BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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Lesson 4. Lesson 2. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. Lesson 5. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. discusses the regional educational development in India. The need. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. and Jain system of education. 9 . Jainism and their educational implication. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. In. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism.

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1.1.5.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1.5.1.1.4.1.6.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.5.1.1.6.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1.1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.4.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.5.1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.2 1.6.6.5 Jain system of education 1.LESSON 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1.6 Education during British Era 1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.6.3.1.1 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1.3.

1.1.1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.1.1. describe the Jain system of Education 4.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Muslim and British periods. The history of education passed through Buddhist.1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. Indian in blood and colour.1.1.6.1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. both present and future.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.7 1. you will be able to: 1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. India. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. That 12 . “a class of persons. but English in taste.8 1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. British system of education presented the modern western model.3. 1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.6. elucidate the education during British Era. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. Education in India.1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. in opinion.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. has a long past history starting in vedic education.1. 1. in morals and in the intellect”.9 1.

3. Method of Study. the monitorial plan was followed. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. 11. followed by explanation by the teacher. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. questioning by the pupil. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. 5. Method of Instruction. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. however. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 16. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. religious and spiritual. Role of Travel in Education.knowledge was real. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. 9. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. 13 . The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. High Status of Teachers. 4. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. individually. managed entirely by Brahmans. 12. There was. from darkness. and to agriculture and trade. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Pupils were taught. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. 14. Individual Teaching. Residential Schools. Education was a private affair of the people. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. with grants of land or money. to light. It was also moral. 6. 8. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. 10. if they thought fit to do so. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Curriculum. Where pupils were many. No State Control on Education. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. 13. Religious and Spiritual. Free and Accessible. The immediate aim of education. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. Teacher as Parents. Education of Moral. Immediate Aim Vocational. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. It was not merely intellectual. from eternal to immorality 2. generally. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Forests as Centres of Education. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. as it is generally considered to be at present. not en masse by the class method.

It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. studied Vedas. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. 1. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1.3.17. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. It was suited to the needs of the society. They were very cordial and intimate. Wide-Spread Education in Women.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . It was freely available to all those who wanted. lived a life of celebacy. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.

use of cosmetics. I take Refuge to Dharma. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. impure conduct. Education was imparted through the.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. which included abstaining from theft. the handicapped. Right knowledge 2. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. use of intoxicating things. the student remained in a state of Shramana. 1. Right thought 3. 2. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. every class in society. Consequently. After attaining the age of 20. Right memory 8. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. disease and death of the human beings. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. taking things without being offered. the student had his head shaved of all hair. dressed himself in yellow clothes. Right endeavour 7. Right speech 4. etc. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. watching dances or listening to music. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. Right contemplation 1.C. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. had the right to receive education.1. the most significant of which were the following 1. Right activity 5. It was denied only to the ill. 15 . he was qualified to become a monk.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. Right means of livelihood 6. in which. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. partaking of food at prohibited times. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. medium of Pali. I take Refuge to Sangh. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. except the Chandals. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. killing of any living being.4.

they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. the science of taming and training animals. bodily gestures. As reality is becoming. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. archery. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. commerce. 2. education was impart in art. etc. 8. 6. cottage industries. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. wear three items. beg for alms. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. women occupied a position inferior to men. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. therefore. changing the goals. be considered the aim of education It. control over sensuous activities. depth and range. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. It comprehended education in writing. has no metaphysical value for life. arithmetic and religious discussion. of clothes. animal husbandry. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. Hence. 3. Later on.4. a change is not only total but also perpetual. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. assumptions. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. it is regarded as true”. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. along with education in script writing. On this occasion. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. Initially. objectives of human life. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. so long as it successfully does so. 4. archery. medicine. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. elephant lore. however. and. etc. knowledge of reviving the dead. handicrafts.3. agriculture. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. etc. aspirations and. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. nothing is of any permanent consequence. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. approach.. Even at this stage. Life is in a flux. magic. 5. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. 1. eat food thrice a day. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. nature. These are called later Buddhist schools. 7. meaning. After this ritual. geology. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. a continuous change creating 16 . Whatever its nature and extent. the presence of the monks was essential. military science.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. whatever works are true and good. Education must. its pessimistic outlook on life. and to give it a shape that it has today.. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. goes to Vardhaman. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. therefore. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Validity is effective and consequences. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.e.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Its chief feature.5. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. i. 5. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. In fact. Jainism insists 17 . however. it is much older than the latter. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. Write Eight fold path . the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. such as.new and peculiar situations. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. However.1.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching.

but on both. e) To renounce the world. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. 4.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. They are: a) Not to injure. 5. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. 1. 9. c) Not to steal. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. 3. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment.1. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. c) Right conduct. 3. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 1. b) Not utter falsehood. 18 . 6. b) Right knowledge. 2. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. it has a foot in both the words.5. thought and deed. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. and is to be redeemed and liberated. 10. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. and believe in happiness to all. 8. As such. Hence. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. more stress on individual aims. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. 7. rather than the interpretation of the universe.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Development of personality as an individual. 2. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. d) To lead a celibate life. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage.

3. and should bring happiness to all. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. What are Triratnas ? . education should develop sense of discrimination. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . success and love.4. 19 . Hence. Teaching should be social and tolerant. 8. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. that would be socially desirable.5. Teaching must develop these faculties. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Jiva is essentially karmic. 2. 4. education must be action based and ideally oriented. Belief in transmigration of soul. practised and not only aspired for. 2. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.5. 5. here and now. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. 1. therefore.

Bombay. science.1. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. 1. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. philosophy and literature of Europe. To set up separate departments of. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.1. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854).6. North West Province and Punjab.6.6. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. 2. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. 1. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. and not for life.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. 1953). which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. 1. Madras. primary 20 . 1. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. However.6.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. with rally and rout. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”.

Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. 1. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. 1.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). at the primary level.education was neglected.6. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. • Universal free primary education. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 .6. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. 1. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). • Secondary education. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. The universities dominated the secondary education. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. At that time M. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. namely. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested.6. In 1882.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. secondary education became a step towards university. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature.K. self-respecting and competent. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. To ensure qualitative improvement. Later on. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools.

During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. After this stage. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? .1. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. all children are to have a common curriculum. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. 10. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education.

establishment of universities. a. 23 . Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses.. 4. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. archery. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. b. 3. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. 1. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools.1. questioning by the pupil. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. Right knowledge. It was suited to the needs of the society. etc. Right thought. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. the science of taming and training animals. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. The immediate aim of education. During the Buddhist period. Right means of livelihood.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. along with education in script writing. 1. 5. Right activity. 4. Right endeavour. Right memory. science and English language. 3. Right contemplation.1.education of European literature. followed by explanation by the teacher. The system of education was well-organised. Right speech. 2. education was impart in art. arithmetic and religious discussion. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. geology. military science. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 6. handicrafts.

K. Development of Educational System in India. Right conduct. Right faith. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. 10. c. (2005). History of Indian Education System. (1984). Hence. Improvement of Literature. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Singh.K.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. more stress on individual aims. and Nath. 8. b. Development of personality as an individual. J.1. a. 24 . 1882. Y. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. a.C. Sargent report 12.7.C. Right knowledge. (2009). Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. (2007). Sharma. 11. Ltd. 9. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. b. 1937 1. Aggarwal. R. J. Y.

5 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.4 1.2.2.2.3 Kothari Commission 1.2.2.2.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.3.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.7 1. The 25 .2.2.2.2.9 1.1 1.1 University Education Commission 1.3.LESSON 1.6 1.2.2.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.3.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.8 1.2 1.

The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. standard of teaching. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. National Council for Women’s Education 5. curriculum. 2.2. secondary and higher education. 1. S. Post-graduate 26 . girls and women education besides primary. expansion of vocational. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. you will be able to: 1. explosion of enrolment. technical. Kothari (1964-66) 8. diversification of courses of studies. National Board of Teacher Education 10.2. New Educational Policy. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. technological engineering. examination system.3.2. analyse the progress of education in free India. vocational education.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. medical and legal education. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. 1986 1. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2.conditions of the teachers. There had been vast institutional expansion. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4.

Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. 1. Education is the key to our allround development. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. the New National Policy on Education. Therefore.2. A meaningfully Partnership. The national system of education envisages common educational structure.S. Finally. the chairman of University Grants commission. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. National System of Education.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. A.3. in January 1985. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. 4.3. The Essence and Role of Education. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. quality. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. Education for Equality. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country.3. quantity. 2. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. accumulated over the years. utility and financial outlay. Kothari. Problems of access. 1966. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.2. material and spiritual. D. research et. 1952. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. 1. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University.teaching.2. 1. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. However. 1986. Government of India. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29.

particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. attitudes. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. the concepts of work experience. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. The UNESCO Report. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. By working with hands. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 28 .4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. the minorities and the handicapped. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Thus. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. It can train practical aptitudes.2.” Thus.

This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. “The aim of these colleges. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. The Education Commission. With adequate planning. According to. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. co-ordinations. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. As such. the Commission. The Radhakrishnan Commission. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened.” The Mudaliar Commission. Besides. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. “It may be described. it will conduce self. if he wishes. In 1955. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation.employment and promote economic independence of the youth.

As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W).” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. With a view to relating education to the life. Therefore. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. admission requirements to vocational courses. the rigid streaming of courses. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. raising the special facilities. Subsequently. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future.ot her. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. the semester and credit system. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . In addition. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. the. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages.. for quality of life in the rural areas. The Central Advisory Board of Education. etc.

The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. felt that education should be centred around a craft. which offer scientific. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”.2. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. meaningful. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. The Father of Nation. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. The wave of Basic Education. According to committee. aimed at this goal. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. giving importance to productivity in the national development. 1. Commerce. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained.. meaningful.and the world of work. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred.defined S UP W as “purposive. In short. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. which swept the country for over two decades. 31 . Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. which are useful to the community. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. preferably spinning and weaving. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. manual work resulting in either goods or services. technological courses including Agriculture.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. who conceived the System of Basic Education. etc.

Culture and recreation 6. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Educative and 3. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Health and Hygiene 2. locally available materials and tools. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Shelter 4. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Work practice. Productive 2. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. 32 . Experimentation with materials. Community work and social service. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Food 3. 3. so that it is educational in essence. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. be that the work involved is: 1. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. tools and techniques and 3. The teachers should make use of. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Some Hints to Teachers 1. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. 4. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. 2. as far as possible. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Clothing 5. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant.

2. as far as possible. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. 6. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Community Service In-1972. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. It can become an instrument to build character. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. To make education more realistic. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. Merits of the Programme 1. inculcate a faith. Productive Work 33 . functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. removal of illiteracy. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. 1. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. improve discipline. etc. slum clearance. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Check on educated unemployed 4. the local community should be actively associated. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Education through work The SUPW should. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood.5. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past.

skills and better future for the children. helping the adults-in productive work. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. Define SUPW 34 . The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. traffic control. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. The community. in turn. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . helping the adults in festivals and Functions.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. AICTE was set up in year 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. should involve itself in the educational effort. offering first aid. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. if not productive. etc.

Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 35 . 6. 1955 4.2. 1. Radhakrishnan 2.1.2. 3. a. Write short note on SUPW. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 2.2. d. c. Dr.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. b. manual work resulting in either goods or services. f. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. meaningful. which are useful to the community. e. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. 1952 3.

Ltd.D. P. Y.K. A. J.2.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.H. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. V.1. R. : Sharma. (2007).C. and Nath. Development of Educational System in India. and Rao. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt.P. Publishing Corporation. History of Indian Education System. (2009). B..K. History and Problems of Indian Education. Amala. 36 . Singh. Anupama. New Delhi: A. History of Education. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Rao.P.(2005).K. Y. (2007). (2005). New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

there is an official Hindi translation.3. Being the supreme law of the country. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.3.8 1.3. 37 . democratic republic. Besides the English version.3.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. procedures. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. and liberty.2 1.3. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. directive principles and duties of citizens.7 1. it came into effect on January 26. equality. assuring its citizens of justice. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.3. 1950.9 1.4 1.1 1. establishing the structure. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.369 words in the English language version.3. 1949.1 Significance of DPSP 1.3.3.5 1. containing 395 articles.3. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.3.6 1. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. for a total of 117.3.3.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.

spread over a period of 2 years. Dr. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. 4. the Drafting Committee was appointed. 1947. 2. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. According to the constitution. 1. legal and environmental. political. with Dr. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. you will be able to: 1. learn the role of central and state government on education. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.3. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. for 166 days.3.In the August 14. administrative. Two days later. economic.3. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. After many deliberations and some modifications. understand our Indian constitution. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 3. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. 1950. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. The Assembly met. social. On August 29. 1. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. 38 . even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. 1947.3. 1. in sessions open to public. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Through them.

Right to work. and shall. make effective provision for securing the right to work. The State shall endeavour to secure. sickness and disablement. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Article 43.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Equal pay for both sex. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Article 39A. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Equal justice and free legal aid. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Condition for dignity of children. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Minimising inequalities in status. Protecting children from exploitation. 39 . and in other cases of undeserved want. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. Article 40. for workers. provide free legal aid. No abuse of children. Article 42. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Organisation of village panchayat.government. old age. on the basis of equal opportunity. That the health and strength of workers. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. The State shall. Liking wage etc. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Article 41. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. in particular. Protecting health of the workers. men and women. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment.

