Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

UNIT: 1 – V



Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer



Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56


Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University


67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5



3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education

127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233


5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4


UNIT – I 7 .

8 .

regional imbalances and variations in different environment.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. and Jain system of education. In. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. 9 . Lesson 5. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Jainism and their educational implication. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. The need. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. Lesson 2. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. discusses the regional educational development in India. Lesson 4.

10 .

1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.4.4 Methods of Jain system of Education Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.5 Jain system of education 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE Practical teachings of Jainism 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.6 Education during British Era 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) Merits of the Gurukula system of Education Charter Act of 1813 1.6.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.2 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .5.1.

6.6.8 1. 1. “a class of persons. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.9 1. has a long past history starting in vedic education. India.1. That 12 .1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.3. but English in taste.1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. Education in India. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. in opinion.1.1. 1.1. elucidate the education during British Era. describe the Jain system of Education 4.1.1. The history of education passed through Buddhist. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. both present and future. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. in morals and in the intellect”. Muslim and British periods.1. 1. British system of education presented the modern western model.7 1. Indian in blood and colour. you will be able to: 1.

with grants of land or money. not en masse by the class method. Education of Moral. High Status of Teachers. Individual Teaching. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. religious and spiritual. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. 13. 8. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. managed entirely by Brahmans. followed by explanation by the teacher. 3. Where pupils were many.knowledge was real. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. questioning by the pupil. Pupils were taught. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. It was not merely intellectual. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. 16. 9. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. 5. as it is generally considered to be at present. 11. The immediate aim of education. 10. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. 13 . Religious and Spiritual. 14. Immediate Aim Vocational. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Method of Instruction. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. from darkness. to light. generally. Education was a private affair of the people. Teacher as Parents. It was also moral. 12. No State Control on Education. individually. Residential Schools. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. the monitorial plan was followed. 6. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Free and Accessible. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Forests as Centres of Education. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. and to agriculture and trade. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. from eternal to immorality 2. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Method of Study. There was. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. however. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Role of Travel in Education. 4. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Curriculum. if they thought fit to do so.

It was freely available to all those who wanted. 1. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. studied Vedas. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. It was suited to the needs of the society. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection.17. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. lived a life of celebacy. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. They were very cordial and intimate. 2. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. Wide-Spread Education in Women.1.

Right endeavour 7. the most significant of which were the following 1. every class in society. Right activity 5.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. I take Refuge to Dharma.1. except the Chandals. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. use of cosmetics. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. in which. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Right speech 4. the student had his head shaved of all hair. disease and death of the human beings. It was denied only to the ill. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. After attaining the age of 20. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. killing of any living being. Consequently. Right memory 8. 15 . 1. Right knowledge 2. dressed himself in yellow clothes. 2. partaking of food at prohibited times. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education.4. the handicapped. the student remained in a state of Shramana. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. Right thought 3. medium of Pali. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. which included abstaining from theft. had the right to receive education. Right contemplation 1.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. use of intoxicating things. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. watching dances or listening to music. he was qualified to become a monk. etc. taking things without being offered. I take Refuge to Sangh. impure conduct. Right means of livelihood 6. Buddha was concerned about the suffering.C. Education was imparted through the. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’.

Even at this stage. These are called later Buddhist schools. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. bodily gestures. however. geology. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. be considered the aim of education It. cottage industries. approach. 7. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. control over sensuous activities. Whatever its nature and extent. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. archery. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive.. women occupied a position inferior to men. Life is in a flux. archery. elephant lore. 2. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. therefore. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. medicine. a change is not only total but also perpetual. 8. etc. 4. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. 1.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. a continuous change creating 16 . arithmetic and religious discussion. assumptions. etc. of clothes. military science. along with education in script writing. changing the goals. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. Initially. After this ritual. nature. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. As reality is becoming. Later on. It comprehended education in writing. so long as it successfully does so. magic. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. it is regarded as true”. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. and. On this occasion. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period.3. agriculture. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. beg for alms. wear three items. 6. eat food thrice a day. aspirations and. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. 3. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. etc. handicrafts. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. depth and range. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. knowledge of reviving the dead. the science of taming and training animals. has no metaphysical value for life.4. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. nothing is of any permanent consequence. commerce. the presence of the monks was essential. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. animal husbandry. objectives of human life. education was impart in art. meaning. Hence. 5. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation.

such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. therefore. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. However. Validity is effective and consequences. 1. In fact.e. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. Education must. goes to Vardhaman. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism.. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. Its chief feature.5. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. such as. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. and to give it a shape that it has today. 5. Write Eight fold path .new and peculiar situations. however. i. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. whatever works are true and good. it is much older than the latter.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. its pessimistic outlook on life. Jainism insists 17 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1.

Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. 2. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. 5.1. 3. d) To lead a celibate life. and is to be redeemed and liberated. but on both. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. and believe in happiness to all. c) Not to steal.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. more stress on individual aims. c) Right conduct. 1. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. They are: a) Not to injure. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. 7. 9. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects.5. b) Right knowledge. As such. it has a foot in both the words. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. 8. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. Development of personality as an individual. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. b) Not utter falsehood. 18 . 3. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. 2. thought and deed. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. 10. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. e) To renounce the world. 1. 4. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Hence. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 6.

3. 2. and should bring happiness to all. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. success and love. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Belief in transmigration of soul. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. therefore. Teaching must develop these faculties. education must be action based and ideally oriented.5. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. What are Triratnas ? . 2. the precious principles of life that bring happiness.4. 19 .4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 4.5. practised and not only aspired for. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. education should develop sense of discrimination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Teaching should be social and tolerant. Jiva is essentially karmic. Hence. 8. 5. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. 1. that would be socially desirable. 3. here and now. 1.

Madras.6. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. and not for life. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. philosophy and literature of Europe. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. North West Province and Punjab. However.1. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. 2. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854).6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.1. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. To set up separate departments of.6.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. 1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.6. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. 1. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. Bombay. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. primary 20 . with rally and rout. science.6. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. 1953). “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. 1. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. 1. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.

Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations.6. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. 1. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. Later on. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of was neglected. secondary education became a step towards university.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. 1. self-respecting and competent. The universities dominated the secondary education.K. To ensure qualitative improvement.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. • Universal free primary education. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. 1. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. In 1882. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. at the primary level. namely. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission).6. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. • Secondary education. At that time M.6. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams.

Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. The objective of education was to provide 22 . The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. all children are to have a common curriculum. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians.1.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. After this stage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. 10. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions.

setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. 3. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. a. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. During the Buddhist period. handicrafts.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. 4. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. arithmetic and religious discussion. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. 3. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. The immediate aim of education. Right activity. questioning by the pupil.1. It was suited to the needs of the society. geology. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. establishment of universities.1. Right thought. the science of taming and training animals. Right endeavour. etc. archery. 6. followed by explanation by the teacher. Right means of livelihood. along with education in script writing. Right speech. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools.. 5. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. The system of education was well-organised. 2. Right knowledge. science and English of European literature. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. Right memory. 2. education was impart in art. 23 . Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. 1. Right contemplation. b. military science. 1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4.

and Nath. (1984).K.7.C. 9. b. 24 . J. (2005). Right faith. Hence. Y. R. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.K. Ltd. Improvement of Literature.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Development of personality as an individual. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science.C. Y. Development of Educational System in India. J. 8. (2007). Sargent report 12. c. Right knowledge. 11. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 1882. Right conduct. 1937 1.1. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. (2009). a. Sharma. 10. a. Singh. b. more stress on individual aims. History of Indian Education System. Aggarwal. Ltd.

2.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.5 1.2.1 1.8 1.9 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.4 1.7 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.1 University Education Commission 1.LESSON Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings Kothari Commission 1.2. The 25 .4 National Policy on Education 1.3. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.

conditions of the teachers. diversification of courses of studies. technological engineering. There had been vast institutional expansion. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. standard of teaching.3.2. analyse the progress of education in free India. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service.2. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. New Educational Policy. curriculum. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. expansion of vocational. you will be able to: 1. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1986 1.2. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. Kothari (1964-66) 8. 2. medical and legal education. technical.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. girls and women education besides primary. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. S. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. 1. examination system. vocational education. 1. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. Post-graduate 26 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. secondary and higher education. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. explosion of enrolment. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. National Council for Women’s Education 5. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. National Board of Teacher Education 10.

material and spiritual. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. quality. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. The Essence and Role of Education.teaching. 2.S. 1966. Problems of access.3. 4. National System of Education. 1952. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. research et. However.3. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 .2.2. Kothari. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country.3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. Education for Equality. in January 1985. 3. 1. A meaningfully Partnership. accumulated over the years. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. the chairman of University Grants commission.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1. A. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. Government of India. the New National Policy on Education. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. quantity. Therefore. Finally. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. utility and financial outlay. D. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. 1986. 1. Education is the key to our allround development.2.

Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. It can train practical aptitudes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. The UNESCO Report. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1.2. the minorities and the handicapped. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 28 . attitudes. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world.” Thus. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. the concepts of work experience. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Thus. By working with hands. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child.

employment and promote economic independence of the youth. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. the Commission. In 1955. “It may be described. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. With adequate planning. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. if he wishes. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. co-ordinations. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 .” The Mudaliar Commission. According to. The Radhakrishnan Commission. “The aim of these colleges.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. Besides. it will conduce self.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. As such." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. The Education Commission. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations.

As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. The Central Advisory Board of Education. raising the special facilities. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. the semester and credit system. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. etc. Subsequently. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. Therefore. admission requirements to vocational courses. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. With a view to relating education to the life. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. the rigid streaming of courses. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. In addition. the.. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts.ot her. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. for quality of life in the rural areas. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976.

According to committee.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. aimed at this goal. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level.and the world of work. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed.defined S UP W as “purposive. In short. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. meaningful.. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. etc. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. 31 . It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. felt that education should be centred around a craft. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. who conceived the System of Basic Education.2. which are useful to the community. manual work resulting in either goods or services. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. 1. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. technological courses including Agriculture. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. which offer scientific. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. The wave of Basic Education. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. The Father of Nation. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. preferably spinning and weaving. giving importance to productivity in the national development. meaningful. which swept the country for over two decades. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. Commerce.

Culture and recreation 6.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. locally available materials and tools. so that it is educational in essence. Work practice. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. tools and techniques and 3. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Clothing 5. Productive 2. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. 3. Health and Hygiene 2. The teachers should make use of. 2. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. be that the work involved is: 1. 32 . Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Food 3. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. as far as possible. Experimentation with materials. 4. Shelter 4. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Educative and 3. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Community work and social service. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities.

6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. improve discipline. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. etc. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. inculcate a faith. It can become an instrument to build character.5. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. Check on educated unemployed 4. Community Service In-1972. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter.2. To make education more realistic. slum clearance. Education through work The SUPW should. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. as far as possible. 6. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. removal of illiteracy. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. Productive Work 33 . Reduction of gap in work and education 2. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. 1. Merits of the Programme 1. the local community should be actively associated. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages.

Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. AICTE was set up in year 4. etc. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. helping the adults-in productive work. if not productive. offering first aid. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. traffic control. in turn. skills and better future for the children.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. Define SUPW 34 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. The community. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. should involve itself in the educational effort. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood.

1. f. 6. 2. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1. Radhakrishnan 2. e. b.2. d. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. c. Write short note on SUPW. manual work resulting in either goods or services. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 1. 1955 4.2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. which are useful to the community.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. a. Dr. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 1952 3.2. 3. meaningful. 35 .

(2009). Singh. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2005). Y.D. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. and Nath. V. R. 36 . P.H. History and Problems of Indian Education.K.K. J. (2007).K. Publishing Corporation. and Rao. Development of Educational System in India.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. A. Rao. Ltd.P. (2007).(2005). New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Y.C. : Sharma. Amala. Anupama. B. New Delhi: A. History of Education.1.P.2. History of Indian Education System..

equality. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. democratic republic.369 words in the English language version.1 1.3. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.2 powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.3.9 1.6 1.5 1. procedures. and liberty.3. there is an official Hindi translation. 1950. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.3.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3. establishing the structure. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. Besides the English version. Being the supreme law of the country. for a total of 117.4 1. 1949.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.3. 37 .3.7 1. assuring its citizens of justice.1 Significance of DPSP 1. it came into effect on January 26.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. containing 395 articles.3.8 1. directive principles and duties of citizens.

the Drafting Committee was appointed. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. learn the role of central and state government on education. Through them. 3. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy.In the August 14. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. spread over a period of 2 years. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. 1. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. 1947. administrative. legal and environmental. understand our Indian constitution. On August 29. 1. Dr. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. 1947 meeting of the Assembly.3. social. you will be able to: 1. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. 38 . Two days later. 1. embodied in Part IV of the constitution.3. According to the constitution. 1947. 2. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. The Assembly met. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. with Dr. economic. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1950. political. for 166 days.3. After many deliberations and some modifications. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. in sessions open to public. 4.

