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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. 9 . educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Jainism and their educational implication. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. Lesson 4. and Jain system of education. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. The need. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. Lesson 5. Lesson 2. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. discusses the regional educational development in India. In.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world.
1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 126.96.36.199 Jain system of education 188.8.131.52.2 184.108.40.206 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.3.LESSON 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 188.8.131.52.1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.6 Education during British Era 1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 184.108.40.206.1.1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1.1 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.
the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. but English in taste. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.1. in opinion. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. British system of education presented the modern western model.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. The history of education passed through Buddhist. 1. 1. both present and future. you will be able to: 1.1. That 12 . Education in India. has a long past history starting in vedic education. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. in morals and in the intellect”. Muslim and British periods.1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.3. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. India. Indian in blood and colour.6.1.6. elucidate the education during British Era.9 220.127.116.11.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. 1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1.1. “a class of persons. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.7 1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.8 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. describe the Jain system of Education 4.1.
Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. if they thought fit to do so. to light.knowledge was real. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. 8. managed entirely by Brahmans. Where pupils were many. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Free and Accessible. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. It was also moral. Curriculum. as it is generally considered to be at present. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. 4. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. generally. with grants of land or money. 10. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. No State Control on Education. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Residential Schools. however. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Immediate Aim Vocational. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. the monitorial plan was followed. followed by explanation by the teacher. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Religious and Spiritual. There was. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. 6. Method of Instruction. religious and spiritual. 11. 16. Education of Moral. Teacher as Parents. High Status of Teachers. Pupils were taught. individually. Education was a private affair of the people. Individual Teaching. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. 9. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. The immediate aim of education. 3. 13. from darkness. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. 13 . Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. 5. Method of Study. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. 14. It was not merely intellectual. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. and to agriculture and trade. from eternal to immorality 2. not en masse by the class method. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Role of Travel in Education. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Forests as Centres of Education. questioning by the pupil. 12.
In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. lived a life of celebacy. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . It was suited to the needs of the society.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It was freely available to all those who wanted. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. besides preparing for worldly pursuits.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. Wide-Spread Education in Women. 2. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3.17. 1.3. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. They were very cordial and intimate. studied Vedas. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils.
4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. the student had his head shaved of all hair. It was denied only to the ill. 2.4. Right means of livelihood 6. killing of any living being. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. Right activity 5. every class in society. disease and death of the human beings. 1. except the Chandals. Right speech 4. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. the handicapped. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period.C. Right contemplation 1. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. I take Refuge to Sangh. Right knowledge 2. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people.1. taking things without being offered. in which. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. he was qualified to become a monk. I take Refuge to Dharma. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. 15 . Right memory 8. Right thought 3. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. the student remained in a state of Shramana. etc. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. the most significant of which were the following 1. had the right to receive education. which included abstaining from theft. After attaining the age of 20. Consequently. impure conduct. use of cosmetics. use of intoxicating things. partaking of food at prohibited times. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. dressed himself in yellow clothes. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. watching dances or listening to music. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. medium of Pali.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. Education was imparted through the. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Right endeavour 7.
After this ritual. knowledge of reviving the dead. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may.. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. archery. changing the goals. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. handicrafts. along with education in script writing. magic. 7. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. the presence of the monks was essential. meaning. Life is in a flux. Whatever its nature and extent. 4. Later on. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. commerce. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. assumptions. nothing is of any permanent consequence. the science of taming and training animals. women occupied a position inferior to men. archery. Even at this stage. cottage industries. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. education was impart in art. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive.4. agriculture. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. As reality is becoming. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. arithmetic and religious discussion. however. bodily gestures. control over sensuous activities. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. nature. 2. 8. eat food thrice a day. etc.3. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. depth and range. elephant lore. geology. On this occasion. Hence. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. beg for alms. military science.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. These are called later Buddhist schools. animal husbandry. be considered the aim of education It. 3. therefore. of clothes. approach. Initially. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. aspirations and. wear three items. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. etc. It comprehended education in writing. objectives of human life. has no metaphysical value for life. 6. a change is not only total but also perpetual. a continuous change creating 16 . much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. medicine. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. it is regarded as true”. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. 5. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. and. 1. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. etc. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. so long as it successfully does so.
Its chief feature. Validity is effective and consequences. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. In fact.. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. such as.5. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. goes to Vardhaman. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. whatever works are true and good. it is much older than the latter. 1. i. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. however. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success.e. Jainism insists 17 . 5. Education must. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. its pessimistic outlook on life. and to give it a shape that it has today. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. However.1. therefore.new and peculiar situations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. Write Eight fold path . But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder.
Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. 9. 10. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. 2. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. c) Right conduct. 6. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. Development of personality as an individual. 3. 18 . The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. 1. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. it has a foot in both the words. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. more stress on individual aims.5. 3.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 7. and believe in happiness to all. c) Not to steal. Hence. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. d) To lead a celibate life. 5. b) Right knowledge. 4. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. but on both. e) To renounce the world. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage.1. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. thought and deed. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. They are: a) Not to injure.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. 1. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 8. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. and is to be redeemed and liberated. 2. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. b) Not utter falsehood. As such.
4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 8. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Teaching should be social and tolerant. Teaching must develop these faculties. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . 1.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. success and love. 19 . hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Belief in transmigration of soul. 5. practised and not only aspired for. What are Triratnas ? . the precious principles of life that bring happiness. 1. education should develop sense of discrimination. 4. 2. 3.5. and should bring happiness to all. that would be socially desirable. 3.4.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. here and now. Hence. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. therefore. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. Jiva is essentially karmic. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. education must be action based and ideally oriented.
1. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. philosophy and literature of Europe.1. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. 1.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. However. Madras. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. primary 20 . they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India.6. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. and not for life.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. North West Province and Punjab. with rally and rout.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1818.104.22.168. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. 1953). “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. 2. science. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. Bombay. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. 1. 1.1. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. To set up separate departments of.
self-respecting and competent. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success.K. 1. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant.6.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. 1. 1. The universities dominated the secondary education. At that time M. namely. • Secondary education. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. To ensure qualitative improvement. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission).6. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. at the primary level. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. • Universal free primary education. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools.6. Later on. In 1882. secondary education became a step towards university. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). they named these schools as polytechnic schools. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men.education was neglected.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . Then the prevalent education was anti-national.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. After this stage. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. 10.At the primary stage (6-11 years). The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. all children are to have a common curriculum.1. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1.
First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. 3. It was suited to the needs of the society. The system of education was well-organised. arithmetic and religious discussion. 6. 4. Right knowledge. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. During the Buddhist period. The immediate aim of education. 2. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. 5. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. questioning by the pupil.1. Right means of livelihood. Right activity. etc. a.. 1. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. 3. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Right speech. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. along with education in script writing. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. followed by explanation by the teacher. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. 4. Right thought.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. geology. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. Right endeavour.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 23 . It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. 1. handicrafts. establishment of universities. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. b. Right contemplation. Right memory. education was impart in art.education of European literature. archery. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. science and English language. military science. 2. the science of taming and training animals. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life.
J. 1937 1. (2009). 9. Ltd. (2007). (1984).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Y. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. b. more stress on individual aims. 1882. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. 10.7. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 11. 24 . Right knowledge. a. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education.C.C. 8.1. Singh. and Nath. History of Indian Education System. Right conduct. a. Sharma.K.K. Sargent report 12. Y. Hence. (2005). c. Improvement of Literature. Right faith. J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Development of Educational System in India. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. R. Development of personality as an individual. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. b. Aggarwal.
8 1.3 Kothari Commission 22.214.171.124.2.2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.1 126.96.36.199.LESSON 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner. The 25 .10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.9 1.3.5 188.8.131.52.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.7 1.6 1.2 1.2.1 University Education Commission 1.4 1.3.2.
understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. examination system. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6.3. New Educational Policy. vocational education.2. Post-graduate 26 . Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. secondary and higher education. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2.2. Kothari (1964-66) 8.2. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. S. National Board of Teacher Education 10.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. medical and legal education.conditions of the teachers. curriculum. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. girls and women education besides primary. explosion of enrolment. There had been vast institutional expansion. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. technological engineering. 1.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. 1986 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. National Council for Women’s Education 5. technical. expansion of vocational. 2. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. analyse the progress of education in free India. you will be able to: 1. 1. standard of teaching. diversification of courses of studies. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service.
the New National Policy on Education. 1. Government of India. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. A. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. utility and financial outlay. material and spiritual. The Essence and Role of Education.teaching. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. Education for Equality. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. A meaningfully Partnership. However. 3. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. Problems of access. in January 1985. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University.3. The national system of education envisages common educational structure.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964.3. 1. accumulated over the years. 1966. quantity.2. D. 1952.3. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. 2. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission.2. 4.S.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. the chairman of University Grants commission.2. Kothari. quality. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. Education is the key to our allround development. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . National System of Education. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. research et. 1986. Finally. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. 1. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. Therefore.
attitudes. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. It can train practical aptitudes. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Thus. the concepts of work experience. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life.” Thus. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The UNESCO Report.2. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. the minorities and the handicapped. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 28 . By working with hands.