The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Article 47. [declared by or under law made by 40 . Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Participation of workers in management of industries. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. in particular. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. industrial or otherwise.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Article 44. a living wage. work. Article 45. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. to all workers. and. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. agricultural. See also Article 21A). Note: Subs. in particular. Article 43A. Article 48. The State shall take steps. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. (Original Article 45. by suitable legislation or in any other way. Article 46. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. 2002 for “45. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Article 49. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Uniform civil code for the citizens. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Article 48A. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. in particular. The State shall endeavour to provide.

disfigurement. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Separation of judiciary from executive. may be law determine”. disposal or export. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article-21A Right to Education. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . from spoliation. 2. as the case may be. 2002. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. removal. destruction. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Article 50. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. Article 51. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Article 45 .4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution.Parliament] to be of national importance. Promotion of international peace and security.

Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 4. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. and shall protect them. his guardian has given his consent thereto. 6. caste. 2002. and. 8. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. from justice and all forms of exploitations.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”.” 42 . ii. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. race. 5. in particular. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. if such person is a minor. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. 7. 3. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. language or any of them”. iii.

primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. the forms. 2. 43 . the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. for its vocabulary. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis.3.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. wherever necessary or desirable. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. and by drawing. Educational Reforms From time to time. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . The central government determines targets and promotes education. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Article 351 gives importance to 6. & 1.9.

were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). So as to encourage education on right lines. By starting these projects.3. etc. 6. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. The following pilot projects. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. 7. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. 4. Local bodies and private enterprise. So that they may work well. All India Council of Medical Science. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education.. the state governments. to achieve the desired ends. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Production of suitable for children and adults f. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. 8. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. 5. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. private agencies etc.

Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. books. are published by it. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. 1. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. 3. 4.3. 10. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Material concerning nation-wide interests.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. reports etc. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. education for women. 9. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. 11. training and statistics. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 12. The 45 . 1. handicapped. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. is the state responsibility. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. research. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. etc.

Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Explain Directive principles 2. 1.3. Article 21A c. 5. 1. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Article 46 4.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Write short notes on a. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. articles in the Directive principles.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Article 45 b. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 46 . Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education.

Clearing House function 9. b. may be law determine”. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. a. a. 3. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Dr. 47 . The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Article-21A Right to Education. Article 46 5. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.3. Describe the educational role of State Government. 2002. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. b.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Article 45 . The Directive Principles of State Policy. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act.5. 4. 2002. 1. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Ambedkar 2. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Article 29 and 30 7. a. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Development of Hindi Language 6. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers.

Education in Emerging Indian Society. B. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. 48 . New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.3. S. (2008). K. S. (2007).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. Ghosh. (2009). Bhatia. (2004). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: Shipra Publications.1. Dash. K and Narang C. N. L.

LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4.3. Buddhism etc.4.1 1.4.6 1.4.4.4.4 Moral education 1.3. Christianity.2 Aims of Religious Education 1. religious education should be broad based.7 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1. Students should be 49 .4. Jainism.4. Islam.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.2 1.4.8 1.5 1.3.4.4.4.1 Why Moral Education 1.4.4.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.3 Precautions while introducing 1.

In the complicated and complex society of today. beauty and goodness so that 50 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. integrity. state meaning and need for moral education 1. know the position of religious education in our country 3. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. According to E. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. duty-consciousness. As result of which.D. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. 1. Thus. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. understand the relationship between religion and education 2..and dedication. "In A multireligious society like ours. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. India' can produce men of character. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines.” Education broadens human outlook.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication.4. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. you will be able to: 1. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. religious education and the concept of secularism.4. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life.

Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. through religious practices and 51 . Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. They thought that any kind of narrow.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. Viewing the defects of religious education. According to Article 22. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. if not regularly. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. rancour. religion and democracy are same. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August.3. Children attend these organizations. According to Article 19. 1947 we achieved our freedom. all citizens are free to follow any creed. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. 1. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. Hence. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. Thus.” From the above. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. at least occasionally. it is clear that the State has no religion. No religious tax can be imposed on them. realizes God in himself. 1. In short.4. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full.3.4. castes and creeds. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. As a matter of fact. "In view of the provision in the Constitution.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. As our country is a country of diverse religions.

teachings. It is religious education. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. As a result of which. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. one fully developed.. what is done and what is not done etc. He also learns about social. and what is evil.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. for the development of the individual and the society. intellectual and physical faculties of children. which can mould. when he becomes an adult. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. Good education. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. It helps to modify habits attitudes. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. temperament etc. aggressive. If unreleased. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. moral and spiritual values. which help him for the development of his character.

1. 2. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. If we open the pages of history. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. 3. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Therefore. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. which is the basic need of a democratic life. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and.4. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds.3. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. This should not be allowed to happen. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. 53 . towards the society. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character.

they should be discussed in the right earnest. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. 9. fellow-feeling. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. For this. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 11. Since all religions have virtues. churches and mosques 7. Write Article 22 2. Gurudwara as. Life histories of great persons of the world.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . examples of patriotism. therefore. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school.4. 10. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. stories of moral greatness. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

6. Satyam (truth).4. students. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Purity. 8. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Non-injury. Without moral values. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. 4. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 1. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. 8. 5. 4. 3.acquisitiveness). Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 5. Aparigarha (Non. 55 . the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Patriotism. Moral education. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. The content of the curriculum. “Let all be happy and free from disease. Self sacrifice.4. in the home. 2. Asvada (Control of palate). Fearlessness. Service to others. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 7.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. 2. the methods of teaching. therefore. let men see well of one another. They will play their role effectively. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Cultivation of emotions. 6. 7. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. 3. It they learn what morality is in their early years.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 1. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Swadeshi (Patriotism). is that which develops moral values. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position.

Sharivashram (Physical work). Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. 56 . Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability).9. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. National unity and Spiritual values. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. minutes in the morning for group singing. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Unity of mankind. 10. 2. Good manners. 1. The School Assembly should be held for a few. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Discipline. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . religions may be included in the syllabus. 11. Secondary Stage 1.4. Asatyam (Non-thieving). 3. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. discipline. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Integrity. 3. Efficiency. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. 4. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Good temper. In the school programme. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage.

5. Silent meditation should be encouraged. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. patriotism and self-discipline. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . In this connection. 4. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. In other words. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. should form a normal part of school programme. 5. 57 . love of humanity. 2. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. University Stage 1.4.

a. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. the. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b.4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1.4. In short. a. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. 1959 5. 4. Training of Character 3. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. 1. Discuss the aims of Religious education.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. For this. 1. a. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. minutes in the morning for group singing. 2. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. b.4. 58 . b. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Sri Prakasa 6 . it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. 2.

Ltd. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. J. M. (2004).C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. B. Bhatia. N. K. L. Dash. Anmol Publications Pvt. Theory and Principles of Education. (2008). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi: A. (2003).1.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. K and Narang C. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. 59 .P. New Delhi : Siddiqui.H. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2008). P.H. N. Pahuja. (2007).4.

9 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.4 1.2 1.5.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.12 1.3 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan. 60 .5.5.6 1. i.5 1. Although.5.5.7 1.5.5.10 1.e. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5.5.5.5.5.8 1.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1. disparities between provinces/States.11 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.1 1.5..

waters. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. This leads to separatist movements. 1. understand the regional educational development in India 3. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.5. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. 8.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. work hard towards this end. 7. 1.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.1. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. 4. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. for example.5. 1. you will be able to: 1. etc. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. know the education suited to different environments.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Accordingly. energy. They therefore. 61 . The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 2. roads. 3. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. they take appropriate measures.5. 6. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication.5. 5.

Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. Therefore. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. on the basis of regional development may be formed. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. Tight security arrangements should be made. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. some States became educationally far advanced.5. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. 2. Secularism. • Separate States (of course viable States). some average. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. 4. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. 3. while others remained educationally backward. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. and. 62 . some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence.

The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities.5. NIT.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. since its inception in 1998-99. Jammu and Kashmir. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. scholarships. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. Out of this.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. Tezpur. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.84 crore was released in 2005-06. etc. Itanagar. library buildings. Central Universities of Assam. NERIST. 63 . who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Even in each State. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. remained under developed. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. books. the State Governments. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged.392. Rs. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. 1. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. Regional Centres of IGNOU.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. etc. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Mizoram. while some States like Bihar. academic buildings. Nagaland and NEHU. In the Central sector. After the attainment of independence.480.After the Planning Process has originated. However. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. and provision of informal education to enable those. approved proposals worth Rs.g. Guwahati.. Silchar. Funds amounting to Rs. the Union Government. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. These projects are in various stages of implementation.14.

With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.5. During 2003-04.40. Out of this an amount of Rs. A provision of Rs.500. Moreover. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. Government expenditure on education. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.05 crore and Rs. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). too.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. 64 .57 crore and Rs. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. Tezpur University.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.261.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.8 per cent in 05).In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.187. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.501.

and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. pharma. health services and welfare of the citizen population. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur.5. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). too. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. The Chandigarh Administration. for which 16 sites. Karnataka. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. engineering and R&D. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Karnataka. English. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. Medical education. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . To add to the woes. Tamil Nadu. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Kerala and Gujarat. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. 1. for instance. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. notes the study. Listing the positives. Moreover. telecom. Andhra Pradesh. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. too. too.

The living conditions. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. when he will not be sure of time. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. the working days: an academic .year. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. In the same manner. while the former does not. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the curricular subjects. Of course. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. the socio-physical conditions. and so on. which a non-tribal person cannot do. the interests. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. The working hours of educational institutions. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. in which the learners live. the needs. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. the teaching methods. even actually looking at the watch. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. Then education become realistic and idealistic. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. For a learner living in a rural area. Hence it is called as need-based. the vocations. life-oriented and environment slanted. taking the average in the middle. 66 . Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors.

What do you meant by regional imbalance? . 67 . Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.5. to suit education to different environments? 1.5. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. 1.5. 2.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. 2. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.

remained undeveloped 3. during the British rule. New Delhi: Authors press. C. Educational Development in India. R.5.N. (2001). (2001). S.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 60% 1. S. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. A.K. (2002). some of areas which were under the native rulers. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. Giridhar. Education in Developmental Arena. Salim. and Nair. (2008). 68 . some States have become more developed than others b.H. Dubey. a.G. Education Scenario in India. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.2.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. community development. semi literate and illiterates. secularism and democracy through Indian education. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. 71 . National Integration. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. school community and mass media.

5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.8 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.9 2.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .2 2.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1.1.6.1.1.6.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.1 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.5.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.1.3 2.6.7 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.1.1.LESSON 2.5.4 2.1.6 Education for Secularism 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.

socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. socialistic and secular state. 2. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.1. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. 3) Provision of Manual Work. 2. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.2. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Abraham Lincoln. you will be able to: 1.1. This is the political aspect of democracy. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.1. 73 . The students may be associated with the management of the school. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. understand the concept of democracy. socialism and secularism 2. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. Democracy thus means power of the people. there should be made no distinction of caste. colour or wealth. creed. for the people by the people”. socialism and secularism 2.1. In the matter of admitting students in schools.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.

may be planned. 2.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. 11) Student Parliament. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. debates. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 12) Visits to Legislatures. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3.1. 74 . These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. it soon spread all over the world. There are different brands of socialism. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. Democracy means 2. declamation contest etc.. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions.

free from exploitation. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.1. 2. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. service and cooperation. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 75 . 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 7) Special facilities for girls. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. Under it. the prince and the peasant. 2) Socialism aims at equality. none high”. 2. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. oppression and disparity.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.1. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. but on the path of non-violence. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system.5. the wealthy and the poor.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote.5. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work.

Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. 2. 5. "which seeks the development of physical. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. “India is a secular-country. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. Write any two main features of socialism.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. 76 . The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Everyone says.” In every political and educational corner. According to Holydake. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. 11) State schools.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. secularism is being propagated.

8) It believes in co-existence. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading.1. 2. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. the belief that the state morals. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. liberty. fraternity. people started believing in regionalism. In this type of prevailing situations.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness.6. should be independent of religion. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. Equality.6.1. 5) It implies tolerance. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. There is need of making the people open minded. 77 . people have narrow mindedness. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. During the recent past. 3) It permits freedom of worship.opposed to religious education. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. That is why.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. A large number of people is uneducated. education etc. Moral values have to be imbibed. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. “Webster further says. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. 9) It stress free inquiry.

4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. 2. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. tours and trips may be organized. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. While doing so. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. Patiala. Religious Education. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. The very sight of the building. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. students belonging to different religions should be associated. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. that the central string of all religions is one. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions.presented by the students in the gathering.1. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based.6. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 .Corruption and disbelief are rampant. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. In the celebration of each such function. No doubt. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. education. In the hands of such teachers. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. 1) Moral Education. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. There should be some internal checking of the material being. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution.