That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. That the health and strength of workers. Article 41. for workers. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Organisation of village panchayat. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Equal pay for both sex. and shall. Liking wage etc. The State shall endeavour to secure. Condition for dignity of children. sickness and disablement. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. 39 . That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. and in other cases of undeserved want. in particular. The State shall. Article 43. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Article 40. on the basis of equal opportunity. No abuse of children. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. men and women. provide free legal aid. Article 39A. Minimising inequalities in status. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Equal justice and free legal aid. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Article 42. Appropriate concentration of wealth.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. old age. Right to work. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities.government. Protecting health of the workers. Protecting children from exploitation.

by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Article 48A. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. agricultural. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Article 45. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. in particular. 2002 for “45. (Original Article 45. Article 48. by suitable legislation or in any other way. The State shall take steps. Article 46. Article 47. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. [declared by or under law made by 40 . work. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The State shall endeavour to provide. and. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. in particular. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. industrial or otherwise. Participation of workers in management of industries. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. a living wage. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. See also Article 21A). Article 43A. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. in particular. Article 49. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. to all workers. Article 44. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Note: Subs. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.

Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . maintain just and honourable relations between nations. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. from spoliation. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. removal. destruction. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. 2002. Article 51. may be law determine”. 2.3. disfigurement. Article 50. Article-21A Right to Education. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Separation of judiciary from executive. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Promotion of international peace and security. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article.Parliament] to be of national importance. as the case may be.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. disposal or export. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Article 45 .

Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. caste. 8. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. 4.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. and shall protect them. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. if such person is a minor. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. 7. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. language or any of them”. ii. 6. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. 2002. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. in particular. iii. and. 3. his guardian has given his consent thereto.” 42 . and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. race. 5. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. from justice and all forms of exploitations. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act.

the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. for its vocabulary. Educational Reforms From time to time. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. & 1. Article 351 gives importance to 6. the forms.9. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. and by drawing. 2. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country.3. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. wherever necessary or desirable. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. The central government determines targets and promotes education. 43 . “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Provision for Education for minorities is given in .

were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). 6. So that they may work well. Production of suitable for children and adults f. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 .. 5. The following pilot projects.3. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. 4. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Local bodies and private enterprise. the state governments. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. So as to encourage education on right lines. All India Council of Medical Science. 8. etc. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. By starting these projects. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. private agencies etc. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. to achieve the desired ends. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. 7. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc.

Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. 12. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. handicapped.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 11. 4. 9. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. The 45 . are published by it. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. books. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases.3. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. training and statistics. etc. education for women. 10. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. 1. reports etc. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. 1. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. is the state responsibility. 3. research.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Write short notes on a. articles in the Directive principles. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. 46 .3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1. Explain Directive principles 2. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. 5. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Article 21A c.3. Article 45 b. Article 46 4.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. 1. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.

“The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Ambedkar 2. a. b. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Development of Hindi Language 6. 2002. a. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Clearing House function 9. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. The Directive Principles of State Policy. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. may be law determine”. Article 46 5. Dr. b. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. a.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 3. 1. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 4. Article 29 and 30 7. Article 45 . Describe the educational role of State Government. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act.5. 2002. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Article-21A Right to Education. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 47 . Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.3.

K and Narang C. B. Bhatia. (2008). Education in Emerging Indian Society. K. (2009). Dash.1. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ghosh. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. S. New Delhi: Shipra Publications.3. (2004). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. (2007).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. 48 . N. L. S.

2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1. Islam. Aims of Religious Education Buddhism etc.4.4.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 Why Moral Education 1.4. Jainism.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.8 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.7 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.6 1.3. Students should be 49 .4. Christianity.4. religious education should be broad based.2 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.3.4 Moral education 1.1 1.

In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). India' can produce men of character. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Thus. "In A multireligious society like ours. In the complicated and complex society of today. duty-consciousness. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher.4.4. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. understand the relationship between religion and education 2.and dedication.” Education broadens human outlook. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. According to E. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. beauty and goodness so that 50 . religious education and the concept of secularism. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. integrity. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon..D.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. state meaning and need for moral education 1. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. know the position of religious education in our country 3. 1. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. enumerate the aims of religious education 4.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. As result of which.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. you will be able to: 1.

Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. Viewing the defects of religious education. it is clear that the State has no religion.3.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. According to Article 19.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. As our country is a country of diverse religions. 1947 we achieved our freedom. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. In short. through religious practices and 51 . at least occasionally.4.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. religion and democracy are same. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. No religious tax can be imposed on them. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. Hence. 1.4. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity.3. Children attend these organizations. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. rancour. Thus. As a matter of fact. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. 1. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. realizes God in himself. all citizens are free to follow any creed. if not regularly. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. According to Article 22. They thought that any kind of narrow. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. castes and creeds.” From the above.

which help him for the development of his character. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels.teachings. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. It is religious education.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. It helps to modify habits attitudes. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. when he becomes an adult. what is done and what is not done etc. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. which can mould. He also learns about social. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. aggressive. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. for the development of the individual and the society. intellectual and physical faculties of children. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). and what is evil. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. moral and spiritual values. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. temperament etc. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . If unreleased. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. As a result of which. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. one fully developed. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way.. Good education. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action.

This should not be allowed to happen. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. 53 . This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided.4. Therefore. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning.3. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. 3. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. towards the society. 2. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. 1. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. If we open the pages of history. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. which is the basic need of a democratic life. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1.

4. churches and mosques 7. 9. they should be discussed in the right earnest.5. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. fellow-feeling. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Write Article 22 2. For this. 10. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Life histories of great persons of the world. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. 11. therefore. Since all religions have virtues. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. stories of moral greatness. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Gurudwara as. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. examples of patriotism.

1. Patriotism. “Let all be happy and free from disease. 8. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 4. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Swadeshi (Patriotism). 3. Cultivation of emotions. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. 2. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). let men see well of one another. Purity. 6. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. 5. Satyam (truth). Without moral values. The content of the curriculum. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. students. Moral education. 6. It they learn what morality is in their early years.acquisitiveness). This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Ahimsa (Non-violence).5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Aparigarha (Non. Service to others. 8.4. Non-injury. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Asvada (Control of palate). 1. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Fearlessness. is that which develops moral values. They will play their role effectively. 2. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. 7. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 7. the methods of teaching. 4.4. 3. 5. 55 . therefore.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Self sacrifice. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. in the home. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1.

10. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Sharivashram (Physical work). The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. 2. minutes in the morning for group singing. Integrity. Secondary Stage 1. Discipline. Simple texts and stories concerning different. National unity and Spiritual values. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . religions may be included in the syllabus. 3. loyalty and self-sacrifice. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. 1. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. In the school programme. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics.9. 11. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Good manners. discipline. Efficiency. 4. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Unity of mankind. 56 . Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. 3. Asatyam (Non-thieving). The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Good temper. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5.4.

4. 2. 5. 57 . A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 3. In other words. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. In this connection. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. 5. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . University Stage 1. should form a normal part of school programme. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. love of humanity. 4. Silent meditation should be encouraged. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. patriotism and self-discipline.

aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. a. 1.4. a. 58 . Training of Character 3. minutes in the morning for group singing.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the aims of Religious education. 2. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. 4.1. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. b. For this. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. the. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.4. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. a. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Sri Prakasa 6 . Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. In short. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. b. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. 1959 5. The School Assembly should be held for a few.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. 1. 2.4.

Anmol Publications Pvt.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2008). New Delhi: A. (2003). Theory and Principles of Education. (2008). Dash. M. J. (2007). K and Narang C. L.C. P. N. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Publishing Corporation. K. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.H.1. Bhatia. N.4.H. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. 59 . Pahuja. B.P. New Delhi : Siddiqui. (2004). Ltd.

.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.4 i.5.9 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.5.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also. 60 .5.3 1.5.e.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2 1.1 1.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5. Although.12 1. disparities between provinces/States.5.8 1.10 1.5 1.5.6 1.11 1.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.7 1.

you will be able to: 1. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.5. Accordingly. know the education suited to different environments. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies.5. 7. 4. roads. 61 . Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. work hard towards this end. 1. 6. 5. energy. They therefore.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 8. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. they take appropriate measures.5.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. 2.5. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.1. 1. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. etc. 3. waters. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. for example. This leads to separatist movements. understand the regional educational development in India 3. 1.

some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . 2. 3. some States became educationally far advanced. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned.5. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. Therefore. while others remained educationally backward.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. some average. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. • Separate States (of course viable States).Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. Tight security arrangements should be made. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. on the basis of regional development may be formed. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. 4. 62 . it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. and. Secularism.

who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. 1.5. Tezpur. Jammu and Kashmir. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. academic buildings. Even in each State. NERIST. Guwahati. Regional Centres of IGNOU. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. In the Central sector. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. Mizoram. library buildings. Central Universities of Assam. the State Governments.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner.14.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. and provision of informal education to enable those. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. Rs. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. the Union Government. After the attainment of independence. However. Out of this. remained under developed.84 crore was released in 2005-06. since its inception in 1998-99.. etc. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. These projects are in various stages of implementation. Funds amounting to Rs. while some States like Bihar. Silchar. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. NIT.g. 63 .392. Nagaland and NEHU. Itanagar.480. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. books. approved proposals worth Rs. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged.After the Planning Process has originated. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. etc. scholarships.

The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.261. Government expenditure on education.05 crore and Rs.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Tezpur University.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Moreover. A provision of Rs. During 2003-04.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. Out of this an amount of Rs. too. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. 64 . it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.5. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.8 per cent in 05).40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.500.501. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Punjab has spent less of its GDP ( crore and Rs. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.

Kerala and Gujarat.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Karnataka. for which 16 sites. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. Tamil Nadu. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). Moreover.5. too. 1. Andhra Pradesh. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. telecom. Karnataka. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. Listing the positives. To add to the woes. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. English. The Chandigarh Administration. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. health services and welfare of the citizen population. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. engineering and R&D. notes the study. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. too. for instance. Medical education. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. too. pharma.

the interests. Hence it is called as need-based. taking the average in the middle. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. in which the learners live.year. which a non-tribal person cannot do. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. and so on. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. Then education become realistic and idealistic. the curricular subjects. while the former does not. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. In the same manner. even actually looking at the watch. the teaching methods. life-oriented and environment slanted. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Of course. the vocations. The working hours of educational institutions. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. For a learner living in a rural area. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. the needs. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. The living conditions. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. when he will not be sure of time. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. the working days: an academic . the socio-physical conditions. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. 66 .

11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. 2. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. 67 . How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. 2.5. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. to suit education to different environments? 1.

N. (2001).5. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. a. R. Educational Development in India. some States have become more developed than others b.2. and Nair. C. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.H. Education in Developmental Arena. New Delhi: Authors press. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. Dubey. S. Giridhar.K. Education Scenario in India. remained undeveloped 3. during the British rule. (2008). S. 68 . some of areas which were under the native rulers. (2002). A. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.G.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2001). 60% 1. Salim.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

71 . secularism and democracy through Indian education.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. community development. National Integration. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. school community and mass media. semi literate and illiterates. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people.

1.1.2 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.6.LESSON 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.4 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.6.3 2.6 Education for Secularism 2.5.1 Main features of Socialism 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.7 2.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.9 2.

1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group.1. 2. socialism and secularism 2. understand the concept of democracy.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. 2.1. 3) Provision of Manual Work. creed. Democracy thus means power of the people.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality.1. In the matter of admitting students in schools. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow.1. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. socialistic and secular state. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. socialism and secularism 2. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. there should be made no distinction of caste. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. colour or wealth. Abraham Lincoln. 73 . analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. for the people by the people”. This is the political aspect of democracy. you will be able to: 1. The students may be associated with the management of the school. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 5) Encouragement to Group Work.

Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. it soon spread all over the world. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. 12) Visits to Legislatures. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. declamation contest etc. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. 11) Student Parliament. 2. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. debates.. There are different brands of socialism. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 74 . may be planned. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. Democracy means 2. 8) Opportunities for Social Service.

5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses.5. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. Under it. 2.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 2. 75 . 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. free from exploitation. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society.1. service and cooperation. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. stationary and uniforms to the needy students.1. but on the path of non-violence. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society.5. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. none high”. the prince and the peasant. 7) Special facilities for girls. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. the wealthy and the poor. 2) Socialism aims at equality. oppression and disparity.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two main features of socialism.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. "which seeks the development of physical.” In every political and educational corner. 76 . According to Holydake. 5. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. “India is a secular-country. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. secularism is being propagated. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.1. 11) State schools. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. Everyone says. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth.

fraternity. Equality.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. 3) It permits freedom of worship.opposed to religious education. During the recent past.1. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact.6.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. people started believing in regionalism. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase.6. 5) It implies tolerance.1. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. “Webster further says.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. 9) It stress free inquiry. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. people have narrow mindedness. 8) It believes in co-existence. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. education etc. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. the belief that the state morals. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. 77 . In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. In this type of prevailing situations. liberty. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. 2) It permits freedom of religion. There is need of making the people open minded. A large number of people is uneducated. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. Moral values have to be imbibed. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. That is why. 2. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. should be independent of religion.

many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. The students may be taken to different centers of religions.1. Religious Education. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. In the celebration of each such function. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. education. that the central string of all religions is one. 1) Moral Education. In the hands of such teachers. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. Patiala. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. While doing so. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other.6. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. tours and trips may be organized.presented by the students in the gathering. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. There should be some internal checking of the material being. 2. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. students belonging to different religions should be associated. The very sight of the building. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. No doubt. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10.1. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. No doubt.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . The term secularism was first used by 8. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. Define Secularism 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. 2. The word “Seculum” means 7.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved.

