Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

UNIT: 1 – V



Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer



Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56


Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University


67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5



3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education

127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233


5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4


UNIT – I 7 .

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regional imbalances and variations in different environment. discusses the regional educational development in India. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. Lesson 4. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. In. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. The need. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. and Jain system of education. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Lesson 2. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Lesson 5. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Jainism and their educational implication. 9 . The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government.

10 .

LESSON 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE Educational implications of Buddhist education Jain system of education 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.3.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education Hartog Committee (1929) 11 . Hunter Commission (1882) 1.6.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.5.6 Education during British Era 1.1.2 Methods of Jain system of Education

Muslim and British periods.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.1.1. you will be able to: 1.1. in morals and in the intellect”.3.6. describe the Jain system of Education 4.8 1.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. 1. British system of education presented the modern western model. Indian in blood and colour. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.1.1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. That 12 .10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.9 1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. 1. both present and future. 1.1.1. has a long past history starting in vedic education. elucidate the education during British Era.7 1. India.6. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. The history of education passed through Buddhist. in opinion.1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. Education in India. but English in taste.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. “a class of persons.

the monitorial plan was followed. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. and to agriculture and trade. 6. however. Free and Accessible. Role of Travel in Education. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. 13 . Forests as Centres of Education. It was also moral. with grants of land or money. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. from eternal to immorality 2. 3. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Where pupils were many.knowledge was real. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. questioning by the pupil. Pupils were taught. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. 8. There was. generally. Education of Moral. Immediate Aim Vocational. High Status of Teachers. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. individually. if they thought fit to do so. 11. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. It was not merely intellectual. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Individual Teaching. Method of Instruction. 13. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. not en masse by the class method. 12. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. No State Control on Education. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. managed entirely by Brahmans. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Education was a private affair of the people. The immediate aim of education. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. Curriculum. 4. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Residential Schools. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Method of Study. Religious and Spiritual. 16. Teacher as Parents. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 14. followed by explanation by the teacher. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. as it is generally considered to be at present. 10. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. 5. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. religious and spiritual. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. from darkness. 9. to light.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. They were very cordial and intimate. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. studied Vedas. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3.3. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. It was suited to the needs of the society. It was freely available to all those who wanted. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. lived a life of celebacy. Wide-Spread Education in Women.17. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. 2. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. 1.

a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people.1. which included abstaining from theft. partaking of food at prohibited times. every class in society. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Right thought 3. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. use of intoxicating things. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. Right means of livelihood 6. Consequently. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. Right contemplation 1. 1. taking things without being offered. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. the student had his head shaved of all hair. 2. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. except the Chandals. Right activity 5.C. 15 . in which. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Right memory 8. the student remained in a state of Shramana. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. watching dances or listening to music. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. use of cosmetics. he was qualified to become a monk. dressed himself in yellow clothes. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. Education was imparted through the. Right endeavour 7. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely.4. the most significant of which were the following 1. the handicapped. impure conduct. Right knowledge 2. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Right speech 4. killing of any living being. had the right to receive education. etc. It was denied only to the ill. After attaining the age of 20.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. I take Refuge to Sangh. disease and death of the human beings. I take Refuge to Dharma. medium of Pali.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features.

much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. women occupied a position inferior to men. however. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. and. medicine. 1. These are called later Buddhist schools. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. it is regarded as true”. nature. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. geology. 5. aspirations and. cottage industries. After this ritual. Hence. 3. therefore. approach. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. animal husbandry. etc. 8. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. military science. the presence of the monks was essential. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. along with education in script writing. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. assumptions. bodily gestures. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. wear three items. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. Initially. education was impart in art. archery. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. eat food thrice a day. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. 7. Later on. the science of taming and training animals. changing the goals.4. elephant lore. It comprehended education in writing. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. handicrafts. of clothes. Even at this stage. arithmetic and religious discussion. As reality is becoming. Whatever its nature and extent. so long as it successfully does so.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious.. control over sensuous activities. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. beg for alms. 6. has no metaphysical value for life. be considered the aim of education It. On this occasion. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. archery. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. meaning. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. commerce. etc. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. nothing is of any permanent consequence. etc.3. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. knowledge of reviving the dead. a continuous change creating 16 . depth and range. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. 2. objectives of human life. agriculture. a change is not only total but also perpetual. Life is in a flux. magic. 4.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Validity is effective and consequences. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. therefore.e.1. it is much older than the latter. 5. Jainism insists 17 . in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. goes to Vardhaman. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. However. In fact. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. whatever works are true and good. such as. and to give it a shape that it has today. its pessimistic outlook on life. and peculiar situations. Write Eight fold path . the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. i.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. and its refusal to believe in supreme God.. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. however. Its chief feature.5. Education must. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him.

4. 3. and is to be redeemed and liberated. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. c) Not to steal. and believe in happiness to all.5. d) To lead a celibate life. Hence. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. 7. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Development of personality as an individual. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. b) Right knowledge.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. 8. 10. e) To renounce the world. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. b) Not utter falsehood. 6. 1. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. 9.1. more stress on individual aims. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. 18 . 3. but on both. it has a foot in both the words. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. thought and deed. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. rather than the interpretation of the universe. 1. 5. As such. 2. c) Right conduct. They are: a) Not to injure.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 2. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life.

that would be socially desirable. 19 . Belief in transmigration of soul. practised and not only aspired for. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. and should bring happiness to all. 1.5. 8. 4. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Teaching must develop these faculties. What are Triratnas ? . education must be action based and ideally oriented. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . here and now. therefore. Hence. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. 2. success and love. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. 5. 3.5. 1. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. Teaching should be social and tolerant. education should develop sense of discrimination. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. Jiva is essentially karmic.

4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. Madras. 1. However.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. science.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. North West Province and Punjab. primary 20 . They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. and not for life. philosophy and literature of Europe.6. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal.6. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.1. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. with rally and rout. Bombay. 1.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. 2. To set up separate departments of. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854).3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. 1.6. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. 1. 1953).1.6.

general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education.6.K. At that time M. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. Later on. at the primary level. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). namely. The universities dominated the secondary education.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. secondary education became a step towards university. 1.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. • Secondary education. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission).education was neglected. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. 1. 1. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men.6.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. In 1882. To ensure qualitative improvement. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools.6. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. • Universal free primary education. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. self-respecting and competent.

7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. all children are to have a common curriculum. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9.1. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. After this stage. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. 10. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want.At the primary stage (6-11 years). The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? .

instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. 4. b. Right thought. It was suited to the needs of the society.1. Right contemplation. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. followed by explanation by the teacher. a. 1. education was impart in art. establishment of universities. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. The immediate aim of education.. 1. Right speech. handicrafts. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. geology. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. along with education in script writing. 3. etc. 23 . The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 4. The system of education was well-organised. Right means of livelihood. arithmetic and religious discussion. the science of taming and training animals.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Right endeavour. Right knowledge. 3. archery. 5. 6. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. During the Buddhist period. 2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. science and English of European literature. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Right memory.1. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Right activity. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. 2. military science. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. questioning by the pupil. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education.

Improvement of Literature. Ltd. Y. 24 . Development of personality as an individual. Right faith. b. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. J. Ltd. a. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.C. (1984). J. Development of Educational System in India.1. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science.K. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. 8. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.7. R. Sargent report 12.C. (2009).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.K. (2007). Hence. c. Singh. 1882. (2005). Aggarwal. History of Indian Education System. Sharma. Right knowledge. 11. 9. Right conduct. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 10. b. Y. more stress on individual aims. a. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. and Nath. 1937 1.

2.7 1.LESSON 1.2.9 Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.6 1.2.4 1.3.4 National Policy on Education 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 1. The 25 .3. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.1 University Education Commission THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2.5 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.8 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.

medical and legal education.2. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. analyse the progress of education in free India. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. Kothari (1964-66) 8. examination system. technological engineering. Post-graduate 26 . diversification of courses of studies. 2. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4.3. vocational education.conditions of the teachers.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. curriculum.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. National Council for Women’s Education 5. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. standard of teaching. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. girls and women education besides primary. you will be able to: 1.2. S. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. New Educational Policy. 1. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. technical. expansion of vocational. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. explosion of enrolment. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. 1. There had been vast institutional expansion. secondary and higher education. National Board of Teacher Education 10. 1986 1.

3.2.3. Government of India. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . quantity. Problems of access. Education for Equality. in January 1985.2. 1952. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. National System of Education. A meaningfully Partnership.2. The Essence and Role of Education. 1. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. However. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation.3. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. Kothari. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. Education is the key to our allround development. the New National Policy on Education.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. research et. A. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. accumulated over the years. the chairman of University Grants commission. utility and financial outlay.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. quality. material and spiritual. Finally. 1. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 4. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country.3.teaching. 1. 1966.S. D. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. 2. 1986. Therefore.

1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women.” Thus. By working with hands. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. 28 . facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Thus. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. It can train practical aptitudes. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life.2. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. the minorities and the handicapped. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. the concepts of work experience. The UNESCO Report. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. attitudes. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.

to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. Besides.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. As such. co-ordinations. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 ." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. if he wishes. “The aim of these colleges. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more.” The Mudaliar Commission. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. it will conduce self. The Education Commission. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. “It may be described. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. The Radhakrishnan Commission. With adequate planning. In 1955. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. the Commission. According to. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses.employment and promote economic independence of the youth.

for quality of life in the rural areas. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. Subsequently. With a view to relating education to the life. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. raising the special facilities. Therefore. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . the. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. etc. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. the semester and credit system. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures.ot her. admission requirements to vocational courses. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. the rigid streaming of courses. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. The Central Advisory Board of Education. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. In addition. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly.. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations.

Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. In short. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.defined S UP W as “purposive. aimed at this goal. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. meaningful. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. manual work resulting in either goods or services. which swept the country for over two decades. Commerce. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. The wave of Basic Education.and the world of work. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. technological courses including Agriculture. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. preferably spinning and weaving. which are useful to the community. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence.2. 31 . The Father of Nation. felt that education should be centred around a craft. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. etc. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000.. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. which offer scientific. meaningful. According to committee. giving importance to productivity in the national development. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. who conceived the System of Basic Education. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. 1. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject.

The aim of SUPW according to the committee. 32 . Educative and 3. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. Food 3. 4. Community work and social service. locally available materials and tools. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. be that the work involved is: 1. Productive 2. so that it is educational in essence. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Shelter 4. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. 2. 3. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. The teachers should make use of. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Experimentation with materials. Clothing 5. Some Hints to Teachers 1. tools and techniques and 3. Health and Hygiene 2. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Work practice. as far as possible. Culture and recreation 6. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised.

Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. the local community should be actively associated. as far as possible. improve discipline. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. inculcate a faith. It can become an instrument to build character. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. 6. etc. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. To make education more realistic. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. removal of illiteracy. Merits of the Programme 1. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Reduction of gap in work and education 2.2. Community Service In-1972.5. Such activities may include projects of village uplift.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Education through work The SUPW should. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. 1. Check on educated unemployed 4. Productive Work 33 . slum clearance.

offering first aid. The community. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. if not productive. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . etc. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. in turn. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. traffic control. Define SUPW 34 .and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. helping the adults-in productive work. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. skills and better future for the children.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. AICTE was set up in year 4. should involve itself in the educational effort.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge.

manual work resulting in either goods or services. 1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. which are useful to the community. 1952 3.1. 1. Radhakrishnan 2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 35 . Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. Write short note on SUPW. meaningful. 2. c. e. b. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 6. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. 3.2. d.2. f. 1955 4. a.2. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Dr.

P. and Nath. Y.K. R.(2005).P. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Publishing Corporation. and Rao.. V. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. History and Problems of Indian Education. Amala. Anupama. Development of Educational System in India. : Sharma. (2007). Ltd. Rao. (2005). Y. (2009).H. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. A. History of Indian Education System.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. P. History of Education.C. Singh.K. (2007). B. New Delhi: A. J.D. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.K. 36 .2.1.

1950. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.1 1. containing 395 articles. democratic republic.369 words in the English language version. Being the supreme law of the country.5 1. and liberty. equality.2 1.7 1. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. establishing the structure.3.3.8 1.3. it came into effect on January 26. Besides the English version.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.4 1. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.3.3.1 Significance of DPSP 1.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3. for a total of 117.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. 1949. assuring its citizens of justice.6 1. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. procedures.3.9 1. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. there is an official Hindi translation. directive principles and duties of citizens. 37 . 12 schedules and 83 amendments. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.

economic. Dr.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1947. On August 29.3. spread over a period of 2 years. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. After many deliberations and some modifications. learn the role of central and state government on education. you will be able to: 1.3. 3. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 4. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. social. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”.3.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. understand our Indian constitution. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. Through them. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. political. 1. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. 38 . was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. with Dr. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. Two days later. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. 1947 meeting of the Assembly.3. administrative. 1950.In the August 14. for 166 days. legal and environmental. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. the Drafting Committee was appointed.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. 1947. 1. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. in sessions open to public. 2. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. The Assembly met. 1. According to the constitution.

within the limits of its economic capacity and development. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Protecting health of the workers. and shall. Article 42. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Minimising inequalities of opportunities.government. on the basis of equal opportunity. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Right to work. No abuse of children. old age. provide free legal aid.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Condition for dignity of children. for workers. 39 . Liking wage etc. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Equal justice and free legal aid. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. men and women. Minimising inequalities in status. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Article 39A. Organisation of village panchayat. in particular. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Article 40. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. Article 43. and in other cases of undeserved want. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Appropriate concentration of wealth. That the health and strength of workers. Equal pay for both sex. The State shall endeavour to secure. Article 41. The State shall. sickness and disablement. Protecting children from exploitation.