The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . No doubt. Define Secularism 9. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. The term secularism was first used by 8.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The word “Seculum” means 7.

This present age 7.1. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society.1. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. c. b. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. Socialism aims at social justice. George Jacob Holydake 80 .9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Provision of Manual Work. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Respect of Individual Personality. 5. creed. 4. The students may be associated with the management of the school. for the people and the people”. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. Equal Opportunities for Admission. 2.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. 3. Power of the people 2. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. there should be made no distinction of caste. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. colour or wealth. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Abraham Lincoln. In the matter of admitting students in schools. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. Socialism aims at equality. Tuition free education b. a. 6. 3. Since socialism stands for equality. a. b. 4. a. 5. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. d. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2.

J. the belief that the state morals. b. (2008).” 9. (2007). School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. It permits freedom of religion. education etc. Mohanty. New Delhi : Pahuja. 81 . N. should be independent of religion. b. K and Narang C. (2003). Ltd.8. (2005). J. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. L. Theory and Principles of Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Dash. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. a. It treats all religions on an equal footing.C. a. 10. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Modern Trends in Indian Education. K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. P. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Bhatia. B.1. (2004). N. Anmol Publications Pvt. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.

2.2 2.10 2.4 2.6.2.2.1 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.3 2.5. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.LESSON 2.6.2.2.8 2.2.2.5.2.2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2.7 2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.9 2.2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.

2. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. who are placed in his custody. therefore. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. social. and 4. It involves physical.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. A teacher is first and foremost. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. as it is t he aim o f modern education. as workers. mental. you will be able to: 1. 83 . explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4.an instructor of school children. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. a r e 1. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. 2. moral. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. The developmental roles of children. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. 3. application. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. development. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. 2. social and moral aspects. as citizens. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. as persons. skills. understandings. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. emotional. aims and objectives of the school. as learners.generation to another. 2.2.

He has to look after their physical. morally. He is to become an active member. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. 2. social and emotional health. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. socially. member of his community at the outset. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. economically effective. mentally. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. emotionally. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. intellectually. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. 3. Teacher as a Citizen Next. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. motivated. The students live. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. mental. physically fit for socially efficient. The following are some of such roles described in brief. a part of their day in 84 .4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. 1. morally. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. 2. culturally confident. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family.2.All education should lead to better behavioural development. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. and aesthetically to become. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. inquisitive. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. experiences and acceptance.

India is a land of many castes.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. faiths. Dr. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. activities of the society into which he is born.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to.the school being under the custody of teachers. They will be spending with their parents. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. and most of hours. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. List out the role of teachers towards community development . This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. Unless. solve them. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. creeds. 4. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. science club. fine art associations. languages and religions. It 85 . 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. photographic clubs.

It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. folklore and teaching of social studies. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. Sampurnanand remarked.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. 1. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. national anthem and other national songs.” Regarding the role of education. the study of language and literature. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity.” 2. the citizens of the Republic of India. with straight backs and look up at the skies. this integration of the Indian people. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that .5. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. stand up straight. Nehruji has explained this as. Let us. b. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. narrow-minded provincial. a. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice.2. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. At the primary stage the importance of stories. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. The only process is the process of education. poems. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. It should broaden the outlook. social studies. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. ‘We should not become parochial.is. c. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . Radhakrishnan. therefore. and make into one strong national unit.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. should be emphasised.

one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. tours. Textbooks. militar y training like the NCC. 8.different social sciences. Co-Curricular Activities. Uniform for School Children. Taking Pledge. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. Scouts and Guides. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. ACC. 7. t he st udent s and t he community. 6. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. and picnics. National Days—January 26. Celebrations of National Days. 10. Singing of National Anthem. sports. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. debates. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. dramatics and youth festivals. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. 3. 5. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. 9. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Reverence of National Flag. 87 . 2. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. symposia. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. 4. languages and literature. Student Camps. educational excursions. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented.

Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. Educational and Travel Documentaries. ways of thinking and doing things. colour. 88 . In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. region or religion. Admissions to schools. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. 15. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. iv. School Projects. flora and fauna. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India.5. iii. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . 13. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. 16. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. Recognition of Institutions. 12. 2. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. 14. Open-Air Dramas. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Students Exchange and Tours. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. language.11. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Admissions. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. ii.2. v.

ix. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. irrespective of national boundaries. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. Community dinners. 2. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Define National Integration 3. vii. cultures and races on equal bases. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. camps. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. viii. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5.2.vi. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? .

(c) fairly tales. the international level. therefore. Strong has observed. Teachers 90 . is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes.F. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 3. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. patriotism is not enough.2. Radhakrishnan states. C. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. 4. In a very real sense. This.2. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. 5. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. 2. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. Therefore. Dr.6.friendships between children of different countries.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. Organising of debates and. 6.e. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged.” 2. that war.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. (b) stories of children of other lands. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. and the healthy development. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.as important as that of a national citizenship. often in connection with anniversaries.6. of his body and mind. 2. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. if it happens.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.

List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Indian and American. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. Impartial in their Treatment. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. a German. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Russian.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. an Englishman. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should not be propagandists. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils.

students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. Devaluation of Values .2. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. 5. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well.2. and help the students to over . Chronic Poverty . which results in agitation and aggression language. As the school is but a miniature society.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students.Another major.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. Wide Spread Frustration . 2. If this is done. majority of people are. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. 3. leading to. the education function can be carried. It does not prepare students for life. 4.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. there is wide spread frustration among all people. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. understand and indiscipline: 1. Defects of the educational System . It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 .

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. 2. co-operation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. etc.democratic nature. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . sympathy and good will among the nations. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. fellow feeling. love. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. 5. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. 4. 3.2. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being.2. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. 2. community development. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. 93 . How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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led to the printing of books.3. Now internet is being used. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. are increasingly used in education. He taught his students orally. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Moreover. 2. books. In fact. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. art galleries.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. the invention of the printing press. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Crow and Crow write. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. periodicals. “All the citizens of the community. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Museums. During the course of time. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Define community. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . To make them achieve their aim. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Hence. Then came newspapers.V. Emphasising this thing.

“Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. It is also an important source of entertainment. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. Thus. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. rather than on picture. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. current affairs and other areas. the place of importance.3. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching.G. In collaboration with the experts. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. dram appreciation. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. music. social studies. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. 2. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication.telecast. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. 101 . In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. It enlightens public opinion. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Students listen various talks. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. Effective means of presenting music. 2. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching.6. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Various talks. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. the teacher still occupies. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. “Listening participation” in current history. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. A lot of work by way of pre.classroom teachers. art. Thus. In the emphasis is on sound. politics. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. Reynolds. languages. Important happening inventions.

projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. 102 . at drawing room. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. At present. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. Before presenting the programme. at any place. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. speech. Participation of local teachers and pupils. informal and non-formal education. Making learning an open system. development of lessons. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. Team-teaching demonstrations. style. mathematics. School concerts. 5. at play. projects or creative activities. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. travel talks. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. 4. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. audibility and presentability. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. fol classical music. plays.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. 3. at recreational centers. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

6 2.4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.7 2.4.3.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.1 2.4 Non formal educational system 2.4.4.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .3 Advantages of formal education 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.4.4.4.2 2.4.4.4.3.4.4.4.4.8 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.4.5 2.4.4.3.4.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.3.LESSON 2.

1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. 5.4. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. 2. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. open university. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. the community. his mental alertness. the most important agency of formal education. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. say the Government or the private enterprise. 2. To realize this objective of education.4.3. compare formal and non formal system of education. the learner are acquainted.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. the family.4. 3. 110 . Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4. 6. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. 9. 7. 2. 2. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. 4. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. imparted at the residence of the teacher. the mass media et. School is. the temple. 8. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. it was mostly. starting and ending at -a particular age. Education organised by some agency. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. Education associated with a degree or certificate. Education. you will be able to: 1. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. open school..4. 2. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. In ancient time in India.2.

and relations are formed and developed through normal play. third stage.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. or academic degrees. such as a high school or secondary school. capacity. Through early formal education. In general. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education.a secondary education. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling.3. as well as vocational education and training. structured education. Concepts of proportion.2. 2. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills.4. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. also called tertiary. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. depending on the jurisdiction. diplomas.4. the elements of language are first learned. Higher Education: Higher education. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. usually between the ages of zero or three and five.3. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Some education systems have separate middle schools. or post secondary education.

Agencies can be classified as 2. 3. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Write any two characteristics of formal education? .4. children with disabilities.4. 2.3. What are levels of formal educational system? . Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.which will help for nation's development. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. and remote dwellers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. 4. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. late beginners etc. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . is an important agency of formal education.

i. systematic. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. systematic. It is functional. According to Malcolm A.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. open learning. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. etc.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. “Non-formal education should 113 . planned. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. Non-formal education includes adult education. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Adiseshiah. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. it is a more effective tool for rural development.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. Open university. It is deliberate.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. until 1970 it had not been defined. place of instruction. continuing education and on the job oriented education. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.learning client take some learning objectives. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. adults as well as children. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. to help themselves. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. one could say that non-formal education is an active. admissions.e. It is much more responsive to needs and change. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. Thus. However.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. It unlocks the doors of development plans. adding up to a true learning society.formal education. financially supported life formal education. Therefore. staffed. it has its own valid claim to reality. curriculum..

"Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. 2.4. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things.learning pattern. national integration. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. 7. 114 . i. 6. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved.4. evaluation etc. 5. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. self. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. place of education. international understanding. To develop in the student.4. modes of teaching.e. Lawrence. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields.S.S.” 2. age.be marketable and vocationalised. socialism. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. curriculum.” According to H. exploring. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. Flexibility in various aspects of education. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. Part-time education.4. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. the Ideas of citizenship. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. Preparation for future needs. Process of sharing.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Covering life span of an individual. co-curricular activities. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. 4. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. admissions.renewal.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To help industrial workers to better their skills. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. It should lay emphasis on the self. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. 3. 2.

in villages and those who live in towns. Technical. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 2. Meeting the omissions of formal education. school dropouts. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 7. 6. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. Universalisation of primary education. 115 . Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. 2. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. 10. To offer Secondary. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. 4. 3. 8. Senior Secondary. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach.4. Eradication of adult literacy. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 5. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. 3. publication and information dissemination.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 9. working adults. • 2.4. 5.4. 4. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans.4. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them.

Again. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.4. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. others are formal and informal. To better qualifications. public libraries.4. open space. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. To increase knowledge and 2.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. Therefore. 4. Institutions for formal education. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . To make if. farm. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. 3. Radio and television.4. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. effective in modern societal context.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. training centres in factories. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. etc. library.2. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. 2. centres of correspondence education. All-round development i.. factory. self-employment iii. 2. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education.full time to learners – can be home. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. if organised in isolation. etc. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college .

Correspondence lesson. 7. Define non formal education. Teaching to face teaching. 6. Lecturing T. Give examples of non formal education? . List out any two aims of non formal education. . period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. . Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Written tests. 117 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. radio.V. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Face Contact programmes. institution.

4. Primary level. Higher Secondary level and University level. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.4. Pre-school level. 2. 2. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. a. 3. a.2.4. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. adults as well as children. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.” 6.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Formal and Non Formal 2. Secondary level. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education.4. 7. Open School. 2. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. systematic. b. b. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. School 3. the college and the university come under this category. The school. 118 . 5. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Open University.

L. Pahuja. Anmol Publications Pvt. J. J. Education in Emerging India. Ltd. (2008). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. P.4. Bhatia. (2007). (2004). S. B. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. Ltd. K. Gupta. (2005). (2008). N. New Delhi : 119 . Modern Trends in Indian Education.2.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Dash. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.C. Mohanty. (2003). K and Narang C.

1 Characteristic features of open University 2.7 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5.1 2.4 Need for Open University 2.4 Open University 2.3.5.5 2.4.5.4.4.3.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.4.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.3 Objectives of Open University 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.6 2.2 2.5.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.3.5.5.5.LESSON 2.5.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.5.4.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.3.5.

However. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. you will be able to: 1.2. economic field or such other fields.5. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. industries. know the need and objectives of open university.5.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. continuing education is a boon.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. give the meaning. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. 2. labourers and half educated individuals. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. Any person. Thus.3. farmers. This knowledge may be in political field. It is a lifelong process. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. 2. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India.5. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education.5. characteristics of open university 4. 2. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. It is a continuous process. Under these circumstances. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . For them.

Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Radio and T. Radio. 2.directly related to his job.3. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures.V. deteriorating to his character and personality. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi.literate person. T. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. For them too continuing education is essential. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Throughout the country. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Thus. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. Doctors. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. On the other hand.V. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Cinema. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. Block Development Officers. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas.5. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. After the achievement of independence. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. if he gets opportunity to develop them. Persons engaged in health services. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. are also contributing their might for the purpose. cultured and progressive. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. On the other hand.