4. 5. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. Since socialism stands for equality. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. c.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Socialism aims at social justice. The two can move only in the consonance with each other.1. there should be made no distinction of caste. This present age 7. Respect of Individual Personality. Equal Opportunities for Admission. The students may be associated with the management of the school. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. Abraham Lincoln. Provision of Manual Work. for the people and the people”. 4. colour or wealth. creed. 2. a. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. 6. In the matter of admitting students in schools. 5. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. 3. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. a. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. d. George Jacob Holydake 80 . The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 3. Socialism aims at equality. Tuition free education b.1. b. b.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. Power of the people 2.

New Delhi : Shipra Publications. b. K and Narang C. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2007). (2003). It permits freedom of religion. a. (2005). B. b. New Delhi : Pahuja.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. education etc. N. Bhatia. Dash. P. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. (2004). School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. L. Ltd. Anmol Publications Pvt. Modern Trends in Indian Education. 81 . New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.C. Ltd.8. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.1. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. (2008). 10. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Mohanty. Theory and Principles of Education. J. the belief that the state morals. a. should be independent of religion. K. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. J. N. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. It treats all religions on an equal footing.” 9.

LESSON 2.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.2 2.8 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.4 2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.7 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.3 2.6.9 2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .1 International understanding in the school ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.

aims and objectives of the school. instructor of school children. as citizens.generation to another. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. mental. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. as workers. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. social. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. you will be able to: 1. moral. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. social and moral aspects. a r e 1.2. 83 . It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. emotional. who are placed in his custody. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. as it is t he aim o f modern education. 3. 2. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. as persons. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. 2. and 4. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. The developmental roles of children. 2. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. skills. as learners. It involves physical. therefore. understandings. A teacher is first and foremost. application.

2. economically effective. physically fit for socially efficient. The following are some of such roles described in brief. 2. social and emotional health. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. The students live. socially. member of his community at the outset. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. a part of their day in 84 . morally. experiences and acceptance.All education should lead to better behavioural development. motivated. morally. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. 2. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. 1. intellectually. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. He is to become an active member. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. Teacher as a Citizen Next. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. He has to look after their physical. emotionally. and aesthetically to become. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. inquisitive. mentally. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. mental. 3. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. culturally confident.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society.

4. Dr. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. activities of the society into which he is born. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. India is a land of many castes. Unless. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. solve them.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. science club. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly.the school being under the custody of teachers. They will be spending with their parents. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. photographic clubs. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. and most of hours. 2. fine art associations. languages and religions. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. It 85 . This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. List out the role of teachers towards community development . Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. creeds. faiths.

very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. with straight backs and look up at the skies. poems. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. should be emphasised. and make into one strong national unit. national anthem and other national songs.2. The only process is the process of education. Sampurnanand remarked. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . Radhakrishnan. therefore. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. the study of language and literature. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. 1.” 2.” Regarding the role of education. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. narrow-minded provincial. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. c. this integration of the Indian people. folklore and teaching of social studies. social studies. the citizens of the Republic of India. At the primary stage the importance of stories. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. Nehruji has explained this as. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 .emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. b. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. ‘We should not become parochial.5. stand up straight. Let us. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. It should broaden the outlook.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. a. “National integration cannot be built by brick and It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state.

It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. 10. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Uniform for School Children. 87 . educational excursions. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. 4. Singing of National Anthem. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. 7. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. Reverence of National Flag. symposia. 5. Scouts and Guides.different social sciences. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. and picnics. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. 9. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. militar y training like the NCC. languages and literature. dramatics and youth festivals. 6. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. debates. sports. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. t he st udent s and t he community. tours. ACC. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Celebrations of National Days. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. Co-Curricular Activities. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. 2. Student Camps. 8. National Days—January 26. Textbooks. 3. Taking Pledge.

Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. flora and fauna. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. 15. 88 . Open-Air Dramas. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. iii.5. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. v. 16. 13. 2. region or religion. ii. Admissions to schools. Educational and Travel Documentaries. Admissions. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Recognition of Institutions. language. ways of thinking and doing things. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. 14. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. 12. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. iv. School Projects. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. colour.11. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . Students Exchange and Tours. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged.2.

ix. Community dinners. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Define National Integration 3. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. viii. vii. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. camps. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. cultures and races on equal bases. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. irrespective of national boundaries. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

as important as that of a national citizenship.6. therefore.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. In a very real sense. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. that war.friendships between children of different countries. 5. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. and the healthy development.F. (b) stories of children of other lands. Dr. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. the international level. 2. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. (c) fairly tales. if it happens. Teachers 90 .2. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen.” 2.e. 6. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. of his body and mind.. Radhakrishnan states. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. patriotism is not enough. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. 3. Strong has observed. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. often in connection with anniversaries. This. C.2. Organising of debates and. 2. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies.6. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. 4. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. Therefore. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.

a German. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They should not be propagandists. an Englishman. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed.” Well Informed About World Situations. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Indian and American. Russian. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Impartial in their Treatment.

It does not prepare students for life. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals.2. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. 2. Devaluation of Values . they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. 4. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves.Another major. there is wide spread frustration among all people. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . Wide Spread Frustration . majority of people are. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. 5.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. If this is done. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. which results in agitation and aggression language. As the school is but a miniature society. 3. Chronic Poverty . understand and indiscipline: 1. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.2. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. and help the students to over . A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. the education function can be carried.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. Defects of the educational System . leading to.

2. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. sympathy and good will among the nations. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. 3. 2. etc. 2. co-operation. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him.democratic nature. fellow feeling. community development. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . 5. love.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. 2. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. 93 . List out six characteristics of a good teacher.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System


Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.


STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency Functions and role of schools in the society Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency Radio as an agency of education Television as an agency of education Press as a medium of education Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”. IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.

9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.

16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together. MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.




1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society


2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.


Moreover. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Crow and Crow write. art galleries. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. led to the printing of books. Museums. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. books. Then came newspapers. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. the invention of the printing press. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. He taught his students orally. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities.V. Emphasising this thing. periodicals. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. Define community.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Hence. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Now internet is being used. In fact.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. are increasingly used in education. To make them achieve their aim. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. “All the citizens of the community. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. During the course of time. 2.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio.

Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science.classroom teachers.6. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. current affairs and other areas. Important happening inventions. the place of importance. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Effective means of presenting music. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. 101 . Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. Students listen various talks. 2. dram appreciation. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. It enlightens public opinion. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. 2. art. Thus. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. In collaboration with the experts. It is also an important source of entertainment. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures.G. Reynolds. for the teacher through school broadcasts. A lot of work by way of pre. It stimulates curiosity and interests. the teacher still occupies. social studies. rather than on picture. In the emphasis is on sound. Various talks. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. politics. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. languages. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. music. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them.telecast.3. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. “Listening participation” in current history. Thus.

Participation of local teachers and pupils. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. 3. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Making learning an open system. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. at play. At present. School concerts. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. mathematics. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. informal and non-formal education. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. at recreational centers. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. 4. at drawing room. plays. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. 5. audibility and presentability. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. at any place. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. style. development of lessons. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. fol classical music. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Team-teaching demonstrations. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. speech.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. projects or creative activities. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. travel talks. 102 . Before presenting the programme.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.


Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.


For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.


Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.

2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.

Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

3 Advantages of formal education 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.8 2.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.LESSON 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .2 Levels of formal education system Agencies of Non formal education 2.5 2.6 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.1 Characteristics of formal education

7. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Education associated with a degree or certificate. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. 4. open university. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. compare formal and non formal system of education. 2. 2. open school. 2. 9. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. the most important agency of formal education. In ancient time in India.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. Education. the mass media et. 2. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises.4.4. the community. 3. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. imparted at the residence of the teacher. the family. 5.2. you will be able to: 1. To realize this objective of education.3. it was mostly. starting and ending at -a particular age.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. School is.4. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. 110 . say the Government or the private enterprise. 8. Education organised by some agency. 6. 4.. 2. the learner are acquainted.4. his mental alertness.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. the temple.

capacity. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools.4. Some education systems have separate middle schools. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. third stage.a secondary education. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen.2. Concepts of proportion.3. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society.3. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education.4. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. the elements of language are first learned. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. structured education. or academic degrees. 2. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Higher Education: Higher education. such as a high school or secondary school. or post secondary education. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. In general. diplomas. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. also called tertiary. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. as well as vocational education and training.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Through early formal education. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. depending on the jurisdiction. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection.

3. What are levels of formal educational system? .4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two characteristics of formal education? .4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. and remote dwellers. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.which will help for nation's development. late beginners etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. children with disabilities. is an important agency of formal education. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . 2. 2. 4.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. 3. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Agencies can be classified as 2. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.4. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.

” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. It unlocks the doors of development plans. Open university.e.learning client take some learning objectives.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. “Non-formal education should 113 . it has its own valid claim to reality. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. continuing education and on the job oriented education.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. curriculum. Non-formal education includes adult education. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. it is a more effective tool for rural development. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. Therefore. i.formal education. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.. place of instruction. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. According to Malcolm A. etc. Adiseshiah. However. Thus. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. to help themselves. staffed. systematic. It is functional. financially supported life formal education. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. It is deliberate. until 1970 it had not been defined. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. adults as well as children. systematic. open learning. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. planned. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. admissions. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. It is much more responsive to needs and change. adding up to a true learning society. one could say that non-formal education is an active.

modes of teaching.” According to H. the Ideas of citizenship.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.renewal. curriculum. 5. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth.S. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. Lawrence. evaluation marketable and vocationalised. Covering life span of an individual. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. place of education. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved.4. exploring. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs.” 2.S. 3. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. 4.4.e.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. age. To develop in the student. Process of sharing. admissions. To help industrial workers to better their skills. 114 . • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. Part-time education. national integration. 7. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. 2. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. self. 6. 2. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. socialism. i. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge.4. international understanding.learning pattern. co-curricular activities. It should lay emphasis on the self.4. Flexibility in various aspects of education. Preparation for future needs.

Meeting the omissions of formal education. 3. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 3. 4.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. in villages and those who live in towns.4. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 4. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. To offer Secondary. • 2. Universalisation of primary education. Eradication of adult literacy. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners.4. 5. working adults. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. 8. 2. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. Senior Secondary. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 7.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Technical. 10. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 5. 6. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 9.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up.4. school dropouts.4. 115 . Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. 2. publication and information dissemination.

2. effective in modern societal context. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. 2.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1.2. farm.4. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. factory. centres of correspondence education. library. All-round development i. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras.4. 4. Radio and television. if organised in isolation. Again. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . others are formal and informal. To better qualifications. Therefore. etc. etc. training centres in factories. To increase knowledge and 2. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. Institutions for formal education. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . 3. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. public libraries. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. To make if. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals.full time to learners – can be home.4. open space. self-employment iii.

. institution. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Define non formal education.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Correspondence lesson. Teaching to face teaching. Face Contact programmes. 6. Lecturing T.V. . radio. Written tests. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. List out any two aims of non formal education. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. 117 . very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give examples of non formal education? . 7.

Higher Secondary level and University level. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Pre-school level. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 7.4. Open University. systematic.4. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. 2.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The school. Secondary level. adults as well as children. Primary level. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. 4.4. Open School. a. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.” 6. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. 3. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. the college and the university come under this category. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. b. b. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 118 . Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. 2. 4. 2. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Formal and Non Formal 2. 5. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. a. School 3. Open learning and Correspondence Courses.

New Delhi : Shipra Publications. P. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Bhatia. K and Narang C.C. Pahuja. (2007). Ltd. (2008). (2008). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Education in Emerging India. B. K. J. (2004). N. Theory and Principles of Education. (2003). Anmol Publications Pvt. L. New Delhi : 119 . S. Mohanty. Ltd.2. J.4. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. N. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Dash. Gupta. Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.2 2.1 2.4 Need for Open University 2.3 Objectives of Open University 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.4.5 2.5.7 2.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.5.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE Open University 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.5.3.LESSON

their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. However.3. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. continuing education is a boon. It is a lifelong process.5. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . economic field or such other fields. 2.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. know the need and objectives of open university. characteristics of open university 4. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. industries. This knowledge may be in political field. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. Under these circumstances. Any person. For them. farmers. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same.5.2. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. Thus.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. It is a continuous process. you will be able to: 1. 2.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. labourers and half educated individuals.5. 2. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. give the meaning. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.