” the Kothari Commission mentioned. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. Besides. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. it will conduce self. the Commission. According to. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . “The aim of these colleges. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. The Education Commission. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. if he wishes. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. co-ordinations. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. “It may be described.” The Mudaliar Commission. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. As such. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. In 1955. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. The Radhakrishnan Commission. With adequate planning. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations.employment and promote economic independence of the youth.
T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. the. Therefore. the semester and credit system. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern.. raising the special facilities. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. With a view to relating education to the life. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. for quality of life in the rural areas. admission requirements to vocational courses. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. In addition. etc. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. The Central Advisory Board of Education. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. Subsequently. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education.ot her. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. the rigid streaming of courses.
Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. According to committee. 1. which offer scientific. who conceived the System of Basic Education. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level.defined S UP W as “purposive. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. preferably spinning and weaving. technological courses including Agriculture. giving importance to productivity in the national development. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. meaningful. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”.2. felt that education should be centred around a craft.and the world of work. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Commerce. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. meaningful. which are useful to the community. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. etc. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. which swept the country for over two decades. The wave of Basic Education. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. manual work resulting in either goods or services. In short.. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. 31 . Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. aimed at this goal.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. The Father of Nation.
The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Educative and 3. 32 . Clothing 5. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Shelter 4. Work practice. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. 4. Productive 2. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Some Hints to Teachers 1. as far as possible. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. be that the work involved is: 1. 2. 3. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. The teachers should make use of. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Culture and recreation 6. locally available materials and tools. Community work and social service. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Experimentation with materials. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. tools and techniques and 3. Health and Hygiene 2. so that it is educational in essence. Food 3.
adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Community Service In-1972. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience.5. improve discipline. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. inculcate a faith. the local community should be actively associated. Check on educated unemployed 4. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. 1. etc. slum clearance. 6. To make education more realistic. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Education through work The SUPW should. removal of illiteracy. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. It can become an instrument to build character.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. as far as possible. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. Merits of the Programme 1. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration.2. Productive Work 33 . The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful.
and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. AICTE was set up in year 4. The community. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. if not productive. should involve itself in the educational effort. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. offering first aid.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. in turn. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. Define SUPW 34 . helping the adults in festivals and Functions. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. etc. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. skills and better future for the children. helping the adults-in productive work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. traffic control. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other .
2.2.2. manual work resulting in either goods or services. f. 3. b. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India.2. 1955 4. 6. Write short note on SUPW.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. c. 35 . which are useful to the community. a.1. d. 1952 3. Dr. Radhakrishnan 2. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 1. 1. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. meaningful.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. e.
Anupama. (2009). Ltd. History of Indian Education System. Rao. New Delhi: A. Development of Educational System in India.1.C.K. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. History and Problems of Indian Education. B. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.. Y.K. J.P. and Rao. (2005).2.H. and Nath. Y. Publishing Corporation. : Sharma.K. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. Singh. P.D. A.P. Amala. R.(2005). (2007). 36 . (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. V.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. History of Education.
procedures.369 words in the English language version.1 Significance of DPSP 1.3. 37 .3. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3. assuring its citizens of justice. 1950.3.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. and liberty.3.5 1. establishing the structure.3.3. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.6 1. Being the supreme law of the country.3.3. there is an official Hindi translation.4 1. 1949.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.3.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.7 1.3. directive principles and duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.2 1.8 1.9 1. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. democratic republic. equality.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.3. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. containing 395 articles. Besides the English version. it came into effect on January 26. for a total of 117.1 1.
the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. The Assembly met. 1. economic. social. spread over a period of 2 years. 1947. with Dr. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. 1950. describe the important constitutional articles related to education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 38 . 4. learn the role of central and state government on education. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. Dr. After many deliberations and some modifications. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. Through them. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4.3. legal and environmental. 1. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. According to the constitution. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. 2. political. 1.3. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 1947.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. for 166 days. administrative. understand our Indian constitution. in sessions open to public. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.In the August 14.3. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. the Drafting Committee was appointed. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. On August 29. you will be able to: 1. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. 3.3. Two days later.
to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Protecting children from exploitation. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. 39 . Article 41. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. The State shall endeavour to secure. Appropriate concentration of wealth. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Article 39A. Equal justice and free legal aid. Article 42. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way.government. make effective provision for securing the right to work. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Article 43. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. provide free legal aid. in particular. Organisation of village panchayat. on the basis of equal opportunity. Liking wage etc. and in other cases of undeserved want. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. The State shall. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Equal pay for both sex. Protecting health of the workers. That the health and strength of workers. for workers.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. sickness and disablement. Right to work. No abuse of children. and shall. Article 40. old age. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Condition for dignity of children. Minimising inequalities in status. men and women. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment.
Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. The State shall endeavour to provide. [declared by or under law made by 40 . See also Article 21A). By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Note: Subs. to all workers. Uniform civil code for the citizens. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Article 48. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Article 44. 2002 for “45. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. agricultural. industrial or otherwise. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Article 46. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. in particular. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Article 47. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Participation of workers in management of industries. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. in particular. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. (Original Article 45.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Article 45. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. The State shall take steps. and. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Article 43A. Article 48A. work. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. a living wage. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. by suitable legislation or in any other way. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. in particular. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 49. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Article 45 . “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. 2002. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. 1. removal. may be law determine”. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. from spoliation. Separation of judiciary from executive. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. as the case may be. Article 51. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.3. disfigurement. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. Article 50. destruction. disposal or export. Article-21A Right to Education. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. maintain just and honourable relations between nations.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Promotion of international peace and security.Parliament] to be of national importance.
(Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. iii. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. 3. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. from justice and all forms of exploitations. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. race. 2002. 6. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes.” 42 . and. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. if such person is a minor. language or any of them”. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. his guardian has given his consent thereto. ii. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. 8. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. caste. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. and shall protect them. in particular. 4. 5. 7.
43 . the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. Article 351 gives importance to 6. The central government determines targets and promotes education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Educational Reforms From time to time. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule.9. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. & 1. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . for its vocabulary. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. and by drawing. the forms. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. 2. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. wherever necessary or desirable. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis.
Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. 8. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities.3. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Local bodies and private enterprise. By starting these projects. to achieve the desired ends. All India Council of Medical Science. private agencies etc. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). 5.. So that they may work well. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. etc. Production of suitable for children and adults f. the state governments. 4. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. The following pilot projects. So as to encourage education on right lines. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. 7. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. 6. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e.
The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. 12.3. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 1. etc. books. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. research. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. education for women. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. 3. training and statistics. are published by it. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. 1. handicapped.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. The 45 . Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. 10.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. 11. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. reports etc. Material concerning nation-wide interests. 9. 4. is the state responsibility. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO.
46 .8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Write short notes on a. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. articles in the Directive principles. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. Explain Directive principles 2. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Article 21A c. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . 1. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles.3. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Article 45 b. Article 46 4. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9.
are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. may be law determine”. a. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Article-21A Right to Education. Development of Hindi Language 6. 2002. 1. 4. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.5.3. The Directive Principles of State Policy. a. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Describe the educational role of State Government.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Clearing House function 9. Article 46 5. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. 47 . Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. b. Article 45 . 2002. b. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 3. Article 29 and 30 7. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Dr. Ambedkar 2. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. a.
N. Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2008). B. Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2004). (2009). K.1. Ghosh. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Dash.3. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. S. (2007). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K and Narang C. 48 . Bhatia. L.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. S. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd.
religious education should be broad based.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1. Islam.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.7 1.4 Moral education 184.108.40.206 Why Moral Education 220.127.116.11 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.5 18.104.22.168.4.4. Jainism.2 Aims of Religious Education 22.214.171.124 1. Christianity.126.96.36.199 1.1 1.4. Buddhism etc.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4. Students should be 49 .3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.3.6 1.
Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.and dedication.4. you will be able to: 1. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). enumerate the aims of religious education 4. understand the relationship between religion and education 2.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. India' can produce men of character. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. In the complicated and complex society of today. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. Thus. state meaning and need for moral education 1. duty-consciousness. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. 1.” Education broadens human outlook. integrity. According to E. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions.. know the position of religious education in our country 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication.D. "In A multireligious society like ours. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. beauty and goodness so that 50 .4. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. As result of which. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. religious education and the concept of secularism.