(8) psychology of adults. 3. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. 5. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (14) information about bringing up young children. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (16) liking. (2) basic religious matters. we have not been able to achieve our targets. habits of people of other lands. and Radio. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. These books are not very useful. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge.3. (1) ancient history. (17) modern international and national events. Inspite of the great efforts. (6) folk stories.V. 7.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation.3. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. 2. especially women. (7) folk songs. 6. (10) first aid. 123 .5. (15) music. Of course.5. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. 2. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. (13) psychology of child behaviour. 2.. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. 4.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. attendance restrict ion.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. 2.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. lack of time etc.5. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.4. of educational opportunities. NLM was launched in the year 2. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns.

it makes use of educational techno logy.4. 2. 3. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification.5. 2. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. d.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. but 125 . Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing.unobserved. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Which was the first open university in India? . T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. IGNOU was established in the year 6. b. e. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. its education is not class room based but home based. c. the higher the degree of openness. 5. No one is too old or too late to learn.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. Education is not a once for-all process. and in teaching.

it a ims at wider and hig her. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. Mo re o ver.5.5. 5. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 3. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education.who did not get it. cho ice o f co ur ses. 6. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. or who realised too late that they need it. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. 2. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n.4. 2. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. supplementing the existing provision.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n .4. 4. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 2. 126 . 4. 2. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. 3.

a state or nation. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. List out any four methods of Open University? . 5. Laboratory works. Therefore. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 2. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. 8. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3.5. a society. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will.5. Self instructional materials. school drop outs. 7. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. 127 . semi – literates. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. you have learnt the concept. In the present day world. 8. 6.4.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Tutor Comments. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 2.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Correspondence tuition. Every day. 4. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following.

7. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. (2) basic religious matters. (4) the fundamentals of economics. a. its education is not class room based but home based. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. which may include house wives. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. P r int med ia b. 7. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 1985. youth. 6. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. a. 1988. Explain the objectives. need and characteristics of Open University. 9. 128 . The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. aspirants for continuing education. 8. 2. 4. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. agricultural and industrial workers.ambitious learners. d.5. b. 2. Television Lessons. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. 3. (1) ancient history. a. 8.5.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Broad casting lectures c. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. cho ic e o f co u r ses. unskilled workers and other professionals. b.

K and Narang C. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia.2.K. K. (2004).S. 129 . New Delhi: Rajat Publication. L. (2001). Ltd. (2004). Udaiveer. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Reddy.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Modern Problems of Education. (2007). S. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.5. R.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

In Lesson 2. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. 133 . All which is the need of the hour. which may claim the attention of those concerned. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. Examination reform. its causes and remedial measures. and teacher education.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. examination. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. the education of women. wastage and stagnation. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. Training teachers for all levels of education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision.

134 .

1 EFA – For whom? 3.5 3.1.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.6 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.4 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.1 3.7 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1.1.1.1.3.1.1.1.8 3.2 EFA – How? 3.1.2 3.3 New initiatives.1. 135 .1.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.3.LESSON 3.

” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). On the other hand. education received added importance and significance. you will be able to: 1. (EOI) 2. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. may be political. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. directed that. 3. understands the country. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. Therefore. “The State shall 136 . the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. therefore. social.1. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development.3. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. economic or cultural. Eradication of Illiteracy. Continuing Education (CE) 1.1. 2.

As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. Continuing Education (CE). for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Even then we have not yet achieved the target.endeavour to provide. Universalization of Enrolment.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. 137 . Therefore. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. the national Government under. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . It enables the parents to send their children to School. After the attainment of independence. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Universalization of Retention. 3. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Three Stages for Universalization. rights and responsibilities.

and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. later to 1988. 1990. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. then to 1976. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. present and future. UNESCO Bulletin states.3. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. Therefore.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. Write Article 45. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. educational enterprise. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. 1995 (for upper primary stage). So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. It is safe to assure. This target had to be revised to 1970. 138 .1.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools.

139 . 5. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. 3. 12. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. NAEP. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. and Women’s education programme should be improved. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. Emphasis must be given on health education. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. In order to make the programme of education for all community. 6. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Jams and Jellies. 9. 11. their social economic status and occupations. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Apart from primary education. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. problem of literacy. nutrition education and sports and games. slum areas. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. FELF. Disabled. 8.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. By undertaking survey. 3. their enrolment and retention. Education of Girls. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. sex. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. rural areas. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. Early childhood education should be streamlined.1. adolescent and adult.3. The Social Education.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. creed. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Education of the Impaired. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. etc. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. 10. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE).

Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.3. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.3.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.e. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.1. 4. 3.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Expand MLL and SSA . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Wastage and Stagnation.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . School Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. Social Factors .first stage of education. it is considered as wastage.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. Familial Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. Personal Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.

occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 7. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Define Wastage. 142 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. .

relating to home.The following factors. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.1. Personal Factors .5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Societal Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. rural or urban 3.3. Family Factors . are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. School Factors . in his home.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . They are described hereunder :1. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. school or society.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Define Stagnation? 9. mid-day meals. stationary. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. etc. 144 . uniforms.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

a. 4. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. 145 . 3. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. a.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. improvement of curriculum. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. 3. 6. Universalization of Retention 2. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.” 3.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. b.1. Universalization of Enrolment c. a. therefore.1. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment.3. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc.. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. “The State shall endeavour to provide. 2. Hartog Committee.1. 3. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. Universalization of Provision b. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. directed that. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA.

Sharma. Crescent Publishing Corporation.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Problems of Elementary Education. introduce graded curriculum. New Delhi: 146 .K. (2001). a. T. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Social Factors 8. (2008). S. b. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. a.1. S. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. improve examination system. School Factors d. 9. Hemchand. 3.7.N. (2007). Familial Factors c.K. Personal Factor b.

2.2.1 Problems of examination 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.2.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2.2.2 3.5.2.2.1 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.3.5.6.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.4.5.2.2.5.5.2 Grade System 3.4.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2.LESSON 3.2.3.4 Question banks 3.2.2.4.2.5 New evaluation procedures 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.7 Open book examination 3.5.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.5.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2.

8 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . 3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. Besides.2.2.3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.9 3.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. 4. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.2. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.2. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. 3. suggest the new evaluation procedures.2.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. 3. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.2. but on the other.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. you will be able to: 1. 3.3.2. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.

They develop secondary sex characteristics. schools for them wherever necessary. etc. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. etc. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. 3.2. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. etc. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement.. hostel facilities. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. They may cause problems relating to discipline.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. If the students are in sufficient number. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. 149 . 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage.3.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. The following steps should be taken up. roadside Romeoism. which the educational authorities have to face. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. waiting rooms for girl students.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.2. appointment of paper-setters. the examination system has an important role to play.4. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3.2. 3. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. conduct of internal examinations. public interested in education. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is considered as a major sub-system. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. assessment and Finance.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. public administrators and statesmen. 150 . teachers. Instruction.

2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. values. pursuing objective-oriented instruction.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. etc.printing and distribution of question papers. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. etc. examiners. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. announcement of results. scrutinizers. etc. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. payment of remuneration to paper-setters.2. tabulators. introducing objective-based testing. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. establishing reliability. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. 3. training of examiners. invigilators. etc. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. validity and practicability. etc.4.

make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. stereotyped questions.. 152 . Rote memorisation. takes the place of comprehensive learning. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. Vagaries in making. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. 7) In connection with the question papers. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. lack of objectivity etc. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education.2. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. 3) With respect to method of teaching. may also discredit them. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation.. do not appeal to the students and parents. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. 2) From the angle of content of education. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. Subjects. 3.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. which they are expected to study. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils.4. it s a common experience that subjectivity.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education.. halo-effect.

a part of internal assessment. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 4. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Spot valuation. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Question Books may be developed in all schools. revaluation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. may be introduced.. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . 153 . etc. re-numbering of answer scripts. List any two merits of examination. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests.develop true love for education.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination.

Every paper is treated equal. The students can take any course offered in any department.2.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. Their interests.3. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. attitudes. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .2. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success.5.2. In actual practice.5. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. 3. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. It is complicated. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. When a person chooses to work extra. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . skills are given importance. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. In this system. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. The new scheme of assessment. he is given extra credit points. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society.

instead of specifying number of paper/courses. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. 3. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. courses can have weightages defined. While designing syllabus. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. or as a 4 credit course.poor.good. v.5.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. In the new system. An example is a seminar. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses.2. poor. This system reduces comparison of marks. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. only the total credits to be earned is specified. These weightages are called credits. Groupism is encouraged.discipline.

156 .4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.2. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.2.5. 3. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. However. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.2. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency.5. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. 3. 3. the need for re-evaluation should not arise.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.5. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.

and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Therefore. 6. List any four new evaluation procedures. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.2. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . However. There are no proper procedures for selection.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. In the hierarchy. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.5. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.3. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. . setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. 3. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. recruitment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.

The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. qualifications.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. in contrast. 1.2. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. library books. school buildings. requirements. When they are fully realised. finding out whether the prescribed text. laboratory equipment. They are. staff. interpersonal relationships and so on. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. finding out the adequacy of. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. playgrounds. disciplinary problems. being realised as two different functions. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. submitting of the inspection reports.. etc. wherever necessary. Academic inspection. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties.6. books are followed. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. 158 . is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. in a sense. inspecting the class-room teaching. taking up the follow-up programmes. etc. There has been dearth of properly trained and well.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. whether the syllabus has been covered.qualified personnel. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. complaints and compliments. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. of late. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. 3..

or. 159 . course in either educational.Ed. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions.2. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. their professional knowledge. 3. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. Similarly. modern. In the light of these conceptualisation. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. once in five years. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. courses..Ed. M. In the case of departmental candidates. Insistence on specialisation in the B. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. at least. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. aptitude.. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors.

a. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India.2. Grade System. 3. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. d. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. assessment and Finance.2. c. 3.2. 160 . Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. 3. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. a.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Administration. Instruction. b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. b. b. 3. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. 2. a.

Problems of Education in India. b. Vaidya. Open book examinations. 3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. History and Problems of Education in India. R and Sharma. b. New 161 . (2005). Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Educational Reforms.4. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Question banks. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. (2004). a. 5. Multiple sets of question paper. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. K. (2002). c. 7. S.a part of internal assessment. b.2. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . a. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. K. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. a. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.

162 .3.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. analyze the general and vocational spectra.5 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.LESSON 3.4 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.2 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. 2.8 3.9 3.3.3. 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. identify the needs of rural India and social.3.3. 5.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3 3.6 3.3.3. you will be able to: 1.1 3.7 3. 4.3. 3.10 3.3.3.3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities. impact of Higher Secondary Education.

Consequent on the recommendations. The Calcutta Madras. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. etc.specialisation programmes 3.3. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. the Banaras Sanskrit College.. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission.. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates.e. Commission emphasised to continue. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education.3.. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. 2. i.. University Education. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. in Andhra Pradesh. The. and 3 years of First Degree Course. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. Similar is the case with some other States. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 .g. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges.e. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. e. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. 10 years of general Secondary Education. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. 8 years of general education.

It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. habits of hard work and develop . general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. educational channels. b. 5) to help for the social. who desire to change from one stream to another. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. and. 5. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. social. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. 3.confidence in students.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. to imbibe. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities.a sense of dignity of labour. However. is also a plus point . Provision for transfer of credits to students. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. 7. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. cultural and economic development of the country. 8. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. 10.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. economical and political. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. to prepare.3. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . 6. historical.

A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. international understanding. at the other. etc. cooperativeness. 1.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. Philosophically it is not the conception. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. social justice. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. Here the choice of subjects is provided for.. The General Educational Spectrum. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. Sociologically it is undesirable. and that required to enter the tertiary level. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone.3. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. 3. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Psychologically. and. on one hand.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. democratic living. to develop national character. cultural and' religious tolerance. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities.national integration. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level.

and vocations based on dairy-farming. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. technological. professional.3. 3. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. rural health. horticulture. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. India is a land of villages. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. commerce. commerce. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Commerce and other disciplines. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. In the vocational spectrum. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. Agriculture is the main occupation. All these need for an. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. medical plants. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. or other machinery. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. technical.— tube-wells. Biology. the rural areas have suffered very much. In the matter of language. vegetable growing. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. such as Agriculture. In our country. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. fish culture. industrial agricultural production is growing. physics or mathematics. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. Science. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. chemistry. 166 . 2. educational and cultural services. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced.

the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all.. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. There had been favourable reaction from the students. the local resources available. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? .etc. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. etc. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. In time. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and 5.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. 4. In this it may be concluded. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. social justice. In this way. can be ensured. and the needs. interests and aptitudes of the students. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 .. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

b.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.3.3. 3. objectives. Ltd. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. J. habits of hard work and develop . a. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. a.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Mohanty.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.K. Modern Trends in Indian Education. 3.C. (2007). N. J.3. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. we studied the history.a sense of dignity of labour. a. Dash. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. S. to imbibe. Vocational Sepctrum. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. (2008). General Educational Spectrum and b. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 2. Anmol Publications Pvt. 3. B.3. New Delhi : 168 . 3. Calcutta University Commission 2.3. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. (2005). (2001).

