. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. 6. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. 3. 1. 1. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. and is to be redeemed and liberated. As such. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. 2. b) Right knowledge. 4.1. more stress on individual aims. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. c) Not to steal. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects.5.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.

Knowledge is through senses and meditation. 3.5. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. education should develop sense of discrimination. What are Triratnas ? . ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories.4. success and love. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Belief in transmigration of soul. and should bring happiness to all. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. 1. that would be socially desirable. 1.5. Teaching should be social and tolerant. 3. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. practised and not only aspired for. 19 .3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Hence. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. 5. therefore. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 2. education must be action based and ideally oriented. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. 4. 8. here and now. Jiva is essentially karmic. Teaching must develop these faculties.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 2.

6.6. North West Province and Punjab. and not for life. Madras. 2.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. To set up separate departments of. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. science. 1. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. Bombay. 1953).2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. primary 20 .6. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. 1. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854).4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. However. 1. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. 1. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. with rally and rout. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.6. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. philosophy and literature of Europe.

and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). To ensure qualitative improvement. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. namely. Later on. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. 1.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical was neglected. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education.6. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. The universities dominated the secondary education.6. • Universal free primary education. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. 1. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. • Secondary education. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. secondary education became a step towards university.6. self-respecting and competent. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. At that time M. 1. they named these schools as polytechnic schools.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. at the primary level.K. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. In 1882. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . After this stage. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want.At the primary stage (6-11 years). commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. The objective of education was to provide 22 . all children are to have a common curriculum. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. 10. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial.

establishment of universities.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. handicrafts. science and English language.. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. 3. followed by explanation by the teacher. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. Right knowledge. along with education in script writing. Right activity. archery. the science of taming and training animals. b. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. Right contemplation.1. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. of European literature. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 23 . Right endeavour. The system of education was well-organised. The immediate aim of education. a. Right thought. questioning by the pupil. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. military science. 5. 1. arithmetic and religious discussion. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. 2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. It was suited to the needs of the society. education was impart in art. Right means of livelihood. Right memory. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 1. geology. 6. 3. Right speech. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. 2. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil.1. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. etc. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. During the Buddhist period.

c. Ltd. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. 9.7. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd.K. Y. 24 . New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 8. b. Singh. Hence. Right faith. J. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Development of Educational System in India. History of Indian Education System.K. 1937 1. (2007). (2005).C. b. Right conduct. 11. 10. more stress on individual aims. Aggarwal. (2009). R. 1882. and Nath. (1984).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Sargent report 12.1. Improvement of Literature. Y.C. Development of personality as an individual. a. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Sharma. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. J. a. Right knowledge. INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.3.2 University Education Commission 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.4 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.9 1.6 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.8 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.3 Kothari Commission 1.2.5 1.1 1.2.LESSON Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.7 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2.2. The 25 .

2. you will be able to: 1. 1986 1. Kothari (1964-66) 8. expansion of vocational.2. 1. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. examination system. girls and women education besides primary. National Board of Teacher Education 10.2. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. New Educational Policy. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. Post-graduate 26 .2. secondary and higher education. technical. standard of teaching. explosion of enrolment. vocational education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. medical and legal education. S. analyse the progress of education in free India. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. National Council for Women’s Education 5. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. There had been vast institutional expansion. technological engineering. diversification of courses of studies. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7.3.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4.conditions of the teachers. curriculum.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education.

There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. research et. A meaningfully Partnership. utility and financial outlay. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. 4. Problems of access. the New National Policy on Education. Kothari. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. material and spiritual. 1. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. accumulated over the years. D. 2. 1986. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. quality. 1. However. The national system of education envisages common educational structure.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. National System of Education. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. 3.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. 1966.2. Education is the key to our allround development.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency.2. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission.2.3. in January 1985. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.S. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . Education for Equality. Therefore. A. The Essence and Role of Education.3. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. Finally.3. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. 1. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. 1952.teaching. quantity. the chairman of University Grants commission. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. Government of India.

Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. It can train practical aptitudes. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity.” Thus. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. By working with hands. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. the minorities and the handicapped. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. attitudes. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. 28 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Thus. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. the concepts of work experience. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The UNESCO Report. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life.

Besides. “The aim of these colleges. it will conduce self." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. According to. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. The Radhakrishnan Commission. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. co-operation and implementation of the scheme.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. the Commission. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. The Education Commission. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 .” the Kothari Commission mentioned. co-ordinations. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. if he wishes. With adequate planning. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. As such.” The Mudaliar Commission. In 1955. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. “It may be described.

The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. The Central Advisory Board of Education. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. Therefore. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations.ot her.. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. With a view to relating education to the life. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. admission requirements to vocational courses. Subsequently. the rigid streaming of courses. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). the. etc. for quality of life in the rural areas. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. In addition. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. raising the special facilities. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. the semester and credit system. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs.

1. meaningful. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. manual work resulting in either goods or services. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. aimed at this goal. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. meaningful. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. technological courses including Agriculture. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. The Father of Nation. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. who conceived the System of Basic Education. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. In short. preferably spinning and weaving. According to committee.. which are useful to the community. 31 . Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. Commerce. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions.2. which swept the country for over two decades. The wave of Basic Education. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum.and the world of work. etc. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. giving importance to productivity in the national development.defined S UP W as “purposive. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. felt that education should be centred around a craft. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. which offer scientific. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed.

Educative and 3. Food 3. 3. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. as far as possible. locally available materials and tools. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Productive 2. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. 32 . be that the work involved is: 1. tools and techniques and 3. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. The teachers should make use of. 4. Work practice. Community work and social service. Some Hints to Teachers 1. 2. so that it is educational in essence. Clothing 5. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Shelter 4. Health and Hygiene 2. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Culture and recreation 6. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Experimentation with materials. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2.

2. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Check on educated unemployed 4.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. slum clearance. Productive Work 33 . etc. Community Service In-1972. 1. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. removal of illiteracy. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. 6. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. It can become an instrument to build character. the local community should be actively associated.5. improve discipline. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. To make education more realistic. as far as possible. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. inculcate a faith. Merits of the Programme 1. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Education through work The SUPW should. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject.

and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. skills and better future for the children. Define SUPW 34 . National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . traffic control. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. helping the adults-in productive work. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. should involve itself in the educational effort. if not productive. etc. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. helping the adults in festivals and Functions.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. in turn. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. The community. offering first aid. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. AICTE was set up in year 4.

d.2.1. 3. f. Write short note on SUPW. 1. meaningful. Radhakrishnan 2. 1955 4. a. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. manual work resulting in either goods or services. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 35 .8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. c. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. e.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 6. 2. 1. 1952 3. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. which are useful to the community. Dr.2.2.

Ltd. : Sharma. and Rao. and Nath. Amala. (2005).1.K. Singh. (2007).H.D.C. Y. History and Problems of Indian Education. Development of Educational System in India. History of Indian Education System.(2005). B. A. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. Rao.K. Anupama. R. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.P. History of Education. V.2. (2009). New Delhi: A. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.K. P. J. Y.. 36 . Publishing Corporation.P. (2007).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.

It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.1 1.6 1.3.4 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. containing 395 articles. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. Being the supreme law of the country. assuring its citizens of justice. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.8 1.3. 1949.3.3.9 1.369 words in the English language version.3.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.1 Significance of DPSP 1. 1950. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. it came into effect on January 26.5 1. there is an official Hindi translation.3.3. 37 .LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. establishing the structure. Besides the English version.3.7 1. procedures. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. democratic republic.3. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.3. equality.3.3.2 1. for a total of 117. and liberty. directive principles and duties of citizens.3.

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.3. legal and environmental. 3. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. 1947. understand our Indian constitution. economic.3. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. you will be able to: 1. with Dr. 1. learn the role of central and state government on education. After many deliberations and some modifications. 4. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. On August 29. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. political. Through them. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. 1950. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. 1947.3. According to the constitution.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. 1. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. the Drafting Committee was appointed. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. 2. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. in sessions open to public. Dr. 38 . for 166 days. Two days later. administrative. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. spread over a period of 2 years. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. The Assembly met.3.In the August 14. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. social. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented.

make effective provision for securing the right to work.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Organisation of village panchayat. The State shall endeavour to secure. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. Equal justice and free legal aid. Condition for dignity of children. sickness and disablement. Article 43. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. No abuse of children. Equal pay for both sex. That the health and strength of workers. men and women. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Article 42. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. provide free legal aid. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. and shall. in particular. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Protecting children from exploitation. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Minimising inequalities in status. old age. Article 41. Right to work. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. and in other cases of undeserved want. Article 39A. Article 40. on the basis of equal opportunity. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. for workers. Liking wage etc. The State shall. Protecting health of the workers. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities.government. 39 . and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength.

by suitable legislation or in any other way. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. The State shall endeavour to provide. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Article 48A. industrial or otherwise. suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. to all workers. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. in particular. in particular. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Article 45. Article 44. Participation of workers in management of industries. Uniform civil code for the citizens. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. The State shall take steps. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Article 43A. work. a living wage. (Original Article 45. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Article 46. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. 2002 for “45. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Note: Subs. Article 48. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. in particular. See also Article 21A). agricultural. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Article 49. [declared by or under law made by 40 . and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Article 47. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health.

from spoliation.3. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. removal. Promotion of international peace and security. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Article 45 . The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Separation of judiciary from executive.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . 1. disposal or export.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Article-21A Right to Education. 2.Parliament] to be of national importance. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. disfigurement. Article 50. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 51. 2002. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. as the case may be. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. destruction. may be law determine”.

of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. ii. 7. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. caste. from justice and all forms of exploitations. language or any of them”. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. iii. in particular.” 42 . and. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. race. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. and shall protect them. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. 3. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. 2002. 6. 5. 4. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. if such person is a minor. his guardian has given his consent thereto.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 8. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish.

9. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. wherever necessary or desirable.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1.3. and by drawing. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. the forms. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. & 1. The central government determines targets and promotes education. for its vocabulary. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . Educational Reforms From time to time. 2. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Article 351 gives importance to 6. 43 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country.

the state governments. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). The following pilot projects. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Production of suitable for children and adults f. 7. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. 6. 8. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. etc. 5. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. private agencies etc. All India Council of Medical Science. 4. to achieve the desired ends. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. So as to encourage education on right lines.. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry.3. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Local bodies and private enterprise. So that they may work well. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. By starting these projects. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e.

11. books. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. 1. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO.3. are published by it. 9. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. etc. 4. research. 12. The 45 . 3. education for women. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. handicapped. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. 1. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. 10.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. reports etc. is the state responsibility. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. training and statistics.

articles in the Directive principles. Write short notes on a.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Article 21A c. 1. Article 45 b.3.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 46 . Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Explain Directive principles 2. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Article 46 4.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. 1. 5.

Article 29 and 30 7. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 47 . Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. a. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 2002. Describe the educational role of State Government. a. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 3. 1. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Article 46 5.5. Article-21A Right to Education. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 4. Development of Hindi Language 6. Dr.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. The Directive Principles of State Policy. Ambedkar 2. 2002. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. a. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Clearing House function 9. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. b.3. may be law determine”. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Article 45 . b.

(2004). Education in Emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: Shipra Publications.3. (2008). 48 . L. (2007). Ghosh. K. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.1. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. K and Narang C. Bhatia. S. Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. N.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. Dash. (2009). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. B. S.

3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4.4 Moral education Why Moral Education 1.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4. Students should be 49 .4. Buddhism etc.3. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.4.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India. Jainism.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.6 1.4.5 1.4.4. religious education should be broad based. Christianity.4.8 1.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.1 1. Islam.

Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance.and dedication. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. religious education and the concept of secularism. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. As result of which. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. In the complicated and complex society of today.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4.4. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. duty-consciousness.” Education broadens human outlook. Thus. know the position of religious education in our country 3. 1. you will be able to: 1. According to E. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. integrity. India' can produce men of character. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. state meaning and need for moral education 1.D. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. beauty and goodness so that 50 . "In A multireligious society like ours..

our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. 1947 we achieved our freedom. rancour. if not regularly. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. Thus. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. In short. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. As a matter of fact. through religious practices and 51 . our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. Viewing the defects of religious education. all citizens are free to follow any creed. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. Children attend these organizations.” From the above. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose.3. They thought that any kind of narrow. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. Hence. According to Article 22. 1.4. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. at least occasionally. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs.4. As our country is a country of diverse religions. it is clear that the State has no religion. 1. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society.3. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. castes and creeds. realizes God in himself. According to Article 19.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. No religious tax can be imposed on them. religion and democracy are same.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education.