See also Article 21A). Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. by suitable legislation or in any other way. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Article 43A. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. in particular. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. a living wage. Article 44. Participation of workers in management of industries. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. (Original Article 45. 2002 for “45. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. and. in particular. [declared by or under law made by 40 . Article 46. Note: Subs. Uniform civil code for the citizens. to all workers. in particular. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. The State shall endeavour to provide. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. The State shall take steps. Article 48. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. industrial or otherwise. Article 48A. work. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Article 45. Article 49. Article 47. agricultural.

it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. as the case may be. from spoliation. disfigurement. Separation of judiciary from executive. Article 45 . Article-21A Right to Education. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. 2.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Article 50. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. removal. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. disposal or export. Promotion of international peace and security. 1.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. destruction.Parliament] to be of national importance. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. may be law determine”. Article 51. 2002. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article.

race. caste. in particular. ii. language or any of them”. 7. if such person is a minor. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. his guardian has given his consent thereto. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. 8. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. 2002. 5. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. and. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. 6. 4. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections.” 42 . No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. from justice and all forms of exploitations. and shall protect them. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. iii. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. 3. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”.

It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . wherever necessary or desirable. 2. the forms. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Article 351 gives importance to 6. for its vocabulary. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language.3. The central government determines targets and promotes education. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. 43 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. and by drawing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. & 1. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country.9. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Educational Reforms From time to time.

All India Council of Medical Science. So as to encourage education on right lines. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. the state governments. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. private agencies etc. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. to achieve the desired ends. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. 6.. etc. Production of suitable for children and adults f. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. 5. The following pilot projects. 7. 4. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. 8. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction.3. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. By starting these projects. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. So that they may work well. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Local bodies and private enterprise.

Material concerning nation-wide interests.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. research. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. 12. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. 1. education for women. is the state responsibility. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. training and statistics. handicapped. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. 4. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. etc. 1.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. The 45 . 10. are published by it. books. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries.3. 9. 3. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 11. reports etc. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state.

Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. 1. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Write short notes on a. Article 21A c.3. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain Directive principles 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. articles in the Directive principles. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 46 . 1.3. Article 46 4. 5.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Article 45 b.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.

Describe the educational role of State Government.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. a. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 1. 2002. 3. 4. Dr.5. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Article-21A Right to Education. 47 .3. a. 2002. may be law determine”. b. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Article 29 and 30 7. b.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Development of Hindi Language 6. Article 46 5. Ambedkar 2. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Clearing House function 9. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. The Directive Principles of State Policy. a. Article 45 .

K and Narang C. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Bhatia. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. B. (2004). New Delhi: Shipra Publications. (2007). (2009). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. S.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. K.3. S. L. Education in Emerging Indian Society.1. Education in Emerging Indian Society. 48 . (2008). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Ghosh. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Dash. N. Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.8 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1. Jainism.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.6 1.4. Christianity.4. Students should be 49 .2 Aims of Religious Education 1. religious education should be broad based.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.4.2 1.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.7 1.3.4. Buddhism etc.1 Why Moral Education 1.4.3 Precautions while introducing Moral education Islam.

According to E. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. you will be able to: 1. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. Thus. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. 1.. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. understand the relationship between religion and education 2.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions.D. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. know the position of religious education in our country 3. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66).3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. As result of which. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. beauty and goodness so that 50 . enumerate the aims of religious education 4.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines.4. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. state meaning and need for moral education 1. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. duty-consciousness. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. religious education and the concept of secularism. "In A multireligious society like ours.” Education broadens human outlook. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. In the complicated and complex society of today. India' can produce men of character. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication.and dedication. integrity. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions.

This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. realizes God in himself. In short. religion and democracy are same.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. 1. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. As our country is a country of diverse religions. According to Article 19. They thought that any kind of narrow. it is clear that the State has no religion. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. castes and creeds. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. According to Article 22. all citizens are free to follow any creed.3. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. 1947 we achieved our freedom. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. through religious practices and 51 . our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. As a matter of fact. rancour. Children attend these organizations. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines.” From the above. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values.4. if not regularly.3. at least occasionally. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. No religious tax can be imposed on them. Viewing the defects of religious education. Thus. 1. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society.4. Hence.

intellectual and physical faculties of children. one fully developed. what is done and what is not done etc. and other impulses are often denied direct expression.teachings. As a result of which. He also learns about social. It helps to modify habits attitudes. Good education. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. which help him for the development of his character. It is religious education. aggressive. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. which can mould.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. and what is evil. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion.. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. If unreleased. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. for the development of the individual and the society. temperament etc. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. when he becomes an adult. moral and spiritual values. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.

Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. Therefore.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. 53 . “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. towards the society. 2.4. 1. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel.3. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. This should not be allowed to happen. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. 3. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. which is the basic need of a democratic life. If we open the pages of history.

Life histories of great persons of the world. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 .5. fellow-feeling. 11. 9.4. churches and mosques 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Gurudwara as. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Write Article 22 2. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. For this. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. examples of patriotism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Since all religions have virtues. stories of moral greatness. therefore. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. 10.

Patriotism. 55 . Service to others. 2. Without moral values. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. 2. They will play their role effectively.4. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). is that which develops moral values. 7.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Satyam (truth). Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. 5. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Swadeshi (Patriotism).acquisitiveness). 3. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 4. Self sacrifice. Ahimsa (Non-violence). The content of the curriculum. 4. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 8. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. 1. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 6. “Let all be happy and free from disease. the methods of teaching. Cultivation of emotions. Non-injury. Aparigarha (Non. students. 1.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. let men see well of one another. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. therefore. 5. Purity. in the home. Moral education. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our.4. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. 6. Asvada (Control of palate). Fearlessness. 3. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 8. It they learn what morality is in their early years.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 7.

Unity of mankind. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Secondary Stage 1.4. Asatyam (Non-thieving). The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. 2. 56 . The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Discipline. 3. Integrity. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). loyalty and self-sacrifice. minutes in the morning for group singing.9. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . 3. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. In the school programme. religions may be included in the syllabus. Efficiency. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. 10. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. 11.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. The School Assembly should be held for a few. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. 4. discipline. Sharivashram (Physical work). 1. Good temper. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Good manners. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. National unity and Spiritual values.

A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . 57 . This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. 5. University Stage 1. should form a normal part of school programme. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. 3. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. love of humanity. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. patriotism and self-discipline. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. Silent meditation should be encouraged. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. 4. In other words.4. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. In this connection.

the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. b. In short.1. the.4.4. For this. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. Sri Prakasa 6 . saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. Training of Character 3. 58 . 1. Discuss the aims of Religious education. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. 4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. b.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. 2. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. a. a. 1959 5.4. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. 2. a. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. minutes in the morning for group singing. The School Assembly should be held for a few. 1.

N.C. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2004). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. N. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 59 . Anmol Publications Pvt.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Pahuja. New Delhi: A. M. K and Narang C. Publishing Corporation. Dash.4. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Bhatia. K. B.H. (2003). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. P. (2008). (2007). (2008). L. Theory and Principles of Education.H. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Siddiqui.P. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.1. J.

Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.9 1.5. Although.5.5.7 1.4 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.3 1.5.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5.5.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.1 1.5 1.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.8 1. disparities between provinces/States.6 1.5. 60 .e.2 1. i.5.10 1..11 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.

They therefore. 7. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. 6. 61 . The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication.5. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. you will be able to: 1. 3. understand the regional educational development in India 3.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. for example. 5. This leads to separatist movements.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. waters.5. etc. 1. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. 4.5. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence.1. roads. know the education suited to different environments. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. 2. 8. 1. work hard towards this end. energy. 1. Accordingly. they take appropriate measures.

62 . Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. 2. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. on the basis of regional development may be formed. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. some States became educationally far advanced. 3. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. Secularism.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. while others remained educationally backward.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. and.5. • Separate States (of course viable States). There are many reasons for this during the British rule. some average. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. 4. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. Tight security arrangements should be made. Therefore.

68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. books.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. etc. After the attainment of independence. Guwahati. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted.84 crore was released in 2005-06. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. Mizoram. and provision of informal education to enable those.14. Rs.5.After the Planning Process has originated. library buildings. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums..480. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. Tezpur. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. 63 . 1. These projects are in various stages of implementation.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. However.g. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Nagaland and NEHU. etc. since its inception in 1998-99. Itanagar. Silchar. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. remained under developed. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. Out of this. the Union Government. Central Universities of Assam. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. NERIST. NIT. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. Regional Centres of IGNOU. In the Central sector. Jammu and Kashmir. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. academic buildings. while some States like Bihar. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. scholarships. Even in each State. approved proposals worth Rs. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy.392. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. the State Governments.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. Funds amounting to Rs.

there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.261. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. Tezpur University.187. Government expenditure on education.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. Out of this an amount of Rs. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.05 crore and Rs. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. too.40. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.57 crore and Rs. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.500.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. A provision of Rs. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Moreover.501.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu.8 per cent in 05). Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. 64 . During 2003-04.5. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.

Moreover. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Tamil Nadu. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. English.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). The Chandigarh Administration. Andhra Pradesh. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. health services and welfare of the citizen population. too. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Karnataka. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. pharma. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Kerala and Gujarat. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. too.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . Listing the positives. 1. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states.5. for instance. telecom. notes the study. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. engineering and R&D. To add to the woes. Karnataka. for which 16 sites. Medical education. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. too.

But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. which a non-tribal person cannot do. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. the curricular subjects. The living conditions. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. Then education become realistic and idealistic. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. In the same manner. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. in which the learners live. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. For a learner living in a rural area.year. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. while the former does not. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. The working hours of educational institutions. taking the average in the middle. when he will not be sure of time. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. the socio-physical conditions. 66 . Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. and so on. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. Hence it is called as need-based. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. the teaching methods. the interests. the vocations. the working days: an academic . Of course. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. life-oriented and environment slanted. the needs. even actually looking at the watch.

11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. to suit education to different environments? 1. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. 67 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2.5. 2.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.

S. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. New Delhi: Authors press. (2008). Dubey.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. A. remained undeveloped 3. 68 . New Delhi: Anmol Publications. during the British rule. (2001). some States have become more developed than others b. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.N. S. (2001).G. Education in Developmental Arena. Salim. R. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Giridhar.K. (2002). C.5. some of areas which were under the native rulers. and Nair. Educational Development in India.H. 60% 1. Education Scenario in India. a.2.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. 71 . the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. school community and mass media. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. National Integration. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. community development. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education.

1.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.4 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 . Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.6 Education for Secularism Present situation of Secularism in India 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.2 2.LESSON 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.9 2.6.2 Implications of Socialism in Education Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.7 2.1.8 2.

the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility.1. 2. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. 73 . analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy.2. for the people by the people”.1. 3) Provision of Manual Work. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. Abraham Lincoln. socialistic and secular state. there should be made no distinction of caste. socialism and secularism 2. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. you will be able to: 1. socialism and secularism 2. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.1. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. understand the concept of democracy. 2. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. The students may be associated with the management of the school.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. colour or wealth. Democracy thus means power of the people. creed. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.1. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. In the matter of admitting students in schools. This is the political aspect of democracy. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 74 . Democracy means 2.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students.1. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. 2.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. debates. it soon spread all over the world. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at.. 11) Student Parliament. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. There are different brands of socialism. declamation contest etc. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. may be planned. 12) Visits to Legislatures. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum.

8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society.5. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. the wealthy and the poor. 7) Special facilities for girls. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. oppression and disparity. free from exploitation. service and cooperation. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. but on the path of non-violence. none high”. stationary and uniforms to the needy students.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. the employer and the employee are all on the same level.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.5.1. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 2.1. 2. 2) Socialism aims at equality. the prince and the peasant. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. Under it. 75 .

10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. According to Holydake. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. “India is a secular-country. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary.” In every political and educational corner.1. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. "which seeks the development of physical. secularism is being propagated. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. 2.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. 11) State schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Write any two main features of socialism. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. 76 . 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Everyone says.

“Webster further says. There is need of making the people open minded. Equality. the belief that the state morals. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. liberty.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. 5) It implies tolerance. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. A large number of people is uneducated. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2.1. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. 2.1. That is why. 8) It believes in co-existence. people have narrow mindedness. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. people started believing in regionalism. 77 . the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. should be independent of religion. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. In this type of prevailing situations. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. 9) It stress free inquiry. During the recent past.opposed to religious education. fraternity. 2) It permits freedom of religion. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. 3) It permits freedom of worship. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. Moral values have to be imbibed. education etc.6.6. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. 6) It has faith in rational thinking.

Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. No doubt. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. Patiala. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. tours and trips may be organized. students belonging to different religions should be associated. 1) Moral Education. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. education.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.presented by the students in the gathering. There should be some internal checking of the material being. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. In the hands of such teachers. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students.6. While doing so.1. In the celebration of each such function. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. 2. The very sight of the building. that the central string of all religions is one. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. Religious Education.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The word “Seculum” means 7. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. 2.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. The term secularism was first used by 8. Define Secularism 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For.1. No doubt.

Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. Tuition free education b. Socialism aims at social justice. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. 3. 6. for the people and the people”. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. b. 4. Since socialism stands for equality. d. a. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. In the matter of admitting students in schools. c. a. George Jacob Holydake 80 . Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. 5.1. colour or wealth.1. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. there should be made no distinction of caste. Equal Opportunities for Admission. The students may be associated with the management of the school.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. 3. 2. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Abraham Lincoln. Respect of Individual Personality. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. 5. Socialism aims at equality. This present age 7. Power of the people 2. creed. b. Provision of Manual Work. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. a. 4.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.

10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. K and Narang C. should be independent of religion.” 9. the belief that the state morals. J. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. Ltd. a. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. N. (2004). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.C. Mohanty. Anmol Publications Pvt. Dash. b. (2008). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. b. 81 .1. (2003). New Delhi : Pahuja. Bhatia. education etc. (2005). (2007). It permits freedom of religion. P. Theory and Principles of Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Modern Trends in Indian Education. J. B. K.8. L. It treats all religions on an equal footing. 10. Ltd. a. N.

knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.4 2.2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.5.9 2.10 2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.LESSON 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2.1 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE International understanding in the school 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2.7 2.6.3 2.6.8 2.

A teacher is first and foremost. skills. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. A teacher can help our county in the process of instructor of school children. social and moral aspects. application. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. and 4. aims and objectives of the school. It involves physical. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. as citizens.generation to another. as learners. you will be able to: 1. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. 83 . The developmental roles of children.2. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. development. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. 2. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. 2.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils.2. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. 2. social. therefore. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. understandings. as persons. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. a r e 1. moral. 3. as workers.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. as it is t he aim o f modern education. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. mental. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. who are placed in his custody. emotional.

vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. experiences and acceptance. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. Teacher as a Citizen Next. motivated. and aesthetically to become. inquisitive. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. The following are some of such roles described in brief. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. 1. member of his community at the outset. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. He is to become an active member. social and emotional health. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. mental. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. physically fit for socially efficient. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. He has to look after their physical. 3. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. culturally confident. 2. morally.All education should lead to better behavioural development. intellectually. emotionally. 2. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. a part of their day in 84 .2.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. The students live. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. mentally. morally. socially. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. economically effective.

science club. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. They will be spending with their parents. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. Unless. fine art associations. 2. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. creeds. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs.the school being under the custody of teachers. solve them. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. List out the role of teachers towards community development . Dr. It 85 . activities of the society into which he is born. India is a land of many castes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. faiths. 4. languages and religions. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. and most of hours. photographic clubs.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened.

the study of language and literature. therefore. a.5. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. ‘We should not become integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme.” Regarding the role of education. Nehruji has explained this as. national anthem and other national songs.2. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. narrow-minded provincial. this integration of the Indian people. c. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. 1. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. the citizens of the Republic of India. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man.” 2. stand up straight. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. b. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. should be emphasised. The only process is the process of education. Sampurnanand remarked. with straight backs and look up at the skies. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. and make into one strong national unit. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . At the primary stage the importance of stories. Radhakrishnan. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. poems. folklore and teaching of social studies. Let us. It should broaden the outlook. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. social studies. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. Re-orientation of the Curriculum.

National Days—January 26. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. symposia. Student Camps. ACC. Textbooks. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Taking Pledge. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Reverence of National Flag. 2. sports. Celebrations of National Days. 9. t he st udent s and t he community. militar y training like the NCC. 6. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. educational excursions. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Singing of National Anthem. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. debates. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. 87 .different social sciences. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. and picnics. 8. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. tours. 5. Scouts and Guides. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Co-Curricular Activities. 4. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. 7. dramatics and youth festivals. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. 10. 3. Uniform for School Children. languages and literature.

Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. 16. Students Exchange and Tours. iv. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. School Projects. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. v. Recognition of Institutions. language. Admissions to schools. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. Open-Air Dramas.5. ways of thinking and doing things.11. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. iii. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 2.2. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Admissions. flora and fauna. 14. ii. colour. Educational and Travel Documentaries. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. 13. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . 88 . Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. 12. region or religion. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. 15. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc.

The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . vii. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. 2. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. camps. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. viii. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Define National Integration 3. cultures and races on equal bases. Students should be involved in organising various school "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. ix.2. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Community dinners. irrespective of national boundaries. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . The Secondary Education Commission Report observes.

Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. Dr. (b) stories of children of other lands. 5. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. In a very real sense. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations.2.6. Radhakrishnan states. and the healthy development. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. Therefore.F. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. C. patriotism is not enough. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum..friendships between children of different countries. Strong has observed.” 2. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. 4. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.2. Organising of debates and. Teachers 90 . therefore. important as that of a national citizenship.6. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. often in connection with anniversaries. (c) fairly tales.e. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . This.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. 3.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. of his body and mind.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. that war. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. 2. the international level. 2. if it happens.

They should not be propagandists.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. a German. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Russian. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Impartial in their Treatment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 .” Well Informed About World Situations. an Englishman. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Indian and American.

Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. It does not prepare students for life.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. Wide Spread Frustration . understand and indiscipline: 1. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. 5. the education function can be carried.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. 3. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. 2.2. 4.Another major. Defects of the educational System . Chronic Poverty .7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . If this is done. which results in agitation and aggression language. and help the students to over .For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.2. majority of people are. Devaluation of Values . leading to. As the school is but a miniature society. there is wide spread frustration among all people. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals.

love. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. List out six characteristics of a good teacher.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4.2. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 93 . Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. co-operation. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. 5.2. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. etc. community development. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 2.democratic nature. sympathy and good will among the nations. fellow feeling. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. 3.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System


Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.


STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency Functions and role of schools in the society Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency Radio as an agency of education Television as an agency of education Press as a medium of education Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”. IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.

9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.

16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together. MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.




1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society


2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.


Museums. books. During the course of time. Define community. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Crow and Crow write.3. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. led to the printing of books. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. periodicals. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. To make them achieve their aim. the invention of the printing press. He taught his students orally. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Moreover.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Now internet is being used.V. In fact. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Emphasising this thing. art galleries. are increasingly used in education. Then came newspapers. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “All the citizens of the community. Hence.

“Listening participation” in current history. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Effective means of presenting music. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. Reynolds. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. social studies. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. A lot of work by way of pre. 2. dram appreciation.telecast. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. music. for the teacher through school broadcasts. the place of importance. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. rather than on picture. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. politics. Students listen various talks. Thus. the teacher still occupies. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. 2. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. In collaboration with the experts. It stimulates curiosity and interests. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. It enlightens public opinion. Thus. languages. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. In the emphasis is on sound. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1.classroom teachers. Various talks. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures.6. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. It is also an important source of entertainment.G.3. 101 . art. Important happening inventions. current affairs and other areas. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching.

at drawing room. speech. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. at play. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. Team-teaching demonstrations. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. 4. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. 102 . Making learning an open system. development of lessons. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. School concerts. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. projects or creative activities. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. style. Before presenting the programme. At present. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. audibility and presentability. 3. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. fol classical music. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. plays. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. at any place. at recreational centers. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. Participation of local teachers and pupils. mathematics. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. informal and non-formal education. travel talks. 5.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.


Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.


For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.


Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.

2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.

Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.8 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.2 2.5 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.6 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational Advantages of Non formal education Levels of formal education system 2.4 Non formal educational system 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.

Education associated with a degree or certificate. open university. starting and ending at -a particular age. 2. 4. 8.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. In ancient time in India. the family. 5. 2. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. imparted at the residence of the teacher. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. 3. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. 9. it was mostly. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. 2. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. 3. Education.4. 7. compare formal and non formal system of education.4. 110 . the learner are acquainted.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1.4. the most important agency of formal education.4. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education.2.. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. Education organised by some agency. the temple. say the Government or the private enterprise. open school. 2. the community. 4. his mental alertness.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. 2. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. the mass media et. School is. 6. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. you will be able to: 1.3. To realize this objective of education.

In general. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Some education systems have separate middle schools. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills.2. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six.a secondary education. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Through early formal education.4. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. or post secondary education. the elements of language are first learned. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. such as a high school or secondary school. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . structured education. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. as well as vocational education and training. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. or academic degrees. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. capacity. Concepts of proportion.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. depending on the jurisdiction. also called tertiary. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. third stage.3. Higher Education: Higher education. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling.3. diplomas. 2.4. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals.

Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. late beginners etc. 4.4.3.which will help for nation's development. Agencies can be classified as 2.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. is an important agency of formal education. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and remote dwellers.4. What are levels of formal educational system? . Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. children with disabilities. 2. Write any two characteristics of formal education? .4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. 2. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. 3.

learning client take some learning objectives.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. staffed. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. “Non-formal education should 113 . the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. until 1970 it had not been defined. systematic. It is much more responsive to needs and change.e. adults as well as children. systematic. continuing education and on the job oriented education. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. Therefore.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. Open university. etc. place of instruction.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. planned. admissions. i. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. open learning. it has its own valid claim to reality. Thus. financially supported life formal education.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. It unlocks the doors of development plans. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. it is a more effective tool for rural development. one could say that non-formal education is an active. Non-formal education includes adult education.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action.formal education. According to Malcolm A. adding up to a true learning society. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. However.. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. It is functional. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. curriculum.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. It is deliberate.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. to help themselves. Adiseshiah.

socialism. To develop in the student.” 2. Part-time education. national integration.4. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. co-curricular activities. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs.” According to H. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth.learning pattern. Lawrence. 2. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. Process of sharing. Preparation for future needs. international understanding.renewal. 7. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields.e. the Ideas of citizenship. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. place of education. 114 . modes of teaching. exploring. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. self. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. 5.4. 6.4. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. 4. curriculum. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. admissions. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. i. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. age. evaluation etc.S. To help industrial workers to better their skills. 2. 3. Flexibility in various aspects of education. Covering life span of an individual.4. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.S. It should lay emphasis on the self.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION marketable and vocationalised.

4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Technical. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized.4. Meeting the omissions of formal education. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 5. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. 3. 10. 115 . To offer Secondary. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 5.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. school dropouts. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. 4. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. Eradication of adult literacy. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 9. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. in villages and those who live in towns.4. publication and information dissemination. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. Universalisation of primary education. Senior Secondary. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 7. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 2. • 2.4.4. 2. 8. 3. working adults. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 6. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 4.

5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. 3.4. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras.. farm. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. Radio and television.2. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. etc. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. Therefore. Institutions for formal education. All-round development i. factory. effective in modern societal context.full time to learners – can be home. if organised in isolation. training centres in factories. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . etc. library. centres of correspondence education. 2. To better qualifications. To make if.4.4. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. others are formal and informal.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. 2. To increase knowledge and 2. Again. self-employment iii. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. public libraries. 4. open space.

List out any two aims of non formal education. Written tests. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Correspondence lesson. . period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Teaching to face teaching. radio. Give examples of non formal education? . 6. 117 . Essay Assignments and short answer questions. . Lecturing T. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define non formal education. institution. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals.V. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 7. Face Contact programmes.

Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 3. 7.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. 2. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Primary level. a. b. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. 2. 4. Explain the different levels of formal system of education.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Pre-school level. the college and the university come under this category. a. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. 118 . The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution.4. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Open University. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. systematic.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Open School. School 3. Open learning and Correspondence Courses.4. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress.4. 5. Higher Secondary level and University level. Secondary level. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned.” 6. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.2. b. 2. The school. Formal and Non Formal 2. adults as well as children. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss.

K and Narang C. Pahuja. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.4. (2005). (2007). Bhatia. Education in Emerging India.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Dash. N. Ltd. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C. N. Mohanty. Modern Trends in Indian Education. J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. (2003). L. K. S.2. (2004). Gupta. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. J. (2008). New Delhi : 119 . Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). P. Anmol Publications Pvt. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. B.

6 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE Objectives of Open University 2.4 Open University 2.LESSON 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5.1 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education Philosophy of Open University 2.3.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons Continuing education for literate adults Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .4 Need for Open University 2.5.2 2.5.5 2.4.7 Agencies of continuing education Characteristic features of open University 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.

2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.2. 2. 2. Under these circumstances. Thus. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3.5.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. give the meaning.3. For them. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. labourers and half educated individuals.5. industries. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. you will be able to: 1. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . characteristics of open university 4. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. continuing education is a boon. know the need and objectives of open university. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.5. Any person. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. It is a continuous process. However. economic field or such other fields. Education is for refinement and enlightenment.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture.5. farmers. This knowledge may be in political field. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. It is a lifelong process. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. 2.

family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. For them too continuing education is essential. Throughout the country. Persons engaged in health services. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. are also contributing their might for the purpose. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Block Development Officers.V. Radio and T. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. T. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons.literate person. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. On the other hand. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Doctors. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. if he gets opportunity to develop them.V. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. 2. After the achievement of independence. Cinema.directly related to his job. Thus. Radio. On the other hand. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress.5. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. deteriorating to his character and personality. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature.3. cultured and progressive. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening.