It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. On the other hand. deteriorating to his character and personality. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons.literate person. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans.V.directly related to his job. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. Persons engaged in health services.3. Radio and T. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . Doctors. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Thus. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. if he gets opportunity to develop them. cultured and progressive. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. T. Block Development Officers. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. On the other hand. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature.5. For them too continuing education is essential.V. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. are also contributing their might for the purpose. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. After the achievement of independence. Cinema. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Radio. Throughout the country. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. 2. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation.

are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (14) information about bringing up young children.5. Inspite of the great efforts. (7) folk songs.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (15) music. 5. (10) first aid. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (6) folk stories. (4) the fundamentals of economics. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons.V. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it.3. 7. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. 123 . (1) ancient history.5. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. 2. and Radio. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. 2. 6. we have not been able to achieve our targets. 3. especially women. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. 4. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (2) basic religious matters. (16) liking. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities.3. (8) psychology of adults. (13) psychology of child behaviour.. 2. (17) modern international and national events. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. These books are not very useful. habits of people of other lands. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. Of course.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. NLM was launched in the year 2. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. attendance restrict ion. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. of educational opportunities. 2. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.5. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. It also attempts to pr ovide equality.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. lack of time etc. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University.5. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.

and in teaching. e. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. Education is not a once for-all process. No one is too old or too late to learn.unobserved. 2. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . d. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. 3. Which was the first open university in India? .4.5. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. b. 2. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. its education is not class room based but home based. but 125 . it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. c. IGNOU was established in the year 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. the higher the degree of openness. 5. it makes use of educational techno logy. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 4. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n.4. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 2. who were deprived of t he same earlier.5. annu al wr it t en examinat io n.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. 126 . cho ice o f co ur ses. 2. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books.4. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. 2. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 6. or who realised too late that they need it. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s.5. 5. Mo re o ver. 2.who did not get it. 4. it a ims at wider and hig her. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 3. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. supplementing the existing provision. 4.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. 3. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies.

Correspondence tuition.2. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. 3. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. school drop outs.5. List out any four methods of Open University? . Laboratory works.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? .5. 7. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Every day. 2.4. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 2. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. a society. 127 . 4. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 8. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. 1. 6. semi – literates. you have learnt the concept. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Self instructional materials. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . In the present day world. Tutor Comments. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Therefore. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. a state or nation. 8. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons.

Television Lessons. a. 9. (4) the fundamentals of economics. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. unskilled workers and other professionals. 2. 4. 8.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. its education is not class room based but home based. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. (1) ancient history. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.5. 2. agricultural and industrial workers. P r int med ia b. a. 8. aspirants for continuing education.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 7. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 3. cho ic e o f co u r ses. 1988. a. which may include house wives. d. 6. (2) basic religious matters. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates.5. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. youth. 128 . b. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. Explain the objectives.ambitious learners. 1985. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. b. need and characteristics of Open University. Broad casting lectures c. 7. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n.

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. (2004).5. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Udaiveer. L.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Modern Problems of Education. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. S.. R. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. K and Narang C. Reddy.K. (2004). Ltd. 129 . (2007). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.S. K.2. (2001).

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

133 . Examination reform. and teacher education. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. which may claim the attention of those concerned. Training teachers for all levels of education. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. In Lesson 2. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. the education of women. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. wastage and stagnation. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. All which is the need of the hour. examination. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. its causes and remedial measures. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation.

134 .

1.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.2 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.8 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1.1.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation. 135 .1.3.4 3.5 New initiatives.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.LESSON The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1 3.2 EFA – How? 3.6 3.1 EFA – For whom? 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.

“This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. 2. may be political. (EOI) 2.3. education received added importance and significance. On the other hand. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. Therefore. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. therefore. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. Eradication of Illiteracy. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. directed that. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. economic or cultural. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understands the country. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. 3. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. Continuing Education (CE) 1. “The State shall 136 .1. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. you will be able to: 1.1. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). social.

3. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. 137 . The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Universalization of Enrolment. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. rights and responsibilities.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. Continuing Education (CE).endeavour to provide. the national Government under. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . It enables the parents to send their children to School. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. Therefore. Universalization of Retention. Three Stages for Universalization. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. After the attainment of independence. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.

” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. 138 . that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. UNESCO Bulletin states. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. This target had to be revised to 1970. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2.1. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1990. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. present and future. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1995 (for upper primary stage). educational enterprise. It is safe to assure. Write Article 45.3. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. later to 1988. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. Therefore.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. 3. then to 1976.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need.

The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. 139 . Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. 3. 12. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. 11. 8. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). The Social Education. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. sex. Disabled. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. their social economic status and occupations. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. nutrition education and sports and games. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. problem of literacy. Jams and Jellies. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. 6. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. 3. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Early childhood education should be streamlined. adolescent and adult. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. NAEP. their enrolment and retention. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. Education of Girls. creed. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas.3. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Emphasis must be given on health education. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Education of the Impaired. In order to make the programme of education for all community.1. the art of preparing fruit-juice. 10. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. rural areas. FELF. and Women’s education programme should be improved. Apart from primary education. slum areas. etc. 9. 5. By undertaking survey. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children.

Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.e.3. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.1. Expand MLL and SSA . Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.1. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.3. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Wastage and Stagnation.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. 3.

The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. it is considered as wastage.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. Personal Factors .first stage of education. School Factors . Familial Factors . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. Social Factors .

142 . can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Define Wastage. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. .occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.

The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. Personal Factors . relating to home.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.3.The following factors. Family Factors .5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.1. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. They are described hereunder :1. in his home. rural or urban 3. School Factors . school or society. Societal Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.

etc. mid-day meals. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. stationary. Define Stagnation? 9. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. uniforms. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 144 .

6. a. 4.1. Minimum Levels of Learning b.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Universalization of Enrolment c. directed that. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. 145 . Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. a.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 4. a. b. 2.1. 3. improvement of curriculum.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. “The State shall endeavour to provide. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA.. Hartog Committee. Universalization of Provision b. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. therefore. 3.1.3. Universalization of Retention 2. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.” 3. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. 3.

(2007). Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. improve examination system. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.7. Familial Factors c. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. New Delhi: 146 . introduce graded curriculum. (2001). Crescent Publishing Corporation.N. 9. a. S. Social Factors 8.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2008). Hemchand. b.K. a. 3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. School Factors d. Sharma. Problems of Elementary Education.K. Personal Factor b. T. S.1.

5.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.3 Modern reforms of examination SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.LESSON 3.1 Problems of examination Choice Based Credit System 3.5.2 Grade System 3.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2.5 New evaluation procedures 3.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education Let us sum up 147 .1 3.7 Open book examination 3.2 Multiple sets of question paper The problem of reform of Examination 3.4 Question banks 3.6 Inspection and Supervision Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection

but on the other.2.2.8 3.2. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. 3.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. you will be able to: 1.9 3.2. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. suggest the new evaluation procedures. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. 3.2. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.2. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.2. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. 4.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. 3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3.3.3. Besides. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.

2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. hostel facilities. etc. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. waiting rooms for girl students. 3. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life.. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex.2. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. roadside Romeoism. The following steps should be taken up. etc. 149 . if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. They develop secondary sex characteristics. etc. If the students are in sufficient number. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. which the educational authorities have to face. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. They may cause problems relating to discipline.3. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. schools for them wherever necessary.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. public interested in education. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. 3.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. conduct of internal examinations. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. teachers. Instruction. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. It is considered as a major sub-system.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. assessment and Finance. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4. appointment of paper-setters. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. the examination system has an important role to play. 150 .2. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3.2. public administrators and statesmen. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.

examiners. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters.4. establishing reliability. scrutinizers. etc.printing and distribution of question papers. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. etc. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . training of examiners. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. 3.2. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. etc. introducing objective-based testing. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. announcement of results. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. tabulators. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. etc. validity and practicability. values. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. invigilators. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. etc.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members.

6) With reference to scoring procedure. Rote memorisation. takes the place of comprehensive learning. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. do not appeal to the students and parents. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. it s a common experience that subjectivity. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. Vagaries in making. 3) With respect to method of teaching. 3. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. 2) From the angle of content of education. lack of objectivity etc.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made.4. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Subjects. 7) In connection with the question papers.. may also discredit them. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. halo-effect. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. which they are expected to study.. stereotyped questions. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education.. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview.2. 152 . Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public.

Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. etc. may be introduced. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Question Books may be developed in all schools. 4. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Spot valuation.. List any two merits of examination. 153 . Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. revaluation. re-numbering of answer scripts. . Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment.a part of internal assessment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers.develop true love for education. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination.

In this system. In actual practice. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success.2. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. attitudes. he is given extra credit points. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . skills are given importance.2. The new scheme of assessment. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. 3. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.5. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. When a person chooses to work extra.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970.5. Their interests. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests.3. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. Every paper is treated equal. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination.2. It is complicated. The students can take any course offered in any department. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures.

Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. These weightages are called credits. 3. While designing syllabus.poor. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. This system reduces comparison of marks. An example is a seminar.5. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . The human error of evaluation is ± 10. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120.discipline. v. courses can have weightages defined. instead of specifying number of paper/courses.good. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. Groupism is encouraged. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. In the new system. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. poor. or as a 4 credit course. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. only the total credits to be earned is specified.2. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development.

the need for re-evaluation should not arise. 156 . The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners.2. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency.5.2.2. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.5. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. 3.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992.5. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. However.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. 3. 3. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any four new evaluation procedures. Therefore.5.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.3. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. However. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. In the hierarchy.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.2. 6. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.2. recruitment. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . There are no proper procedures for selection. .

playgrounds. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. 1. finding out the adequacy of. in a sense. requirements. disciplinary problems. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. finding out whether the prescribed text.. 3. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. etc. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. interpersonal relationships and so on. library books. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. being realised as two different functions. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. school buildings. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. complaints and compliments. books are followed. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. 158 . and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. wherever necessary. laboratory equipment.6. qualifications. When they are fully realised. taking up the follow-up programmes. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures.qualified personnel. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. They are. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. staff. whether the syllabus has been covered. inspecting the class-room teaching.. of late. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. etc.2. in contrast. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. submitting of the inspection reports. Academic inspection.

.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. at least. M.Ed. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. In the case of departmental candidates. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. In the light of these conceptualisation. 159 . Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. course in either educational. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors.Ed. their professional knowledge. 3. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. Insistence on specialisation in the B. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. modern. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors.2. Similarly. aptitude.. once in five years. or. courses.

Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. assessment and Finance. 4. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. a. c. 3. 160 . 5. a. b. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. b. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. Administration. 3. Grade System. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 2.2. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System.2. d. a. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. Instruction.2. 3. 3.

Educational Reforms. 7. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.2. a. K. b.a part of internal assessment. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. (2004). a. 3. a. (2002). Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. 5. History and Problems of Education in India. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. R and Sharma. b. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. S. K. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. New 161 . c. Multiple sets of question paper. (2005). b. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.4. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Question banks. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Vaidya. Open book examinations. Problems of Education in India. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment.

3. 4.7 3.5 3.3. identify the needs of rural India and social.3 3.3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3.2 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. 5.1 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. 3. 162 .3.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.10 3. you will be able to: 1.6 3.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.9 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.LESSON 3.3. 3.8 3. 2.4 3.3.

which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . Commission emphasised to continue. and 3 years of First Degree Course.g.3. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course.. the Banaras Sanskrit College. University Education.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. in Andhra Pradesh. e. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1.e. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. i. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. Consequent on the recommendations.. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. 8 years of general education. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. etc. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage.. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . The.. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Similar is the case with some other States. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. 10 years of general Secondary Education.e.specialisation programmes 3. The Calcutta Madras. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. 2.3.

It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. 8. 6.confidence in students. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. cultural and economic development of the country. Provision for transfer of credits to students. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. 10. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . to prepare. 5.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. to imbibe. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . However. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 5) to help for the that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. b. historical. who desire to change from one stream to another. 7.3. economical and political. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities.a sense of dignity of labour. is also a plus point . It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. and. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. habits of hard work and develop . It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . educational channels. 3. social.

for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. Philosophically it is not the conception. and that required to enter the tertiary level. 1. cultural and' religious tolerance. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. etc. The General Educational Spectrum. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as.national integration.3. Psychologically. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. 3. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. international understanding. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. and. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. at the other. cooperativeness. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . Sociologically it is undesirable. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. social justice.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum.. democratic living. to develop national character. on one hand. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students.

technical. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. such as Agriculture.— tube-wells. industrial agricultural production is growing. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. Science. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. technological. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. 2. 166 . 3. the rural areas have suffered very much. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. Biology.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. fish culture. physics or mathematics. All these need for an. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. horticulture. In the vocational spectrum.3. medical plants. or other machinery. In our country. Commerce and other disciplines. vegetable growing. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. educational and cultural services. professional. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. commerce. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. In the matter of language. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. chemistry. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. and vocations based on dairy-farming. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. commerce. rural—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. India is a land of villages. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. Agriculture is the main occupation.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and the needs.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. interests and aptitudes of the students. can be ensured. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. In this way. and 5. In this it may be concluded. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society.. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the local resources available. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all.etc. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. In time.3. social justice. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. There had been favourable reaction from the students. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. etc. 4. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. 3..