All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. It is religious education. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child.teachings. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. If unreleased. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. which can mould. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. which help him for the development of his character. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. when he becomes an adult. It helps to modify habits attitudes. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. temperament etc. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. As a result of which. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. and what is evil. intellectual and physical faculties of children. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. He also learns about social. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. what is done and what is not done etc. moral and spiritual values. one fully developed.. Good education. for the development of the individual and the society. aggressive.

But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. 2. If we open the pages of history.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. Therefore. This should not be allowed to happen. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore.3. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. 1. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual.4. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. 3. towards the society. 53 . which is the basic need of a democratic life. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument.

Gurudwara as. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. 9. fellow-feeling. churches and mosques 7. 11. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Since all religions have virtues. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Write Article 22 2. List out any two aims of religious education? 3.4. therefore. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Life histories of great persons of the world. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. examples of patriotism. stories of moral greatness. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. 10. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. they should be discussed in the right earnest.5.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . For this.

5. 4. therefore. Non-injury. the methods of teaching. Patriotism. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 6. Asvada (Control of palate). Fearlessness. They will play their role effectively. 1. Service to others. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Moral education. 4. 8.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture.4. The content of the curriculum. 6. Without moral values. 2. Purity.4. is that which develops moral values. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. 3. Satyam (truth). Brahmacharya (celebacy). Self sacrifice. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness).6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 1. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. “Let all be happy and free from disease. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. 7. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels.acquisitiveness). It they learn what morality is in their early years.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. in the home. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Cultivation of emotions. students. let men see well of one another. 2. 55 . 7. 3. 8. 5. Aparigarha (Non. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1.

Efficiency. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). 3. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited.4.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Unity of mankind. 1. Good temper. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. In the school programme. 3. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . minutes in the morning for group singing. discipline. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship.9. Secondary Stage 1. 4. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Integrity. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Good manners. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. 56 . Sharivashram (Physical work). Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. 11. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. 10. National unity and Spiritual values. loyalty and self-sacrifice. 2. Asatyam (Non-thieving). religions may be included in the syllabus. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Discipline.

This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. patriotism and self-discipline. In other words. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities.4. Silent meditation should be encouraged. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. should form a normal part of school programme. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. University Stage 1. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. In this connection. 2. 3. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. 5. 5. love of humanity. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. 57 .

b. For this. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 2. a. 4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the aims of Religious education. minutes in the morning for group singing. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development.4.4. 1959 5.4. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. Sri Prakasa 6 . 1. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. the. Training of Character 3. 1. b.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. a. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. a. 2. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. In short. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times.1.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. 58 .

B. Ltd.H. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 59 . Bhatia. P. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. K and Narang C. Theory and Principles of Education.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi: A.1. Pahuja. Publishing Corporation. (2004). (2007). N. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). Dash. M. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. J. New Delhi : Siddiqui.C. (2008). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.P. L.4. Anmol Publications Pvt. K. (2003). New Delhi : Shipra Publications.H. N.

5.7 1.11 1.1 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. Although. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.10 1.5.. 1.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.8 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.3 1.9 1.5.4 1. 60 .13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.6 1.5. disparities between provinces/States.5.12 1. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5 1.e. i.

4. 7. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies.5.5.1. for example. 1. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. 3. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. understand the regional educational development in India 3. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. This leads to separatist movements. energy. 5. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. They therefore. work hard towards this end. etc. you will be able to: 1. roads.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. they take appropriate measures. 6. know the education suited to different environments.5. 8. 2. 1. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. 61 .3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. waters.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. 1. Accordingly.

some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. some States became educationally far advanced. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. 2. • Separate States (of course viable States). which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only .6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. 62 . Therefore. 3. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. 4. Secularism.5.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. Tight security arrangements should be made. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. some average. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. while others remained educationally backward. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. and. on the basis of regional development may be formed.

” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. In the Central sector.84 crore was released in 2005-06. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. After the attainment of independence. Mizoram. Itanagar. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice.. Rs. scholarships. remained under developed. Even in each State. Tezpur.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. library buildings. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. However. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. These projects are in various stages of implementation.392. Funds amounting to Rs. while some States like Bihar. Silchar.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. approved proposals worth Rs.g. Central Universities of Assam. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted.480.5. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. Out of this. 1. the Union Government. academic buildings. Regional Centres of IGNOU. etc. 63 . NIT. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes.14. books. etc. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. Guwahati. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. and provision of informal education to enable those. NERIST. the State Governments. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. Jammu and Kashmir.After the Planning Process has originated. Nagaland and NEHU. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. since its inception in 1998-99. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e.

Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.261. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Tezpur University. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. A provision of Rs.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.05 crore and Rs. too. Government expenditure on education.40. Moreover. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. Out of this an amount of Rs.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. During 2003-04.500. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.8 per cent in 05). With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.5. 64 .501.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.57 crore and Rs. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.187.

telecom. for which 16 sites. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. is very low compared to Southern and western parts.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). too. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. Moreover. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. engineering and R&D. The Chandigarh Administration. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Tamil Nadu. Karnataka. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Andhra Pradesh. Listing the positives. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Kerala and Gujarat. too. pharma. To add to the woes. Medical education. 1. English. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. for instance. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. notes the study. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). too. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Karnataka.5. health services and welfare of the citizen population.

Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. life-oriented and environment slanted. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. The living conditions. even actually looking at the watch. Then education become realistic and idealistic. Hence it is called as need-based. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. the teaching methods. the curricular subjects. the needs. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. taking the average in the middle. 66 . Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. and so on. Of course. the working days: an academic .year. the socio-physical conditions. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. when he will not be sure of time. in which the learners live. which a non-tribal person cannot do. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. while the former does not. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. the vocations. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. the interests. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. In the same manner. The working hours of educational institutions. For a learner living in a rural area.

12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. to suit education to different environments? 1. 1.5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. 67 .5. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. 2. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.5.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

Teacher and Education in Indian Society.G. New Delhi: Authors press. and Nair. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. some of areas which were under the native rulers. during the British rule. Education in Developmental Arena. (2008). New Delhi: Anmol Publications. Dubey. (2002). Giridhar.N. some States have become more developed than others b.H. (2001). S.2. a. remained undeveloped 3. (2001).13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. A. S. Educational Development in India. 68 . R.K. Salim. 60% 1. C. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. Education Scenario in India.5.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. community development. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. National Integration. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. secularism and democracy through Indian education. semi literate and illiterates. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. school community and mass media. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. 71 .

1.1.LESSON 2.1.9 2.1.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.8 2.5.4 2.3 2.6.1 Main features of Socialism 2.7 2.6 Education for Secularism 2.1.2 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.6.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.

They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. 73 . In the matter of admitting students in schools. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. you will be able to: 1. socialistic and secular state.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. This is the political aspect of democracy. 3) Provision of Manual Work. socialism and secularism 2. Democracy thus means power of the people. for the people by the people”. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. 2.1. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. colour or wealth.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. there should be made no distinction of caste. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. Abraham Lincoln. socialism and secularism 2. 2.2. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. understand the concept of democracy. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.1.1. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. creed.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy.1. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.

Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. 74 . What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. Democracy means 2. debates. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. 2.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. declamation contest etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it soon spread all over the world. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia.1. 11) Student Parliament. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work..6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. There are different brands of socialism. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. may be planned. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. 12) Visits to Legislatures. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems.

1.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.5. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. Under it. 2. 7) Special facilities for girls. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. the wealthy and the poor. stationary and uniforms to the needy students.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 75 . 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.1. the prince and the peasant. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. but on the path of non-violence. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. oppression and disparity. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production.5. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. none high”. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. free from exploitation. service and cooperation. 2.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools.

10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. Everyone says. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. secularism is being propagated. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. 2.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. 5. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. “India is a secular-country. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. According to Holydake. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’.” In every political and educational corner. 76 . "which seeks the development of physical. 11) State schools.1. Write any two main features of socialism. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary.

opposed to religious education. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. should be independent of religion. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. A large number of people is uneducated. During the recent past.6. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. fraternity. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 3) It permits freedom of worship. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. There is need of making the people open minded. That is why. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. liberty. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. In this type of prevailing situations.1. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. 9) It stress free inquiry. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. Equality. “Webster further says. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. 2.1.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. people started believing in regionalism. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. the belief that the state morals. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. 8) It believes in co-existence. education etc. people have narrow mindedness. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Moral values have to be imbibed. 5) It implies tolerance. 77 .” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is.6. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact.

it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . Patiala. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. students belonging to different religions should be associated. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. tours and trips may be organized. In the celebration of each such function. The very sight of the building. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. 1) Moral Education. 2. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers.1. Religious Education. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.6. There should be some internal checking of the material being. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. In the hands of such teachers. education.presented by the students in the gathering. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. that the central string of all religions is one.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. No doubt. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. While doing so.

Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. The term secularism was first used by 8.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . No doubt.1. 2. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. The word “Seculum” means 7. Define Secularism 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students.

b.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. d. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. there should be made no distinction of caste. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Respect of Individual Personality. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. George Jacob Holydake 80 .1. 5. 2. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. In the matter of admitting students in schools. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. c. a. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 4. creed. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. Socialism aims at equality. Abraham Lincoln. 3. 4. 5. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. 3.1. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Since socialism stands for equality. for the people and the people”. b. Equal Opportunities for Admission. a. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Provision of Manual Work. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Tuition free education b. colour or wealth. Socialism aims at social justice. a. This present age 7. Power of the people 2. 6.

K and Narang C. (2008). education etc. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Pahuja. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. K. 10. (2007). Dash.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Ltd. B.1. P. b. Modern Trends in Indian Education. b. 81 . J.8. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2003). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Ltd. (2004). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. the belief that the state morals. It treats all religions on an equal footing. N. It permits freedom of religion. Mohanty.C. Theory and Principles of Education. J. (2005). Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. L. a. Bhatia. a.” 9. should be independent of religion.

5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.7 2.5.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.LESSON 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.3 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom. 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.10 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .8 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.

as learners. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. development. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. a r e 1. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. application. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. 2. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. as persons. 2. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. mental. 83 .2. as it is t he aim o f modern education. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. and 4. as workers. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. emotional. social. moral. 3.generation to another. understandings. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. skills. you will be able to: 1. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. who are placed in his custody. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. as citizens. therefore.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. A teacher is first and foremost. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it instructor of school children. 2. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. It involves physical.2. The developmental roles of children. aims and objectives of the school.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. social and moral aspects. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values.

He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. morally. economically effective.All education should lead to better behavioural development. He has to look after their physical. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. 1. social and emotional health. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. The students live. a part of their day in 84 . intellectually. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. experiences and acceptance. He is to become an active member. member of his community at the outset. culturally confident. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. inquisitive. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. 2. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. morally. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. physically fit for socially efficient. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. 2. mental. Teacher as a Citizen Next. mentally. emotionally. socially. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family.2.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. The following are some of such roles described in brief. 3. motivated. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. and aesthetically to become.

objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. creeds. 4. fine art associations. It 85 . it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. India is a land of many castes.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. solve them. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Unless. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. science club. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. languages and religions. activities of the society into which he is born. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.the school being under the custody of teachers. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. faiths. They will be spending with their parents.2. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. Dr. List out the role of teachers towards community development . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and most of hours. 2. photographic clubs.

The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961.5. stand up straight.” 2. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. a. and make into one strong national unit. should be emphasised. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man.” Regarding the role of education. Re-orientation of the Curriculum.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. social studies. Radhakrishnan. b. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . the citizens of the Republic of India. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. 1. this integration of the Indian people. The only process is the process of education. the study of language and literature. Let us. therefore. At the primary stage the importance of stories. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. narrow-minded provincial. Nehruji has explained this as. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. Sampurnanand remarked. ‘We should not become parochial. It should broaden the outlook. with straight backs and look up at the skies. c. folklore and teaching of social studies. poems.2.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school national anthem and other national songs.

Singing of National Anthem. Celebrations of National Days. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Textbooks. Reverence of National Flag. Co-Curricular Activities. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. languages and literature. 5. symposia. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. 6. sports. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country.different social sciences. 8. militar y training like the NCC. ACC. 3. National Days—January 26. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. and picnics. educational excursions. 10. 2. tours. 4. t he st udent s and t he community. Taking Pledge. debates. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. 87 . Uniform for School Children. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Student Camps. 7. 9. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Scouts and Guides. dramatics and youth festivals.

Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 88 . Students Exchange and Tours. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. 14. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. iv. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. Recognition of Institutions. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. Admissions to schools. 2. language. 15. flora and fauna. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. 16. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. School Projects.2. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. v. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Admissions. 12. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . ways of thinking and doing things. Educational and Travel Documentaries. iii.11. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. region or religion. colour. 13. Open-Air Dramas.5. ii.

The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 .6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. ix. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define National Integration 3. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5.2. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. camps. vii. Community It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. irrespective of national boundaries. viii. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. cultures and races on equal bases. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes.

that important as that of a national citizenship.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. 2. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. Strong has observed. if it happens. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. 4. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. In a very real sense. Radhakrishnan states. 3. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. often in connection with anniversaries. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. patriotism is not enough.” 2.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. Dr. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it..2.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. of his body and mind. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. C.F. Teachers 90 . lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. 6. the international level. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. therefore. Therefore.6. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.6.friendships between children of different countries. 2.e. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. (c) fairly tales. and the healthy development. 5.2. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . This. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. Organising of debates and.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. (b) stories of children of other lands.

While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. an Englishman.” Well Informed About World Situations. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. Indian and American. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Russian. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Impartial in their Treatment. a German. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. They should not be propagandists. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew.

the education function can be carried. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. understand and indiscipline: 1. Wide Spread Frustration . If this is done. 4. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. majority of people are. leading to. Defects of the educational System . As the school is but a miniature society. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society.2. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. there is wide spread frustration among all people. It does not prepare students for life. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. 2.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly.2. which results in agitation and aggression language. 5.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. and help the students to over . they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. 3.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves.Another major. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 .come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. Devaluation of Values . Chronic Poverty .

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. co-operation. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. 2. community development.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5.2. 93 .2.democratic nature. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. 4.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. etc. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. love. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. 2. sympathy and good will among the nations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. fellow feeling. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. 3. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. 2.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System


Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.


STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency Functions and role of schools in the society Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency Radio as an agency of education Television as an agency of education Press as a medium of education Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”. IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.

9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.

16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together. MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.




1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society


2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.


libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. periodicals. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. the invention of the printing press. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. During the course of time. “All the citizens of the community. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. 2. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. Define community. are increasingly used in education. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. Crow and Crow write. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. Emphasising this thing. Moreover. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. To make them achieve their aim. In fact. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Now internet is being used.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. He taught his students orally. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. led to the printing of books.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. books. Hence.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Museums. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. art galleries. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.V. Then came newspapers.

Important happening inventions. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. Thus. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Many gaps are to be filled up by them.G. the teacher still occupies. It enlightens public opinion. Effective means of presenting music. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. politics. languages. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Students listen various talks. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. the place of importance. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom.classroom teachers.6. In the emphasis is on sound. 2. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. 101 . radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. A lot of work by way of pre. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. 2.telecast. Reynolds. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. music. Thus. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. social studies. art. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. In collaboration with the experts. It stimulates curiosity and interests. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. It is also an important source of entertainment.3. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. rather than on picture. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Various talks. “Listening participation” in current history.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. dram appreciation. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. current affairs and other areas. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them.

projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. 3. at play. 5. development of lessons. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. School concerts. Team-teaching demonstrations. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. speech. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. travel talks. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. Participation of local teachers and pupils. informal and non-formal education. style. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. At present. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. projects or creative activities. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. fol classical music. Before presenting the programme. audibility and presentability. at drawing room. at any place. at recreational centers. 4. 102 . radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. Making learning an open system. plays. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. mathematics. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.


Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.


For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.


Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.

2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.

Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.2 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.2 Aims of Non formal education Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.1 Characteristics of formal education Limitations of formal education 2.5 2.8 2.4 Non formal educational system 2.4.LESSON 2.3.

4. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. the community. the family. 4. 2. 3. 2. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. Education associated with a degree or certificate. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. In ancient time in India.3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 6. it was mostly.4. 3. say the Government or the private enterprise. 5. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. his mental alertness. 9. the temple. To realize this objective of education. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. the learner are acquainted. 7. Education. open university. starting and ending at -a particular age.4.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. Education organised by some agency. open school. 2. the most important agency of formal education. the mass media et. 2. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. School is. compare formal and non formal system of education.2. 4.. 2. 110 . Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’.4. you will be able to: 1. 8. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. imparted at the residence of the teacher. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.

usually between the ages of zero or three and five. as well as vocational education and training. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. capacity.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. also called tertiary. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection.3. or academic degrees. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Concepts of proportion.4. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . the elements of language are first learned. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. Higher Education: Higher education. depending on the jurisdiction. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . 2.4. third stage. structured education.a secondary education. Through early formal education.3. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. and relations are formed and developed through normal play.2. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. In general.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. Some education systems have separate middle schools. such as a high school or secondary school. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. or post secondary education. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. diplomas. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them.

3.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Agencies can be classified as 2.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. 2.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. and remote dwellers. 4.which will help for nation's development. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. late beginners etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. What are levels of formal educational system? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . 2. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.4. is an important agency of formal education. children with disabilities. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.

financially supported life formal education.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. Therefore. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. staffed. However.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. admissions.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. place of instruction. “Non-formal education should 113 . one could say that non-formal education is an active.learning client take some learning objectives.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. adults as well as children. continuing education and on the job oriented education. open learning. i. curriculum.formal education.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. systematic. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. According to Malcolm A. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Open university.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. planned. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. adding up to a true learning society. until 1970 it had not been defined. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. systematic. It is deliberate. Thus. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. it has its own valid claim to reality. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. It unlocks the doors of development plans. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction.. it is a more effective tool for rural development. Adiseshiah. It is much more responsive to needs and change. It is functional. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. etc.e. to help themselves.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Non-formal education includes adult education. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education.

international marketable and vocationalised.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Part-time education. admissions. 2. Process of sharing. 2. curriculum. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. i. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. evaluation etc.renewal. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. self. 5. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. socialism.” According to H. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.4. To develop in the student. Lawrence. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. To help industrial workers to better their skills. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. 6.4. exploring. place of education.S. national integration.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. modes of teaching. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. Preparation for future needs. It should lay emphasis on the self.4. 4. Covering life span of an individual.” 2. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. co-curricular activities. age. 7. 3.S. the Ideas of citizenship. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. 114 . Flexibility in various aspects of education.e. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.learning pattern.

10. in villages and those who live in towns. 6. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. 7. 4. 2. 2. To offer Secondary.4. publication and information dissemination. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 5.4. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. Eradication of adult literacy. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. 3. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. school dropouts.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. • 2. 115 . Universalisation of primary education. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Senior Secondary. 3. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 5. 4. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. Technical.4. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge.4. 8. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 9. working adults.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.

training centres in factories. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. 3. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. effective in modern societal context. To make if. Again. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. To better qualifications.4. 4. farm. To increase knowledge and 2. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs.4. public libraries. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. open space. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. self-employment iii.2..full time to learners – can be home. centres of correspondence education. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. if organised in isolation. etc. Institutions for formal education. factory. Radio and television. Therefore. others are formal and informal. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. 2. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. library.4. 2. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. etc. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . All-round development i.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1.

6. . very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Correspondence lesson. Written tests. Teaching to face teaching. Face Contact programmes. . 7. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning.V. 117 . institution. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Lecturing T. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Give examples of non formal education? . Define non formal education. radio. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. List out any two aims of non formal education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.

Formal and Non Formal 2.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Pre-school level. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. School 3. 3. 4. 118 . Primary level. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Open University. a. b. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. Secondary level. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. systematic. Higher Secondary level and University level.2. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 7.” 6. 2. The school. 2. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. adults as well as children.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. the college and the university come under this category.4. 5. 2. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned.4. 4.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. a.4. Open School. b. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution.

Mohanty. Bhatia. Pahuja. K and Narang C. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. P. Education in Emerging India. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. K. (2003). (2007). New Delhi : 119 . Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2005). Anmol Publications Pvt. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Gupta. Dash.2. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. B. N. (2008). N.4.C. Ltd. (2008). (2004). S. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. L. Ltd.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Theory and Principles of Education.

4.1 2.7 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.4 Agencies of continuing education Need for Open University 2.LESSON 2.4 Open University Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.1 Characteristic features of open University Objectives of Open University 2.3.6 Philosophy of Open University 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .3.5.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.2 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.

Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations.3. 2. 2. Under these circumstances. continuing education is a boon. characteristics of open university 4. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. This knowledge may be in political field. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. For them. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. Thus. farmers. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . economic field or such other fields. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. However. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. Any person.5. labourers and half educated individuals. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. It is a lifelong process. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. know the need and objectives of open university. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India.2.5. industries. give the meaning. It is a continuous process. you will be able to: 1. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy.5.

1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans.V.directly related to his job. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. deteriorating to his character and personality. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. 2. T. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. are also contributing their might for the purpose. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Cinema. After the achievement of independence. For them too continuing education is essential. cultured and progressive. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature.3. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 .literate person. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs.5.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. On the other hand. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. On the other hand.V. Block Development Officers. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. if he gets opportunity to develop them. Radio and T. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. Persons engaged in health services. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Throughout the country. Doctors. Thus. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Radio.

A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. 3. Of course.V. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. 5. 2. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (10) first aid. we have not been able to achieve our targets. (14) information about bringing up young children. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. 4.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. and Radio. 123 . (7) folk songs. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 2. (16) liking. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories.. These books are not very useful. Inspite of the great efforts.5. especially women. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (13) psychology of child behaviour. (17) modern international and national events. 2. habits of people of other lands. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (2) basic religious matters. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. 7. (6) folk stories. (9) fundamentals of philosophy.3. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. 6.5.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (1) ancient history. (15) music. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. (8) psychology of adults. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme.3.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. attendance restrict ion. NLM was launched in the year 2. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. lack of time etc. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns.4. of educational opportunities.5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. 2. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University.5.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. No one is too old or too late to learn.unobserved. c. Education is not a once for-all process. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. IGNOU was established in the year 6. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. but 125 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. its education is not class room based but home based. d. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. and in teaching. it makes use of educational techno logy. b.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. 5. 2. e. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. the higher the degree of openness. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 3. Which was the first open university in India? . 4. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? .5.

4. 6. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. who were deprived of t he same earlier. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies.who did not get it. 3. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. 126 . it a ims at wider and hig her. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 2.4.5. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. supplementing the existing provision. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 5. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 2. cho ice o f co ur ses. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 4. 2. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n .5. Mo re o ver.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books.4. or who realised too late that they need it. 2.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 3.

They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. 8. a society.4. In the present day world. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . you have learnt the concept.5. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. 8. 2. a state or nation. Self instructional materials. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. List out any four methods of Open University? . 3. Every day. Therefore. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. Tutor Comments. school drop outs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6. 127 . learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. semi – literates. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. 7. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 4.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.5.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . cha ng e t heir life compet ence. 1.2. 5. Laboratory works. Correspondence tuition. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

(1) ancient history. 2.5. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. Television Lessons. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. 1988. 6. a. 128 . cho ic e o f co u r ses. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. aspirants for continuing education. Broad casting lectures c. 4. d. which may include house wives. a.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain the objectives. 2. 7. 9.ambitious learners. a. 8. need and characteristics of Open University. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. youth. 8. b. (2) basic religious matters. 1985. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. agricultural and industrial workers. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. b. its education is not class room based but home based. unskilled workers and other professionals. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. P r int med ia b. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. (4) the fundamentals of economics.5. 3. 7.

Ltd. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. K. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Reddy. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 129 . Udaiveer. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Modern Problems of Education.K. (2007).5. R. (2004). L. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2001).2. K and Narang C..S. (2004).

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UNIT – III 131 .

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Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. examination. 133 . pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Training teachers for all levels of education. Examination reform. its causes and remedial measures. which may claim the attention of those concerned. and teacher education. All which is the need of the hour. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. the education of women. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. wastage and stagnation. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. In Lesson 2. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation.

134 .

1 EFA – For whom? PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. 135 . schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.6 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.3.5 3.3.LESSON 3.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.4 3.2 EFA – How? 3.7 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.8 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1.3 New initiatives.1.1

All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. directed that. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. therefore. (EOI) 2. 2. may be political. Therefore. Continuing Education (CE) 1. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. economic or cultural. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. Eradication of Illiteracy.1. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. you will be able to: 1.1. 3.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). On the other hand. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. social.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3.3. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. understands the country. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. education received added importance and significance. “The State shall 136 .