3. (7) folk songs. habits of people of other lands. and Radio.5.V. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (16) liking. (10) first aid. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. 3. (13) psychology of child behaviour.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. 4. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. 2.. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. Of course.5. (6) folk stories. (15) music. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. Inspite of the great efforts. especially women. we have not been able to achieve our targets. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. 2. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. 6. (1) ancient history. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 123 . In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. 5. (2) basic religious matters. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. (14) information about bringing up young children. 7. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. These books are not very useful. (8) psychology of adults. 2. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (17) modern international and national events. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1.3.

1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It also attempts to pr ovide equality.4. NLM was launched in the year 2.5. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. of educational opportunities. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . attendance restrict ion. 2. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 .5. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. lack of time etc.

the higher the degree of openness. Which was the first open university in India? . e. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. d. 3. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. but 125 . 2.5. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. No one is too old or too late to learn.4. b. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. its education is not class room based but home based. 2. Education is not a once for-all process. and in teaching. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. 4. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system.unobserved. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. IGNOU was established in the year 6. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. c. it makes use of educational techno logy. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Mo re o ver. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education.4. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 6.4. supplementing the existing provision. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n.5. or who realised too late that they need it. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 4. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. 3. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. 126 . T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities.who did not get it. 3. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n.5. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 5. 2. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. cho ice o f co ur ses.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. 2. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 4. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. it a ims at wider and hig her. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 2. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. 2.

5. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. a state or nation. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. 7. 8. 8. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. 6.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Correspondence tuition. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. 127 . Tutor Comments. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Therefore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. List out any four methods of Open University? . semi – literates. In the present day world. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? .2. 4. 2. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. Laboratory works. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. 5. school drop outs. a society. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . 2. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 1. 3. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Every day.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. you have learnt the concept. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates.5. Self instructional materials.

To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. 1985.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. Explain the objectives.5. a. 7. 9. Television Lessons. cho ic e o f co u r ses. youth. a. b. aspirants for continuing education. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. d. P r int med ia b. 1988. a. agricultural and industrial workers.5. 2. 8. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. 3. (1) ancient history. 7. (2) basic religious matters. b. 6. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals.ambitious learners. 128 . Broad casting lectures c. need and characteristics of Open University. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. unskilled workers and other professionals. its education is not class room based but home based. 4.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. which may include house wives. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 8. 2.

(2001).2. 129 . (2004). New Delhi: Rajat Publication. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Reddy. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K and Narang C. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.K. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. R. Modern Problems of Education. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. L. Udaiveer. (2007).. S.5. Ltd. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2004).S. K.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. All which is the need of the hour. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. 133 . Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. which may claim the attention of those concerned. wastage and stagnation.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Examination reform. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. Training teachers for all levels of education. examination. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. In Lesson 2. its causes and remedial measures. the education of women. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. and teacher education.

134 .

135 .1.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.2 EFA – How? 3.1.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.3.1 3.8 3.1.6 3.LESSON 3.1.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.5 3.3 New initiatives.2 3.1.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1.

Continuing Education (CE) 1. 3. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. directed that. understands the country. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. (EOI) 2. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. therefore. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. economic or cultural. 2. Eradication of Illiteracy. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. you will be able to: 1. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. Therefore. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. On the other hand. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). “The State shall 136 .3. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. may be political. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy.1. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. education received added importance and significance. social.1. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950.

The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Universalization of Retention. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Three Stages for Universalization. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . 3. It enables the parents to send their children to School. rights and responsibilities. Continuing Education (CE). the national Government under. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. 137 . for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society.endeavour to provide. Universalization of Enrolment. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Therefore.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. After the attainment of independence. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Due to the adoption of democratic system. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision.

then to 1976. It is safe to assure. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. 3. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. 138 . and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. present and future. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. Therefore. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. later to 1988. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. educational enterprise. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. 1990. This target had to be revised to 1970.3. UNESCO Bulletin states. Write Article 45. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. 1995 (for upper primary stage).1.

Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). sex. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. Emphasis must be given on health education. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. 12. adolescent and adult. 5. 11. By undertaking survey. Early childhood education should be streamlined. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Apart from primary education. we have to develop the programme of Adult education.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. In order to make the programme of education for all community. FELF. Disabled. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. their enrolment and retention. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. Education of the Impaired. etc. 6. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). creed. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. problem of literacy. 9. 3. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. 139 . Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. 8. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme.3. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. NAEP. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. Jams and Jellies. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. 3.1. The Social Education. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. and Women’s education programme should be improved. 10. Education of Girls. slum areas.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. nutrition education and sports and games. rural areas. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. their social economic status and occupations.

SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Expand MLL and SSA .1. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4.3. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 .3. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. 4. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.3 NEW INITIATIVES. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Wastage and Stagnation.e.

Social Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. Personal Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Familial Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .first stage of education. School Factors . it is considered as wastage.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.

can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. . . Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Define Wastage. 142 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Personal Factors . They are described hereunder :1.1. Family Factors .3.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. in his home.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. school or society. School Factors . Societal Factors . rural or urban 3. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. relating to home.The following factors.

List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. stationary.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. 144 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Stagnation? 9. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. mid-day meals. etc. uniforms.

2. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.1. 4. improvement of curriculum. Hartog Committee. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc.1. 3. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. “The State shall endeavour to provide. therefore. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. directed that.. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Universalization of Enrolment c.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 145 . Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. 3. Universalization of Provision b.1. 3. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.” 3. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. a. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Universalization of Retention 2. b. a. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment.3. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. 6.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. a. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. 4. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.

S. Hemchand. improve examination system. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. a.N. S. Sharma.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. introduce graded curriculum. Problems of Elementary Education.K. T. 9. (2007). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 3. Social Factors 8. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. b. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. (2008). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. New Delhi: 146 . Crescent Publishing Corporation.7.K. Personal Factor b. Familial Factors c. (2001). School Factors d.1. a.

3 Modern reforms of examination The problem of reform of Examination 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE Question banks 3.5.2.LESSON Problems of examination 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2.7 Open book examination 3.1 Choice Based Credit System Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts New evaluation procedures Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2.2 Grade System 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2.7 Let us sum up 147 .

4.2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. you will be able to: 1. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.3.2. but on the other.9 3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. 3. 3. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.2. suggest the new evaluation procedures. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.2. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. 3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.2. 3. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .2. Besides.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.8 3.3.

The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. hostel facilities. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each.2. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. They develop secondary sex characteristics. etc. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. etc.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. If the students are in sufficient number. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life.. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. 149 . 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. etc.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. waiting rooms for girl students. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. The following steps should be taken up. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. 3. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. They may cause problems relating to discipline. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. roadside Romeoism. which the educational authorities have to face. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. schools for them wherever necessary. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions.3.

The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. With the mass growth of educational enterprise.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. teachers. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It is considered as a major sub-system.2. the examination system has an important role to play. public administrators and statesmen. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.4. 150 . assessment and Finance.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Instruction. public interested in education. appointment of paper-setters. conduct of internal examinations.

reducing the domination of knowledge objective.4. etc. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. introducing objective-based testing. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. 3. etc. validity and practicability. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. etc. pursuing objective-oriented instruction.2. tabulators. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. scrutinizers. training of examiners. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. values. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. examiners.printing and distribution of question papers. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . invigilators. establishing reliability. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. etc. announcement of results. etc. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom.

it s a common experience that subjectivity. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. may also discredit them. Subjects. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording.. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. stereotyped questions. takes the place of comprehensive learning.4. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. 3) With respect to method of teaching.2. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. 7) In connection with the question papers. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. 2) From the angle of content of education. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. 152 . 3. do not appeal to the students and parents.. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. which they are expected to study.. halo-effect. Rote memorisation. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. Vagaries in making. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. lack of objectivity etc. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed.

and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. etc.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers.a part of internal assessment.develop true love for education.. re-numbering of answer scripts. . Spot valuation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. revaluation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 4. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. may be introduced. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Question Books may be developed in all schools. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. 153 . Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. List any two merits of examination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .

Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . In actual practice. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.3. attitudes. Every paper is treated equal. It is complicated.2. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper.2. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. When a person chooses to work extra.2. Their interests. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.5. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. he is given extra credit points. The students can take any course offered in any department. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . Advantages More autonomy is given to students. 3. skills are given importance. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. The new scheme of assessment. In this system. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success.5. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth.

discipline. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. While designing syllabus. or as a 4 credit course. courses can have weightages defined. 3. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . The human error of evaluation is ± 10. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.good. only the total credits to be earned is specified. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. This system reduces comparison of marks. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. These weightages are called credits. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. v.poor. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v.2. In the new system. poor. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. Groupism is encouraged. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents.5. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. An example is a seminar.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development.

with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.5.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. 156 . Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. 3. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. 3. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.2. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students.2.2. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. 3. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. However. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.5.5.

2.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . 3. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. In the hierarchy. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. . setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. However. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.5. recruitment.2. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. List any four new evaluation procedures. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. There are no proper procedures for selection.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . Therefore. 6.

whether proper teaching methods have been followed. books are followed. playgrounds. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. being realised as two different functions. 3. 1. When they are fully realised. complaints and compliments. qualifications. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. 158 . finding out the adequacy of. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. etc. staff. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision.. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner.. whether the syllabus has been covered. submitting of the inspection reports. library books. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect.2. wherever necessary. etc. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. disciplinary problems. They are. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. Academic inspection. laboratory equipment.qualified personnel. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work.6. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. in contrast. taking up the follow-up programmes. requirements. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. in a sense. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. school buildings. interpersonal relationships and so on.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. of late. finding out whether the prescribed text. inspecting the class-room teaching.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is.

courses. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision.Ed. their professional knowledge. at least. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. M. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection.Ed. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. aptitude. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. In the light of these conceptualisation. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Similarly. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors.. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. once in five years. 3.2. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. modern. In the case of departmental candidates. or. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. course in either educational. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. Insistence on specialisation in the B. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher.. 159 .

2. 160 . c. a. assessment and Finance. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. 3. 2.2. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. d. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Instruction. b. b. 3. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Grade System.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Administration. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 3. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. a. a.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 3. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. b. 3. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. 5.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.2.

b. Multiple sets of question paper. K. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. (2002).2. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. K. a. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Problems of Education in India. a. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Educational Reforms. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. (2005). b. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .a part of internal assessment. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. History and Problems of Education in India.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. S.4. Question banks. R and Sharma. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Vaidya. (2004). c. 7. 3. 5. a. New 161 . Open book examinations. b.

LESSON 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.1 3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3. 162 . impact of Higher Secondary Education.7 3. identify the needs of rural India and social. you will be able to: 1.3.10 3. 2.3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.9 3. 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. 4.3.2 3.3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5 3.3.4 3. 3. 5.

. University Education. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . 10 years of general Secondary Education. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education.3. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. Commission emphasised to continue. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education.e. The Calcutta Madras. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. in Andhra Pradesh. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage.g. The. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre.3. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. etc. 2..e. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. Similar is the case with some other States. the Banaras Sanskrit College. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country.. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. e.specialisation programmes 3.. 8 years of general education. and 3 years of First Degree Course.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. i. Consequent on the recommendations.

reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. to prepare. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. b. to imbibe. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. 7. is also a plus point . The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. cultural and economic development of the country. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. and. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. However. educational channels. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. historical. Provision for transfer of credits to students. who desire to change from one stream to another. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal.3. economical and political.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a.confidence in students. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . 3. 5. 5) to help for the social. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. 10. habits of hard work and develop . 8. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9.a sense of dignity of labour. 6.

The General Educational Spectrum.national integration. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . Psychologically. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. social justice. cultural and' religious tolerance. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. Sociologically it is undesirable. democratic living.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing.. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. and that required to enter the tertiary level. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. etc. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X.3. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. on one hand. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. at the other. cooperativeness.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. 3. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. to develop national character. Philosophically it is not the conception. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. and. international understanding. 1.

Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. and vocations based on dairy-farming. vegetable growing. such as Agriculture. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. Agriculture is the main occupation. In the matter of language. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. commerce. All these need for an. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society.— tube-wells. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. In our country. the rural areas have suffered very much. commerce. physics or mathematics. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. industrial agricultural production is growing. In the vocational spectrum. medical plants. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs.—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. technological. fish culture. 166 . adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. Science. educational and cultural services. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. professional. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. Biology. or other machinery. Commerce and other disciplines. India is a land of villages.3. rural health.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. 2. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. chemistry. 3. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. horticulture.

Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. 4. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. There had been favourable reaction from the students. etc. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely .. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. 3. In time. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. interests and aptitudes of the students. and the needs. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society.etc.. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. In this it may be concluded. the local resources available. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. social justice. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging.3. can be ensured. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. In this way. and 5.

habits of hard work and develop . Ltd. we studied the history. B. a. New Delhi : 168 . curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. a. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.K. a. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education.3. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. to imbibe. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. 2. b.C. 3. 3. N.3. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. (2001). (2007).a sense of dignity of labour. Vocational Sepctrum. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.3. Mohanty. b. (2005). Calcutta University Commission 2. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. J. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. J. 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. S. (2008).9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Dash. Modern Trends in Indian Education. General Educational Spectrum and b. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal.3. objectives.3. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.