Calcutta University Commission 2. 3. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. 3. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. N. 3.3. a. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. objectives. General Educational Spectrum and b. Anmol Publications Pvt.3. (2001). Modern Trends in Indian Education. J. Dash.3. habits of hard work and develop .10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. B. (2005). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. b. we studied the history. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi : 168 . (2008). Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. a. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage.C. a.3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. J. (2007). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal.3. S. to imbibe.a sense of dignity of labour. 3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.K. Vocational Sepctrum. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. Mohanty. b. Ltd. 2.

4.13 3.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.7 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4. Education contributes to human development.10 3. but the lighting of a fire”.4.11 3.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.6 3.4.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.8 3.4. social and 169 .4.2 3.LESSON 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3 3.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4.12 3.4.1 3.

Home Economics. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. you will be able to: 1. For the first time in the history of India. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. 3. Nursing. higher education of girls developed immensely. There is a close connection between education and development. although we have miles to go. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century.higher education in particular. Education . analyze the women and distance education. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. These courses were. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. During the year 1937.4.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. Dr. 3. particularly 170 . In the post —independence period. Teaching and Fine Arts. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. While women constituted only 9. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. family. community and nation is universally acknowledged. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. economic.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. The relevance of women’s education to social.4. cultural and political development of the individual.

N. In the rest of the country. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.0 Today.2 22.0 43.9 14.0 32. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. Kodaikanal. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.4. Even today.65 lakhs in 1994-95. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.4. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.1 31. Yet. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). 3.1 24. The idea of women’s education for equality. out of 9200 and odd colleges. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . Mother Teresa Women University.women. Coimbatore.T Women University. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.D. we have more than 1200 institutions.9 27.0 16. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. in our country. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. levels and professions. Mumbai. In 1950-51.4. 3. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.2 29.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.

5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.53 34.1 respectively.4. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.54 12.46 82.4. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .34 33. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1 and 14. 3.36 3.17 52. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.63 Female % 34.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .83 47.44 35. 2.66 66. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.56 64.4%) prefer Arts subjects. 3.that of boys.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.47 65.4.73 10.27 89.

According to a survey. 173 . amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. particularly. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. and coeducation may spoil her character. They gave up their studies to enter home life. etc. marriage is a very common I factor. Also. Thus. what is the need for higher education for her. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Book banks should be established. irrelevance of the content of education. she will only learn fashion. financial difficulty of the parents. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. In college.4. 3. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. curriculum not suited to their requirements. promoted and increased. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. In every third family. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so.hinders the girls from getting higher education. The major hurdles. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. distance of the college or university from home. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it.

There are constraints of time.4. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. resources and socio . At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. It enables to study. 3. Empowerment in a nutshell. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace.economic disabilities faced by women. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Full-time employment. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. is the only tool for realising empowerment. It also brings about 174 .4. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Education. 3. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. and the limitations of the conventional education system. Distance education is a boon to women. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. It is a productive investment. space. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Geographic distance of educational institutions.

Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. The major objectives of women's higher education. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities.4. on their own. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. This can be achieved through reflection. Empowerment is an active. empowerment means being assertive. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. 3. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. higher learning. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . legal awareness and economic independence. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. for full development of our human resources. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. education of women must be given priority in national plans. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. education of women is of paramount importance. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. Women are partners in development. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence.

4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. especially so in the developing countries. who are eager to take up courses. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. which had been the sole domain of men. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. But their number is small. The local administration.4. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. will encourage them to venture new grounds. has to be implemented at the earliest. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. Better opportunities. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. which is pending for a long time.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. Scholarships and concessions for women. The educational institutions. Reservation for women. 3. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. 176 .

Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. But. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. talents. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. engineering and related technologies (16. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. Chief Executive.000 women in the country.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low..1%) and architecture and building (38. especially in developing countries like African countries.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? .9%). According to Lindy Hyam. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.8%). there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. IDP Education.3 percent.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. capacities etc. Australia. Also. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 .

178 . 4. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Mumbai. Coimbatore. the family. Rao. SNDT Women’s University. S. Women Education.4. Mumbai.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. (2005). (2000).4.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Rajasthan 5.K. and Swain. Mishra. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. create the right attitude towards life. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. community and the nation. Pattanaikj. Women and Education. R. Women Education. A. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. SNDT Women’s University. (2007). 43% 6. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Centre for Women’s Studies. S. Coimbatore.C. and Suryalatha. 3. 4.4. a. Kodaikanal. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Annakodi. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. A.R. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. R. individuals and society b. Mother Teresa Women University. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. 3. (2008). Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. 3. 2.

so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. whole.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.11 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5.2 3.5 3.LESSON 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.6 3.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.8 3.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.10 3.7 3.4 3.5.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5.1 3. They should be trained. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.9 3.personality of children in and out of school.5.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.

4. 3. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Dearth of new technology of teaching. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. 3. Shorter working hours. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. understand the training teachers for Primary. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. understanding and strong desire for international peace. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has.5. and national character.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education.5. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. 5. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. international. 180 . know the pre service and in service training facilities. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. equality and justice. Lack of physical facilities. national consciousness. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. you will be able to: 1. social and emotional integration.

the primary teacher education. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. it is called the In-service teacher education. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. the state Government. Depending on the levels. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . Lop-sided curriculum. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. and the collegiate teacher education. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. the secondary teacher education. 3. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service.Less qualified teacher educators. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. Inadequate training in practical skills. students. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. higher secondary teacher education. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. (NCERT) New Delhi. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate.5.Ed. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities.Ed. a Diploma course and a Degree course. If the student teachers are working teachers. the centre. At the diploma level. etc.. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years .. and M. 3. inservice and extension education programmes. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. it is called the Extension teacher Education. who have not been trained earlier. levels. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course.5.

non-formal.5. extensio n service. Evaluation unit. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Education cells.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. state Institutes of Educat ion. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . collegiate cells. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs .Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. are established. depart ments etc. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. Educational teehnology cells. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Write any two problems of Teacher Education? .. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . Science Education units. Also Guidance Bureaux. Expand NCERT 2.

to ensure teacher competence. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life.. to prescribe conditions for recognition. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed ..Ed. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. primary and secondary school teachers. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . audio visual aids. to offer consultative services. and so on. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. schools and sister degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . laboratories. degree. material conditions relating to libraries. to improve curricular programmes. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. despite its vast expansion. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and .• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. which help breaking isolation from one another . and 183 .. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. should be improved on a top priority basis. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas.Ed. which should include experience in the primary schools too.

no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. etc. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Induction Courses. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. methodology and evaluation. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. though no pre-service training. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Meanwhile. Organisation of Content Courses. 184 . Modern Techniques of Teaching.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. Hence. whether they should have professional education or. and XII. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. not came up once again. To meet this exigency.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Psychology of Students. Agriculture.secondary education. The problem. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. etc. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. Workshops. Modern Methods of Evaluation.

Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. Degree. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.5..A. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. 3.D.Ed. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. Post-Graduates also undergo B. These facilities are available for regular students. training.A.S... in Education.Ed.Ed.. For re-orienting the teachers. Ajmer.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. Courses leading to B.Ed..Ed.’s for Ph. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.Ed.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. All B Ed. Pre-service training is for those. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. Degree and M.. (Education) and M. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. courses and M. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. (Education) are organized by 185 . Point out two defects in primary teacher training . for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.. M.’s are elig ible for M. State Institutes of Education.

established by tradition and teachers of the past. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . Hence the employability of M. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. What is the role of ERIC? . 6. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. (Ed). 4. (Ed.A.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. and B.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . . Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. of conduct—written or unwritten. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .A. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.some Faculties of Education of some Universities.5. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. However. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. 186 . 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.. they should be conscientious . 3.).8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics.

Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. Bhopal. b. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. National Council of Educational Research and Training. a. a. 3. 5. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.3. 3. However.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. 6. a. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 4. b. 2. 2. they should be conscientious. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 3. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.5. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. 4. 187 . Explain code of conduct for teachers.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful.5. Ajmer. The necessity is however this.5. Shorter working hours. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore.

N. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Teacher Education. (2009). (2003). New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . A. Publication Pvt. Corporation.5. Mohanty. J. P.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. B. Ltd Aggarwal. (2010). and Teacher Education. Teacher Education. Tewari.D.3.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

objectives and role of the physical education. economic and educational developments. communicable diseases and their prevention.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. The person’s environment is equally important. objectives. objectives. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. In lesson 4. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. In lesson 1. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important. preservation of nutrients. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. common ailments of children. Since food is the source of nutrients. 191 . scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. the focus is on the school health programmes. nutritional deficiency diseases. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. If the diet is poor.

192 .

3 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1 4.e.1. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1.LESSON 4. 193 .9 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1.1.5 4.1.2 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time. for giving health education to the children under its custody.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.10 4.11 4.1. mental. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1.6 4. physical.1.7 4.8 4.4 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE It is a miniature society.1. emotional and social. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1.

describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. e. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. list the common ailments of children 3. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. 9. To give information regarding health rules. 4. 6.1. training in first aid and etc. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health.1. 194 . 2. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 3. explain the importance of First aid 5. 11. cleanliness and healthful living.. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. training of teachers and evaluation. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 5. know the need for sex education. understand school health programmes 2. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. Instruction. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To develop healthy health habits among children. 7.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1.g. to his family and to the community at large. 8. 4. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. 4.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. you will be able to: 1. content of health education. To develop certain skills concerning health. 10.

4. 5.4. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. (vi) nutrition education. 3. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. etc.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. 2. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . Arranging better transportation facilities. The school buildings should be spacious. “Play-for-all” programmes. There should be good drainage facilities. Vaccination for small pox. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. direct lighting. cleanliness weeks. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. is imperative. organisation of school health days. (viii) first aid. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. The surroundings of schools should be clean. excusing late. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. (x) choice aid use of health services and products.1. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings.coming or absence. First aid facilities should be made readily available.. play festivals.G. suitable furniture. vaccination. inoculation against cholera. B. Triple Antigen Vaccination. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. B. proper doors and windows. minimizing the travelling distance. There should be regular water supply.C. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. 2. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. typhoid. (v) safety education.. The flooring should not be damp. ( iii) sanit at io n. (xii) smoking education etc. as described below 1. (ii) communit y healt h. (xl) mental health.

alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. • Take nutritious food. etc. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. D. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. • When sleeping in groups. sports and games in the interest of their health. C. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. if epidemic is wide-spread. burns. • Find out the cases. • Keep all rooms clean. 196 . The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. • Have adequate rest and sleep. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. • Close the schools. insect stings. wounds. bleeding. drowning. poisons.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. scalds. dislocations. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. fainting (epileptic fit). fractures. cuts.. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. and other accidents. isolate and notify.

2. chicken pox.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. Mention the school health programmes. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye.1. water or bodily contact. So they easily get illnesses. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. which are – cold. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. Once these germs get into the body. polio. 4. cough. asthma. List out the Health curriculum 3.1. They are: i) The incubation stage. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. backache. There are three stages in any communicable disease. fever. 4. measles etc. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. headache. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. pain in the joints.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. tuberculosis. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . These diseases are called communicable diseases.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school.

In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Others make the children very weak. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Measles .is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Throat is affected. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately.It is caused by measles virus.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. cough and fever. This is caused by cold virus.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. etc. head-ache and cough. Hence liquid diet is recommended. The child may have fever. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Mumps . After three or four days of fever. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Tonsilitis . Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. unhygienic living conditions. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Common Cold . Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Some suffer cold due to allergy. The following are the common communicable diseases. 198 . This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Hence it is called a killer disease. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. eating food which is not clean. Scabies . There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Children catch cold from persons having cold. sugar and water. unhygienic bottle feeding. The symptoms include cold.This disease is caused by bacteria.When a child suffers from scabies. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Ear Infections . Diarrhoea . The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath.

separate. What are communicable diseases? 6. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. Diphtheria . the child is not able to breathe. Shortly. If proper treatment is not given. Enlist the common ailments of children. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. 199 .It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. 5. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. As the disease progresses. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. the child may die. raised pink spots appear on head. The child may also have diarrhoea. Expand DPT . The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. face and waist. It begins with fever. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. By scratching he causes secondary infections. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.• • • • Chicken Pox . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Typhoid .

it is a subject of art. drowning. Cuts and Bruises . snakebites. head injury. Wounds . Drowning . simple fractures. It has its rightful place in education too. 5. sprains. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. cuts. wounds. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. 3. 200 .8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. Sex is popular.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. so-called sex books and periodicals.4. eye injury. and films.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. man-woman behaviours. In such cases. films and jokes. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. 4.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. fiction.g. etc. Sprains . Sex is but an integral part of human personality. exciting and body-oriented. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. 4.1. swelling. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. It is both biological and psychological. bruises. fainting.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. dislocation.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful.1. sprains. and Community Work and Social Service. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. scorpion stings. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. 2. bleeding.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1.

The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. 2. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers.old values. Should the boys and girls. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. they would be treading the path of sure doom. The values of to give sex education to the young. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. The home. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. health.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. sex education is being recommended in schools. celibacy are age. try experimenting with their bodies. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. the religious organisations. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. in their ignorance. In secondary schools. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. 3. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies.. B. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. the school. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. Hence. but preserve them from disaster and disease. In today's liberal and interactive society.

and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. the school health programmes. first aid and sex education. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. 202 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. communicable diseases and their prevention. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. 4. hence. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. Teacher education institutions are. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. What are the major components of Sex Education. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. there will no crisis in its implementation. common ailments of children.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. C. when the courses are already overloaded. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.



SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.


STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.


4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:


Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.


Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy


Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention the food nutrients 2. 209 . Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4.

Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.2. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . Let us talk about each of these aspects. minerals. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned.2. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s .4.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. If you look at the definition carefully. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. 210 . A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet.

sex. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . dosa are typical of the south. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. Even within given States there is considerable variation. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. Balanced diets also provide for periods of in the morning and the other at night. the social and religious practices of that region. Preferences/customs are also important.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet.2. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. In the case of adults.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. 4. for example. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. construction labourer). It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires.g.g. it is also specific to a given activity level . This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). People in the east of our country prefer rice. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. A balanced diet is specific firstly. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. In other words. These are: region where the person resides and income. activity level and physiological stress. paratha and poori.6. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age).sedentary. There is no point. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. moderate or heavy work. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately.

The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. however. If you think of your own religious group. vegetables and fruits.planning the diet. In addition to these. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. These determine the acceptability of foods. customs. As income increases. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. income plays a vital role. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. Judicious selection of food is. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. however. However. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. As you read this discussion. taboos related to food may play an important role. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. as important for the rich as for the poor. One person may be fond of milk products. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Among the social factors. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. however. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Having more money. fat and sugar tend to increase. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. Including these 212 . for example. Even among flesh foods. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. One must. while another may hate them. nuts and dry fruits.

Define balanced diet. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. but they should be thrown away. etc. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. green leaves.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. 8) Walk a while after eating. mouth. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. fruits. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 17. For this. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 8. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. if the teachers have good food habits. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. eggs . 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished.eating is hazardous. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 213 . meat. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . over-eating or under. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. List out any two healthy food habits. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits.

10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain food nutrients 4. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Conjuctival xerosis.2. Corneal xerosis. When the diet is inadequate. Vitamin D 5. 4. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Keratomalacia 3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Bitot’s spots. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Night blindness. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. 4. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . b. Beri Beri 4. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. c.4.2. e. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Discuss good food habits. good nutrition is essential for good health. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. In fact.2. d. preservation of nutrients. a.

(2005).2. Hands. b. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 8. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . Nutrition Science.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. a . Health and Nutrition Education. 7. mouth. Sri Lakshmi B.M. R. R.C. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. (2009). Food should be consumed after eating well. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.N. Food and Nutrition Education. A Text Book of Foods. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Chopra. (2004). 4. minerals. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. (2008). C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. (2008). b. P. S. Nutrition and Dietetics. Food and Nutrition Education.6. a.

2 Impact on economic development 4.1 Impact on social development 4.2 4.3.10 4.3.12 4.3.3 4.3.3.LESSON 4.3.7 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.6.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4. 216 .6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3 Impact on Education 4.3.13 4.1 4.3.4 4.3.

The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. his societ y and the world. Population Education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4.3. family planning and sex education etc. community. There is some difference.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. describe the impact of population growth on social. objectives and need for population education 2. the causes of population change. the stress is. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. It is not sex education.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. Whenever we talk of sex education. population characteristics. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. his family.3. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population.4. aims at providing the younger generation. and the consequences of these processes. economic and educational development 3.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. understand the importance of small family norm 5. characteristics and changes for himself. you will be able to: 1. therefore. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. 217 .3. It is a much wider co ncept. 4. state the meaning. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India.

4. Define Population Education 2.3. the family.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the society. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the nation and the world. 4. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well.

An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. Every second two thousand children are being born. 4. 4. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age.3. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. economic and educational development of the country. the family programmes are also handicapped. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. Family is considered as a social unit. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future.6. With the larger families. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. which will not be possible without population control. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed.3. When the family is small. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. 219 . Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. health and happiness of its citizens. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country.

6. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils.. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. lack of proper health care. i. pollution of the environment. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. In developing countries. in buses and trains. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. Many students herded in a small room.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. and so on. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. toilets. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. in cinema halls and theatres. in parks and other places of public gatherings. The gulf between them is widening further. 220 .” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. are the results of demographic pressures on social life.6.3.3. heavy intern I migration etc.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. unemployment. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. facility for drinking water. organization index and material index.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. 4. Swollen cities.e. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. teacher index. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. 4. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.

It has got to be integrated with other subjects. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There would be very few audiovisual aids. 221 .3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. can be taken up.3. even text books would be in short supply. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. reproduction. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. Hindi and English. thus. and laboratory equipments. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. There would be poor library facilities. less budget for education. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages.. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. bar graphs etc. family planning etc. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. essays. less space facilities. Social Studies Statistics on population education. Regional Language. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. can be studied in science and health education.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. blank verses etc. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies.

Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. deaths. Bihar. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. 8. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 13. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. 10. Canada. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population.3. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . 5. United States of America. 7. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Children with the help of parents. causes of deaths etc. China. 11. 2. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Children may compare two families. 4. 15. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. area and average density of population. West Bengal. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. 12. 14.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 3. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Brazil. Uttar Pradesh. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved.4. 9.

Comparing life in various respects in two families. age at marriage. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. 18. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. The question. values and role children etc.3. we have no right to stop 223 . Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives opened in their schools. 16. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. 17.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. preferences for sex. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”.

is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. The Family Welfare Program. “He who is responsible for population emphasize family planning services.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. continued . especially the expansion of child immunization services .4-6. Since the program's inception. at varying places in different regions. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. More than 45 years ago. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. however.were implemented 224 .10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. on an overall basis.their entry into the world”. 4. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). the total fertility rate decreased from 6. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . and the child survival components of the news: program..3. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. which education can only do. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.

These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. Local programs vary in their approaches. expansion of services to unmarried women. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. In October 1997. and nominal fees for services. men. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. a focus on health promotion. reliance on local women as community health workers. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. the community appears willing to pay for services. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers.earlier than the safe motherhood components. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. Therefore. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. and the World Conference on Women. In April 1996. At these meetings. Moreover. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995.

economic and educational development 4. Describe the impact of population growth on social. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future.3.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. nation and the world. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. Its main purposes are to create awareness. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. 3. What are the goals of RCH? 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 226 . which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. community.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. family. 4. 1997). involving the community.3.emphasizing the needs of the client. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank.

3. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. 4. characteristics and changes for himself. area and average density of population.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. bar graphs. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. b. his family. less space facilities. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. b. less budget for education. population characteristics. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. and the consequences of these processes.3. 6. United States of America. a. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Brazil.4. a. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. his society and the world. 7.” 2. the causes of population change. Canada. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. 5. China. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 227 .

(2005). Kantikar. Reddy. Ltd.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty.K. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. J. Principles of Population Studies. T. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. V. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Bhende. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.3. (2004). Ltd. Coimbatore. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. (2005). N. Modern Problems of Education. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Jayapoorni. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Udaiveer. 228 .4. A. (2002). Centre for Women’s Studies. (1992).

4.7 4.4.8.LESSON 4.9 4.4 Lead up games 4.3 Indigenous games 4.11 19.1 Minor games 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE Major games 4.4.5 4.4 4.8.3 4.8.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4.1 4.

4. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. The concept of physical education has been made broader. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. leadership and balance in defect.4. state the meaning of Physical Education 2.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. you will be able to: 1.4. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. social fitness.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. mental alertness. as it should 230 . perseverance.4. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. moral fitness and emotional fitness. full records of physical activities should be maintained. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. 4. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. team spirit.4. which forms its most valuable assets. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. classify the different types of games. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. the youth of the country. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body.

It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. leadership. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Therefore. Every individual is a part of society. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. team spirit. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. They are inseparably united together. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . The educational efforts at home. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. They go hand in hand. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. To be more precise. obedience to rules. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion.

mo ral. Just like Education. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. game and sports. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. H. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. a sound health. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. 4. Regarding the significance of physical education.” The Secondary Education Commission. ment al. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. Physical exercises. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks.4.” Montaigue writes. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. Buck has observed that 232 . social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. pleasing manners. Rousseau states. nor body but the whole man.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. C.

a properly directed physical education should result in health. “If we wish to develop the whole being. etc. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. coordinative abilities. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. resourcefulness and smartness.4. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. initiative.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. we must exercise the whole human being. efficiency and character. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. Froebel says. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility.” 4. endurance. 233 . strength.” In brief. elegance. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. happiness. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. flexibility and power. speed.

these fundamental things have always been present. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Tournaments foster this sentiment. including all racial groups and historical ages. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. While wars. systems of government. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. should help in the spiritual development of the student. plagues and famines. they may form gangs. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. 234 (i) (ii) . in greater or lesser degree. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. poetry and painting. its adherents and its enemies.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Every age has its artists. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music.

3.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements.sacrifice. respect for rules. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. bravery and interest in games and sports. 235 .\ to develop perseverance. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. obedience. B. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. Write any two importance of Physical Education. to develop tolerance. self.

Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. 236 1. Be well-prepared. 13. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. 16. 7. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. and. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities.4. 4. is essential.4. 10. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 6. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 15. Be punctual. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. defects. 3. . Be sportive. Haag. Posture screening should be done. and readmission after they have recovered.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Inform health principles. Be in the uniform. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. 9. 5. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Usually parents. Act as a leader. students. Be self-confident. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 8. 11. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Keep the field ready for the activities. injuries among pupils should be made. 2.4. Always keep the whistle ready. 14. 4.H. 12.

Such inst incts as imitation. 2. 4.8. 3. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Indigenous games. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. the play. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. 4. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. 237 . frolic and jo y. Moreover. 4. Lead up games. chasing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. their development is handicapped.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. less equipment and less expense.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.4.

The dimension of the posts and nets. on mountain tops and on river beds. under ball pass Relay. 238 . wherever the kids assemble. On lawns. Jumping. Shuttle Badminton. over ball pass Relay. pitching. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Jump the stick clay and so on. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. 4. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. skipping. Throwing. stopping. Dodging. These games require varied skills such as running. the games can be modified according to convenience..2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Hopping. They are rules approved by the International Associations. the number of players and substitutes. Ball Badminton. Soft Ball. snatching the kerchief. women take part most of the games. dribbling. Hockey. muffling. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Cricket. finding the partner. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games.4. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. some of them are played indoors. on sea-shore. Kabaddy etc. catching. spiking. boosting. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. For each game the rules are many. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. benefit in playing minor games. Volley Ball. on hard courts. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. They are played for a shorter duration.With a very few rules. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles.8. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. couple tag. While many of them are played in the open playfields. heading. Basket Ball. the play equipment. driving. zig zag relay. trapping. Tennis. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. hitting. Except a few games. bowling etc. Khokho. Tennikoit. with implements or without implements.

4. List out some major games. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.8. 4. On occasions like marriage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. birth. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. festivals connected with religion and public functions. Kho-kho. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. They have an abundant social value. death. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . Games may be classified as 6. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. For example. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.4. While observing the players in action. and . Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. these games being popular. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. An example for indigenous game is 8. All the fundamental tactics. they are in existence.8.4. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.

to develop physical stamina.4. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4.4. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. a. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Minor and Major 240 . a. physically and emotionally fit and alert. 5.4. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. b. a. 4. 3. 3. Posture screening should be done.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. d. a. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. 2. b. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual.4. aims and objectives and need of physical education. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. 4. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 2. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. c. 4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. to secure physical health b. b. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept.

Foot-ball. Basket Ball. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Mohanty. Health.K. Cricket. Soft Ball. J. Physical Education and Sports. (2008). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Kabaddy 7. Krishna murthy. (2008). G. Volley Ball. Shuttle Badminton. Khokho. Tennis. Tennikoit. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. 4.4. Ltd. (2009). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Hockey. Handbook of Physical Education. (2005).C.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. 241 . Khokho 8.6. Ball Badminton. J. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. J. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Aggarwal. 4.5.4 4.6 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.2 4.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment . Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.1 4.9 4.5.LESSON 4.5.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.2 Manmade Environment 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.1 Natural Environment 4.5.8 4.3 4.7 4.5.

economic. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Knowledge.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. role of teacher in environmental conservation. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. 4. Skills. Evaluation Ability. Essential knowledge about the Environment. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. it covers the following elements: 1. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2.5. 3. list out the types of environment 3. Details are given below: I.5. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. population explosion and resource depletion could be. The best place to start such learning is school. Attitude. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Broadly. you will able to: 1. 2. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological.educat ion for the environment. 6. political. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. 4. 4. 3. education about the environment and education through the environment.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. 2. social. Participation. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. 5.5. aesthetic and educational factors. 243 . Awareness.

Oxidants Other pollutants. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C.B. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. D. F. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. heat sink and wind flow in cities. a. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. 2. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. • Biological magnification E. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. 244 . soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population.

Family planning ii. Use of medical science i. Sterilisation. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. 2. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Birth control through education b. The human ecosystem II. Persuasion: i. B. 2. Control of population growth a. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1.3. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. economic. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. III. c. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. 3. Abortion iv. 4. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Socio-economic measures. The pill ii. Intrauterine device iii. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 .