Universalization of Enrolment. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. rights and responsibilities.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves.endeavour to provide. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Three Stages for Universalization. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Continuing Education (CE). Universalization of Retention. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. 137 . After the enrolment of the students in school is over. the national Government under. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. After the attainment of independence. Therefore. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. 3. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. It enables the parents to send their children to School.

later to 1988. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960.1. then to 1976. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. This target had to be revised to 1970. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. UNESCO Bulletin states.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education.3. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. Write Article 45. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. present and future. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. 1995 (for upper primary stage). 1990. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. Therefore. educational enterprise. 138 . We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. It is safe to assure. 3. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment.

Education of Girls. Disabled. Jams and Jellies. 6. NAEP. FELF. their social economic status and occupations. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. Education of the Impaired. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Apart from primary education. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. 8. and Women’s education programme should be improved. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. 3. creed. The Social Education. Emphasis must be given on health education. adolescent and adult. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. 12. 139 . 5. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. slum areas. the art of preparing fruit-juice.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. 3. By undertaking survey. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. 9.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns.3. their enrolment and retention.1. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. 10. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. sex. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. etc. problem of literacy. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). 11. rural areas. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. In order to make the programme of education for all community. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. nutrition education and sports and games. Early childhood education should be streamlined.

4.e. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.3 NEW INITIATIVES.3.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.1. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.1. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. Wastage and Stagnation. 3. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Expand MLL and SSA . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

first stage of education.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. School Factors . Social Factors . it is considered as wastage. Personal Factors . Familial Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Wastage is more in girls than that in relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.

Enumerate the causes of Wastage. 7. Define Wastage. 142 . Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. . . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage.

Family Factors .3. relating to home. They are described hereunder :1.The following factors. school or society.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . Personal Factors . rural or urban 3.1. in his home. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. Societal Factors . School Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.

mid-day meals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. stationary. 144 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. Define Stagnation? 9. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . uniforms.

Minimum Levels of Learning b.” 3. 6.1. a.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. therefore. 2. Hartog Committee. 3. 4. a. directed that. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. “The State shall endeavour to provide. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. improvement of curriculum. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation.3. Universalization of Retention 2.1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. 145 . Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. Universalization of Provision b. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. a. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all.. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Universalization of Enrolment c. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA.1. 4. 3. b. 3. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.

Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. introduce graded curriculum. S. Familial Factors c. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.7. b. Problems of Elementary Education. a.N. Personal Factor b.K. School Factors d. 9. S. a. improve examination system. New Delhi: 146 . Sharma.1. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.K. (2008). Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Hemchand. (2007). Crescent Publishing Corporation. 3.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. (2001). Social Factors 8. T.

1 Advantages of Co-education 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1 Problems of examination Let us sum up 147 .1 Choice Based Credit System 3.5 New evaluation procedures New trends in Supervision & Inspection Open book examination 3.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.1 Merits and demerits of examination 3.4 Question banks 3.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.3.2 Grade System 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.6.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts

2. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. 4. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.3. 3.2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.3.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. 3.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. suggest the new evaluation procedures. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. Besides. 3.2. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.2.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.9 3. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.2.8 3. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. but on the other. 3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. you will be able to: 1. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .2.

2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. which the educational authorities have to face. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. 3. schools for them wherever necessary. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. They may cause problems relating to discipline. etc. roadside Romeoism. hostel facilities. The following steps should be taken up. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. 149 .3. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. etc. They develop secondary sex characteristics. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt.2. etc. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. waiting rooms for girl students. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. If the students are in sufficient number. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers..

teachers. public administrators and statesmen. 3. conduct of internal examinations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. public interested in education. With the mass growth of educational enterprise.2. appointment of paper-setters. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. the examination system has an important role to play.4. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. 150 . Instruction. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. It is considered as a major sub-system. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. assessment and Finance.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.

3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. training of examiners. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. etc. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. scrutinizers. examiners. etc. announcement of results. etc. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. introducing objective-based testing. 3.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. etc. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. establishing reliability. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . validity and practicability. values. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. tabulators.4. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. etc. invigilators.2.printing and distribution of question papers. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation.

Subjects. 3) With respect to method of teaching. which they are expected to study. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education..2. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. 152 . it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. 2) From the angle of content of education. lack of objectivity etc. may also discredit them. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. 7) In connection with the question papers.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. do not appeal to the students and parents. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. Vagaries in making. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed.4. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. 3.. Rote memorisation. stereotyped questions.. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. it s a common experience that subjectivity. halo-effect. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. takes the place of comprehensive learning.

Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. . revaluation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. may be introduced. Spot valuation. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t.a part of internal assessment. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .develop true love for education. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. re-numbering of answer scripts. etc. 153 . Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. List any two merits of examination.. Question Books may be developed in all schools. 4. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations.

5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. When a person chooses to work extra. he is given extra credit points. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .3. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. 3.5. skills are given importance. Their interests. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth.2. attitudes.2. It is complicated. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. In actual practice. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . Every paper is treated equal. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. In this system. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.2.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. The new scheme of assessment.5. The students can take any course offered in any department.

3. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. An example is a seminar. v.discipline. Groupism is encouraged. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. The human error of evaluation is ± 10.poor. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents.2. or as a 4 credit course. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. In the new system. This system reduces comparison of marks. These weightages are called credits. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. While designing syllabus. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester.5. only the total credits to be earned is specified. poor. courses can have weightages defined. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120.good.

If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. 156 . and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners.2. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. 3. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. However. 3.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. 3.5.5. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.2.2. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.5. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.

6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2.3. However.5. recruitment. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Therefore. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any four new evaluation procedures. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard.2. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. In the hierarchy. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . 3. There are no proper procedures for selection. .

Academic inspection. 158 . in a sense. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. wherever necessary. They are. library books. etc.2. taking up the follow-up programmes. disciplinary problems. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. school buildings. staff. finding out whether the prescribed text. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. inspecting the class-room teaching. requirements. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. etc. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. laboratory equipment. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. submitting of the inspection reports.. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect.qualified personnel. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. complaints and compliments. playgrounds. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. books are followed. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. finding out the adequacy of.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. interpersonal relationships and so on. being realised as two different functions.. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision.6. in contrast. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. 3. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. qualifications. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. of late.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. 1. whether the syllabus has been covered. When they are fully realised.

modern. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. aptitude.. 159 . Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. their professional knowledge. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors.2. at least. or. course in either educational. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors..a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. In the light of these conceptualisation. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. Insistence on specialisation in the B. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. courses. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. Similarly. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. 3. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. In the case of departmental candidates.Ed. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. M. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. once in five years. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection.Ed. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace.

2. 4. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 3. 3. b. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 3. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. Administration. Grade System. b. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2.2.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit.2. assessment and Finance. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. Instruction. a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 5. a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a. d. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. c.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 160 . Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India.

S. Problems of Education in India. Multiple sets of question paper. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. a.2. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Vaidya. 3. 5. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. (2004). Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. a. (2005). b. Question banks. a.a part of internal assessment. R and Sharma. (2002). Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. History and Problems of Education in India. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . b.4. c. New 161 . Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Educational Reforms. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. b. K. K. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Open book examinations. 7. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.

3.LESSON 3.8 3. 3.10 3.3. identify the needs of rural India and social.1 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3. 2. analyze the general and vocational spectra. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3.5 3. 162 .6 3. you will be able to: 1.7 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3.9 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3. 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3.2 3.3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.

The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination.e.. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. University Education. 10 years of general Secondary Education. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education.3. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education.3.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. i. in Andhra Pradesh. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. and 3 years of First Degree Course. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. 2. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. 8 years of general education. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. etc.g.e. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. the Banaras Sanskrit College.specialisation programmes 3. The. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. Similar is the case with some other States. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. Consequent on the recommendations. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education.. Commission emphasised to continue.. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. The Calcutta Madras.. e.

is also a plus point . general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. historical. 7.3. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. 10. habits of hard work and develop .confidence in students. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. 5) to help for the social. b. 6. social. to prepare.a sense of dignity of labour. that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. economical and political. who desire to change from one stream to another. to imbibe. cultural and economic development of the country. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. 5. However.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. educational channels. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . Provision for transfer of credits to students. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. and. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 8. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.

for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. etc. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. Philosophically it is not the conception. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. Psychologically. cooperativeness. international understanding. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. 1.national integration. at the other. Sociologically it is undesirable. to develop national character.3. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. social justice. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. on one hand. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. cultural and' religious tolerance. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. and. democratic living. and that required to enter the tertiary level.. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. The General Educational Spectrum. 3. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum.

professional. educational and cultural services. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. rural health. technological. All these need for an. In our country. technical. physics or mathematics. chemistry. Science. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. vegetable growing. Commerce and other disciplines. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. In the vocational spectrum. such as Agriculture. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy.3. 3.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. Agriculture is the main occupation. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels.— tube-wells. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. Biology. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. In the matter of language. or other machinery. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. the rural areas have suffered very much. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. 166 . medical plants. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. industrial agricultural production is growing. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. horticulture. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. commerce. India is a land of—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. fish culture. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. 2. commerce. and vocations based on dairy-farming.

Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. 4. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education.3. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . and 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. the local resources available. In this it may be concluded. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. In time. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum.etc. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. social justice. can be ensured. interests and aptitudes of the students. There had been favourable reaction from the students. and the needs. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised.. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society.. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . In this way. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States.

to imbibe. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. we studied the history.3. 3.a sense of dignity of labour. b. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education.3.3. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. New Delhi : 168 . to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.3. (2007).C. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2005). 3. B. b.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Mohanty. a. Ltd. S. (2001). J. Dash. Vocational Sepctrum.K. General Educational Spectrum and b. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Calcutta University Commission 2. habits of hard work and develop . objectives. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. 2.3. a.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. a. N. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. (2008). to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. 3.

4.4.11 3.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.1 3. Education contributes to human development.3 3.13 3. social and 169 .5 3.6 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4.4.LESSON 3.7 3.4.12 3.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.10 3.4.2 3.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”.

the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. There is a close connection between education and development. In the post —independence period. Education .INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. Home Economics. During the year 1937. community and nation is universally acknowledged. Nursing. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. cultural and political development of the individual. While women constituted only 9. Teaching and Fine Arts. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. For the first time in the history of India.higher education in particular.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. particularly 170 . Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. 3.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. analyze the women and distance education. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. These courses were. although we have miles to go.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. higher education of girls developed immensely. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. family. Dr. you will be able to: 1. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4.4. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. 3.4. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. economic. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. The relevance of women’s education to social. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity.

In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. Even today.0 43. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. in our country. The idea of women’s education for equality. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.women.N. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Kodaikanal.2 29.4. Mother Teresa Women University. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.0 Today.9 14.4.D.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. we have more than 1200 institutions. 3.2 22. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. In 1950-51.65 lakhs in 1994-95. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. levels and professions.9 27. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.4. 3. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Mumbai. In the rest of the country. Coimbatore. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. Yet.1 31.0 32. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. out of 9200 and odd colleges.0 16.T Women University.1 24.

4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.36 3.63 Female % 34. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1 and 14. 2.53 34.that of boys.44 35. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .4%) prefer Arts subjects.17 52.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.54 12. 3.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.56 64.83 47.34 33.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .66 66.1 respectively.27 89. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.4.4. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. 3.47 65. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.46 82.73 10.

Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. marriage is a very common I factor. Thus. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. In college.4. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. Also.hinders the girls from getting higher education. etc. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. promoted and increased. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. 173 .6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. Book banks should be established. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. According to a survey. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. irrelevance of the content of education. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. she will only learn fashion. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. curriculum not suited to their requirements. distance of the college or university from home. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. particularly. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. In every third family. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. They gave up their studies to enter home life. financial difficulty of the parents. The major hurdles. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. what is the need for higher education for her. 3. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. and coeducation may spoil her character.

because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests.economic disabilities faced by women. is the only tool for realising empowerment. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace.4. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. It also brings about 174 . Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. 3. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Education. 3. space. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. There are constraints of time. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges.4. It enables to study. Full-time employment. Empowerment in a nutshell.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Distance education is a boon to women.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Geographic distance of educational institutions. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. resources and socio . Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. It is a productive investment. and the limitations of the conventional education system. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.