4.6 3.8 3.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge. Education contributes to human development.5 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.10 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3 3.4.LESSON 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.12 3.1 3. but the lighting of a fire”.11 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3. social and 169 .

The relevance of women’s education to social. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. cultural and political development of the individual. There is a close connection between education and development. 3. higher education of girls developed immensely. although we have miles to go. While women constituted only 9. economic. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. For the first time in the history of India. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up.4. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. you will be able to: 1. Teaching and Fine Arts. Education . Nursing. In the post —independence period.higher education in particular. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. analyze the women and distance education. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. During the year 1937. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. particularly 170 . After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. 3. Home Economics. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. These courses were.4. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. Dr. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. family. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. community and nation is universally acknowledged.

out of 9200 and odd colleges. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.0 43.4. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.0 Today. in our country. Mother Teresa Women University.9 27. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. 3.1 31. In 1950-51.N.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.4. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Coimbatore.0 32. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. levels and professions. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. Even today. Kodaikanal. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. In the rest of the country. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.1 24.65 lakhs in 1994-95. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . 3. The idea of women’s education for equality. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.D.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.0 16. Mumbai. Yet.4.9 14.2 29. we have more than 1200 institutions.2 22.T Women University. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.women. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.

At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? . 3.1 respectively.73 10.53 34.66 66.4.47 65. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4%) prefer Arts subjects. 2.1 and 14.46 82.56 64. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .34 33.63 Female % 34. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .44 35. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.that of boys. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.4. 3.17 52.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .83 47.54 12.4.36 3.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.27 89.

75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. The major hurdles. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law.4. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. curriculum not suited to their requirements. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. she will only learn fashion. They gave up their studies to enter home life. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. 173 . marriage is a very common I factor. etc. and coeducation may spoil her character. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. In college. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. In every third family. Book banks should be established. irrelevance of the content of education. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. particularly. Thus. According to a survey. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. what is the need for higher education for her. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. Also. financial difficulty of the parents.hinders the girls from getting higher education. distance of the college or university from home. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. 3. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. promoted and increased.

There are constraints of time.4. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. space. Distance education is a boon to women. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. resources and socio . Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. is the only tool for realising empowerment.economic disabilities faced by women. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests.4. Empowerment in a nutshell. Full-time employment. and the limitations of the conventional education system. Education. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Geographic distance of educational institutions. It is a productive investment. It also brings about 174 .7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. It enables to study. 3. 3. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously.

for full development of our human resources. Women are partners in development. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. The major objectives of women's higher education. empowerment means being assertive. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. legal awareness and economic independence. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. on their own.4. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. education of women must be given priority in national plans. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. This can be achieved through reflection.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. education of women is of paramount importance. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. 3. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. higher learning. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. Empowerment is an active.

especially so in the developing countries. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. The local administration. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. which had been the sole domain of men. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. which is pending for a long time. 176 . The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. who are eager to take up courses. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. Better opportunities. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Reservation for women. The educational institutions. has to be implemented at the earliest. Scholarships and concessions for women. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. will encourage them to venture new grounds. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. 3.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . But their number is small.4. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out.

participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. IDP Education. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities.1%) and architecture and building (38. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. Chief Executive. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.8%).3 percent.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. Also. Australia. capacities etc. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests.. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. engineering and related technologies (16. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.9%). talents. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. 3. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. According to Lindy Hyam. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. especially in developing countries like African countries. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. But.000 women in the country.4.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem.

43% 6. S. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication.4.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Kodaikanal. (2000). Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Centre for Women’s Studies. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. 178 . Mumbai. Women and Education. (2008). 3. 4. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. R. R. (2005). a. Mishra. and Suryalatha.R. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Sri Padmavathy Mahila the family. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. and Swain. individuals and society b.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. 4. Pattanaikj. Rajasthan 5. Annakodi. 3. SNDT Women’s University. create the right attitude towards life. 2. Women Education.4. Mumbai.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Mother Teresa Women University. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. community and the nation. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. A. A. Rao.K. Coimbatore. R. Women Education. Coimbatore.C. S.4. SNDT Women’s University. (2007). 3.

5.10 3.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5.5.3 3.5. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5.4 3.7 3.LESSON 3. They should be trained. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.11 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5.2 3.8 3.9 3. whole.5.5 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1 3. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5.personality of children in and out of school.5.5.

list out the agencies of teachers education 3. Lack of physical facilities. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. 5. understanding and strong desire for international peace. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. you will be able to: 1. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. 3. Shorter working hours. 180 . It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. social and emotional integration.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. and national character. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. equality and justice. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. international. 4. Dearth of new technology of teaching. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. know the pre service and in service training facilities.5. 3. understand the training teachers for Primary. national consciousness.5.

the secondary teacher education.Ed.. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. Depending on the levels. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. 3. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise.. inservice and extension education programmes. Inadequate training in practical skills. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. At the diploma level. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. the state Government. students. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Lop-sided curriculum.5.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. a Diploma course and a Degree course. higher secondary teacher education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. levels. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities.Less qualified teacher educators. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching.Ed. and M. the centre. who have not been trained earlier. the primary teacher education. (NCERT) New Delhi. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. it is called the In-service teacher education. etc. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course.5. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. If the student teachers are working teachers. and the collegiate teacher education. it is called the Extension teacher Education. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. 3. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service.

• good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . depart ments etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. state Institutes of Educat ion. extensio n service. 3. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Educational teehnology cells. Expand NCERT 2. collegiate cells. are established. Evaluation unit. etc.. Science Education units. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . Also Guidance Bureaux.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 .5. non-formal. Education cells.

Ed. and so on. schools and sister institutions.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . laboratories. to improve curricular programmes. which help breaking isolation from one another . primary and secondary school teachers. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. to prescribe conditions for recognition. and 183 . All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. audio visual aids.Ed. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. material conditions relating to libraries.. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. to offer consultative services. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . which should include experience in the primary schools too. degree. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. despite its vast expansion. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . should be improved on a top priority basis. to ensure teacher competence. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission..

etc. prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. though no pre-service training. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. methodology and evaluation. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. Modern Techniques of Teaching. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. etc. and XII. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. Psychology of Students. not came up once again. Modern Methods of Evaluation. Induction Courses.secondary education. 184 . Hence. The problem. whether they should have professional education or. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. To meet this exigency. Organisation of Content Courses. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. Meanwhile. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Workshops.

Ed. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.D.Ed. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.. Degree and M. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education...Ed. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. State Institutes of Education. These facilities are available for regular students.. Courses leading to B. Degree. Post-Graduates also undergo B.. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . training.Ed. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.A. Pre-service training is for those.A. All B Ed.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. M..CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Ajmer. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.5. For re-orienting the teachers. (Education) and M.Ed. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.’s for Ph. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.Ed. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. (Education) are organized by 185 . courses and M.’s are elig ible for M. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.S. in Education.

of conduct—written or unwritten. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .5. 5. (Ed).8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. established by tradition and teachers of the past. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (Ed. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned.. 4. . and B. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. However. Hence the employability of M. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. What is the role of ERIC? .. 186 .).A. they should be conscientious .List any two code of conduct for teachers? .A.

3. b. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. 4. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. 3. b. 4. 187 . Shorter working hours. 2. Ajmer. Bhopal.5. they should be conscientious.3. 2. 6.5. 3.5. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Dearth of new technology of teaching.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5. National Council of Educational Research and Training. Explain code of conduct for teachers. 3. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. The necessity is however this. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. a. a. However.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. a.

Ltd Aggarwal. Teacher Education. Teacher Education.N. (2009).5.D. B. Corporation. Tewari. (2003). New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. and Teacher Education. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .3. P. Mohanty. J. (2010). A. Publication Pvt.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

In lesson 1. 191 . our attention shifts to physical education – its need. objectives and role of the physical education. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. preservation of nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. economic and educational developments. the focus is on the school health programmes. communicable diseases and their prevention. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. common ailments of children. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. The person’s environment is equally important. If the diet is poor. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. Since food is the source of nutrients.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. nutritional deficiency diseases. objectives. In lesson 4. objectives.

192 .

1.8 4.7 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1.1. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. for giving health education to the children under its custody.11 4.1 4.5 4.4 4.1. It is a miniature society. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.10 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.6 4.1.1. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.9 4. emotional and social. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.e.1. mental.1.1.LESSON 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.2 4. physical.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. 193 .1.1.3 4.

you will be able to: 1. e.1. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. training of teachers and evaluation. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 7. To give information regarding health rules. 4. 4. cleanliness and healthful living. To develop healthy health habits among children. know the need for sex education. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools.1. 6. 4. 2. training in first aid and etc. Instruction. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. To develop certain skills concerning health.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. list the common ailments of children 3. understand school health programmes 2. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 9. to his family and to the community at large. 194 . 8. 5. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. 3. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. 10. 11. content of health education. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. explain the importance of First aid 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.g. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health..

Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. (v) safety education. vaccination. as described below 1.coming or absence.G. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. cleanliness weeks. There should be good drainage facilities. (xii) smoking education etc. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. suitable furniture. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings.C.. typhoid. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. Vaccination for small pox.. (viii) first aid. The surroundings of schools should be clean. There should be regular water supply.4.1. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. arranging class rooms in the ground floors.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. minimizing the travelling distance. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. direct lighting. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. Arranging better transportation facilities. is imperative. (ii) communit y healt h. inoculation against cholera. excusing late. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. The school buildings should be spacious. organisation of school health days. etc. 5. 3. proper doors and windows. ( iii) sanit at io n. 2. Triple Antigen Vaccination. B. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. The flooring should not be damp. (vi) nutrition education. B. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. “Play-for-all” programmes. First aid facilities should be made readily available. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. 2. play festivals. (xl) mental health. 4.

cuts. bleeding. dislocations. sports and games in the interest of their health. burns. poisons. C. • Keep all rooms clean. fainting (epileptic fit). drowning. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. scalds.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. isolate and notify. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Take nutritious food. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. • When sleeping in groups. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons.. insect stings. wounds. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. etc. and other accidents. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. • Find out the cases. D. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. fractures. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. 196 . Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. if epidemic is wide-spread. • Close the schools. • Have adequate rest and sleep.

water or bodily contact. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. 4. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . chicken pox. Once these germs get into the body.1. They are: i) The incubation stage. headache. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. So they easily get illnesses. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. 2. Mention the school health programmes.1. cough. backache. asthma. 4. fever. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. There are three stages in any communicable disease. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. pain in the joints. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. polio. measles etc. These diseases are called communicable diseases.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out the Health curriculum 3. They have less resistence to diseases than adults.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. which are – cold. tuberculosis. Give your answer as instructed in each question b..

This disease is caused by bacteria. Hence liquid diet is recommended.It is caused by measles virus. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. etc. Common Cold . Some suffer cold due to allergy. head-ache and cough. eating food which is not clean. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. After three or four days of fever. Ear Infections . there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Children catch cold from persons having cold.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Important salts and water are lost in this process. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Tonsilitis . rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. cough and fever. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. This is caused by cold virus. unhygienic bottle feeding. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. 198 . unhygienic living conditions. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Scabies . sugar and water.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Throat is affected. The following are the common communicable diseases. Mumps . Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Others make the children very weak. The symptoms include cold. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Diarrhoea . He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Hence it is called a killer disease. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. The child may have fever. Measles . In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air.When a child suffers from scabies. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt.

face and waist. Enlist the common ailments of children. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. raised pink spots appear on head. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. separate. The child may also have diarrhoea. Expand DPT . The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. By scratching he causes secondary infections. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings.• • • • Chicken Pox . 5. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. If proper treatment is not given.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. the child is not able to breathe.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. 199 . Diphtheria . The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. As the disease progresses. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Shortly. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. Typhoid . The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. What are communicable diseases? 6. the child may die.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It begins with fever.

fainting. simple fractures. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. dislocation. bleeding. 5.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. Drowning . 4. 4. head injury. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. wounds. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.g.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. In such cases. it is a subject of art. 200 .Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures.4. It has its rightful place in education too. drowning. cuts. bruises. so-called sex books and periodicals.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. and films. Sprains . scorpion stings. It is both biological and psychological. exciting and body-oriented.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. films and jokes. and Community Work and Social Service. fiction. eye injury. 2. man-woman behaviours. swelling. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. Sex is popular. 3. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. Cuts and Bruises .1. sprains. Sex is but an integral part of human personality.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. snakebites.1.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Wounds . which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. sprains. etc.

Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. health.old values. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life.. In secondary schools. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. sex education is being recommended in schools. B. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. Hence. the school. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. 2. The values of life. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. try experimenting with their bodies. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. celibacy are age. but preserve them from disaster and disease. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. 3. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. they would be treading the path of sure to give sex education to the young. Should the boys and girls. The home. In today's liberal and interactive society. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. in their ignorance. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. the religious organisations.

offering sex education as a part of their curricula. What are the major components of Sex Education. first aid and sex education. when the courses are already overloaded. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. the school health programmes. hence. C. common ailments of children.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. communicable diseases and their prevention. 202 . Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions.1. there will no crisis in its implementation. 4. Teacher education institutions are. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.



SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.


STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.


4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:


Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.


Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy


Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. 209 . Mention the food nutrients 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a.4. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients.2. If you look at the definition carefully. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day.2. 210 . This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. minerals. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. Let us talk about each of these aspects. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s .

dosa are typical of the south. it is also specific to a given activity level . typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e.g. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . Those in the west also tend to eat rice. moderate or heavy work. People in the east of our country prefer rice. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. In other words. Preferences/customs are also important. the social and religious practices of that region.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. Even within given States there is considerable variation. sex.g. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. activity level and physiological stress. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. paratha and poori. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and in the morning and the other at night. 4. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. These are: region where the person resides and income.2. In the case of adults. There is no point.sedentary.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . for example. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). A balanced diet is specific firstly. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. construction labourer).6. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals.

however. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. income plays a vital role. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. however. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. One person may be fond of milk products. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. These determine the acceptability of foods. As you read this discussion. customs. Including these 212 . One must. for example. while another may hate them. Judicious selection of food is. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. Even among flesh foods. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. taboos related to food may play an important role. however. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. As income increases. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. nuts and dry fruits. Having more money. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. However. fat and sugar tend to increase. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. Among the social factors. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. as important for the rich as for the poor. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income.planning the diet. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. In addition to these. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. If you think of your own religious group. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. vegetables and fruits.

Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. 17. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . fruits. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. but they should be thrown away. For this. meat. 8) Walk a while after eating.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. if the teachers have good food habits. mouth. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections.eating is hazardous. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. 8. green leaves. eggs . over-eating or under. etc. 213 . List out any two healthy food habits. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. Define balanced diet.

9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Explain food nutrients 4. Keratomalacia 3.2.2. preservation of nutrients. Night blindness. 4. When the diet is inadequate. 4. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2.2. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. b. Bitot’s spots. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. a. d. Discuss good food habits. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Beri Beri 4. e. good nutrition is essential for good health. Conjuctival xerosis. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. c. In fact.4. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Corneal xerosis. Vitamin D 5. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life.

(2004).M. R. S. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. a. mouth. Food and Nutrition Education. A Text Book of Foods. b. Food and Nutrition Education. minerals. 8. (2009). Sri Lakshmi B. (2008). P. (2008). R. Health and Nutrition Education.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. Chopra. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.N. a . Nutrition Science.2.C. Food should be consumed after eating well. b.6. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. 7. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. Hands. (2005). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . 4. Nutrition and Dietetics.

216 .3.11 4.LESSON 4.3.3 4.5 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings. 4.4 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.2 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.6.7 4.3 Impact on Education 4.3.1 4.3.1 Impact on social development 4.6.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.6.

217 .3.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. 4. Whenever we talk of sex education.3.4. characteristics and changes for himself. population characteristics. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. describe the impact of population growth on social. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. the causes of population change. community.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. therefore. 4. There is some difference. his family.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. objectives and need for population education 2. aims at providing the younger generation. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. the stress is. understand the importance of small family norm 5. family planning and sex education etc. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. It is not sex education. It is a much wider co ncept.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. state the meaning. his societ y and the world. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. economic and educational development 3. and the consequences of these processes. Population Education. you will be able to: 1. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.3. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education.

6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. the nation and the world. 4.3. List out any two objectives of Population Education.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . Define Population Education 2. the family. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the society. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.4. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.

Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress.3. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. which will not be possible without population control. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. Family is considered as a social unit.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. 4. 219 . The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. When the family is small. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. health and happiness of its citizens.3.6. Every second two thousand children are being born. economic and educational development of the country. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. the family programmes are also handicapped. With the larger families. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. 4. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries.

will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. teacher index.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. Many students herded in a small room. In developing countries. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. The gulf between them is widening further. 220 . They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. in buses and trains.6. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. facility for drinking water. and so on. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. lack of proper health care.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious.e. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index.3. pollution of the environment.. are the results of demographic pressures on social life.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. in parks and other places of public gatherings. 4. organization index and material index. in cinema halls and theatres.6. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. unemployment.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. 4. i. toilets.3. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. Swollen cities. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. heavy intern I migration etc.

A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. and laboratory equipments. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. less space facilities. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. thus.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. essays. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. There would be very few audiovisual aids. bar graphs etc. Social Studies Statistics on population education. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects.. blank verses etc. less budget for education. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. reproduction. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. family planning etc. can be studied in science and health education. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Regional Language. Hindi and English. 221 . even text books would be in short supply.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. can be taken up. There would be poor library facilities.

8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 10. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. causes of deaths etc. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Canada. 9. 15. Bihar. 13. 8. 12. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Children may compare two families. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. 5. deaths. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. United States of America. They may arrange them as per average density of population. West Bengal. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 2. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled.3.4. 11. 4. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 14. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. 7. area and average density of population. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 3. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Brazil. Children with the help of parents. Uttar Pradesh. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. China. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan.

Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. we have no right to stop 223 .be opened in their schools. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. The question. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. 17. values and role children etc. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. 16. Comparing life in various respects in two families.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. age at marriage. 18. preferences for sex. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village.3. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education.

which education can only do. continued . should be overcome at the intellectual levels. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.were implemented 224 . The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to emphasize family planning services. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. fertility levels have declined throughout the country.4-6.3. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. 4. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. Since the program's inception. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. and the child survival components of the news: program. The Family Welfare Program. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). More than 45 years ago.their entry into the world”.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. “He who is responsible for population growth.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.. however. at varying places in different regions. especially the expansion of child immunization services . on an overall basis.

However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. reliance on local women as community health workers. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. and the World Conference on Women. and nominal fees for services. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . men. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program.earlier than the safe motherhood components. expansion of services to unmarried women. In October 1997. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. At these meetings. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. a focus on health promotion. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. Moreover. Local programs vary in their approaches. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. Therefore. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. In April 1996. the community appears willing to pay for services. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs.

What are the goals of RCH? 4. Its main purposes are to create awareness. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. nation and the world. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. Describe the impact of population growth on social.3.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. 226 .3. 3.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. economic and educational development 4. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. 4. 1997). family.emphasizing the needs of the client. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. community. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. involving the community.

b. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. less budget for education. 7. the causes of population change. China.4. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. less space facilities. population characteristics. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. a.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 5. 3. 4. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. characteristics and changes for himself. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. and the consequences of these processes. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified.” 2. 227 . a. United States of America. Brazil. bar graphs. 6. a. his society and the world. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. his family. Canada. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. area and average density of population. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union.3. b.

Modern Problems of Education. Udaiveer. Bhende. Coimbatore. Centre for Women’s Studies. N.3. Ltd. Jayapoorni.K. (2004). New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Ltd. 228 . New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. T. A. Reddy. J. V. Kantikar. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2005). Changing attitudes to Education in India. Principles of Population Studies. (2002). (1992).14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. (2005). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.4.

8.4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4.11 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .3 4.1 4.5 4.2 4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games Major games 4.4 Lead up games 4.1 Minor games 4.LESSON 4.4 4.4.10 4.9 4.7 Indigenous games 4.4.

you will be able to: 1. The concept of physical education has been made broader. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. team spirit. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4. social fitness. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. classify the different types of games.4. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. 4.4. perseverance. mental alertness. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. leadership and balance in defect. moral fitness and emotional fitness. full records of physical activities should be maintained. as it should 230 . A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value.4. which forms its most valuable assets. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. the youth of the country. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body.

Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. team spirit. The educational efforts at home. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. To be more precise. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. They are inseparably united together. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. They go hand in hand. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Every individual is a part of society. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. obedience to rules. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. leadership. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Therefore.

though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. nor body but the whole man. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. H. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field.” The Secondary Education Commission.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind.” Montaigue writes. mo ral.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. 4. a sound health. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. Just like Education. ment al.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. pleasing manners.4. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. C. Regarding the significance of physical education. game and sports. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. Buck has observed that 232 .” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. Physical exercises. Rousseau states. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.

” In brief. coordinative abilities. Froebel says. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. happiness. elegance. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.” 4.a properly directed physical education should result in health. etc. efficiency and character. endurance. we must exercise the whole human being.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. “If we wish to develop the whole being. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength.4. 233 . flexibility and power. resourcefulness and smartness. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. speed. strength.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. initiative.

Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. including all racial groups and historical ages. its adherents and its enemies. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Every age has its artists. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. they may form gangs.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. While wars. poetry and painting. these fundamental things have always been present. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Tournaments foster this sentiment. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. in greater or lesser degree. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. 234 (i) (ii) . have come and gone in the long record of mankind. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. systems of government. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. plagues and famines.

List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. Write any two importance of Physical Education. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . B. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 235 . self. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. respect for rules.\ to develop perseverance. obedience. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. 3. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly.sacrifice. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. to develop tolerance. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. bravery and interest in games and sports.

H. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 12. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 15. . Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Always keep the whistle ready. Posture screening should be done.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 2.4. 4. Act as a leader. Be punctual. Keep the field ready for the activities. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. students. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. and. 3. 236 1. 5. 8. 6. and readmission after they have recovered. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. injuries among pupils should be made. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 11. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. At least now its importance should be duly recognized.4. 14. Be well-prepared. 9. 16. 10.4. defects. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Inform health principles. 7. Be self-confident.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. is essential. 4. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Be in the uniform. Be sportive. Haag. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. 13. Usually parents. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.

Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. their development is handicapped. the play. 4. 2. chasing.8. Such inst incts as imitation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Lead up games. 4.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 3. 237 . They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun.4. 4. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. 1. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. less equipment and less expense. Indigenous games. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Moreover. frolic and jo y. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.

Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. On lawns. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Tennis. muffling. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. They are rules approved by the International Associations. women take part most of the games. benefit in playing minor games. Volley Ball. boosting. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. heading.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. wherever the kids assemble. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Shuttle Badminton. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. stopping. catching. skipping. For each game the rules are many. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Hockey. some of them are played indoors.With a very few rules. spiking. These games require varied skills such as running. snatching the kerchief. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. bowling etc. driving. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Soft Ball. dribbling. on sea-shore.. Except a few games. Jump the stick clay and so on. on mountain tops and on river beds. Throwing. on hard courts. The dimension of the posts and nets. Khokho. the play equipment. Dodging. Tennikoit. Cricket. Basket Ball. trapping.8. hitting. couple tag.4. the games can be modified according to convenience. Kabaddy etc. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. under ball pass Relay. the number of players and substitutes. zig zag relay. with implements or without implements. Hopping. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. finding the partner. Ball Badminton. They are played for a shorter duration. While many of them are played in the open playfields. pitching. 4. Jumping. 238 . the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. over ball pass Relay. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally.

3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu.4. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. Kho-kho. death. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.8. 4. For example. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. they are in existence. While observing the players in action. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. List out some major games.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. An example for indigenous game is 8. birth. these games being popular. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. They have an abundant social value. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . festivals connected with religion and public functions.4. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. Games may be classified as 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.8. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil.4. All the fundamental tactics. and . On occasions like marriage. 7. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial.

2. 4. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. a. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. 4. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. b. 5. a. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.4. b. b. to secure physical health b. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. d. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. a. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose.4. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. to develop physical stamina. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. Minor and Major 240 . 4. Posture screening should be done.4. 4. a. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. 2. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. c. aims and objectives and need of physical education.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. Briefly discuss the different types of games. 3.4.

Physical Education and Sports. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. Mohanty. Ltd. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Foot-ball. J. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Hockey.K. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Khokho 8. (2009). Khokho. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Basket Ball. (2008).C. (2005). Aggarwal. Kabaddy 7. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Krishna murthy. Tennikoit. J. Volley Ball. Health. 241 . Soft Ball.6. Shuttle Badminton. 4. Handbook of Physical Education. (2008). Cricket.4. G. Ball Badminton.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Tennis.

5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.7 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.5.6 4.5.3 Manmade Environment 4.1 4.5.2 4.5.1 Natural Environment 4.9 4.4 4.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.8 4.11 4.5.5.LESSON 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.10 4.5.5.

2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. aesthetic and educational factors. population explosion and resource depletion could be. Evaluation Ability.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. Attitude.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Knowledge. 243 . Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. 4. role of teacher in environmental conservation. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. social. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Participation.5. you will able to: 1. economic. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. political.5. list out the types of environment 3. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Awareness. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. 5. Broadly. Skills. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2.educat ion for the environment. it covers the following elements: 1. education about the environment and education through the environment. Details are given below: I. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. 3. 2. 3. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. 6. Essential knowledge about the Environment. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. 4.5. 4. 2. The best place to start such learning is school.

mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. F. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. a.B. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. heat sink and wind flow in cities. 244 . • Biological magnification E. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. D. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. 2. Oxidants Other pollutants.

New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. 4. Use of medical science i. Birth control through education b. Abortion iv. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. economic. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. 2. B.3. 2. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. c. III. Intrauterine device iii. Family planning ii. The human ecosystem II. Socio-economic measures. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Persuasion: i. 3. Sterilisation. Control of population growth a. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . The pill ii.

e) Recycling. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Define Environmental Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 246 . 3. Air pollution abatement ii. (UNESCO. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. 2. Water pollution abatement. 1983). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. 3.