4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.10 3.4.LESSON 3.4.4.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.8 3.4.12 3.9 3.3 3.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3. Education contributes to human development.2 3.4. social and 169 .14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.4.4.4.6 3.4.4.5 3.4.4.1 3.4.7 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.13 3.4.11 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.

After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. economic. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. particularly 170 . the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades.4. Education . Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. Home Economics. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. In the post —independence period. Dr. Nursing. you will be able to: 1. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. During the year 1937. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. community and nation is universally acknowledged. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. The relevance of women’s education to social.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. analyze the women and distance education.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. While women constituted only 9. These courses were. 3. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend.4. cultural and political development of the individual. For the first time in the history of India.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. 3. Teaching and Fine Arts. There is a close connection between education and development. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. higher education of girls developed immensely. although we have miles to go. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. family.higher education in particular.

Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.D. levels and professions. Mother Teresa Women University. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. In the rest of the country.1 24. we have more than 1200 institutions.1 31.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. in our country. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.2 22.0 32.4.9 27.0 16.women.0 Today. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . Kodaikanal. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. In 1950-51. Yet.0 43. 3. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.4. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.4. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.65 lakhs in 1994-95.9 14. out of 9200 and odd colleges. The idea of women’s education for equality. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.N. Even today.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. 3. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.T Women University. Coimbatore.2 29. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Mumbai.

4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.66 66. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .54 12.that of boys.63 Female % 34.17 52.4%) prefer Arts subjects. 2.83 47.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .56 64. 3.73 10.1 and 14.47 65.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.46 82.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.53 34.27 89.4.44 35.36 3. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 respectively.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . 3. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.34 33. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .

Thus. Book banks should be established. what is the need for higher education for her. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. marriage is a very common I factor. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. In college. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. promoted and increased. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. 3. distance of the college or university from home. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. irrelevance of the content of education. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. she will only learn fashion. and coeducation may spoil her character. Also. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family.hinders the girls from getting higher education. financial difficulty of the parents. In every third family. They gave up their studies to enter home life. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. 173 . particularly. According to a survey. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it.4. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. etc. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. curriculum not suited to their requirements. The major hurdles. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided.

resources and socio . Empowerment in a nutshell.4. It is a productive investment. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. 3.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. is the only tool for realising empowerment. Education. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. 3. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. space. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Geographic distance of educational institutions. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. It also brings about 174 . which is the most dynamic factor of development.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Distance education is a boon to women. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. There are constraints of time. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Full-time employment. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face.economic disabilities faced by women. and the limitations of the conventional education system. It enables to study.4. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.

3. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. Women are partners in development. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. empowerment means being assertive. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. education of women is of paramount importance. on their own. Empowerment is an active. education of women must be given priority in national plans. This can be achieved through reflection. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. legal awareness and economic independence. The major objectives of women's higher education. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. higher learning. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. for full development of our human resources.4. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 .9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level.

UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. 176 . The educational institutions. has to be implemented at the earliest.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. Scholarships and concessions for women. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. especially so in the developing countries. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. But their number is small. The local administration.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. 3.4. will encourage them to venture new grounds. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. which is pending for a long time. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. who are eager to take up courses. Better opportunities. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. Reservation for women. which had been the sole domain of men.

3 percent. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. Australia.8%). especially in developing countries like African countries.. 3. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. capacities etc. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2.1%) and architecture and building (38. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . talents. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. IDP Education.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.9%). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. engineering and related technologies (16. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100.000 women in the country. Also. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. According to Lindy Hyam. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%).4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. But. Chief Executive. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests.

New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. (2005).14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. R. 3. (2008). SNDT Women’s University. 178 . community and the nation. create the right attitude towards life. and Swain. Mumbai. (2007). Women Education. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. A.4. SNDT Women’s University.C. R. 4.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. 2. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. Coimbatore. Pattanaikj. individuals and society b. Women and Education.4. Mishra.R. Rao. S.to the family. A. 3. a. Mumbai. (2000). 4. Kodaikanal. Centre for Women’s Studies. Rajasthan 5. Annakodi. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. R. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education.4. 43% 6. 3. Coimbatore. and Suryalatha. Women Education. Mother Teresa Women University. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3.K. S.

12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5.5.5 3.personality of children in and out of school. whole.5.5.5.1 3.5.7 3.5.5.6 3.4 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.LESSON 3.5.2 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.8 3.5.5.10 3.9 3.3 3. They should be trained.5.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5.11 3.

know the pre service and in service training facilities. list out the agencies of teachers education 3.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. 5. Shorter working hours. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. understanding and strong desire for international peace. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. you will be able to: 1. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. and national character. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. 3. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. international.5. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. understand the training teachers for Primary. 4. social and emotional integration.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. national consciousness. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. equality and justice. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. 180 . which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Lack of physical facilities.

Depending on the levels. If the student teachers are working teachers. 3. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. Inadequate training in practical skills. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. (NCERT) New Delhi. and M.5. and the collegiate teacher education.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. the secondary teacher education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. it is called the In-service teacher education.Less qualified teacher educators. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years.. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. At the diploma level.5. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. students. who have not been trained earlier. 3. inservice and extension education programmes. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. the centre. levels. a Diploma course and a Degree course.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Lop-sided curriculum. higher secondary teacher education. the primary teacher education. it is called the Extension teacher Education. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course.Ed. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate.Ed. the state Government. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 .. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. etc.

HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . etc. Science Education units. Education cells. extensio n service. depart ments etc. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 .Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. 3. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose .5. Evaluation unit. Educational teehnology cells. state Institutes of Educat ion. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. collegiate cells. Also Guidance Bureaux. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . non-formal. Expand NCERT 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. are established.. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training.

Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary.. which help breaking isolation from one another . to ensure teacher competence. to prescribe conditions for recognition.Ed. should be improved on a top priority basis. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. to improve curricular programmes. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . material conditions relating to libraries. and 183 . they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. despite its vast expansion.Ed. which should include experience in the primary schools too. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . laboratories. primary and secondary school teachers. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. audio visual aids.. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . degree. schools and sister institutions. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. to offer consultative services. and so on..

etc. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. etc. Meanwhile. Workshops. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. 184 . (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. though no pre-service training. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. Agriculture.secondary education. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Induction Courses. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. To meet this exigency. Organisation of Content Courses. Modern Methods of Evaluation. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. Hence. Psychology of Students. The problem. Modern Techniques of Teaching. whether they should have professional education or. and XII. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . methodology and evaluation. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. not came up once again.

Ed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations..D. Pre-service training is for those. 3.’s are elig ible for M. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Post-Graduates also undergo B.Ed...Ed. training. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. All B Ed.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. M. For re-orienting the teachers. Ajmer.. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. in Education..’s for Ph..Ed. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.Ed. Degree. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.Ed. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. These facilities are available for regular students. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. (Education) are organized by 185 . University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. State Institutes of Education. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. (Education) and M. Courses leading to B.5.A. Degree and M. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. courses and M.A.S. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.

they should be conscientious . Hence the employability of M. 5. 3. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. . (Ed). established by tradition and teachers of the past. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. 186 .A.5. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is the role of ERIC? .). Give your answer as instructed in each question b. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . and B. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . of conduct—written or unwritten. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.A. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. However..List any two code of conduct for teachers? . So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. (Ed. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. 6.

4. a. they should be conscientious.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The necessity is however this. Explain code of conduct for teachers. 3. 187 . Ajmer. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. b. 3. National Council of Educational Research and Training. b. 5. 3. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. 4. Bhopal. a. 6.5.5. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 2. Discuss the problems of teacher education. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. However. Shorter working hours.3. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. a. these problems are not as such cannot be solved.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. Dearth of new technology of teaching. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. 2.5.

and Teacher Education. P. Ltd Aggarwal. Teacher Education. Publication Pvt. (2010).D. J. (2003).N.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. (2009). A. Mohanty.3. B.5. Corporation. Teacher Education. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . Tewari.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

In lesson 4. The person’s environment is equally important. economic and educational developments. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. the focus is on the school health programmes. 191 . objectives. common ailments of children. If the diet is poor. Lesson 5 explains the meaning.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. consuming the right amounts becomes important. objectives and role of the physical education. Since food is the source of nutrients. In lesson 1. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. objectives. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. communicable diseases and their prevention. nutritional deficiency diseases. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. preservation of nutrients.

192 .

LESSON 4.2 4.1.1.1 4.7 4.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.1.1.9 4.4 4.8 4.10 4. 193 . They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1.e.3 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.6 4.1. physical.1. The programmes of school health education are quite important.11 4. mental. emotional and social.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. for giving health education to the children under its custody. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1. It is a miniature society.1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1.5 4.

To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. 2. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. 194 . 4.1. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. 11. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. 8.. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. understand school health programmes 2. 4.g. e. 10. 3. you will be able to: 1. cleanliness and healthful living.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 6. 7. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. know the need for sex education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 5. training of teachers and evaluation. to his family and to the community at large. 4. To develop healthy health habits among children. To give information regarding health rules.1. explain the importance of First aid 5. To develop certain skills concerning health. list the common ailments of children 3. content of health education.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. 9. Instruction. training in first aid and etc. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation.

( iii) sanit at io n. is imperative. excusing late. direct lighting. (ii) communit y healt h. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. etc. organisation of school health days. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. The school buildings should be spacious. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. (xl) mental health. 2.coming or absence. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. B.. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. as described below 1. 3. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. (vi) nutrition education. proper doors and windows. Triple Antigen Vaccination. (xii) smoking education etc. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided.G. vaccination. Arranging better transportation facilities. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. minimizing the travelling distance. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. “Play-for-all” programmes. 5. Vaccination for small pox. suitable furniture. There should be good drainage facilities. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. The surroundings of schools should be clean.4. B. inoculation against cholera. 2. play festivals. cleanliness weeks.C. There should be regular water supply. First aid facilities should be made readily available. 4. (viii) first aid.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A.1. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings.. (v) safety education. typhoid. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. The flooring should not be damp. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 .

scalds. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. • Have adequate rest and sleep. dislocations. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. cuts. wounds. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. • Close the schools. drowning. • Take nutritious food. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. etc. D. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. if epidemic is wide-spread. and other accidents.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. C. • Find out the cases. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes.. sports and games in the interest of their health. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. fainting (epileptic fit). • When sleeping in groups. insect stings. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. • Keep all rooms clean. poisons. bleeding. fractures. isolate and notify. 196 . burns.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. cough. 4. asthma. 2. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. polio. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. backache. which are – cold. tuberculosis.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. Mention the school health programmes. fever. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. 4. water or bodily contact. pain in the joints.. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. These diseases are called communicable diseases.1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. headache. They have less resistence to diseases than adults.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. They are: i) The incubation stage. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. List out the Health curriculum 3. There are three stages in any communicable disease. chicken pox. measles etc.1. So they easily get illnesses. Once these germs get into the body. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease.

In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Tonsilitis . cough and fever. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Measles . Mumps . unhygienic bottle feeding. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body.When a child suffers from scabies. Hence liquid diet is recommended. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. eating food which is not clean. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. 198 . Diarrhoea . After three or four days of fever. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. head-ache and cough. Others make the children very weak. Common Cold . Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Ear Infections . The following are the common communicable diseases. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Scabies . unhygienic living conditions. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Hence it is called a killer disease.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Throat is affected. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. This is caused by cold virus.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. etc. sugar and water.This disease is caused by bacteria.It is caused by measles virus.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. The symptoms include cold. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. The child may have fever. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Important salts and water are lost in this process. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Diphtheria . They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Typhoid . These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. It begins with fever. 5. the child may die. face and waist. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. the child is not able to breathe. 199 .This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. Expand DPT . Shortly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. raised pink spots appear on head. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. If proper treatment is not given.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. By scratching he causes secondary infections. What are communicable diseases? 6. Enlist the common ailments of children. The child may also have diarrhoea. As the disease progresses.• • • • Chicken Pox . So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. separate.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor.

fainting. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. snakebites. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. Wounds . Sex is popular. and films. fiction. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. sprains. simple fractures. Drowning . exciting and body-oriented. 4. wounds. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. In such cases. films and jokes. it is a subject of art.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in.1. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. swelling. Sprains . bruises. drowning.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. man-woman behaviours. 4. etc. and Community Work and Social Service. dislocation. eye injury. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. 5. 200 . sprains. head injury.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. so-called sex books and periodicals.1. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. It has its rightful place in education too.4. cuts. 3. bleeding. 2. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. Cuts and Bruises . which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. scorpion stings.g. It is both biological and psychological.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.

it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. celibacy are age. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . but preserve them from disaster and disease. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. The home. the school. try experimenting with their bodies. In secondary schools. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. health. in their ignorance. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. the religious organisations. they would be treading the path of sure doom. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. Hence. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught.. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge.old values. B. Should the boys and girls.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. The values of life. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. 3. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. sex education is being recommended in schools. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. In today's liberal and interactive society. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. 2. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it.

3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. hence. C. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. first aid and sex education. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. Teacher education institutions are. 202 . when the courses are already overloaded. common ailments of children. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now.1) 2) 3) as a separate course.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. communicable diseases and their prevention. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. there will no crisis in its implementation. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised.1. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. What are the major components of Sex Education. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. 4. the school health programmes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the food nutrients 2. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. 209 . List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

But how do we select these foods? The major aim. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4.2. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. 210 . These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. minerals. Let us talk about each of these aspects.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.4.2. If you look at the definition carefully. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s .