3.4.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . Empowerment is an active. empowerment means being assertive. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. for full development of our human resources. higher learning. The major objectives of women's higher education. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. This can be achieved through reflection. Women are partners in development. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. education of women must be given priority in national plans. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. legal awareness and economic independence. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. on their own. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. education of women is of paramount importance. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity.

it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. The educational institutions. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . which had been the sole domain of men. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. will encourage them to venture new grounds. 176 . More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Better opportunities.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. who are eager to take up courses. Scholarships and concessions for women. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. has to be implemented at the earliest. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. 3. But their number is small. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. The local administration.4. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. which is pending for a long time. especially so in the developing countries. Reservation for women. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements.

participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.000 women in the country. Chief Executive. 3. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests.9%).She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Australia. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. especially in developing countries like African countries.1%) and architecture and building (38.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem.8%). It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. capacities etc..3 percent. Also. But. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. engineering and related technologies (16. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. IDP Education.4. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. talents. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. According to Lindy Hyam. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? .

3. 3. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.C. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. and Suryalatha. create the right attitude towards life.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.K. 4. (2008). A. Mother Teresa Women University. (2000). Kodaikanal. Rao. Centre for Women’s Studies. 3. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Pattanaikj. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. Women Education. and Swain. Mumbai. A. S. Coimbatore. a. SNDT Women’s University. Mishra. Women and Education. Mumbai. Rajasthan 5. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication.R. Coimbatore. community and the nation. R. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. SNDT Women’s University. (2005). R.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3.4. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Annakodi. 2. R. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. (2007).14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera.4. Women Education. Explain the global perspective of women in higher the family. S. 43% 6. individuals and society b. 178 .4. 4.

They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5.10 3.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.11 3.personality of children in and out of school.5.5.5. They should be trained.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.6 3.1 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.7 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.3 3. whole.9 3.5.8 3.LESSON 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. so as to enable them to acquire 179 . 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.5.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.

list out the agencies of teachers education 3. understanding and strong desire for international peace. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Lack of physical facilities.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. 3. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. international. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. Shorter working hours.5. 180 . understand the training teachers for Primary. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. know the pre service and in service training facilities. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. you will be able to: 1. 5. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. and national character.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. social and emotional integration. equality and justice.5. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. 4. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. 3. national consciousness.

4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. the primary teacher education. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training.. At the diploma level. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B.5. levels. it is called the In-service teacher education. the centre. a Diploma course and a Degree course. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. inservice and extension education programmes. Inadequate training in practical skills. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . 3. If the student teachers are working teachers. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. higher secondary teacher education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. the state Government. and the collegiate teacher education. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. it is called the Extension teacher Education.Ed.Ed.. the secondary teacher education. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. who have not been trained earlier. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. (NCERT) New Delhi. students. 3. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 .5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community.Less qualified teacher educators. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. and M. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work.5. Lop-sided curriculum. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. Depending on the levels. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. etc.

Expand NCERT 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Science Education units. Also Guidance Bureaux. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . non-formal. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Educational teehnology cells. collegiate cells. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. 3. Evaluation unit. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . state Institutes of Educat ion. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research.. are established. Education cells. etc. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . extensio n service. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. depart ments etc.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education.5.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY.

Ed. laboratories. should be improved on a top priority basis. to ensure teacher competence. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers.. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life.Ed. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. which help breaking isolation from one another . to prescribe conditions for recognition. to improve curricular programmes. degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . and so on. and 183 . audio visual aids. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. material conditions relating to libraries.. schools and sister institutions. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . primary and secondary school teachers.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . to offer consultative services. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. which should include experience in the primary schools too. despite its vast expansion.

There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. whether they should have professional education or. Organisation of Content Courses. Agriculture. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. not came up once again. Meanwhile.secondary education. Modern Methods of Evaluation. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. To meet this exigency. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. 184 . though no pre-service training. Workshops.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. methodology and evaluation. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. Psychology of Students. and XII. etc. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. etc. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Modern Techniques of Teaching. Induction Courses. The problem.

. Courses leading to B. Degree. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. M.Ed. Ajmer. All B Ed. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.Ed. Degree and M. State Institutes of Education. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.A.’s are elig ible for M..Ed. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations..Ed. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.Ed. training. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Pre-service training is for those. 3. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. Post-Graduates also undergo B. For re-orienting the teachers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3... Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. (Education) and M.5. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. These facilities are available for regular students.S. courses and M. (Education) are organized by 185 ..A. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.D. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.’s for Ph. in Education..Ed. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.

. they should be conscientious . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. (Ed.. 6. 3. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. 4. Hence the employability of M. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . 186 . 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned.A. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . 5. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics.). Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively.. What is the role of ERIC? . 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. established by tradition and teachers of the past.5.A. of conduct—written or unwritten. However. and B.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. (Ed).8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.

the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations.5. The necessity is however this. 187 . a. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training.5. 2. 3. Ajmer.3. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. they should be conscientious. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. b. Explain code of conduct for teachers. 3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. a. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. 4. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. However. 2. 3. National Council of Educational Research and Training. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Shorter working hours. Bhopal. a. 5. 6. 3. b.5. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time.

12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. (2010). J. B.3.D. Ltd Aggarwal. (2003). Tewari. (2009).N. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Publication Pvt. P. Teacher Education. Teacher Education. Mohanty.5. A. Corporation. and Teacher Education. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

our attention shifts to physical education – its need. If the diet is poor. The person’s environment is equally important. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. nutritional deficiency diseases. economic and educational developments. the focus is on the school health programmes. common ailments of children. communicable diseases and their prevention. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. objectives and role of the physical education. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. preservation of nutrients. objectives. consuming the right amounts becomes important. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. Since food is the source of nutrients. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. In lesson 1. objectives. 191 . scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. In lesson 4.

192 .

for giving health education to the children under its custody.1.1.5 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.LESSON 4.6 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important.2 4. mental.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1. physical.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.3 4.1 4.9 4.10 for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.11 4.7 4.8 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1. emotional and social.4 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises. It is a miniature society. 193 .1. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.e.

10. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. 4. 3. to his family and to the community at large. 8. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. know the need for sex education. Instruction. cleanliness and healthful living.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. 9. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. training in first aid and etc.1. 194 .. list the common ailments of children 3. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. 7. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. 11. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 2. To give information regarding health rules. e. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. content of health education. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. explain the importance of First aid 5. 4. To develop certain skills concerning health. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. 4. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner.g. training of teachers and evaluation. you will be able to: 1. 5.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student.1. 6. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. understand school health programmes 2. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. To develop healthy health habits among children.

arranging class rooms in the ground floors.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. inoculation against cholera. (viii) first aid. typhoid. The school buildings should be spacious. 4.. cleanliness weeks. as described below 1. 2. etc. organisation of school health days. (ii) communit y healt h. proper doors and windows. (v) safety education. is imperative. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. 5. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. The flooring should not be damp. The surroundings of schools should be clean. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes.1. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. suitable furniture. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. Vaccination for small pox. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. direct lighting. play festivals. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. minimizing the travelling distance. 2.. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. ( iii) sanit at io n. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. (xl) mental health. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. B. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. vaccination. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. First aid facilities should be made readily available. B. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. 3. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . (vi) nutrition education. There should be good drainage facilities.coming or absence.G. Triple Antigen Vaccination. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. “Play-for-all” programmes. excusing late. Arranging better transportation facilities. (xii) smoking education etc. There should be regular water supply.4.C.

They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. scalds. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. drowning. • When sleeping in groups. cuts. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. dislocations. if epidemic is wide-spread. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. sports and games in the interest of their health.. • Have adequate rest and sleep. fractures. • Keep all rooms clean. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. poisons. and other accidents.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. wounds. C. • Close the schools. burns. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. 196 . fainting (epileptic fit). The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. insect stings. etc. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. bleeding. D. • Find out the cases. isolate and notify. • Take nutritious food.

The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. 2. List out the Health curriculum 3. water or bodily contact. 4. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. which are – cold. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. pain in the joints. headache. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. polio. asthma.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1. They are: i) The incubation stage. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. These diseases are called communicable diseases. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. There are three stages in any communicable disease. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. fever. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. cough. Mention the school health programmes.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. Once these germs get into the body. So they easily get illnesses. measles etc.. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . 4. chicken pox. tuberculosis. backache. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. etc. eating food which is not clean. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Others make the children very weak. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. The following are the common communicable diseases. Ear Infections . The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. head-ache and cough. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. The child may have fever. Diarrhoea . Mumps . Tonsilitis . There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Hence liquid diet is recommended.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Important salts and water are lost in this process. unhygienic bottle feeding. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. unhygienic living conditions. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Scabies . Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. sugar and water. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease.This disease is caused by bacteria. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. The period of actual suffering is called the acute passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system.It is caused by measles virus. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. This is caused by cold virus. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Common Cold . rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems.When a child suffers from scabies. Throat is affected. After three or four days of fever. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Hence it is called a killer disease. 198 . cough and fever. Measles . Children catch cold from persons having cold. The symptoms include cold. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath.

the child is not able to breathe. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are communicable diseases? 6. separate. the child may die. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. If proper treatment is not given. Enlist the common ailments of children. By scratching he causes secondary infections. Shortly. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. Typhoid .Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. Diphtheria . The child may also have diarrhoea. raised pink spots appear on head. 199 . These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. As the disease progresses. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing.• • • • Chicken Pox . The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. face and waist. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. It begins with fever. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. Expand DPT . 5.

Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. Sprains . dislocation. 4. bruises.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. films and jokes. exciting and body-oriented. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. bleeding. drowning. scorpion stings. 2.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. swelling.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. simple fractures. fiction. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. etc. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. head injury. snakebites.g. 4. 200 .7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. In such cases.1. so-called sex books and periodicals. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. eye injury.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. It has its rightful place in education too.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. cuts. 3. Drowning . Sex is popular. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. 5. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. it is a subject of art. sprains.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. It is both biological and psychological.4. Wounds . and Community Work and Social Service. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. fainting. and films. wounds.1. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. Cuts and Bruises . man-woman behaviours.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. sprains.

sex education is being recommended in schools. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . celibacy are age. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. health. the religious organisations. We can arm people with knowledge about sex.. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. In secondary schools. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. In today's liberal and interactive society. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. they would be treading the path of sure doom. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. the school. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. Hence. but preserve them from disaster and disease. 3. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. 2. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. The values of life. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS.old to give sex education to the young. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. Should the boys and girls.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. The home. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. B. try experimenting with their bodies. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. in their ignorance.

hence. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. communicable diseases and their prevention. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. common ailments of children. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. C. 4. there will no crisis in its implementation. What are the major components of Sex Education. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. Teacher education institutions are.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. the school health programmes. 202 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values.1. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. first aid and sex education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. when the courses are already overloaded.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.



SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.


STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.


4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:


Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.


Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy


Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Mention the food nutrients 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. 209 .

These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. 210 . minerals. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s.4. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. Let us talk about each of these aspects. If you look at the definition carefully. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned.2. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods.2. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s.

Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. In the case of adults. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as in the morning and the other at night. for example. Even within given States there is considerable variation. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals .g.2.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. Preferences/customs are also important.g.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. moderate or heavy work. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). activity level and physiological stress. There is no point. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. dosa are typical of the south. it is also specific to a given activity level . But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. People in the east of our country prefer rice. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. In other words. sex. A balanced diet is specific firstly. paratha and poori. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. 4. These are: region where the person resides and income. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). Those in the west also tend to eat rice. the social and religious practices of that region. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires.sedentary. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. construction labourer).6.

One must. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. These determine the acceptability of foods. One person may be fond of milk products. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. In addition to these. fat and sugar tend to increase. income plays a vital role. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. however. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. If you think of your own religious group. Having more money. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. vegetables and fruits. Among the social factors. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. customs. As you read this discussion. As income increases. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. However. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. for example. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. nuts and dry fruits. however.planning the diet. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Even among flesh foods. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. taboos related to food may play an important role. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. as important for the rich as for the poor. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. Judicious selection of food is. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. while another may hate them. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. however. Including these 212 . The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements.

they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. For this. eggs . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . etc. fruits. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. 213 . meat. if the teachers have good food habits. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 17. List out any two healthy food habits.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. over-eating or under. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. green leaves. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed .eating is hazardous. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. but they should be thrown away. mouth. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. 8. Define balanced diet. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. 8) Walk a while after eating. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.

a. Explain food nutrients 4.4. Conjuctival xerosis. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. In fact. Bitot’s spots.2. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Corneal xerosis. Night blindness. Beri Beri 4. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. e. c. good nutrition is essential for good health. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Vitamin D 5. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Discuss good food habits. preservation of nutrients.2. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. 4. b.2.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. 4. When the diet is inadequate. Keratomalacia 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. d. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5.

6. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. Nutrition Science. (2004).C. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. 4.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. a. (2009). a . Food should be consumed after eating well.2. Nutrition and Dietetics. 8. Health and Nutrition Education. S. R. (2005). R. Food and Nutrition Education. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . Hands. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.N. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. A Text Book of Foods. minerals. Chopra. mouth. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. b. Food and Nutrition Education. 7. b. (2008). P. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. (2008).M. Sri Lakshmi B.

3.6.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.12 4.7 4.3.10 Impact on social development 4.6.11 Impact on Education 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3 4.13 4.4 4. 216 .8 4.3.LESSON 4.3.1 4.

held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. economic and educational development 3. 4.3. It is a much wider co ncept.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. family planning and sex education etc. Population Education. Whenever we talk of sex education. community. characteristics and changes for himself. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. his societ y and the world. his family. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. therefore. and the consequences of these processes. objectives and need for population education 2. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. aims at providing the younger generation. understand the importance of small family norm 5. It is not sex education. you will be able to: 1. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. There is some difference. population characteristics. describe the impact of population growth on social.3. 217 . the causes of population change.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the stress is. state the meaning.3. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.4.

the nation and the world.4. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. the society.3. Define Population Education 2. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.3. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. the family.

With the larger families. health and happiness of its citizens.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development.3. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. 4. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. Family is considered as a social unit.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries.3. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. economic and educational development of the country. Every second two thousand children are being born. the family programmes are also handicapped. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. When the family is small. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare.6. 219 . 4. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. which will not be possible without population control. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population.

3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. organization index and material index. teacher index. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. and so on.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth.3. in buses and trains. lack of proper health care. The gulf between them is widening further.3.6. toilets. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower.. 4. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. 4. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. Swollen cities. 220 . This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. heavy intern I migration etc.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.e.6. Many students herded in a small room. facility for drinking water. in cinema halls and theatres. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. unemployment. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. in parks and other places of public gatherings. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. i. pollution of the environment. In developing countries. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified.

Hindi and English. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. 221 . family planning etc. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. There would be poor library facilities. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. blank verses etc. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject.3. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. reproduction. can be studied in science and health education. Social Studies Statistics on population education.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Regional Language. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility.. There would be very few audiovisual aids. less budget for education. thus. and laboratory equipments. less space facilities. can be taken up. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. bar graphs etc. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. essays. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. even text books would be in short supply.

United States of America. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . 4. Children may compare two families. 3. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 2. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Uttar Pradesh. Brazil. Children with the help of parents. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. China. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 11. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths.4. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. 10. Bihar.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 9. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. deaths. 13. 12. 7. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. causes of deaths etc. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 14. 15. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. 5. area and average density of population. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Canada. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends.3. West Bengal. 8.

how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. 16. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. 18. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Comparing life in various respects in two families. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. The question. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. preferences for sex. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. values and role children etc. age at marriage.3. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. we have no right to stop 223 . Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. 17. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. one with a working woman and the other only a house opened in their schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

The Family Welfare Program. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children.their entry into the world”. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. which education can only do. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.3. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” emphasize family planning services.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. 4. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage.. however. More than 45 years ago. on an overall basis. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.4-6. continued . Since the program's inception. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. at varying places in different regions.were implemented 224 . “He who is responsible for population growth. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). should be overcome at the intellectual levels. and the child survival components of the news: program. especially the expansion of child immunization services .

The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. expansion of services to unmarried women. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. At these meetings. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Moreover. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. Local programs vary in their approaches. and the World Conference on Women. Therefore. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. the community appears willing to pay for services. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. and nominal fees for services. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. In October 1997. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . reliance on local women as community health workers. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. men. a focus on health promotion.earlier than the safe motherhood components. In April 1996.

12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum.emphasizing the needs of the client. 4. family. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process.3. Describe the impact of population growth on social. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. What are the goals of RCH? 4. 226 . community. 1997).3. nation and the world. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. involving the community. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. Its main purposes are to create awareness. economic and educational development 4. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion.

a. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. population characteristics. a. China. 6. his family. 4. United States of America.3. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. and the consequences of these processes. less budget for education. 3. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Brazil. a. less space facilities. 7. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. characteristics and changes for himself. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. Canada. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. b. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. b. bar graphs. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. 227 . area and average density of population.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. his society and the world. 5.” 2. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. the causes of population change.

(2005).14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. (2005). Changing attitudes to Education in India. Jayapoorni. (1992). Bhende. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Ltd. N. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 228 .4.3. Udaiveer.K. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2002). New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Principles of Population Studies. Modern Trends in Indian Education. A. (2004). Kantikar. Coimbatore. T. Centre for Women’s Studies. Modern Problems of Education. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. J. V. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Ltd. Reddy.

8.2 Major games 4.9 4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games Minor games 4.8.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.11 19.5 4.LESSON 4.6 4.1 4.8.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4.10 4.4.3 Indigenous games 4.4.4 Lead up games 4.7 4.4.

you will be able to: 1. perseverance. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. full records of physical activities should be maintained. 4. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5.4.4. moral fitness and emotional fitness. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. mental alertness. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. classify the different types of games. social fitness.4.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. 4. The concept of physical education has been made broader. which forms its most valuable assets. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. the youth of the country. as it should 230 .4. leadership and balance in defect. team spirit.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3.

Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. They are inseparably united together. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. The educational efforts at home. Every individual is a part of society. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. team spirit. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. They go hand in hand. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. leadership. obedience to rules. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. To be more precise. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Therefore. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality.

“Physical education does neither train up the soul. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. pleasing manners.” The Secondary Education Commission. C. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. Regarding the significance of physical education.” Montaigue writes. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. Buck has observed that 232 . Physical exercises. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. 4. nor body but the whole man. Rousseau states. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. mo ral.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. a sound health. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. H. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. Just like Education. ment al. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency.4. game and sports.

Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. resourcefulness and smartness. endurance. elegance.” 4. “If we wish to develop the whole being. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life.a properly directed physical education should result in health.” In brief. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. initiative. 233 . without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. speed.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. flexibility and power. etc.4. Froebel says. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. efficiency and character. coordinative abilities. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. we must exercise the whole human being. strength. happiness.

This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Tournaments foster this sentiment. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Every age has its artists. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. systems of government. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. should help in the spiritual development of the student. these fundamental things have always been present. its adherents and its enemies. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. including all racial groups and historical ages. plagues and famines. 234 (i) (ii) . poetry and painting. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. they may form gangs. in greater or lesser degree. While wars. have come and gone in the long record of mankind.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups.

obedience.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. 235 . 3.sacrifice. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. bravery and interest in games and sports. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. self. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . etc. B. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. respect for rules. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems.\ to develop perseverance. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. 2. Write any two importance of Physical Education. to develop tolerance.

Inform health principles. 14. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Be in the uniform. 8. 7. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education.4. 13. 236 1. Keep the field ready for the activities. and. Be punctual. Be well-prepared. Be self-confident. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed.4. 6. 9. Emergency care procedures should be followed. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases.4. Posture screening should be done. . Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. students. 11. defects. Usually parents. 12. Act as a leader. 4. and readmission after they have recovered. Always keep the whistle ready.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Haag. 2. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. 5. 3. 16. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential.H. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. 4. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. injuries among pupils should be made. is essential.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 10. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Be sportive. 15.

Such inst incts as imitation. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. frolic and jo y.4. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8. the play. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. their development is handicapped. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun.4.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. chasing. 4. 2. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. less equipment and less expense. 1. Lead up games. 237 . 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. 4. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Moreover. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Indigenous games. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.

8. on hard courts. the play equipment. snatching the kerchief. They are played for a shorter duration.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. bowling etc. women take part most of the games. Hopping. pitching. The dimension of the posts and nets. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. on mountain tops and on river beds. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. spiking. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. skipping. the number of players and substitutes. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. For each game the rules are many. Khokho. While many of them are played in the open playfields. stopping. over ball pass Relay. on sea-shore. Tennikoit. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. Ball Badminton. Tennis. with implements or without implements.. catching.4. wherever the kids assemble. Jump the stick clay and so on. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. muffling. Basket Ball. hitting. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. Dodging. Cricket. under ball pass Relay. 238 . Volley Ball. These games require varied skills such as running. benefit in playing minor games. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. zig zag relay. some of them are played indoors. couple tag. Shuttle Badminton. Throwing. Hockey. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. finding the partner. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. the games can be modified according to convenience. driving. trapping. Soft Ball.With a very few rules. boosting. They are rules approved by the International Associations. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. On lawns. Jumping. dribbling. 4. Kabaddy etc. heading. Except a few games.

death.4. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. 7. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . they are in existence. For example. While observing the players in action. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. these games being popular. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and . village folk take a very keen interest and participate. festivals connected with religion and public functions. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. Games may be classified as 6. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. List out some major games.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu.8.8. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. They have an abundant social value. birth. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. All the fundamental tactics. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game.4. 4. An example for indigenous game is 8. On occasions like marriage. Kho-kho.4. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial.

a. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Minor and Major 240 . Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. 4. a. 4. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. c. 3. Posture screening should be done. 2. to secure physical health b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5. a. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. 3. 4. b. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. aims and objectives and need of physical education. physically and emotionally fit and alert. d. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. to develop physical stamina.4. b. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 4. a.4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. 2.4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. Briefly discuss the different types of games.4.

(2008). Kabaddy 7. G. J.4. Ball Badminton. 241 . (2008). Foot-ball. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Shuttle Badminton.C. J. Health. Volley Ball. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Mohanty.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews.6. Hockey. Handbook of Physical Education. Ltd. Khokho 8. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Physical Education and Sports. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education.K. Basket Ball. Tennikoit. Soft Ball. (2009). 4. J. Tennis. Aggarwal. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. (2005). Cricket. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Krishna murthy. Khokho.

Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.5.LESSON 4.5.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.2 4.9 4.11 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.5.1 Natural Environment 4.5.4 4.5.8 4.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.6 4.3 4.

4. 243 . Details are given below: I. The best place to start such learning is school. 3. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2.5. Essential knowledge about the Environment. economic. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement.educat ion for the environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. you will able to: 1. list out the types of environment 3. Participation.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. Evaluation Ability. aesthetic and educational factors. 3. Awareness. 2. role of teacher in environmental conservation. education about the environment and education through the environment. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. Knowledge. social. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. 2. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. Broadly. political. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. 4. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. it covers the following elements: 1. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. 4. Attitude.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. 5. Skills.5. population explosion and resource depletion could be. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values.5. 6. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A.

Oxidants Other pollutants. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. 244 . D. heat sink and wind flow in cities. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C.B. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. • Biological magnification E. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. 2. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. F. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. a.

Use of medical science i.3. 4. Control of population growth a. The human ecosystem II. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Birth control through education b. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. The pill ii. Socio-economic measures. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Sterilisation. c. Persuasion: i. 2. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. B. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Abortion iv. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. 3. Intrauterine device iii. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. 2. economic. III. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Family planning ii.

e) Recycling. 246 . Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 3. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Define Environmental Education. (UNESCO. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1983). CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Air pollution abatement ii. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Water pollution abatement. Planning human intervention on the natural processes.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i.

to his needs. includes the plants.5. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism.other components of the environment. Biological environment The biological environment.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. These are biotic components. A change in one brings about a change in the other.5.5. telex. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. b. a.4.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . 4. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. -other.5. animals and other organisms (biotic). Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. They interact with each.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. He modifies according”. fax agricultural apparatus. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions.5. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. way is called environmental or ecological factor.5. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. Any constituent or condition of the environment.

nuclear energy. etc. t heir role in preventing pollution. industrial survey. population. air pollutants from industries. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. need for bio-diversity. use of medicinal plants. relation between population and pollution. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. role of trees in building economy. biogas plants. reasons. mineral survey. river systems. evolution. of civilizations. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. ozone depletion. effects o f CFC. natural way of controlling pests. etc. History The rise and fall.. over exploitation of ground water. (ii) Air pollution. industrial pollut io n. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. wars and hazards of war. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. water scarcity. windmills. explosion deforestation. effects. noise control. change in climate may be added. trees reducing noise pollution. are the topics which may be taught in History. use of pesticides. extinction of species. food chain and food-web. solar cookers. need for conservation. balance of nature. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. greenhouse effect. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. acid rain. noise pollution. desertification 248 . At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. alternate sources of energy. sources of pollut ion. social studies. preserving the watersheds. maintaining the ecological diversity. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. sources. excellent recreation sites. preventing siltation of dams. supplying timber for various uses.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. ozone layer deplet ion. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . importance of nitrogen cycle. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. nuclear warfare.

Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 14. 5. 9. 11. 3. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin.may be inc ded in Geography. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. 2. Developing habits of cleanliness among students.5. Peepal and Tulsi. Providing. Organising conferences. Developing awareness about environmental issues. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 13. 4. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. group discussions and seminars. aims and scope. 7. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. 249 . 10. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. 4. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. animal and plants. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 8. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 12. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. 6.

so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. World Environmental falls on 250 . Never put any left over chemicals. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Use public transport wherever it is possible. it will cause pollution. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Send their waste oil. 6. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. If it is done. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. used oils down the drain. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Reuse carrier bags. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. all these can cause serious pollution. especially plastics. Don’t burn any waste. 5.

8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. depletion of ozone. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. nuclear wars. (cleanliness. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions.mat erials. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. etc. potable water. Social responsibilit y (common good. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. CFCs. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. orderliness and beauty). Conservation of natural resources. diversity and stability. deforestation. To provide reference materials for children’s use. etc. Concern for species.). disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . and 251 . prevention of irretrievable loss of species. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. rather than conquest and mastery. concern for others). To arrange for visiting speakers. To discuss the approach to problems or topics.. viz. values and habits. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. dest roying nat ural habitats.4. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. loss of bio-diversity. Harmony with the nature . Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. To provide materials needed for practical work. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Att itudes of balance towards nature. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. developing desirable attitudes. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. To arrange visits or expeditions.5. The groups may exchange.

8. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. 252 . Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.5. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills.5. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. 4. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. preserving natural cycles. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

S. New Delhi : Authors Press. b.K. Publications Pvt. Providing.K. (2007). 6. Awareness. ozone layer deplet ion. sources. over exploitation of ground water.. 3. Social responsibilit y (common good. (ii) Air pollution. concern for others). Y. To provide materials needed for practical work. Environmental Education. S. a. Nanda. 5. a. (2007). Environmental Education. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Ltd. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Environment and Human Rights. importance of nitrogen cycle. 4. Ltd. importance of trees in the production of oxygen.\ 4.2. To provide reference materials for children’s use.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. T. (1997). Rapid population growth. b. Knowledge. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. a. June 5 7. a. New Delhi : Sharma. b.K. water scarcity. group discussions and seminars. air pollutants from industries. acid rain. relat ion between population and pollution. Udaiveer. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. greenhouse effect. Modern Problems of Education. Kuldeep. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 8. explosion deforestation. Education for values. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion.5. reasons. Anmol Publications Pvt.K. b. (2004). population. Organising conferences. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . sources of pollution. effects. new problems from science and technology.

254 .




Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.



STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism Idealism and aims of Education Idealism and Curriculum Idealism and methods of teaching Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism Naturalism and aims of Education Naturalism and Curriculum Naturalism and methods of teaching Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

259 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to

Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. enrichment and transmission of culture. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. moral. Education must contribute to development of culture. should be universal in nature. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. the emancipation of spirit. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm.” 5.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum.3. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. According to Rusk'. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Therefore.our life. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. It is self-realisation. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Education according to idealism.1. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. Universal Education. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. Spiritual Development. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. in fact." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. The universe is regarded as a thought process. man is essentially a moral being.

It considers teacher as.1. Ethics. Learning through questioning.the spiritual qualities of mankind. For intellectual development. Philosophy. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. According to Frobel. and collation (striving) should find due place. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. Science. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. friend and guide.” He is thus. Learning through imitation.3. He sets the environment in which education takes place. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. However.1. Learning through lecturing. So he should embody. 5. should be there. He carries the child from darkness to light. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. Herbert advocated instruction method. Mathematics etc. 2.3. no doubt. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 .The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. the school is a garden. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. affecting (feeling).” 5. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. So cognition (knowing). The plant can grow. 3. so subjects like Religion. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. subjects like Languages. Learning through reading. According to idealism. 5. 4. So health. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. History. an indispensable necessity.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. a spiritual guide for the child. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. For this no particular method has been suggested. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. hygiene. Learning through discussion.

4. 5. formal lessons or examinations. Ross explains. In the words of Ross. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. "Education should make 263 • .4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.perfection and beauty. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.preservation. text books.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. time tables. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. curricula.1. 5. Perfection of Human Machine.

the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. is based on the nature of the child. Botany etc Language.4. education should develop the child into Joyous. Zoology. Education also aims at helping the individual t.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. It is based on the psychology of the child. It stresses basic sciences. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Biology. Naturalistic curriculum. Arithmetic. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. “Education finds its purpose.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. rational harmoniously balanced. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. useful and mature child. therefore. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. 4.1.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Therefore. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Education should. geography should also be included in the curriculum. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. There is no place for religious and moral education. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. In all. 264 . Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. subjects like history. • 5. Chemistry. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Literature.

he should be taught by experience alone. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism.4. the stage. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Learning by doing. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Learning through observation. Heuristic method. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. a supplier of materials and opportunities. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning.1. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Dalton Plan.5. Learning through experience.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. 5. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching.1. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. 3. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. a provider of an ideal environment. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. It discards all rigid. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Rousseau says. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. 4. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . In the . It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method.

1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Subjects. social and moral aspects. History. Vocational and 266 . Agriculture. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Sciences. 5. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life.5. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Social Efficiency. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements.1. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Personal Social Adjustment. The individual has not only to adjust himself. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. intellectual.5. is true. Continuous Growth. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. The aim of educational development. Geography. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices.absolutism of idealism.1. 5. All Round Development of an Individual. Social Science. Physical training. diversified and flexible.

efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. a teacher occupies an important position.5. a senior partner and a sincere guide. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. The subjects. He has to be active. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.” 5. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. alert and resourceful. Learning by Doing. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. should find proper place. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.1. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. 5. He must be trained.1. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.Technical Education. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. In different situations he remains a friend and helper.

Literature. Crafts. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. 2.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. 3. Sex Education.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education.1. practical. Music and Dance. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. intellectual. 4. Psychology. It favours child-centered. 2. literary or humanistic education. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Biology. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. rich and happy. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. specific.5. Population Education. History. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Geography are unnecessary 268 . scientific and psychological education. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. 5. 3. Mathematics. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Astrology. 5.1. 5. Chemistry. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. liberal. 4. Education is preparation for a complete living.6.1.6. Art. Biography Philosophy. Study of Subjects like Language. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. The basic tenets of realism are 1.

List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. certainly and clearly. REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.6. easily and pleasantly.5.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.

Learning through discussion. 6. a. 5. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. pragmatism and realism.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. Tours / Excursion e. Social Science. Demonstration and Observation 270 . We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Geography. & curriculum. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Physical training.1. Agriculture. naturalism. has no end other than growth. a. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Vocational and Technical Education.5. History. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Universal Education 2. c. Experimentation d. e. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim.7 LET US SUM UP We have.1. 5. d. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Learning through questioning. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Rousseau 5. Learning through reading. Self Realisation b.1. 5. Learning through imitation. Child centered c. Learning through experience b. in this lesson. b. Sciences. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Languages. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Education according to pragmatism. Learning through lecturing.

N. New Delhi : Bhatia.H. R. Publishing corporation. of Pathak. (2004). Pahuja.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. New Delhi : A. (2003). Foundations of Education. Narang C.P. Anmol Publications Pvt. 271 . Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education.1.P. O. P.5. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. (2007). L. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Theory and Principles of Education. K. Ltd. (2007). P. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.

LESSON 5.1 Aims of Education 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.1 Methods of teaching 272 .2.4 Views about teacher 5.1 Aims of Education 5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE Views about teacher 5.2 Curriculum 5. Idealist and Pragmatist Gandhiji as Naturalist.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.4.3 Methods of teaching 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi Curriculum 5.2.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI. Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.2.2 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.3.

an artist. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. you will able to: 1. content and methods. 3.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.7 5. 273 . Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. economic and political reconstruction in our country.2.4 Role of the teacher 5. 2. 5. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.2. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2. 5.6 5.2. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.5. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. Tagore was a poet.2.2. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.2. Gandhiji was primarily a social.8 5.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life.2. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. mind and spirit. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.5. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.

It really provides opportunity for character building. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. through life and for life. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. 'Man is neither mere intellect. 274 . Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. nor the gross animals body.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education.intellectual and physical faculties of the children." Dignity of Labour.3. 5. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. His scheme of education is life centred. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. righteousness. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. self-restraint and service of humanity. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour.2. it is education of life. mind and soul of children He further observed.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. In the words of Gandhiji. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. strength of mind.supporting. "I attach more.

Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.3. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. According to Gandhi. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . wood work. development of the whole all were directed: towards.2. Music. General Sciences. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Drawing and Hindustani. Mother-tongue. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. "Development of the moral character. Art. leather work have been suggested. 5. the realization of the ultimate reality.Training for Leadership. metal work. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Only good individual forms a better society.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. Individual and Social Aims. gardening. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue.

men of 276 .3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.trained.2. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.3. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Basic education is other wise known as 4. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. proficient. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3.2. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.

Education must be child centered. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. He has an experimental approach towards life 2.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. 3. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. 5. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies.2.3. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1.knowledge. He also advocates freedom for the child. That is why. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says.

• Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.2. 5. he was a true Vedantist 5. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. • Ideal of citizenship.” Like all other ideals. He believed in the oneness of humanity.K. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.3. He was a true patriot. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. • Cult of non-violence.4.2.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. • Education should involve manual work.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. Gandhi in 1937. He was deadly against untouchability. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.

could help in forging unity among all." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5.2. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. he said. It should help. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. sentiment. stronger in power than ever before. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Zoology. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Botany. (vi) Philosophy. etc. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . complete manhood could be attained.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. That way only. them solve problems of day to day life. deeper in. Tagore said. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Civics. International understanding. It should help the learner have good physique. wider in range. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Chemistry. Dance.Language and Literature . International Understanding. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. the more dedicated and devoted. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. Music. 279 . Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. Therefore. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Religion and Psychology. "Mankind must realise a unity. Geography. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education.4.

5. Activity Method Heuristic Method. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. Tagore rightly says. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.” He further says.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. 280 .5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. 5.2. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.4. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there.2. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.4. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual." 5. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.4. In 1921. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.2. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.

Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12.g. 9. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. 281 . 10. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. It is open to all irrespective of country. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. race. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore.

man making. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. 2. Book learning. Education should make a person self-reliant. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself.5. Purity of thought. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Education for strong Moral Character. 3.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. work and deeds come out of it.” 5. Concept of Education. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace.2. According to him. 4. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself.2. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Education for Self-reliance." He was against the theoretical type of education. He believed in to learning or selflearning.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.5. Freedom.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. Education for Self-realization.

Education for Physical Development. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other.2. philosopher and guide to the students He.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Only a selfless person can be good teacher.the learners on different students in the discussion.2. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. 283 . he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Philosophy and Theology. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. Secondly he wanted Science.2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study.5. That will serve the purpose of education fully. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Thirdly he wished that games. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. 5. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Swami. 5. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. The teacher should be the facilitator. Of course.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Discussion Method. 5. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses.5. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more.5. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Religion. A physically strong person is the need of the society.5. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. 6. Every individual should be trained for concentration. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . And above all. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. engineering and technical subjects.

7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. 2.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. ears and eyes. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. 5.Substantiate your answer. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. Their educational ideas. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. We have seen that Tagore. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. legs. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. 12. Write short notes on Basic education. and pragmatist . of course. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands.2. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 284 .6 LET US SUM UP We have. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. 3. in this lesson. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda.2. Gandhiji as a Idealist. naturalist.

Self-Study b. leather work have been suggested. Meditation and concentration c. gardening. 10. 8. f. 2. wood work. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Heuristic Method. Debate and Discussion Method. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. a. a. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Nai Talim 4. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Learning by Doing c.2. a. Education should involve manual work. a. Discussion Method 285 . Ideal of citizenship. d. Cult of non-violence.4. 5.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Basic education. Technique of Correlation 6. Activity Method b. Explain Vishwabharathi. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. 3. c. Self realization. 9. 11. 5. 5. Teaching while Walking b. Activity Method d. c. 1937 7. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. e. metal work. b.

New Delhi : Shipra Publications.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. C.H. New Delhi : A. Theory and Principles of Education. P. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.5. 286 .2. New Delhi : Aggarwal. P. L. O. N. (2007). (2002). Dhiman. (2007). Publishing Corporation. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ltd. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. J. K. Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Pahuja. (2003). on Bhatia.P. K and Narang C. N. (2004). Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. B. Anmol Publications Pvt.