Water pollution abatement. 246 . Air pollution abatement ii. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. 2. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Environmental Education. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. (UNESCO. e) Recycling. 3. 1983).

5. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.4.5. He modifies according”. to his needs. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. Any constituent or condition of the environment.5. telex.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . 4.5.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. -other. fax agricultural apparatus. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. They interact with each.5.other components of the environment. a. way is called environmental or ecological factor. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. includes the plants. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. Biological environment The biological environment.5.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. b. animals and other organisms (biotic). Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. A change in one brings about a change in the other. These are biotic components. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds.

trees reducing noise pollution. air pollutants from industries. windmills.. food chain and food-web. acid rain. importance of nitrogen cycle. evolution. biogas plants. industrial survey. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. change in climate may be added. over exploitation of ground water. of civilizations. use of pesticides. sources. balance of nature. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. relation between population and pollution. History The rise and fall. industrial pollut io n.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. use of medicinal plants. noise pollution. reasons. wars and hazards of war. need for bio-diversity. preventing siltation of dams. ozone layer deplet ion. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. nuclear energy. noise control. effects. alternate sources of energy. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. t heir role in preventing pollution. mineral survey. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. role of trees in building economy. nuclear warfare. natural way of controlling pests. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. excellent recreation sites. supplying timber for various uses. greenhouse effect. sources of pollut ion. maintaining the ecological diversity. social studies. effects o f CFC. river systems. ozone depletion. extinction of species. etc. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . (ii) Air pollution. explosion deforestation. water scarcity. population. are the topics which may be taught in History. desertification 248 . preserving the watersheds. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. solar cookers. need for conservation. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. etc.

13. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. aims and scope. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 7. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 4. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 9. Providing. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Peepal and Tulsi. 5. 2. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Developing awareness about environmental issues. 249 . 3. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 11. group discussions and seminars. 8.may be inc ded in Geography. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 4. 6. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 12. 10. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Organising conferences.5. animal and plants. 14. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material.

old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. especially plastics.Send their waste oil. 6. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. World Environmental falls on 250 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Reuse carrier bags. Don’t burn any waste. If it is done. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. it will cause pollution. all these can cause serious pollution. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. used oils down the drain. Never put any left over chemicals. Use public transport wherever it is possible. 5.

The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. CFCs.5. etc. To arrange visits or expeditions. To discuss the approach to problems or topics.mat erials. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. nuclear wars. deforestation.). potable water. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. Concern for species. orderliness and beauty). Social responsibilit y (common good. loss of bio-diversity. Harmony with the nature .8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. Att itudes of balance towards nature. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. values and habits.. etc. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. Conservation of natural resources. developing desirable attitudes. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. To provide materials needed for practical work. depletion of ozone. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. diversity and stability. and 251 . viz. rather than conquest and mastery. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. To arrange for visiting speakers. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . The groups may exchange. dest roying nat ural habitats. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. (cleanliness. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions.4. concern for others).

Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. 252 . Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. 8.5. 4. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. 4. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. preserving natural cycles. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.

. Environmental Education. To provide materials needed for practical work. Ltd. explosion deforestation.K. sources. b. Providing. b. water scarcity. (2004). Modern Problems of Education. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Organising conferences. Ltd. ozone layer deplet ion. over exploitation of ground water. Publications Pvt. Rapid population growth. acid rain. New Delhi : Authors Press. Environmental Education. greenhouse effect. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Nanda. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. a. reasons.K.5. a. a. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Knowledge.K. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. effects. relat ion between population and pollution. New Delhi : Sharma.K. Environment and Human Rights. (ii) Air pollution. 6. air pollutants from industries.\ 4. Kuldeep. 3. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Anmol Publications Pvt. Social responsibilit y (common good. Education for values. b. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. 4. T. population. 8.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. importance of nitrogen cycle. new problems from science and technology. a. S.2. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. (2007). 5. S. group discussions and seminars. Udaiveer. b. concern for others). June 5 7. sources of pollution. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . Awareness. (2007). (1997). Y.

254 .




Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.



STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism Idealism and aims of Education Idealism and Curriculum Idealism and methods of teaching Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism Naturalism and aims of Education Naturalism and Curriculum Naturalism and methods of teaching Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

259 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to

promote and transmit it to rising generation. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. It is self-realisation. moral. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. Universal Education. Therefore. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. in fact. man is essentially a moral being. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation.3." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. the emancipation of spirit.” 5. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. The universe is regarded as a thought process. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. should be universal in nature. According to Rusk'.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . Education according to idealism. enrichment and transmission of culture. Education must contribute to development of culture.1.our life. Spiritual Development. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind.

Learning through lecturing. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. Science. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming.3. so subjects like Religion. Learning through discussion. hygiene. 2. History. He carries the child from darkness to light. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. 5. Herbert advocated instruction method.3.” He is thus. the school is a garden. According to Frobel. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching.1. Learning through questioning. friend and guide. Mathematics etc. Philosophy. Learning through imitation. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. The plant can grow. subjects like Languages. He sets the environment in which education takes place.” 5. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. no doubt. affecting (feeling).1. 4. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . So cognition (knowing). 5. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection.the spiritual qualities of mankind. So he should embody. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. For intellectual development. 3. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. a spiritual guide for the child. and collation (striving) should find due place. Learning through reading. Ethics. According to idealism.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. So health. It considers teacher as. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. should be there. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. However. An idealist teacher is a philosopher.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. For this no particular method has been suggested. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. an indispensable necessity.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. 2. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. Ross explains. 5. "Education should make 263 • . 5.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. text books. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In the words of Ross.preservation. formal lessons or examinations.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Perfection of Human Machine.1. time tables.1.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.perfection and beauty. curricula.

education should develop the child into Joyous. “Education finds its purpose. Chemistry. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. In all. Education should.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Education also aims at helping the individual t.1. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. 4. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. 264 . Literature. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. It stresses basic sciences. rational harmoniously balanced. is based on the nature of the child. subjects like history. useful and mature child. Naturalistic curriculum. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Botany etc Language. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Arithmetic.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum.4. There is no place for religious and moral education. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Therefore. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. It is based on the psychology of the child.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Biology. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Zoology. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. • 5. therefore. geography should also be included in the curriculum. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment.

“Give your scholar no verbal lesson. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. It discards all rigid.1. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. a provider of an ideal environment. Rousseau says.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Learning by doing. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Learning through experience. In the . a supplier of materials and opportunities.5.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. Heuristic method. Learning through observation. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. 5. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally.1. 4. 5. the stage.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.1. Dalton Plan. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .4. he should be taught by experience alone.

social and moral aspects.5. 5. intellectual. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. The aim of educational development. of human personality is in terms of his physical. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. All Round Development of an Individual. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Sciences. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. History. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. is true.1.absolutism of idealism. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Continuous Growth. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared.5.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Agriculture. Social Science. 5. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Physical training. Continuous reconstruction of Experience.1. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Social Efficiency. Personal Social Adjustment. Geography. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Vocational and 266 . diversified and flexible. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Subjects. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Learning by Doing. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. should find proper place. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.1. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. a teacher occupies an important position. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .1. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles.Technical Education.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. alert and resourceful. activities and experience should be integrated properly.5. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He has to be active. He must be trained. 5. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. a senior partner and a sincere guide.5. The subjects. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.” 5.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education.

A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind.1. It favours child-centered. Psychology. Literature. Astrology. 4.1.6. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things.5. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. specific.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic.6. literary or humanistic education. 3. 5. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 5. practical. intellectual. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. 2. Chemistry. scientific and psychological education. Music and Dance. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. History.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Art.1. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Population Education. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. 2. 3. Crafts. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Biology. Biography Philosophy. Sex Education. 5. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Geography are unnecessary 268 . 4. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. rich and happy. Mathematics. Education is preparation for a complete living. Study of Subjects like Language. liberal.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1.

4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . easily and pleasantly. certainly and clearly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

& curriculum. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Languages. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Self Realisation b. Learning through experience b. e.1.1. b. Learning through discussion. pragmatism and realism. Physical training. Rousseau 5. has no end other than growth.7 LET US SUM UP We have.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 6. Universal Education 2. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Geography. Experimentation d. Child centered c.5. History. 5. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. a. Social Science. d. a. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Learning through reading. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Sciences. Education according to pragmatism.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. 5. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Learning through questioning. Tours / Excursion e. Learning through imitation. Vocational and Technical Education. Learning through lecturing. Agriculture. naturalism. 5. a. c. in this lesson. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. 3. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization.

Anmol Publications Pvt. Pahuja. Foundations of Education. (2007).H. P. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. Ltd. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.5.1. Publishing corporation. Narang C. New Delhi : Bhatia. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Theory and Principles of Education. O. P. New Delhi : A. of Pathak. (2007). (2004). (2003).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. N. L. R. 271 .P. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.P. K. 5.2.3 Methods of Teaching 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2.4 Views about teacher 5.2 Curriculum Gandhiji and Curriculum TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2.4.1 Aims of Education Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.3.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2 Curriculum 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .2.2.4 Views about teacher 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.4.1 Aims of Education Methods of teaching 5.4.2 Aims of Education 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.LESSON 5.

understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. Tagore was a poet. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.7 5. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.6 5.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. Gandhiji was primarily a social. 5. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.8 5. mind and spirit. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.2.2. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2.2. you will able to: 1. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. content and methods. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. 273 .2. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. 3. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.2. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.2.5.4 Role of the teacher 5. economic and political reconstruction in our country. an artist.

Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage.supporting. it is education of life.2. through life and for life. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji.intellectual and physical faculties of the children.3. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. "I attach more. 274 . Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. 'Man is neither mere intellect. In the words of Gandhiji. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. 5. self-restraint and service of humanity. It really provides opportunity for character building. strength of mind. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. righteousness. His scheme of education is life centred. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. mind and soul of children He further observed." Dignity of Labour. nor the gross animals body. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor.

gardening. Music. Mother-tongue. leather work have been suggested. Drawing and Hindustani. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. General Sciences. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. According to Gandhi. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Art.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. the realization of the ultimate reality. development of the whole all were directed: towards.Training for Leadership. 5. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. Individual and Social Aims.3. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. "Development of the moral character. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. wood work. metal work. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education.2. Only good individual forms a better society. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations.

What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.2. men of 276 . Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. proficient.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Basic education is other wise known as 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2.trained. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.

PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education.knowledge. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 .3.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. That is why. 3. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.2. Education must be child centered. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. He also advocates freedom for the child. 5. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies.

His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. • Cult of non-violence.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. he was a true Vedantist 5.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.3. Gandhi in 1937. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. • Ideal of citizenship.2. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. He believed in the oneness of humanity.4.2. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . He was deadly against untouchability. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. • Education should involve manual work.K.” Like all other ideals. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. He was a true patriot.2.

Therefore. 279 . The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. deeper in.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. (vi) Philosophy. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Chemistry.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Zoology. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. International understanding. "Mankind must realise a unity. It should help the learner have good physique. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. wider in range. Dance. Music. Botany. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. stronger in power than ever before. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Tagore said. the more dedicated and devoted. them solve problems of day to day life. That way only. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. sentiment. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. International Understanding. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Geography.Language and Literature . Religion and Psychology. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. could help in forging unity among all.2. Civics. he said.4. etc. It should help. complete manhood could be attained.

A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. Activity Method Heuristic Method. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.4. 5. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. Tagore rightly says.2. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.2. 280 .2. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals." 5.” He further says.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.4.4. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. In 1921. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. 5. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”.

10. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. 281 . religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere.g. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. It is open to all irrespective of country. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. race.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. 9. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2.

Book learning. who possess sweet and amicable tempers.2. Freedom. character forming and assimilation of ideas. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Education for Self-reliance. According to him. Concept of Education. Education should make a person self-reliant. Education for Self-realization. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking." He was against the theoretical type of education.” 5. work and deeds come out of it. 4. Education for strong Moral Character. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. 3. 2. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only.5. man making. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life.2.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says.5. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Purity of thought.

concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Philosophy and Theology. philosopher and guide to the students He.5. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more.5.5. 5.2. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. A physically strong person is the need of the society.the learners on different students in the discussion. And above all.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion.5. Education for Physical Development. The teacher should be the facilitator. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Discussion Method. 5. Secondly he wanted Science. 283 . 6. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Thirdly he wished that games. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching.2. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study.2. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. That will serve the purpose of education fully. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Of course. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. 5. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. Swami. Religion. engineering and technical subjects. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend.

broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers.2. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore.Substantiate your answer. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. ears and eyes. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. We have seen that Tagore. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. naturalist. legs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. in this lesson.2. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. 284 . of course. Write short notes on Basic education.6 LET US SUM UP We have. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. and pragmatist .” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. Their educational ideas. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. Gandhiji as a Idealist. 5. 3. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. 2. 12. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands.