Even within given States there is considerable variation. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. moderate or heavy work. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e.2. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. it is also specific to a given activity level . for example. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. activity level and physiological stress. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). the social and religious practices of that region.one in the morning and the other at night. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. These are: region where the person resides and income. sex. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. In the case of adults. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. 4. People in the east of our country prefer rice. Preferences/customs are also important. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. In other words. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety.g. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress).6.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. paratha and poori. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. A balanced diet is specific firstly. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. There is no point. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati.sedentary.g. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . construction labourer). In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. dosa are typical of the south. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems.

Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. taboos related to food may play an important role. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. income plays a vital role. as important for the rich as for the poor. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. Even among flesh foods. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. Judicious selection of food is. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. However. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. vegetables and fruits. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. In addition to these. These determine the acceptability of foods. One person may be fond of milk products. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. customs. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. however. however. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods.planning the diet. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. however. for example. One must. fat and sugar tend to increase. As you read this discussion. If you think of your own religious group. Having more money. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. nuts and dry fruits. while another may hate them. Including these 212 . You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Among the social factors. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. As income increases. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal.

3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 213 . don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. but they should be thrown away. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. green leaves. 17. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. over-eating or under.eating is hazardous. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. if the teachers have good food habits. meat. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. mouth. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. eggs . 8. For this. fruits. Define balanced diet. List out any two healthy food habits. 8) Walk a while after eating. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. etc.

Discuss good food habits. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Corneal xerosis. Conjuctival xerosis. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Vitamin D 5.2. e. 4. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Explain food nutrients 4.4. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. a. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. preservation of nutrients. When the diet is inadequate.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Night blindness. Keratomalacia 3. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. d. Bitot’s spots. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 .2. good nutrition is essential for good health.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. c.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.2. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. 4. Beri Beri 4. b. In fact. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.

8. Nutrition and Dietetics. (2009). Health and Nutrition Education. Nutrition Science. (2004). S. minerals. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. 4. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. (2005). (2008). Hands. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 .6. a . mouth. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. Sri Lakshmi B. P. Chopra. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. A Text Book of Foods.C.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum.2. a. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.N. Food and Nutrition Education.M. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . (2008). 7. b. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Food and Nutrition Education. R. R. b. Food should be consumed after eating well.

3.6.3.LESSON 4.1 Impact on social development 4.6.3.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.2 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.12 4.3 4.11 4.3.3.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.7 4.5 4.3.10 4.4 4.3.3.6.8 4.3 Impact on Education 4.1 4.3.3.3.3.3. 216 .3.3.13 4.9 4.

There is some difference. population characteristics. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. 4. describe the impact of population growth on social. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. objectives and need for population education 2. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. you will be able to: 1. 4. It is a much wider co ncept. the causes of population change. understand the importance of small family norm 5. family planning and sex education etc.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. his societ y and the world. community. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning.3. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as.4. therefore.3. Whenever we talk of sex education. state the meaning. and the consequences of these processes. Population Education. his family. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. 217 . aims at providing the younger generation.3. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. It is not sex education.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. characteristics and changes for himself. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. economic and educational development 3. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the stress is.

5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . the society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Population Education 2.3. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. the nation and the world. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. the family.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any two objectives of Population Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. 4.

the family programmes are also handicapped.3. 4. With the larger families. When the family is small. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. 4. health and happiness of its citizens. economic and educational development of the country. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. which will not be possible without population control. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. 219 . Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty.3. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Every second two thousand children are being born.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems.6. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Family is considered as a social unit. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare.

lack of proper health care. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. are the results of demographic pressures on social life.6. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. unemployment. in parks and other places of public gatherings. pollution of the environment. 4. facility for drinking water.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. i. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. heavy intern I migration etc.. toilets. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production.6. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. teacher index.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy.3. Swollen cities. Many students herded in a small room. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. 4. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development.e. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. in cinema halls and theatres. organization index and material index. in buses and trains. and so on. The gulf between them is widening further. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. 220 . In developing countries. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.3.

Regional Language.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. 221 . There would be very few audiovisual aids. and laboratory equipments. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. family planning etc. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. bar graphs etc. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. essays. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. less budget for education. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. thus. even text books would be in short supply. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. less space facilities. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. Social Studies Statistics on population education. can be taken up. Hindi and English..3. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. can be studied in science and health education. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. reproduction. blank verses etc. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There would be poor library facilities. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

7. 4. Brazil. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Uttar Pradesh. 8. Bihar. Children with the help of parents. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 14. United States of America. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Canada. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . West Bengal. 10. 5. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. 3. 11. deaths. 15. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves.4. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. 13. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan.3.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. area and average density of population. China. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. 9. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 12. causes of deaths etc. 2. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Children may compare two families. They may arrange them as per average density of population.

It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education.be opened in their schools. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. age at marriage. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. 18. values and role children etc. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. The question. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village.3.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. preferences for sex. 17. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. we have no right to stop 223 . Comparing life in various respects in two families. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 16. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

on an overall basis. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. which education can only do. Since the program's inception. and the child survival components of the news: program. at varying places in different regions.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3.were implemented 224 .3. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.to emphasize family planning services. especially the expansion of child immunization services .4 births per woman in mid-1990s..4-6. 4. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. More than 45 years ago. however. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. “He who is responsible for population growth. continued .sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. The Family Welfare Program. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.their entry into the world”. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.

In April 1996. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. the community appears willing to pay for services. Local programs vary in their approaches. Therefore. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. and the World Conference on Women. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. expansion of services to unmarried women. At these meetings. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. reliance on local women as community health workers. and nominal fees for services. Moreover. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. men. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. a focus on health promotion. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. In October 1997. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers.earlier than the safe motherhood components.

The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. 3. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. involving the community. Describe the impact of population growth on social.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. family.emphasizing the needs of the client. nation and the world. 4.3. 226 . community. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. Its main purposes are to create awareness. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. 1997). What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. What are the goals of RCH? 4.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. economic and educational development 4.

13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. 4. less budget for education. 3. China. a. Canada. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified.” 2. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. area and average density of population. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union.3. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. 227 . and the consequences of these processes. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. 6. his society and the world. 7. United States of America.4. characteristics and changes for himself. bar graphs. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. less space facilities. 5. a. population characteristics. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. his family. the causes of population change. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. b. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. b. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Brazil. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population.

4. (2005). Bhende. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Ltd. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Reddy. N. Coimbatore. (2002). (2004). Modern Problems of Education. Principles of Population Studies.3. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. J. 228 . New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). Centre for Women’s Studies. Modern Trends in Indian Education.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Kantikar. Jayapoorni. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. (1992). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. V. A. Udaiveer.K. T.

1 Minor games 4.6 4.3 4.LESSON 4.4.7 4.4.4.10 4.8.4.4.4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3 Indigenous games 4.8.2 Major games 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.2 4.4.4.11 19.4.8.9 4.4.4.4.4 4.5 4.8.1 4.4.4.4 Lead up games 4.4.

full records of physical activities should be maintained. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. classify the different types of games. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. you will be able to: 1. mental alertness. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities.4.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. leadership and balance in defect. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. team spirit. social fitness. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. moral fitness and emotional fitness. perseverance. as it should 230 . Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. The concept of physical education has been made broader.4. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness.4. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. the youth of the country. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. 4. which forms its most valuable assets. 4. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications.4.

obedience to rules. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. They are inseparably united together. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Every individual is a part of society. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. To be more precise. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. The educational efforts at home. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. team spirit. leadership. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Therefore. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. They go hand in hand. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education.

physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical.4. pleasing manners. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. a sound health. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. Regarding the significance of physical education. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. 4.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. Physical exercises. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. ment al.” The Secondary Education Commission. game and sports. Rousseau states. Just like Education. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. H. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences.” Montaigue writes. nor body but the whole man. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. mo ral. C. Buck has observed that 232 .

endurance. speed. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. resourcefulness and smartness.” 4. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully.4.a properly directed physical education should result in health. 233 . “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. Froebel says. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. flexibility and power.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. “If we wish to develop the whole being. coordinative abilities.” In brief. strength. etc. initiative. happiness. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. we must exercise the whole human being. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. efficiency and character. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. elegance.

in greater or lesser degree. Tournaments foster this sentiment. these fundamental things have always been present. systems of government. plagues and famines. its adherents and its enemies.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. While wars. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. including all racial groups and historical ages. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. they may form gangs. 234 (i) (ii) .” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. poetry and painting. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Every age has its artists. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students.

\ to develop perseverance. bravery and interest in games and sports. to develop tolerance. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. self. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. 235 . B. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. 3. Write any two importance of Physical Education.sacrifice. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. obedience. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. respect for rules. etc. 2.

12. 10. 8. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Usually parents. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. 236 1. . 16.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 2.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Be well-prepared. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 7. Be punctual. Inform health principles. Haag. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. 15. 9.4. defects. 4. Be in the uniform. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.4. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 13.H. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 3. and readmission after they have recovered. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Keep the field ready for the activities. 6. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. 14. is essential. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Be self-confident. 4. Act as a leader. injuries among pupils should be made.4. students. Always keep the whistle ready. and. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Posture screening should be done. Be sportive. 11. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 5.

4.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. their development is handicapped. Moreover. less equipment and less expense. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. Lead up games. frolic and jo y. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. 237 . 1. 2. the play.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. As such they are well enjoyed by children. chasing. Such inst incts as imitation.8. Indigenous games. 3. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. 4. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. 4.

They are rules approved by the International Associations. spiking. 4.. benefit in playing minor games. Ball Badminton. over ball pass Relay. On lawns. Jump the stick clay and so on. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Except a few games. muffling. Throwing. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Cricket. couple tag. These games require varied skills such as running. Volley Ball. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. boosting. trapping. dribbling. pitching. The dimension of the posts and nets. the games can be modified according to convenience. 238 . the play equipment. Kabaddy etc. wherever the kids assemble. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. on mountain tops and on river beds. under ball pass Relay. Jumping. women take part most of the games. heading. While many of them are played in the open playfields. skipping. Khokho. Tennikoit. driving. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. They are played for a shorter duration. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. some of them are played indoors. catching. snatching the kerchief. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Hockey. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. bowling etc. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. hitting. Basket Ball.4. Dodging. on hard courts. stopping. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. finding the partner. on sea-shore. with implements or without implements. zig zag relay. Hopping. For each game the rules are many. Soft Ball. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. the number of players and substitutes. Shuttle Badminton. Tennis.With a very few rules.8.

An example for indigenous game is 8. For example.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. and . 7. List out some major games. Kho-kho. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. they are in existence. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.4. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. these games being popular. All the fundamental tactics. birth. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. On occasions like marriage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . These games find their places in the high school activity programmes.4. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. festivals connected with religion and public functions.4. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.8. death. Games may be classified as 6. They have an abundant social value.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. While observing the players in action. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. 4.

Minor and Major 240 . to secure physical health b.4. physically and emotionally fit and alert. 4. b. a. b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. 4. 2. 4. d.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. a. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. to develop physical stamina. a. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.4. c. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. a. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. aims and objectives and need of physical education. Posture screening should be done. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. 5. 4. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. 2. 3.4. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must.4. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 3. the role of physical education teachers and types of games.

(2008). Cricket.C. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Krishna murthy. Foot-ball. Handbook of Physical Education. Shuttle Badminton. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.4. J. G. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Health. Kabaddy 7. Aggarwal. Soft Ball. Physical Education and Sports.6. J. Ltd. 241 . New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Tennikoit. J. (2009). (2008). New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Tennis. Ball Badminton. Basket Ball. Khokho 8. Volley Ball. Khokho. 4. (2005). Mohanty.K. Hockey.

9 4.8 4.5.5.5.LESSON 4.1 Natural Environment 4.5.5.5.5.5.5.4 4.5.2 4.10 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.1 4.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.7 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5.5.6 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.11 4.3 4.5.5.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.2 Manmade Environment 4.

To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Awareness. 3.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. Attitude. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 5.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. 6.5. role of teacher in environmental conservation. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. political. Knowledge. 4. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. economic. Participation. 243 . list out the types of environment 3. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Skills. you will able to: 1. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4.5. 2. education about the environment and education through the environment. 2. 4. social. Evaluation Ability. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. The best place to start such learning is school. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors.5. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. it covers the following elements: 1. Essential knowledge about the Environment. 4. Details are given below: I. population explosion and resource depletion could be. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.educat ion for the environment. aesthetic and educational factors. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. Broadly.

244 . D. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. a. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. 2. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. • Biological magnification E. F. Oxidants Other pollutants. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle.B. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C.

Control of population growth a. Sterilisation. 4. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. 3. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. c. III. The pill ii. Abortion iv.3. Use of medical science i. B. Birth control through education b. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . 2. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Intrauterine device iii. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Persuasion: i. The human ecosystem II. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Family planning ii. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. 2. economic. Socio-economic measures. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1.

b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. 3. 246 . Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. (UNESCO. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. e) Recycling. Air pollution abatement ii. Define Environmental Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Water pollution abatement. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. 1983). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3.