11 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.LESSON 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3.3 5.7 5.10 5. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology. In this lesson.9 5.3.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.6 5.5 5.1 Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.4 5.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .

analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. 5. While education is learning.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. there is a large number of communities. you will be able to: 1. new behaviour may be acquired. A g o o d curricu lu m. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society.3. While education is a process. the plateau area and 288 .S. Curriculum is intimately related to education. In the former sense. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. the plain area.A. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. In the words of Kerney and Cook. 5. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . in fact . it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan.. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences.3. the desert area. in the form of new experience. Then in a big country like India. state the meaning of curriculum 2. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. From the latter point of view. in Russia or in Japan. it is identical wit h socializat ion. Both the processes are integrated. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. maintained or eliminated. is a means to the process.3. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. Since the demands. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. curriculum. In it.under the direction of the school. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. curriculum signifies situations for learning.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. present behaviour may be modified. in the U. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. living in the hilly area.

studying therein. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. it is. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. too.3. Besides craft. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. Again. From a slave-country we became secular. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. 5. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. environment. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. the learning capacity of children.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. However. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. and 289 . from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. democratic and socialistic country. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. therefore. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. irrespective of their needs and environment. It must differ from locality and from society to society. according to modern trends in the educational process. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. customs and needs. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. differs from individual to individual. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. In fact .

Self Realisation. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. The word “Curere” means 2. specific. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. e. 2. of classroom.. Understanding Objective.g.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. They are visionary goals e. 5. tangible. Application Objective.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. 1. 3. social. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation.g. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. Knowledge Objective. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . unambiguous and functional.. general or specific. moral. unsatisfactory. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. aesthetic and spiritual development. So it is inadequate.. remote or immediate. etc. eg. Goals of Primary Education. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. uninspiring and unscientific. they depend on the political. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. etc.. They may be ultimate or proximate. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. They are achievable. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. National Integration. emotional. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. individual or Social and so on. They speak of immediate purposes of education. which may or may not be attained.3. 290 .. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical.g. etc. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. in instructional objectives. e. They speak of perfect goals. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. Goals of Secondary Education. social. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Vocational Efficiency. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. aims. 4.

needs. finding them very interesting and captivating. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. but it includes the totality of experiences.3. The interests. heavy fire. According to Crow and Crow. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects.” 291 . abilities. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. Raymont rightly says.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. in the class rooms. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. capacities.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. on the playing fields. educationists.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects.5. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. Crow and Crow remarks. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others.

aptitudes. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. They often waste it or rather kill it. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. Due to these variations and differences. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. time in a useful manner. moral. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. mental. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. capacities and abilities. urges. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. tendencies. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children.

: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously.curricular. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. administrative programme need be planned. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. phased preparation. 293 . To ensure success of the process. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. Similarly. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. 3. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. 2. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. organized. development of professional capability at all levels. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. library. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16.3. workshop. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. 17. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . Child Centred Education b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum.3. Relation with Life c. laboratory. 1937 19. Run. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. a. 5. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. 10. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 18. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. in the class room.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. 12. principles of curriculum construction. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments.3. 5. 11. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals.

(2007).5. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.S. Innovations in Education. N. Curriculum Development. S. Lakshmi. and Sarita Kumari.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. P. D. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. S. (2007). New Delhi : Authorspress.3. Curriculum and Instruction. (2007).K. Bhalla. 295 . New Delhi : Isha Books. (2001). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. 5.4.9 5.1 5.4 Developing scientific outlook 5.4.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.5 5.7.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .3 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.LESSON Importance of developing scientific attitude Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook

It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. 5. 3. know the importance of science education. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. We mean curiosity. superstition or emotion.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. in the economic reconstruction of society. 297 . Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. you will be able to: 1. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.4. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. tolerance for the opinions of others. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . Gradually.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. honesty. 2. 4. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition.during the second half of this century.5. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. newer and newer industries started growing.4. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . open-mindedness. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. 5. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. explain the concept of scientific attitude. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings.

7. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. 2. Selection for science education. 4. 6. Principles are formulated. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. 6. Through newspapers. Central science workshop. After such experience and training. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 4. 3.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children.4. Devotion towards nature increases. 2. 3. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. 5. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people.4. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 5. Promotion of science clubs.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Schemes of teaching science. 5. Through examinations. 5. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Organisation of science fairs. as well as of the society. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. seminars and symposiums.So that. Thinking and memory develops. Love for truth enhances.

5. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. 7. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. For laboratory and workshop techniques. In the inquiry approach. sex or religion. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.6. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Training of science teachers. Enquiry teaching is.4. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. therefore. essential that teachers. 5. should provide opportunities to.4. They ask many questions about the objects they see. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs.needs and conditions. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. objectivity. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. After presenting the problem. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. Write any two advantages of Science Education. They encounter many social events as they grow. They experience natural phenomenon. It is. each child to “enquiry skill building”. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force.

.6. test. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. to ask questions and experience things. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. stern pursuit of accurate data. 5. Evidence. 300 . stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.4.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. . 3.Herma Wouk. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. 6. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Adopting creative models of teaching. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. 3. Giving less directions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Appreciating pupils ideas. if they like. 5. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Social sciences. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . It requires consistent thinking. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. 5. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. 4.books. commands or orders. 2.

Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. practiced. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning.(Smith 2008). of vast resources running waste. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. 5. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. For instance. school and society at large. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. The students observation. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. These include open mindedness. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. To achieve this we should understand what it means.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. critical thinking and suspended judgments.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”.7. and emphasized during the learning process . Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. keen observation. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role.4. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. neighbourhood. it must be encouraged. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. (Vaidya 2007). It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. to develop among the learners. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. friends. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. therefore should be unbiased and objective. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation.

An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. rumor. 2007). Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. In considering a situation or a problem. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. 5. The intention to respect another’s point of view. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth.7. intuition or wishful thinking”. 302 . they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. think and work it”. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. or superstitions. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth.4. (Das. he studies all aspects of it. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. understanding and logic. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live.

Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. • 5.7.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.4. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . 5. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. but to begin only after careful planning.4. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.7. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.

304 . Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. it must be encourages. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. 5. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience.

Reflections on Scientific attitude. a. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. b. Planning of activities 5. a. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Vaidya. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude.5. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. (2000). Adopting creative models of teaching. objectivity. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Proper example of the teacher c.S. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. (2006). 5.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. b. 305 . 3. b.4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Yadav. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. 4. M. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Love for truth enhances.B (2008). N. a. 16. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. (2008). Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. D. 2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Wide reading b. Rao. The intention to respect another’s point of view. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. 5.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. a. Study of superstitions d.4. S.

4 5. areas of institutional planning.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.7 5.10 5. you will be able to: 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.6 5.1 5. state the concept.LESSON objectives and characteristics.5 5. 2.5. actively.5.11 5. 5.9 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions. 306 .5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.8 5.

in the task of educational planning. and supplement planning from above. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. • To make institutional planning more successful. and. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 .3. 5. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. every teacher. 5. teachers and students is not lost sight of. and each student are regarded as separate entities.5. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. every parent. Institution should be regarded as the unit. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. each teacher. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. • to involve teachers and school administrators. which become the bases for further planning at the district.5. State and national levels from below. and every student in the process of educational planning. executive as well as public. • to make planning development-oriented. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy.

(2) Co.curricular Activities. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. council and. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers.5. Syllabus. approved after making necessary modifications. and Personnel services. Examinations.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. Classwork. etc. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning.• implemented. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. 5. Co-curricular activities. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. which will be discussed in the general. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. it becomes the basis for school inspection. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as.5. 308 . it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.

Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. 3. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Fair distribution of syllabi.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. etc. Preparation of models. Organisation of Students’ Association. Improving the internal assessment. Running science clubs. Conducting of educational. Organising play-for-all programmes. etc. etc. Equipping of laboratory and library. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Preparation of instructional material. 2. scientific and historical excursions. Editing the school magazine. charts and apparatus. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Improving the subject competence of teachers. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning.No. Courts. 1. Organisation of class-room libraries. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. etc. Organisation of Pupils. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Celebrating of national and international festivals. hobby-centres.

The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. parents. and solidarity. which are divided as the in. understanding. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. teacher-State. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. teacher-pupil. teacherinspector. students’ associations. administrator-administrator. and —pupil-pupil. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. teachers. pupils.5. involving mainly human materials. teacher-teacher. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. Administrator-State. science teachers’ associations. ii. administrator-supervisor. pupil310 .” The human relationships in. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. headmasters associations. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations.5. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing and out-group relationships are as given below i.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. parent-teacher associations. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. etc. teacher-managing body. administrator-pupil. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. co-operation. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning.

superintendence. teacher-parent. pupil-non-official functionaries. supervision. 311 . It covers personnel and material management. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. Management may be taken as a narrow concept.5. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. supervision and superintendence. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. pupil-community leader. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. to attend. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. etc. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. and to serve. It is also being modernized to become a technique. Good.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. administrator. control.State. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. pupil-parent. organisation and management. now-a-days. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. organisation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to carry out." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. V. social sciences and other disciplines. teacher-community leader. pupil-inspector. to accomplish. To administer means to manage. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. According to C.

Liasion with the Public . The relationship should change from master. 8. it is not worth-while.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. 4. Leadership . Better Human Relationships . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. 13. Decision Making . 7. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. Communication .Management should be efficient and economical 312 . should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. who occupy the managerial positions. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. 9. Democratic Management . Socio-Scientific Approach . This is the latest democratic trend in management.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. Motiviation .The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 11. Worker Participation . 3. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.The manager should have leadership traits. He should be an artist in human relationships.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. Those. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .The manager should take his subordinates into confidence.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . Economic Management . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. 2. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. low.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. 5. 10. 12. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.Of all the approaches. If the cost benefit ratio is less. Rapport between the Management and Employees . If it is more. 6. Cost-Benefit Analysis .Modern Management Techniques At this juncture.Any good management will always have good public relations.

the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. 18. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. 14. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education.too. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. 5. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. enrichment of curricula. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 5. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. 19. Wastage and duplication should be avoided.g.5.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.5. and cooperative performance should be ensured.These two are. improvement of teaching methods. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to improve the quality of education it provides. objective. 313 . The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

M. Communication 5. Singh. Leadership c. APH Publishing Corporation. Instruction. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. e.K. d. a. Co-curricular activities. 314 . New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Classwork. Examinations. Motiviation d. S. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. b. In group and Out group 5. (2001). Fundamental of Educational Management. a.5. and Personnel services. a. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Educational Administration. Syllabus. to introduce decentralization of educational planning.5. NUEPA. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 4. 2. H. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Decision Making b. c. b. R. Tarachand and Prakash. a.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (1995). f. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. (2003). b.

Education by Christian Missionaries 1. Common ailments of Children.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .teachers should have : 1.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.I.2 Nutritional deficiencies.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Code of conduct for teachers.1 School Health Programme. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. Economic 315 . UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. Healthy Food Habit 4. New evaluation procedures. Realized the problems of school education.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.Pre-service and In-services facilities.1 Inculcation of Socialism. Buddhist and Jain system of education. Sex-education 4. First Aid.Religious and Modern Education 1.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. women education and teacher education in India. Inspection and Supervision 3.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Preservation of nutrients.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.CORE PAPER . CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Community and Mass Media 2.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. nutritional requirement. 2.5 Regional Educational Development in India . (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. wastage and Stagnation 3.Preventive measures. Examination reforms.Article 45 . Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. School. 1.1 Gurukula system of education. Balanced diet. physical education and environmental education 5.1 Primary Education : Education for all.4 India's Secular Policy .2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .2 Secondary Education : Co-education. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.3 Educational Influences of Home. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. higher education. population education.3 Directive Principles . Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. Communicable diseases . 4. social Impact 3.

Socialization. 7.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.K.4. 5. and Mohanty R.C.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms.K. Realism. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5.Aim.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. Kalan Paper Packs 10.K. Naturalism and Pragmatism . REFERENCE 1. B. and Sharma R. Taneja V. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Pandy V. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.R. Ram S. Hemchand. and Dash B. and Human Development. Mishra. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. Mahatma Gandhi. (2004) Problems of Education in India. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Tagore 5.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Prof. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5.1 Idealism.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. Ghanta R.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. R. T. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. 316 . Curriculum and national goals .N. Saraswathi T. New Delhi: NCERT 3. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.4 4. Delhi : University Publications 2.S. (2005) Foundations of Education. (1999) Culture.N.K.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Sharma.

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