A change in one brings about a change in the other. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. b.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. to his needs.4. fax agricultural apparatus. includes the plants. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . Biological environment The biological environment. 4. He modifies according”.5. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .5.5. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. They interact with each. Any constituent or condition of the environment. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. These are biotic components. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. telex. way is called environmental or ecological factor. -other. animals and other organisms (biotic). a. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism.other components of the environment.5.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4.5.5.

acid rain. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. relation between population and pollution. noise control. History The rise and fall. noise pollution. trees reducing noise pollution. etc. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. biogas plants. need for bio-diversity. mineral survey. greenhouse effect. of civilizations. role of trees in building economy. desertification 248 . preserving the watersheds. social studies. etc. alternate sources of energy. (ii) Air pollution. balance of nature. river systems. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. need for conservation. supplying timber for various uses. over exploitation of ground water. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. wars and hazards of war. maintaining the ecological diversity.. windmills. importance of nitrogen cycle. water scarcity. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. industrial survey. explosion deforestation. air pollutants from industries. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. nuclear energy. effects o f CFC. natural way of controlling pests. reasons. food chain and food-web. are the topics which may be taught in History. industrial pollut io n. use of pesticides. sources. use of medicinal plants. solar cookers. nuclear warfare. population. change in climate may be added. sources of pollut ion. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . t heir role in preventing pollution. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. effects. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. evolution. preventing siltation of dams.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. excellent recreation sites. ozone layer deplet ion. ozone depletion. extinction of species.

Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Developing awareness about environmental issues.5. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. group discussions and seminars. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 14. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 7. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. 4. animal and plants. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 4. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 2. Organising conferences. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 8. aims and scope. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 13. 249 . 5. Providing.may be inc ded in Geography. 9. 6. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 10. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. 11. 3. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 12. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Peepal and Tulsi.

toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Never put any left over chemicals. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. World Environmental falls on 250 . or form a car pool for everyday travel. used oils down the drain. 5. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Don’t burn any waste.Send their waste oil. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. If it is done. Reuse carrier bags. Use public transport wherever it is possible. all these can cause serious pollution. especially plastics. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6. it will cause pollution. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. as the smoke may contain polluting gases.

To arrange for visiting speakers. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Harmony with the nature . The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. Conservation of natural resources. depletion of ozone. concern for others). dest roying nat ural habitats. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere.). The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection.5. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. viz. etc. CFCs. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. (cleanliness. Att itudes of balance towards nature. To provide materials needed for practical work. The groups may exchange. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. developing desirable attitudes. Concern for species.. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. and 251 . orderliness and beauty). loss of bio-diversity. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. rather than conquest and mastery. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions.mat erials. etc. deforestation. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. potable water.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information.4. To arrange visits or expeditions. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. nuclear wars. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. values and habits. Social responsibilit y (common good. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . diversity and stability.

Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.5. 4.5. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. 4. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 252 .5. preserving natural cycles. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. 8. 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

reasons. New Delhi : Sharma. Kuldeep. June 5 7. explosion deforestation. Nanda. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Social responsibilit y (common good. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. group discussions and seminars. a. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection.K.\ 4. air pollutants from industries. 3.K. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . Providing. over exploitation of ground water. a. T. b. Awareness. Environmental Education. Knowledge. a. new problems from science and technology. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion.. New Delhi : Authors Press. (ii) Air pollution. a. importance of nitrogen cycle. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Anmol Publications Pvt. Publications Pvt. 5. acid rain. water scarcity.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Udaiveer. b. effects. (2007).5. 6. greenhouse effect. To provide reference materials for children’s use. (2004).K. sources. (1997). Ltd. Modern Problems of Education. To provide materials needed for practical work. Education for values. Organising conferences. b.K. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise.2. relat ion between population and pollution. S. Environmental Education. ozone layer deplet ion. Ltd. concern for others). Y. 8. (2007). Environment and Human Rights. 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Rapid population growth. b. population. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. sources of pollution. S.

254 .




Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.



STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism Idealism and aims of Education Idealism and Curriculum Idealism and methods of teaching Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism Naturalism and aims of Education Naturalism and Curriculum Naturalism and methods of teaching Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

259 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to

idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. inviolable and hence holy life” In short.1.” 5. promote and transmit it to rising generation." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. enrichment and transmission of culture. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum.3. moral. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. The universe is regarded as a thought process. According to Rusk'. in fact. Therefore. It is self-realisation.our life. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. should be universal in nature.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. the emancipation of spirit. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. Spiritual Development. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. Education must contribute to development of culture. Education according to idealism. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. man is essentially a moral being. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. Universal Education.

the school is a garden. 2. According to idealism.” He is thus. Learning through reading. 5.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Philosophy.1. and collation (striving) should find due place. It considers teacher as. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students.” 5. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. so subjects like Religion. So he should embody. Learning through questioning. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. hygiene. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. He sets the environment in which education takes place. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Learning through discussion. For intellectual development. Learning through lecturing. 4. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. According to Frobel. an indispensable necessity. 5. 3. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum.1. affecting (feeling). subjects like Languages. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Learning through imitation. Herbert advocated instruction method.the spiritual qualities of mankind. History. The plant can grow. no doubt. a spiritual guide for the child.3. friend and guide. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. Science.3. Ethics. should be there. So cognition (knowing). So health. For this no particular method has been suggested. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. However. He carries the child from darkness to light. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . Mathematics etc.

In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. text books.1. In the words of Ross. formal lessons or examinations.1. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. Ross explains. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.4. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. time tables. 5. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. curricula. Perfection of Human Machine.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.preservation.perfection and beauty. "Education should make 263 • . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.

aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. It stresses basic sciences. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. education should develop the child into Joyous. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. subjects like history. It is based on the psychology of the child.4. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Education should. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. There is no place for religious and moral education. Education also aims at helping the individual t. 4. rational harmoniously balanced. Biology.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Therefore. • 5. 264 . Chemistry.1. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. geography should also be included in the curriculum. therefore. is based on the nature of the child. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. useful and mature child. Botany etc Language. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Literature. Naturalistic curriculum. Arithmetic. In all. Zoology. “Education finds its purpose.

5. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Rousseau says. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. 2. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers.4. Heuristic method. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It discards all rigid. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Dalton Plan. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. 3. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1.1. 5. a supplier of materials and opportunities. Learning through experience.1. a provider of an ideal environment. Here the emphasis is on the individual method.1. Learning by doing. the stage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. he should be taught by experience alone. In the .5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Learning through observation.4. 4. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.

It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. intellectual. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. of human personality is in terms of his physical. 5. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously.5. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. 5. Personal Social Adjustment. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. is true. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. diversified and flexible. social and moral aspects. Subjects.1.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Agriculture. The aim of educational development. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Social Science.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed.1. Sciences. The individual has not only to adjust himself.absolutism of idealism. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. All Round Development of an Individual. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Geography. Physical training. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Vocational and 266 . Continuous Growth.5. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. History. Social Efficiency.

5. 5. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles.1.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. a senior partner and a sincere guide. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.5. The subjects. He has to be active. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment.1. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. a teacher occupies an important position. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom.Technical Education. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . should find proper place. He must be trained. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. alert and resourceful.” 5. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Learning by Doing.

but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. specific.1. Crafts. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Education is preparation for a complete living. Biology. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. 5.5. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Population Education. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. 3. Music and Dance. practical. 4. Chemistry. 5. Biography Philosophy. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. 2. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Psychology.1. Study of Subjects like Language. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Art.1. It favours child-centered.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. liberal. literary or humanistic education. 2. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. 3. Literature. Mathematics. intellectual. Sex Education.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education.6. Astrology. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. rich and happy. The basic tenets of realism are 1. History. 5.6. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. scientific and psychological education. 4. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects.

List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . easily and pleasantly.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. certainly and clearly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

& curriculum.7 LET US SUM UP We have.5. b. c.1. Self Realisation b. 5. d. Physical training. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Social Science. Languages. Learning through discussion. Learning through questioning. a. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life.1. Learning through lecturing. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. 5. e. Geography. Learning through imitation. Agriculture.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Learning through reading.1. Rousseau 5. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Sciences. Tours / Excursion e. Experimentation d. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. 6. 3. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. pragmatism and realism. 5. naturalism. a. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Learning through experience b. has no end other than growth. History. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Universal Education 2. in this lesson. Vocational and Technical Education. Education according to pragmatism. Child centered c. a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1.

O. R. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. Theory and Principles of Education. Foundations of Education. Ltd. (2004). N. Narang C. K. (2007). (2003).P. 271 . P.P. (2007). P. New Delhi : A. L. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.5. New Delhi : Bhatia.1. Pahuja. of Pathak. Publishing corporation. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Anmol Publications Pvt.H.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman.

3.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda Gandhiji as Naturalist.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum Methods of teaching 5.4 Views about teacher 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.1 Aims of Education EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI. Views about teacher 5.2.2 Curriculum 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .2 5.2.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.1 Curriculum 5.2.4.LESSON Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.2.

273 . According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. economic and political reconstruction in our country.5.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.2.2.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. an artist.7 5. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. 2. Tagore was a poet. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.5.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. content and methods. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.6 5. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. 3.2.4 Role of the teacher 5. 5.2.2. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. 5.2.2. mind and spirit. you will able to: 1. Gandhiji was primarily a social. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.8 5. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2.

'Man is neither mere intellect. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. strength of mind.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. nor the gross animals body. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. it is education of life. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. In the words of Gandhiji. "I attach more. righteousness.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education.2. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. It really provides opportunity for character building. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage.supporting. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. self-restraint and service of humanity. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. through life and for life.3. 274 . It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. 5. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. His scheme of education is life centred. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. mind and soul of children He further observed. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote." Dignity of Labour.

Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. According to Gandhi. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. development of the whole all were directed: towards. metal work.Training for Leadership. Mother-tongue. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. the realization of the ultimate reality. General Sciences. leather work have been suggested. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 .2. wood work. Individual and Social Aims. Drawing and Hindustani.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. Only good individual forms a better society. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Music. Art. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. 5. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders.3. "Development of the moral character. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. gardening.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.trained. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.3. Basic education is other wise known as 4. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. proficient.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. men of 276 . all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.

3. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education.3.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. He also advocates freedom for the child. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. Education must be child centered. 5. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . That is why.knowledge.

• Education should involve manual work. 5.4.2. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. 5.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. • Ideal of citizenship. Gandhi in 1937. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. He was deadly against untouchability. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. • Cult of non-violence. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. He was a true patriot.K. He believed in the oneness of humanity. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.” Like all other ideals.2. he was a true Vedantist 5.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .

Mother tongue and other Indian languages. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. Civics. wider in range." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. them solve problems of day to day life. Geography. Religion and Psychology. Music. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Dance. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. "Mankind must realise a unity. It should help. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. (vi) Philosophy. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Therefore. the more dedicated and devoted. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. It should help the learner have good physique. stronger in power than ever before. Tagore said. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. International Understanding. sentiment. could help in forging unity among all.Language and Literature . International understanding. 279 . Botany. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. deeper in. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. That way only. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. he said. Zoology.4.2. complete manhood could be attained. etc. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Chemistry.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study .Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner.

Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.” He further says. 280 . “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. Activity Method Heuristic Method.4." 5. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.2. 5.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. In 1921. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.4. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.2. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.2.4. 5. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. Tagore rightly says.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service.

9. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. 10. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. It is open to all irrespective of country.g. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. 281 . Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. race. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e.

It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Education for Self-reliance. 2. work and deeds come out of it.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Purity of thought.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. Book learning. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. 3. He believed in to learning or selflearning. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues.” 5.5. man making. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Concept of Education.2. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.2. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Education for strong Moral Character. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Education for Self-realization.5. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. character forming and assimilation of ideas." He was against the theoretical type of education. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. Education should make a person self-reliant. Freedom. 4. According to him.

Of course. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Secondly he wanted Science. philosopher and guide to the students He. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.2.2.the learners on different students in the discussion. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Discussion Method.5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Philosophy and Theology. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study.2. The teacher should be the facilitator. engineering and technical subjects.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. A physically strong person is the need of the society. Education for Physical Development. 283 .4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend.5. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. And above all. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. Religion. Swami. Every individual should be trained for concentration. 5. That will serve the purpose of education fully.5. Thirdly he wished that games. 6. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . 5.5. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. 5.

2. and pragmatist . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. Write short notes on Basic education. ears and eyes. 284 . In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. 12. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. legs. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. Gandhiji as a Idealist. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims.2. 5.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. Their educational ideas.2. 3.6 LET US SUM UP We have. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. We have seen that Tagore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man.Substantiate your answer. naturalist. in this lesson. of course.