This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.5. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. 4. -other.5. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. They interact with each. Any constituent or condition of the environment.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 .5. way is called environmental or ecological factor. He modifies according”. animals and other organisms (biotic). satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. A change in one brings about a change in the other. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. telex. b.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. to his needs.4. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. includes the plants. fax agricultural apparatus. a.5.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.other components of the environment. These are biotic components.5. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. Biological environment The biological environment.5.

alternate sources of energy. maintaining the ecological diversity.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. social studies. natural way of controlling pests. effects o f CFC. sources. change in climate may be added. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. use of medicinal plants.. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. evolution. use of pesticides. windmills. balance of nature. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. water scarcity. nuclear warfare. are the topics which may be taught in History. supplying timber for various uses. (ii) Air pollution. need for bio-diversity. need for conservation. biogas plants. role of trees in building economy. reasons. preventing siltation of dams. population. industrial survey. explosion deforestation. desertification 248 . solar cookers. trees reducing noise pollution. preserving the watersheds. effects. excellent recreation sites. relation between population and pollution. acid rain. noise control. ozone depletion. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. nuclear energy. ozone layer deplet ion. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. etc. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. sources of pollut ion. importance of nitrogen cycle. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . etc. greenhouse effect. of civilizations. extinction of species. History The rise and fall. over exploitation of ground water. industrial pollut io n. river systems. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. wars and hazards of war. air pollutants from industries. t heir role in preventing pollution. noise pollution. mineral survey. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. food chain and food-web.

Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. 8. 4.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 2. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. 12. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Organising conferences.5. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. group discussions and seminars. 11. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 9. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. 4. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 249 . Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 5. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Peepal and Tulsi. animal and plants. 3. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 7. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Providing. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. 6. 10. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology.may be inc ded in Geography. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 14. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. aims and scope. 13. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community.

as the smoke may contain polluting gases. all these can cause serious pollution. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Don’t burn any waste. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. 5. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Use public transport wherever it is possible. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. used oils down the drain. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal.Send their waste oil. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. it will cause pollution. World Environmental falls on 250 . Reuse carrier bags. especially plastics. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. If it is done. Never put any left over chemicals. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden.

To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. To arrange visits or expeditions. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. etc.. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. orderliness and beauty). Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. deforestation.mat erials. diversity and stability. CFCs. The groups may exchange. Social responsibilit y (common good. and 251 . loss of bio-diversity. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. viz. Concern for species.). To arrange for visiting speakers. potable water. etc.5. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. nuclear wars. To provide reference materials for children’s use. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Conservation of natural resources. rather than conquest and mastery. Att itudes of balance towards nature.4. values and habits. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. developing desirable attitudes. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . depletion of ozone. To provide materials needed for practical work. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. dest roying nat ural habitats. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. (cleanliness. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. Harmony with the nature . To discuss the approach to problems or topics.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. concern for others).

Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. 4. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. 8.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. 252 .5. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. preserving natural cycles. 4.

a. Udaiveer. Awareness. b. To provide reference materials for children’s use. New Delhi : Sharma. (1997). Modern Problems of Education. Organising conferences. S. Social responsibilit y (common good. T. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Knowledge. Publications Pvt.2. importance of nitrogen cycle. population. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. new problems from science and technology. 4. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise.K. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Environment and Human Rights.. b. Environmental Education. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. explosion deforestation.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. reasons. effects. S. a. Y. Environmental Education. (ii) Air pollution. (2004). new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. concern for others). 5. Rapid population growth. Providing. Education for values. b. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. sources. ozone layer deplet ion. 3. air pollutants from industries. a.K. June 5 7. 6. (2007). b. sources of pollution. a.K. relat ion between population and pollution. greenhouse effect. Anmol Publications Pvt. Nanda. acid rain. water scarcity.5.K. To provide materials needed for practical work.\ 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Ltd. (2007). 8. Ltd. over exploitation of ground water. group discussions and seminars. Kuldeep. New Delhi : Authors Press.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. Universal Education. in fact. should be universal in nature. man is essentially a moral being. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. According to Rusk'. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. It is self-realisation. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. Spiritual Development.3.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. inviolable and hence holy life” In short." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Education according to idealism. enrichment and transmission of culture.1. The universe is regarded as a thought process.” 5.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. Therefore. the emancipation of spirit. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. promote and transmit it to rising generation.our life. moral. Education must contribute to development of culture.

Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage.3. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. 4.” He is thus. According to idealism. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. Learning through questioning. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. and collation (striving) should find due place. hygiene. It considers teacher as. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. He sets the environment in which education takes place. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. affecting (feeling). Philosophy. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only.3. Mathematics etc. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. no doubt. 5. 5. History. so subjects like Religion. Learning through discussion. For this no particular method has been suggested.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. Learning through reading.1. However. Ethics. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. 3. So cognition (knowing). an indispensable necessity. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. So he should embody. a spiritual guide for the child. According to Frobel. Learning through imitation. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . 2. friend and guide. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. So health.” 5. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. subjects like Languages. He carries the child from darkness to light. For intellectual development. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. The plant can grow. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. Learning through lecturing.the spiritual qualities of mankind. should be there. Science. Herbert advocated instruction method.1. the school is a garden.

Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.perfection and beauty. Ross explains.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.1.1. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. text books. 2. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. 5.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. curricula. Perfection of Human Machine. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. "Education should make 263 • . formal lessons or examinations. time tables.4. 5. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. In the words of Ross.preservation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.

“Education finds its purpose. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Arithmetic. Literature. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. 4. Zoology. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. rational harmoniously balanced. In all. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Botany etc Language. is based on the nature of the child. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. It emphasises physical and health education 5. therefore. 264 .o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Therefore.1. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Biology. • 5. Education should. Naturalistic curriculum. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Chemistry. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. It stresses basic sciences. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. There is no place for religious and moral education. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. subjects like history.4. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. geography should also be included in the curriculum. useful and mature child. education should develop the child into Joyous. It is based on the psychology of the child.

The main aim of Naturalism is & 4.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning.1. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. he should be taught by experience alone.4.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Heuristic method. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Learning through observation. Rousseau says. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. 2. It discards all rigid. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. 5. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.1. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. 3. a supplier of materials and opportunities. the stage. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. Dalton Plan. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Learning by doing.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Learning through experience.5.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. 4. In the . a provider of an ideal environment.

All Round Development of an Individual.1.1. The aim of educational development. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Agriculture. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Continuous Growth. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. History. 5. Social Science. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Social Efficiency. Subjects.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. The individual has not only to adjust himself.5. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Sciences. is true. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Geography. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. intellectual. Personal Social Adjustment. diversified and flexible. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency.5. Physical training. 5. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Vocational and 266 . social and moral aspects.absolutism of idealism. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life.

a senior partner and a sincere guide. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. should find proper place. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. He has to be active. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment.1. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.1. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Learning by Doing. alert and resourceful.” 5.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.Technical Education. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. The subjects. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child.5. He must be trained. 5. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .5. a teacher occupies an important position. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.

Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Psychology. Education is preparation for a complete living. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Chemistry. liberal. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society.1. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. practical. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. literary or humanistic education. Sex Education.6. specific. Art. intellectual. scientific and psychological education. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. 4. Study of Subjects like Language. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. rich and happy. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. 4.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. The basic tenets of realism are 1. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. 5. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing.1.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Population Education. 2.1.5. 3. Music and Dance. Crafts.6. 2. Literature. 3. Satisfaction of individual and social needs.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Biography Philosophy. Astrology. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. 5. Mathematics. Biology. It favours child-centered. History. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. 5.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .1. certainly and clearly.1.6.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.6.5. easily and pleasantly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.

Rousseau 5. a. naturalism. c. d. Learning through lecturing. Self preservation & Self expression 4. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Learning through reading. Self Realisation b. 3. Learning through experience b. Child centered c.5.1. Geography.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Learning through questioning. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. a. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Physical training. a. 6. in this lesson. History.1. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Agriculture. Experimentation d. e. Learning through imitation. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Learning through discussion. 5. Social Science. Tours / Excursion e. & curriculum. Sciences. Languages. pragmatism and realism. Universal Education 2. b. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.1. has no end other than growth. Education according to pragmatism. 5.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Vocational and Technical Education.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. 5.

Publishing corporation. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. N.P. P. Ltd. 271 . K. (2007). Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. P. Theory and Principles of Education. Pahuja. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi : Bhatia. O. (2004). New Delhi : A. Foundations of Education.5. (2003).1.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Narang C. Anmol Publications Pvt. R. (2007). K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. L. of Pathak.P.H.

1 5.LESSON 5.2.2.3 Methods of Teaching 5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2 5.3.3.2 Curriculum 5.5.5.2.3.2.2.4.2.3.2.2.3.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2.4 Views about teacher 5.2.4.4.2.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.4.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2.4 Views about teacher 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2.2 Curriculum 5.3.2.1 Aims of Education 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.5.3 Methods of teaching 5.2.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .4.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.

we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.8 5. an artist. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. 5.5.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.2. mind and spirit. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.2.7 5.2.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. economic and political reconstruction in our country.2. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.4 Role of the teacher 5.2. 273 . content and methods. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.2. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. Tagore was a poet. Gandhiji was primarily a social. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. 5. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.5. you will able to: 1. 2. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.6 5.2. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. 3. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.

Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. mind and soul of children He further observed. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. 5.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. 274 . He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect.supporting. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. self-restraint and service of humanity. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. nor the gross animals body. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. 'Man is neither mere intellect. His scheme of education is life centred. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour." Dignity of Labour. through life and for life. righteousness. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. In the words of Gandhiji. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. strength of mind. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. "I attach more. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. It really provides opportunity for character building. it is education of life.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor.2.3.

Individual and Social Aims.Training for Leadership. General Sciences. Art. Only good individual forms a better society.2. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. leather work have been suggested. 5. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations.3. Music.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. According to Gandhi. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Mother-tongue. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Drawing and Hindustani. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. development of the whole all were directed: towards. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. metal work. the realization of the ultimate reality. "Development of the moral character.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . gardening. wood work.

Basic education is other wise known as 4. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. proficient. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.3. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. men of 276 . Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.trained. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.

he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. 3. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Education must be child centered. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.knowledge. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education.3.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. 5. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. That is why. He also advocates freedom for the child.

His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. 5.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. He was deadly against untouchability. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.2. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. he was a true Vedantist 5.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. He was a true patriot.4. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.” Like all other ideals. • Cult of non-violence.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.K. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. He believed in the oneness of humanity.2.2. Gandhi in 1937. • Education should involve manual work. • Ideal of citizenship.3. 5.

Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. the more dedicated and devoted. them solve problems of day to day life. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Religion and Psychology. (vi) Philosophy. International understanding. sentiment. wider in range. Civics. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Geography. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. International Understanding. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. he said. "Mankind must realise a unity. Therefore. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. That way only. deeper in.4. 279 . It should help the learner have good physique. It should help.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . complete manhood could be attained. stronger in power than ever before.2. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Music. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. could help in forging unity among all. Dance. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Botany. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Chemistry. Zoology. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. etc. Tagore said. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in.Language and Literature .

4. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there.2. In 1921. Activity Method Heuristic Method." 5. 5. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. 280 . It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.2. Tagore rightly says. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”.4.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.2. 5. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.4. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.” He further says. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child.

Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.g. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. It is open to all irrespective of country. 9.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. 10. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. race. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. 281 .

prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Purity of thought." He was against the theoretical type of education. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.5. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Book learning. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. 3.” 5.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. According to him. 4. Education for Self-reliance. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all.2. Freedom. Education for Self-realization. 2.2. man making. Concept of Education. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 .5. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Education should make a person self-reliant. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Education for strong Moral Character. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. work and deeds come out of it.

he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. 5. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. Of course. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. The teacher should be the facilitator. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts.5. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other.2. Religion. A physically strong person is the need of the society.5.5. engineering and technical subjects. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . And above all. Secondly he wanted Science. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Education for Physical Development. 5.the learners on different students in the discussion. Swami. 6. 5. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Discussion Method. That will serve the purpose of education fully.2. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Every individual should be trained for concentration.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Thirdly he wished that games. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Philosophy and Theology.2.5. 283 . philosopher and guide to the students He.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta.

Gandhiji as a Idealist. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. 2. in this lesson. Write short notes on Basic education.6 LET US SUM UP We have. and pragmatist .” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. 3. ears and eyes. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. Their educational ideas.Substantiate your answer. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people.2. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. 284 . of course. naturalist. 12. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. legs. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. We have seen that Tagore. 5.2.

Ideal of citizenship. a. wood work. Basic education. gardening. 5.2. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. c. Technique of Correlation 6. 9. 1937 7. Explain Vishwabharathi. Self realization. Debate and Discussion Method. Self-Study b. Cult of non-violence. Learning by Doing c. leather work have been suggested. a. c. Teaching while Walking b. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. 2. metal work. 8. d. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. 11. b. Activity Method d. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. f. Meditation and concentration c.4. Discussion Method 285 . productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 3. 10. 5. a. a. 5. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. e. Education should involve manual work. Activity Method b. Nai Talim 4. Heuristic Method.