Education should involve manual work. Debate and Discussion Method. Activity Method d. Activity Method b.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. f. 10. Basic education. 5. 9. 3. 11.4. Learning by Doing c. d. Discussion Method 285 . Self-Study b. Nai Talim 4. Meditation and concentration c. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. wood work. Technique of Correlation 6. c. 8. b. Ideal of citizenship. Cult of non-violence.2. Self realization. Heuristic Method. 1937 7. gardening. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Explain Vishwabharathi. 5. 5. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. 2. a. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. metal work. e. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. a. a. Teaching while Walking b. leather work have been suggested. c. a.

K.5. P.H. N. (2004). Pahuja. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2007). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. K and Narang C.2. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. C. Theory and Principles of Education. B. O. N.P.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. L. Foundations of Education. P. New Delhi : Aggarwal. 286 . Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. New Delhi : A. (2002). Anmol Publications Pvt. Dhiman. (2003). Publishing Corporation. on Bhatia. J.

Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible. In this lesson.4 5.7 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.1 5.3 5.3.9 5.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.2 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3.11 5.LESSON 5.6 5.3.8 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3.

Then in a big country like India. it is identical wit h socializat ion. 5. Curriculum is intimately related to education. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. While education is a process.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. In the words of Kerney and Cook. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. in fact . In it. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. there is a large number of communities. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. the desert area. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. in the U. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. Both the processes are integrated. While education is learning. the plateau area and 288 . to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. new behaviour may be acquired.S. is a means to the process. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. A g o o d curricu lu m. 5. you will be able to: 1.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes.3. state the meaning of curriculum 2. From the latter point of view.under the direction of the school. curriculum. Since the demands. present behaviour may be modified. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s .A.. maintained or eliminated. in Russia or in Japan. in the form of new experience. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India.3. living in the hilly area. the plain area. curriculum signifies situations for learning. In the former sense.

However.3.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. it is. It must differ from locality and from society to society. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. too. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. environment. democratic and socialistic country. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. customs and needs. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. 5. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. therefore. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. irrespective of their needs and environment. Again. differs from individual to individual. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. according to modern trends in the educational process. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. Besides craft. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. In fact . And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. studying therein. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. From a slave-country we became secular. and 289 . Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. the learning capacity of children. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations.

etc. Self Realisation. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. 1. emotional. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. individual or Social and so on. general or specific. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. specific. social. which may or may not be attained. Application Objective. tangible. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals.g. 4. in instructional objectives. They speak of immediate purposes of education. Vocational Efficiency. National Integration. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. of classroom. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. e. unsatisfactory. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. So it is inadequate. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. 2. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. They speak of perfect goals. They may be ultimate or proximate.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country.. e. eg. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. The word “Curere” means 2. remote or immediate. 3. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. Knowledge Objective.g. They are achievable. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. aims. they depend on the political. uninspiring and unscientific. 290 . They are visionary goals e.. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. social. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Understanding Objective.. 5.3.g. etc. Goals of Primary Education. unambiguous and functional. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation.. aesthetic and spiritual development.. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. moral. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . Goals of Secondary Education.

educationists. but it includes the totality of experiences. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization.3. Crow and Crow remarks.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. According to Crow and Crow.” 291 . needs. The interests. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. abilities. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. Raymont rightly says. capacities.5. on the playing fields. in the class rooms. finding them very interesting and captivating. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. heavy fire. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.

Due to these variations and differences. moral. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. urges. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. mental. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. tendencies. time in a useful manner. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. aptitudes. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. capacities and abilities. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . They often waste it or rather kill it. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children.

development of professional capability at all levels. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. Similarly. 293 . analysis and concretise the curricular elements. 2. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel.curricular. administrative programme need be planned. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. phased preparation. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. 3. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. To ensure success of the process. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. organized. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework.

Relation with Life c. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals.3. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 11. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. a. principles of curriculum construction. Run. 10.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 12. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. 17. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. laboratory. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . library.3. 18. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Child Centred Education b. 1937 19. 5. workshop. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 5. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. in the class room.

Lakshmi. New Delhi : Isha Books. 295 .3. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. (2007). (2007). Bhalla. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. N.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Curriculum Development. and Sarita Kumari.K. D. S.5. P. Innovations in Education. S. New Delhi : Authorspress. Curriculum and Instruction.S. (2001). (2007). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava.

11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .7 Scientific Attitude 5.2 5.4.8 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.9 5.LESSON 5.7.5 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.7.1 Developing scientific outlook Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.3 5.6.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4

All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. explain the concept of scientific attitude. tolerance for the opinions of others.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. 5. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. 5. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. you will be able to: 1. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. superstition or emotion. honesty. 4.during the second half of this century. know the importance of science education.4.5. We mean curiosity.4. 2. 3. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. open-mindedness. in the economic reconstruction of society. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. newer and newer industries started growing. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . 297 . It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Gradually.4.

teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Promotion of science clubs. 6.4. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. 7. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Selection for science education. 5. 3. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 6. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. After such experience and training. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Principles are formulated. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Schemes of teaching science. Through newspapers. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Thinking and memory develops. 2. stipends and appreciations in various ways. seminars and symposiums. 4. 2. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Devotion towards nature increases. Central science workshop. 5.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. 4. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. 5.4. Organisation of science fairs. as well as of the society.So that. Love for truth enhances. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 5. Through examinations. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. 3.

the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. 5. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative.6. essential that teachers. therefore. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Enquiry teaching is. They encounter many social events as they grow. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon.needs and conditions. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. objectivity. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. They ask many questions about the objects they see. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. 7. It is. They experience natural phenomenon. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force.4.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Write any two advantages of Science Education. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. After presenting the problem. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look.4. In the inquiry approach. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. sex or religion.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. 5. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. should provide opportunities to. Training of science teachers. For laboratory and workshop techniques. each child to “enquiry skill building”.

What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . 5. 3. to ask questions and experience things. 4. Appreciating pupils ideas.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences.6. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook.4. 6. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. . 3. Giving less directions. commands or orders.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Adopting creative models of teaching. Social sciences. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. if they like.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1.Herma Wouk. Evidence. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. 300 . It requires consistent thinking. stern pursuit of accurate data.books. 2. 5. . 5. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. test. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.

friends. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science.(Smith 2008). it must be encouraged. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. to develop among the learners. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. 5. therefore should be unbiased and objective. neighbourhood. school and society at large.4. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. keen observation. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. practiced. critical thinking and suspended judgments.7. of vast resources running waste. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. The students observation. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. and emphasized during the learning process . The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. For instance. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. (Vaidya 2007). It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. To achieve this we should understand what it means. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. These include open mindedness. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents.

Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. In considering a situation or a problem. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. he studies all aspects of it. The intention to respect another’s point of view.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias.7. rumor. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. 2007). The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. intuition or wishful thinking”. understanding and logic. think and work it”. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions.4. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. 5. or superstitions. (Das. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. 302 . the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. He is patient and reserved in his judgement.

5. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.7. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .7. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. • 5. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.4.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. but to begin only after careful planning. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.4.

Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. 304 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. it must be encourages. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook.4. 5. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude.

16. Rao. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. a. a. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. D. N. b.4. The intention to respect another’s point of view. 3. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. 2. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. Yadav. objectivity. (2000). (2008). The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Discuss the importance of science education 14.4. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. Wide reading b. a. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. b. Adopting creative models of teaching. a. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Study of superstitions d. (2006). 5.S. 305 . M.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Love for truth enhances. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students.4.B (2008). A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Vaidya. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.5. 4. 5. b.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Reflections on Scientific attitude. Planning of activities 5. Proper example of the teacher c. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. S.

2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. actively.5.5.9 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5.5.7 5. you will be able to: 1. 306 .10 5. areas of institutional planning.5.5.3 5.LESSON 5.5 5.5.11 5.5. objectives and characteristics.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.4 5.5. 2.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population. state the concept.5.2 5.8 5.6 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.1 5.5. 5.

It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. and each student are regarded as separate entities. which become the bases for further planning at the district. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. in the task of educational planning. • To make institutional planning more successful. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. 5. and. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education.5. every teacher. every parent. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. teachers and students is not lost sight of.3. each teacher. and supplement planning from above. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. executive as well as public. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . Institution should be regarded as the unit. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. • to involve teachers and school administrators.5. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. • to make planning development-oriented. State and national levels from below. and every student in the process of educational planning. 5.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning.

approved after making necessary modifications. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. Syllabus. it becomes the basis for school inspection.• implemented. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. 5. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. Classwork. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes.5.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as.curricular Activities. council and. which will be discussed in the general. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. Co-curricular activities. etc. (2) Co.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers.5. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. Examinations. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. 308 . and Personnel services. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members.

Organisation of class-room libraries. etc. Preparation of instructional material. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. etc. Conducting of educational. 1. Courts. charts and apparatus. etc. Improving the internal assessment. Preparation of models. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. etc. Organising play-for-all programmes. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Fair distribution of syllabi. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. etc. Equipping of laboratory and library.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Organisation of Pupils.No. Editing the school magazine. scientific and historical excursions. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Running science clubs. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. hobby-centres. Organisation of Students’ Association. 2. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare.

educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. parents. pupils. Administrator-State. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. parent-teacher associations. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. pupil310 . teacher-nonofficial functionaries. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. etc. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning.” The human relationships in. teacher-State. and solidarity. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. which are divided as the in. and out-group relationships are as given below i. and —pupil-pupil. co-operation. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. understanding. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. science teachers’ associations. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. teacher-managing body. teacherinspector. headmasters associations. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe.5. administrator-supervisor. administrator-administrator. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. teacher-pupil. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships.5. teacher-teacher. involving mainly human materials. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. students’ associations. administrator-pupil. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. teachers.

311 . superintendence. supervision. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. teacher-parent. administrator. According to C. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. organisation and management. etc. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. pupil-non-official functionaries. to attend. It covers personnel and material management. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. Good. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. to accomplish. supervision and superintendence. pupil-community leader. V. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. social sciences and other disciplines. It is also being modernized to become a technique. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. organisation. to carry out.5. pupil-parent. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and to serve. control. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. now-a-days. teacher-community leader.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. To administer means to manage. pupil-inspector.State.

Management should be efficient and economical 312 . 2. 10. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. Better Human Relationships . Leadership .Of all the approaches. 12. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. Cost-Benefit Analysis . 11. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. 8.The manager should have leadership traits.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. Liasion with the Public . Communication . He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. 5. He should be an artist in human relationships.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. Economic Management . He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. This is the latest democratic trend in management.Any good management will always have good public relations.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 9. Socio-Scientific Approach . He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. Worker Participation . it is not worth-while. 6. Motiviation .The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Those.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. Rapport between the Management and Employees . 4. If it is more. If the cost benefit ratio is less. Democratic Management . The relationship should change from master. who occupy the managerial positions.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. low. 7. 13. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. 3. Decision Making . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow.

The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. 18. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. 5. 19.too. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.These two are. 313 . Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. 14. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. 5. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. and cooperative performance should be ensured. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to improve the quality of education it provides.5. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. enrichment of curricula. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. improvement of teaching methods.5. objective. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions.g. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too.

H. (2001).5. 2. c. Fundamental of Educational Management. Communication 5. a. Educational Administration. Examinations. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. R. APH Publishing Corporation. Motiviation d. Syllabus. a.K. b. Instruction. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. a. Classwork.5. b.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. In group and Out group 5.M.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. e. (1995). b. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. Co-curricular activities. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. a. it becomes the basis for school inspection.5. and Personnel services. f. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Tarachand and Prakash. 314 . Decision Making b. S. d. (2003). Leadership c. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 4. Singh. NUEPA. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House.

Pre-service and In-services facilities. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. New evaluation procedures. Realized the problems of school education. physical education and environmental education 5. higher education.4 India's Secular Policy .3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.1 Gurukula system of education. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . School. Examination reforms. 1. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.1 School Health Programme.Article 45 .2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Preservation of nutrients.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . 4.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Balanced diet. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. Inspection and Supervision 3.I. Economic 315 . social Impact 3. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. population education. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. women education and teacher education in India.teachers should have : 1.1 Primary Education : Education for all. Buddhist and Jain system of education.Religious and Modern Education 1. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. 2. Communicable diseases .1 Inculcation of Socialism.5 Regional Educational Development in India .2 Nutritional deficiencies.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Community and Mass Media 2. Healthy Food Habit 4. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. wastage and Stagnation 3.3 Directive Principles .5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.CORE PAPER . Sex-education 4. Common ailments of Children.3 Educational Influences of Home.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.Preventive measures. First Aid.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. Code of conduct for teachers. nutritional requirement.

New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. B.C.4 4. Mahatma Gandhi. (2004) Problems of Education in India. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Curriculum and national goals . Pandy V.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Ghanta R.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Taneja V. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Naturalism and Pragmatism . Ram S. and Mohanty R. 7. Sharma. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Hemchand.4. T. Delhi : University Publications 2. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.S. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.N.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5.K.N. 316 .flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. REFERENCE 1.1 Idealism. Realism.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. and Human Development.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Mishra. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.K. New Delhi: NCERT 3.K. Saraswathi T. and Sharma R. (2005) Foundations of Education. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. Tagore 5.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.Aim.R. R. Prof. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. 5. and Dash B. (1999) Culture. Socialization.K. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.

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