1937 7. wood work. Education should involve manual work. Activity Method b. c. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Nai Talim 4. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. a. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. 8. b. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Heuristic Method. 9. Meditation and concentration c. Self realization. Explain Vishwabharathi. Learning by Doing c. Discussion Method 285 . Activity Method d. Teaching while Walking b. 5. a. metal work. Basic education. 3. leather work have been suggested. e. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Debate and Discussion Method. a. Self-Study b. 5. d. c. 10. 5.2. a. 11.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. f. 2. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Cult of non-violence. gardening. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Ideal of citizenship. Technique of Correlation 6.

9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. (2007). Ltd. C. B. Foundations of Education. on Bhatia. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.2. New Delhi : Aggarwal. New Delhi : A. N. K. O. Dhiman. Publishing Corporation. Pahuja. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education.H. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. L. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.5. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.P. P. (2002). 286 . Theory and Principles of Education. (2003). (2004). J. K and Narang C. (2007). P. N.

3.1 5.3.8 5.6 5.3.2 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3 5.3.4 5.3.10 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum. In this lesson.5 5.LESSON 5.9 5.11 5.

the desert area. new behaviour may be acquired. curriculum. you will be able to: 1. present behaviour may be modified. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. is a means to the process. in the U. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. 5. Since the demands. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. curriculum also offers a wide contrast.3. 5. maintained or eliminated. While education is learning. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. In the former sense. From the latter point of view. in Russia or in Japan. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. Curriculum is intimately related to education. In it.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. living in the hilly area. the plain area.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. A g o o d curricu lu m. there is a large number of communities. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. state the meaning of curriculum 2. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. In the words of Kerney and Cook. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s .3. curriculum signifies situations for learning. it is identical wit h socializat ion. in fact . in the form of new experience. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. Then in a big country like India. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society.3.. the plateau area and 288 . While education is a process.under the direction of the school. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. Both the processes are integrated. One is the individual process and the other is the social process.A.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static.S.

A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. It must differ from locality and from society to society. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. However. In fact . without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. From a slave-country we became secular. the learning capacity of children. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. 5. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. Besides craft. environment. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. according to modern trends in the educational process. customs and needs. and 289 . differs from individual to individual. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. democratic and socialistic country. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. studying therein. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. Again. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. irrespective of their needs and environment.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission.3. it is. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. too. therefore. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery.

e. 4. Application Objective. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. specific. 3.g. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. unambiguous and functional. tangible. Understanding Objective. They speak of perfect goals. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. eg. general or specific. Self Realisation. etc.g... individual or Social and so on. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . The word “Curere” means 2.g. Goals of Primary Education.. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. moral. Knowledge Objective. They are visionary goals e. Goals of Secondary Education. They speak of immediate purposes of education. they depend on the political. 2.. uninspiring and unscientific. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. So it is inadequate. etc. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. 290 . They are achievable. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. National Integration. social. in instructional objectives. 1. aesthetic and spiritual development. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. aims.3. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. Vocational Efficiency. social. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. etc. emotional. remote or immediate. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. They may be ultimate or proximate.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture.. unsatisfactory. e. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. which may or may not be attained. of classroom.

“In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. in the class rooms. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. but it includes the totality of experiences.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. needs. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. Raymont rightly says. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. on the playing fields. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. abilities. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. The interests. educationists. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. Crow and Crow remarks. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. capacities. finding them very interesting and captivating. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other.3.” 291 .” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. According to Crow and Crow. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.5.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. heavy fire. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum.

social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. Due to these variations and differences. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. They often waste it or rather kill it. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. time in a useful manner. moral. aptitudes. tendencies. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . mental.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. capacities and abilities. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. urges. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively.

The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. administrative programme need be planned. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. 2. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. development of professional capability at all levels. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. Similarly. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. phased preparation. To ensure success of the process. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. organized. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. 293 .curricular. 3.

playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. Child Centred Education b.3. library.3. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. laboratory. Run. 12. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. workshop. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. 5. a. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. 18. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. 17. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. 11. Relation with Life c. 5. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. in the class room.3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. principles of curriculum construction.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. 10. 1937 19. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 .

S. N. and Sarita Kumari. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. (2007). S. P. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. S. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. Innovations in Education.K. Curriculum Development. D. Bhalla. (2001). 295 . Lakshmi.5.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.3. New Delhi : Isha Books. (2007). New Delhi : Authorspress. Curriculum and Instruction. (2007).

7 Scientific Attitude Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.5 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4.3 5.7.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.1 5.8 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.10 5.4 5.4.

know the importance of science education. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . 3. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. in the economic reconstruction of society. 5. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. honesty. open-mindedness. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. tolerance for the opinions of others. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.5. 5.4.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. explain the concept of scientific attitude. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. 297 . newer and newer industries started growing. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. Gradually.during the second half of this century. 4. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. superstition or emotion. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. 2. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. you will be able to: 1.4. We mean curiosity.

3. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Promotion of science clubs. 5. Through newspapers. 5.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Selection for science education. Principles are formulated. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. Love for truth enhances. 3. Through examinations. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people.4. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Organisation of science fairs. 5. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Central science workshop. stipends and appreciations in various ways. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 4. seminars and symposiums. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. 5. as well as of the society. 2. 2. Devotion towards nature increases. 6. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Schemes of teaching science. 7. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Thinking and memory develops. 4. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. 6.So that. After such experience and training.4.

They encounter many social events as they grow. It is. Enquiry teaching is. 5. objectivity.4. sex or religion.4. each child to “enquiry skill building”.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. therefore. They ask many questions about the objects they see. should provide opportunities to. Training of science teachers. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Write any two advantages of Science Education. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.needs and conditions. After presenting the problem.6. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. For laboratory and workshop techniques. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. In the inquiry approach. 7. They experience natural phenomenon. essential that teachers. 5. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . which is essential for developing scientific outlook. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs.

if they like. 4.4.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. 5. 3. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. . Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. stern pursuit of accurate data.books. commands or orders. Adopting creative models of teaching. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook.6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Evidence. 300 .7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Appreciating pupils ideas. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. 6. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. . It requires consistent thinking. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? .4. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 5. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. test. to ask questions and experience things. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Giving less directions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. Social sciences.Herma Wouk. 2. 3.

neighbourhood. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. For instance. it must be encouraged. of vast resources running waste. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. and emphasized during the learning process . It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. practiced. to develop among the learners. These include open mindedness. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. friends. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. To achieve this we should understand what it means. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. critical thinking and suspended judgments. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed.7.4. 5. (Vaidya 2007).1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. therefore should be unbiased and objective. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. The students observation. school and society at large. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions.(Smith 2008). keen observation. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience.

understanding and logic. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. intuition or wishful thinking”. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias.7. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. 5. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. The intention to respect another’s point of view. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups.4. 302 . rumor. think and work it”. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. (Das. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. he studies all aspects of it. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. In considering a situation or a problem. 2007). Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. or superstitions. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education.

The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. 5. but to begin only after careful planning. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.4.7. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.7.4. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. • 5. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.4. 5. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. 304 . 5. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. it must be encourages. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.

Wide reading b.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13.S. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Reflections on Scientific attitude. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students.4. (2006). Discuss the importance of science education 14. a. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. S. Love for truth enhances. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. Proper example of the teacher c. b. Yadav. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop.B (2008). Adopting creative models of teaching. a. b.5. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. b. N. 5. The intention to respect another’s point of view. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. 3. Rao.4. 5. objectivity. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics.4. (2000). The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Planning of activities 5. 16. Vaidya. D. Study of superstitions d. 4. 305 . M. a. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. 2. a. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. (2008). the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.

5.2 5. 306 .5.5 5.5.5. 2. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5.4 5.1 5.7 5.5.10 5.9 5. areas of institutional planning. state the concept. actively.5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.11 5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. you will be able to: 1. 5. objectives and characteristics.3 5.6 5.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.

Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. executive as well as public.3.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. and supplement planning from above. teachers and students is not lost sight of. • to make planning development-oriented. which become the bases for further planning at the district. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. each teacher. 5. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. 5. Institution should be regarded as the unit. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. • to involve teachers and school administrators. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. every parent. • To make institutional planning more successful. and each student are regarded as separate entities. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. every teacher. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. State and national levels from below. and every student in the process of educational planning.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning.5. and. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators.5. in the task of educational planning.

Co-curricular activities. it becomes the basis for school inspection. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5.5. 308 .5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. Syllabus. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. Examinations.• implemented. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members.5. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. etc. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers.curricular Activities. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. and Personnel services. (2) Co. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. which will be discussed in the general. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. council and. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. approved after making necessary modifications. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. Classwork. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. 5.

Preparation of audio-visual aids. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Courts. etc. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Organisation of Students’ Association. Organisation of class-room libraries. Editing the school magazine.No. Organising play-for-all programmes. Conducting of educational. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. charts and apparatus. Organisation of Pupils. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Equipping of laboratory and library. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. scientific and historical excursions. Running science clubs. Improving the internal assessment.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Undertaking remedial instruction services. 1. Preparation of instructional material. 3. etc. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . etc. Preparation of models. Fair distribution of syllabi. Improving the subject competence of teachers. hobby-centres. Celebrating of national and international festivals. etc.

pupil310 .5. teacher-teacher. administrator-pupil. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. administrator-supervisor. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. science teachers’ and out-group relationships are as given below i. etc. and solidarity. headmasters associations. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. administrator-administrator. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. teacherinspector. co-operation. and —pupil-pupil. teacher-pupil. students’ associations. Administrator-State. teacher-State. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. teachers. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. pupils. understanding. involving mainly human materials. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. teacher-managing body.” The human relationships in. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. parent-teacher associations. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships.5. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. parents. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. ii. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. which are divided as the in.

V." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. etc.5.State. Good. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. To administer means to manage. to accomplish. 311 . According to C. social sciences and other disciplines. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. pupil-inspector. to carry out. organisation. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. organisation and management. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and to serve. teacher-community leader. pupil-non-official functionaries. pupil-parent. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. teacher-parent.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. superintendence. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. control. pupil-community leader. now-a-days. administrator. supervision and superintendence. supervision. It is also being modernized to become a technique. to attend. It covers personnel and material management.

it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. The relationship should change from master. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . Motiviation . without this the efficacy will be handicapped. 10. Leadership . Better Human Relationships .Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. Socio-Scientific Approach . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. He should be an artist in human relationships. If it is more. Worker Participation .The manager should have leadership traits.Of all the approaches.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. Decision Making . 7.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. Liasion with the Public . Economic Management . 12. Rapport between the Management and Employees . He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. 2. who occupy the managerial positions. 8. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. This is the latest democratic trend in management. Cost-Benefit Analysis . Those. If the cost benefit ratio is less. 13. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. low. 3. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. 4. 9. 11.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. it is not worth-while. Communication .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. 5.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. Democratic Management . He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.Management should be efficient and economical 312 .Any good management will always have good public relations. 6.

indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. improvement of teaching methods.These two are. 18. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. 14.g. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. 313 .10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained.5. 19. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. enrichment of curricula. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. 5. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . objective. and cooperative performance should be ensured. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution.too. to improve the quality of education it provides. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.5.

c. e. Syllabus. Classwork. and Personnel services. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. 314 . a. NUEPA. b. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. Decision Making b. Singh. Examinations. (1995).5. b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. a. H. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. 4. S. Fundamental of Educational Management.5. Leadership c. b. Communication 5. Motiviation d. APH Publishing Corporation. a. Educational Administration. d. (2001).11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. Co-curricular activities. 2.M. it becomes the basis for school inspection.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. In group and Out group 5. Instruction. f. a. (2003).K. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. R. Tarachand and Prakash.5.

2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . wastage and Stagnation 3. Common ailments of Children. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .1 School Health Programme. Community and Mass Media 2.3 Directive Principles .4 India's Secular Policy .2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . 1. 2. Economic 315 . Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. population education. Communicable diseases .Pre-service and In-services facilities. nutritional requirement.teachers should have : 1. First Aid.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. women education and teacher education in India.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.Preventive measures.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Realized the problems of school education. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. Code of conduct for teachers. Buddhist and Jain system of education. Preservation of nutrients. New evaluation procedures.5 Regional Educational Development in India .1 Primary Education : Education for all.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.1 Inculcation of Socialism. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.I. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.Religious and Modern Education 1. Examination reforms. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. Sex-education 4. Healthy Food Habit 4.1 Gurukula system of education.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. physical education and environmental education 5. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.2 Nutritional deficiencies. higher education. School. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. 4.Article 45 . Inspection and Supervision 3. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.3 Educational Influences of Home.CORE PAPER . social Impact 3.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. Balanced diet.

New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.N.Aim. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Mahatma Gandhi.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9.N. New Delhi: NCERT 3.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Realism. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. (2004) Problems of Education in India.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. T. (1999) Culture.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms.4. and Human Development. REFERENCE 1. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.R. R. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. Curriculum and national goals .K. Taneja V. 5.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5.C. and Dash B. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. and Mohanty R. Ram S.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Hemchand. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Tagore 5.K. Pandy V.4 4. (2005) Foundations of Education. Sharma.K. Socialization. 316 . Ghanta R. Saraswathi T. Prof. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Naturalism and Pragmatism . and Sharma R.1 Idealism. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Kalan Paper Packs 10. 7.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. B. curriculum and teacher's role 5.S. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. Mishra.K. Delhi : University Publications 2.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles .

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