Theory and Principles of Education. P. L. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Aggarwal. Foundations of Education. Ltd. C. New Delhi : A. Publishing Corporation. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Dhiman. Pahuja. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. N.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. K. K and Narang C. (2003).H. (2002). (2007). on Bhatia. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 286 .2. P. J. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.5. Anmol Publications Pvt. N. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. O. B. (2007).P. (2004).

3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3 5.10 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.11 5.3.3.3. In this lesson. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .7 5.9 5.3.8 5.3.3.3.LESSON 5.3.3.2 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.4 5.3.5 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.6 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.1 5.3.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.

curriculum. you will be able to: 1. While education is a process. Since the demands. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . in fact . 5. the desert area. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. curriculum signifies situations for learning. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. In it. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. While education is learning. the plateau area and 288 . 5.. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’.3. living in the hilly area. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. In the former sense. in Russia or in Japan. new behaviour may be acquired. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. there is a large number of communities. Both the processes are integrated. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. Then in a big country like India. state the meaning of curriculum 2. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. in the form of new experience. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture.3. From the latter point of view. in the U. In the words of Kerney and Cook. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. the plain area. it is identical wit h socializat ion.A. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. One is the individual process and the other is the social process.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.under the direction of the school.S. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. Curriculum is intimately related to education. present behaviour may be modified. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. maintained or eliminated. is a means to the process. A g o o d curricu lu m. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4.3.

A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. It must differ from locality and from society to society. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. democratic and socialistic country. and 289 . physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. customs and needs. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. irrespective of their needs and environment. However. Again. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. according to modern trends in the educational process. Besides craft. too. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way.3. From a slave-country we became secular. it is. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. therefore. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. environment. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. studying therein. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. the learning capacity of children. differs from individual to individual. In fact . We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. 5. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded.

Knowledge Objective. Understanding Objective. e. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.g. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. tangible. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. which may or may not be attained. Goals of Secondary Education. specific. of classroom. etc. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery.. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. Application Objective. e. National Integration. The word “Curere” means 2.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed.. in instructional objectives. Goals of Primary Education. 4. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. aims. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. eg. Vocational Efficiency. remote or immediate..6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. they depend on the political. Self Realisation. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. uninspiring and unscientific... social. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. unsatisfactory. emotional. So it is inadequate. social. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. general or specific.g. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. They are achievable. They are visionary goals e. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. etc. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. 1. They speak of immediate purposes of education. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. moral. They speak of perfect goals. 5. individual or Social and so on. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . 2. unambiguous and functional. They may be ultimate or proximate. 290 . aesthetic and spiritual development. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived.g. 3.3.

Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children.5. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. on the playing fields. Crow and Crow remarks. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. abilities. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. capacities. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. but it includes the totality of experiences. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. in the class rooms. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. The old and prevalent curriculum is under.3. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit.” 291 . The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. The interests. needs. finding them very interesting and captivating. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. According to Crow and Crow. educationists. heavy fire.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. Raymont rightly says.

moral. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. mental. capacities and abilities. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. time in a useful manner. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. urges. Due to these variations and differences.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. aptitudes. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. They often waste it or rather kill it. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. tendencies.

development of professional capability at all levels. Similarly. phased preparation. 293 . elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. 3. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. organized. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel.curricular. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. To ensure success of the process.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. administrative programme need be planned. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. 2. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes.

5. principles of curriculum construction. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Run. a. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. 1937 19.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Relation with Life c. 12. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . 10. 11. laboratory. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. workshop. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee.3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. library. Child Centred Education b.3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. 17. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. in the class room. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 18.3. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. 5.

5. P. (2007). S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Curriculum and Instruction. and Sarita Kumari. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. Bhalla. D. New Delhi : Authorspress. (2001).S. New Delhi : Isha Books. 295 . N.3. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Lakshmi. Innovations in Education. (2007). S. Curriculum Development. (2007).K.

4.4.3 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.6.4.7.7.6.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.4.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.4.4.10 5.7.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.8 5.7.2 5.4.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.LESSON 5.1 5.9 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4.4.4.4.4.4 5.5 5.

297 .side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. Gradually. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. 2. in the economic reconstruction of society. 5. 5. you will be able to: 1. know the importance of science education. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4. superstition or emotion. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.5. open-mindedness. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. explain the concept of scientific attitude. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. We mean curiosity. newer and newer industries started growing. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners.4.4. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. tolerance for the opinions of others. 3. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century.during the second half of this century. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. honesty. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth .

4. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 4. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Thinking and memory develops. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Selection for science education. Through examinations. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . seminars and symposiums.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work.So that. Principles are formulated. 5. Central science workshop. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Devotion towards nature increases. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. 5. as well as of the society. After such experience and training. Love for truth enhances.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 6. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Organisation of science fairs. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. 7. 2. Through newspapers. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. 2. Promotion of science clubs. 3.4. 5. 4. Schemes of teaching science. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 5. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 6. 3.

At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. They ask many questions about the objects they see. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. They experience natural phenomenon. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. For laboratory and workshop techniques. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . 7. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.6. 5. each child to “enquiry skill building”. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Training of science teachers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. should provide opportunities to. 5. objectivity. therefore.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. In the inquiry approach.needs and conditions. Write any two advantages of Science Education. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. essential that teachers. They encounter many social events as they grow.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. It is. After presenting the problem. sex or religion. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. Enquiry teaching is. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs.4.

. Adopting creative models of teaching. stern pursuit of accurate data. 2. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.books.4. Social sciences. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5.4. 5. Evidence.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. test.Herma Wouk. if they like. commands or orders. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. 6. It requires consistent thinking. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. . What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. to ask questions and experience things. 3. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Giving less directions.6. Appreciating pupils ideas. 5. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 300 . 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions.

keen observation. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. To achieve this we should understand what it means. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. practiced. For instance. 5. neighbourhood. it must be encouraged. and emphasized during the learning process . In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents.4. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning.7. of vast resources running waste. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. The students observation. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. (Vaidya 2007). The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. These include open mindedness.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. critical thinking and suspended judgments. to develop among the learners. friends.(Smith 2008). Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. therefore should be unbiased and objective. school and society at large. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts.

rumor.7. intuition or wishful thinking”.4. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. 5. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. or superstitions. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. In considering a situation or a problem. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. 302 . Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. think and work it”.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. 2007). they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. (Das. he studies all aspects of it. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. understanding and logic. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions.

4. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. 5. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.7. • 5. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.4.7. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. but to begin only after careful planning. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil.

304 . 5. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude.4. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. it must be encourages.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.

b. D. b.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Planning of activities 5. 4. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Yadav. (2006). b. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. 2. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. 16. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. 3. Proper example of the teacher c. a. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools.4. 5. 305 . objectivity.4. (2000). M. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. Adopting creative models of teaching. a. Wide reading b. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. N. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. The intention to respect another’s point of view. S. (2008).4. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. a. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Vaidya. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.S.5. Love for truth enhances. Discuss the importance of science education 14. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. Rao. a.B (2008). 5. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Reflections on Scientific attitude. Study of superstitions d. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop.

5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2.5.2 5.5.5.6 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5.5.5.11 5.5. 5.LESSON 5.5 5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.9 5. areas of institutional planning. you will be able to: 1.10 5. objectives and characteristics.3 5.5. actively. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.4 5.5.1 5.7 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.5.8 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population. state the concept.5.5. 306 .

Institution should be regarded as the unit. 5. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy.3. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. • to involve teachers and school administrators.5. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . executive as well as public. 5. every parent. State and national levels from below. and. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. each teacher. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions.5. and every student in the process of educational planning.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. every teacher. • To make institutional planning more successful. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. and each student are regarded as separate entities. in the task of educational planning. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. which become the bases for further planning at the district. • to make planning development-oriented. and supplement planning from above. teachers and students is not lost sight of.

5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. approved after making necessary modifications. Classwork. etc. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.curricular Activities. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. Co-curricular activities. 5.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. it becomes the basis for school inspection.5. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. which will be discussed in the general. Examinations. Syllabus. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. (2) Co. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. and Personnel services. 308 .5. (3) TeachingLearning Aids.• implemented. council and. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services.

1. Preparation of models. Organising play-for-all programmes. Organisation of Pupils. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Organisation of class-room libraries. 3. Equipping of laboratory and library. 2. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. charts and apparatus. Improving the internal assessment. Organisation of Students’ Association. Editing the school magazine. Improving the subject competence of teachers. scientific and historical excursions. Conducting of educational. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Preparation of audio-visual aids. etc. Courts. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . etc. hobby-centres. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Undertaking remedial instruction services. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. etc. etc. Fair distribution of syllabi. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Preparation of instructional material.No. Running science clubs.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare.

pupil310 .5. teacher-pupil. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. administrator-administrator. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. understanding. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. science teachers’ associations. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. teacherinspector. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. involving mainly human materials. and solidarity. parent-teacher associations. parents. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. and —pupil-pupil. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. administrator-pupil. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. ii.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. teachers. administrator-supervisor. teacher-managing body. students’ associations. headmasters associations. teacher-State. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. teacher-teacher. pupils. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. which are divided as the in. etc. Administrator-State.5. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. co-operation. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe.” The human relationships in.

have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. to carry out.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. superintendence. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. teacher-parent. social sciences and other disciplines. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. pupil-parent. Good. pupil-community leader. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. to accomplish. control. 311 . supervision. to attend. etc. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. supervision and superintendence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and to serve. According to C.5. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. administrator. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. V.State. It covers personnel and material management. organisation and management." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. It is also being modernized to become a technique. pupil-inspector. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. pupil-non-official functionaries. organisation. To administer means to manage. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. now-a-days. teacher-community leader.

Those. 12. 13. Cost-Benefit Analysis .Of all the approaches. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. 10. 2. 3. 6. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. 5. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 11. The relationship should change from master. without this the efficacy will be handicapped.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. Democratic Management . Socio-Scientific Approach . Decision Making . 4. Leadership . He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. Better Human Relationships . It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.Management should be efficient and economical 312 .lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . Worker Participation . Economic Management . 8. Communication .This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. If the cost benefit ratio is less. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. Rapport between the Management and Employees . low.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. Liasion with the Public .Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. He should be an artist in human relationships.The manager should have leadership traits. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. 9. it is not worth-while. If it is more. who occupy the managerial positions.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .Any good management will always have good public relations.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. Motiviation . This is the latest democratic trend in management. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. 7.

Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too.5. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. 313 . The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. 18. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. enrichment of curricula.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. improvement of teaching methods. 5. 14. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.These two are.5. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.g. to improve the quality of education it provides. 19.too. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. objective. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. and cooperative performance should be ensured. 5.

a. Fundamental of Educational Management. Communication 5. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. S.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Motiviation d.K. Examinations. Decision Making b.M. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Tarachand and Prakash. Educational Administration. a. e.5. Syllabus.5. Leadership c. it becomes the basis for school inspection. c. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Singh. NUEPA. H. f. (2003). b. 4. a. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. Classwork. In group and Out group 5. a. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. and Personnel services. Co-curricular activities. 314 . b. R. d. (1995). it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. b. Instruction.5. 2.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. APH Publishing Corporation. (2001). New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House.

Economic 315 . First Aid.CORE PAPER .2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .I.teachers should have : 1. Buddhist and Jain system of education. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Examination reforms. higher education. 4. Inspection and Supervision 3. Community and Mass Media 2. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Code of conduct for teachers. Sex-education 4. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.3 Directive Principles . Realized the problems of school education.1 School Health Programme. School.4 India's Secular Policy .5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. New evaluation procedures.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. 2. 1. Healthy Food Habit 4. wastage and Stagnation 3.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Communicable diseases .Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. nutritional requirement.Preventive measures. Balanced diet. women education and teacher education in India. physical education and environmental education 5.3 Educational Influences of Home. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. Common ailments of Children. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.2 Nutritional deficiencies. social Impact 3.1 Primary Education : Education for all.1 Inculcation of Socialism. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.5 Regional Educational Development in India .Pre-service and In-services facilities.Religious and Modern Education 1.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. population education.1 Gurukula system of education.Article 45 . Preservation of nutrients. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.

and Human Development. and Mohanty R. (1999) Culture. Prof. Ram S.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9.N. Sharma. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.1 Idealism. R. Delhi : University Publications 2. B.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Mahatma Gandhi.K. 316 . Saraswathi T.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Realism. Tagore 5. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. Curriculum and national goals . and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.S. Pandy V. (2004) Problems of Education in India. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.R. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Hemchand. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. and Dash B.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. 5. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.K.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . (2005) Foundations of Education. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. REFERENCE 1. New Delhi: NCERT 3. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.C. T. Kalan Paper Packs 10. and Sharma R. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.K.4 4.N. Mishra.Aim. Taneja V. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. 7. Ghanta R.K. Naturalism and Pragmatism . Socialization.4.

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