This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. Thus. They thought that any kind of narrow. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. As our country is a country of diverse religions.3. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. at least occasionally. 1. According to Article 19. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. Viewing the defects of religious education.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. if not regularly. through religious practices and 51 .3. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values.4.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. Children attend these organizations. realizes God in himself. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. As a matter of fact. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. 1947 we achieved our freedom. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. it is clear that the State has no religion. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. Hence. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate.4. 1. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. No religious tax can be imposed on them. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. all citizens are free to follow any creed. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism.” From the above. According to Article 22. rancour. castes and creeds. religion and democracy are same. In short.
Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. It is religious education. which can mould. when he becomes an adult. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). moral and spiritual values. what is done and what is not done etc. It helps to modify habits attitudes. If unreleased. He also learns about social. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. and other impulses are often denied direct expression.. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. aggressive.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. and what is evil. which help him for the development of his character. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. temperament etc. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. one fully developed. As a result of which. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. for the development of the individual and the society. intellectual and physical faculties of children. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. Good education.teachings.
Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds.3. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and.4. 53 . Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. 2. which is the basic need of a democratic life. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. 1. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. This should not be allowed to happen. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. 3. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. towards the society. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. Therefore. If we open the pages of history. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. churches and mosques 7. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Write Article 22 2. Since all religions have virtues. 9. 10. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. 11. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. stories of moral greatness. fellow-feeling. Gurudwara as. examples of patriotism.4. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Life histories of great persons of the world. they should be discussed in the right earnest.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. therefore. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. For this. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values.
4. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Satyam (truth). in the home. 3. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. is that which develops moral values. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. students. Non-injury. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. let men see well of one another. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position.acquisitiveness). the methods of teaching. 7. Purity. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. 1. 55 . Brahmacharya (celebacy). Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Swadeshi (Patriotism).4. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Without moral values. 5. 1. 2. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). 6. Cultivation of emotions. Moral education.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. “Let all be happy and free from disease. 2. The content of the curriculum.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Fearlessness.4. Self sacrifice. Service to others. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 8. 5. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 3. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Ahimsa (Non-violence). the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. 4. Asvada (Control of palate). Patriotism. therefore. They will play their role effectively. Aparigarha (Non. 6. 7. 8. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations.
Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. 11. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Sharivashram (Physical work). In the school programme. Good temper. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). discipline. 2. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Good manners.9. Integrity. 3. Unity of mankind. 4. loyalty and self-sacrifice. 1. 3. Secondary Stage 1. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Efficiency. Asatyam (Non-thieving). Discipline. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. 56 . Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. National unity and Spiritual values. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. The School Assembly should be held for a few. religions may be included in the syllabus. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Community singing should also be encouraged 2. minutes in the morning for group singing.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Love for humanity and Self-discipline.4. 10.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced.4. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. University Stage 1. patriotism and self-discipline. Silent meditation should be encouraged. should form a normal part of school programme. love of humanity. In other words. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. In this connection. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. 4. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. 5. 57 . A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. 2.
We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. 1959 5. b.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. Sri Prakasa 6 . The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. minutes in the morning for group singing. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. For this.1. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. The School Assembly should be held for a few. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. 1. b. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. the.4. 4. a. Discuss the aims of Religious education. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. In short. 58 . a.4. a. 2. 2. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. Training of Character 3. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. 1.
Publishing Corporation. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.H. 59 . (2008). B. Dash. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.1.C. (2003). P.P.H. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2004).4. J. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi: A. Ltd. New Delhi : Siddiqui. N. Pahuja. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2008). N. Bhatia.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Anmol Publications Pvt. L. K and Narang C. Theory and Principles of Education. (2007). M. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.
11 1.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5. i.2 1. Although.6 188.8.131.52 1.9 1.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.10 1.5 1.4 1.5.3 1.1 1.7 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context. 60 .1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.12 1.5.e.5.5..5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5. disparities between provinces/States.5.
etc. 7. know the education suited to different environments. energy. 4. 2. Selfishness of the regional political leaders.5. waters. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.5. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. for example. 1. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. 6. you will be able to: 1.1. roads. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. 1. 1. 5. 61 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. Accordingly. understand the regional educational development in India 3. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region.5. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. They therefore. 3.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. 8.5. they take appropriate measures.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. This leads to separatist movements. work hard towards this end.
• The country’s borders should be suitably protected. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. Therefore. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. 3. 4. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. some average.5. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. Secularism. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. • Separate States (of course viable States). The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. some States became educationally far advanced. on the basis of regional development may be formed. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. 62 .Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. 2. while others remained educationally backward. and. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. Tight security arrangements should be made.
Mizoram.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. etc. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. Funds amounting to Rs. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. and provision of informal education to enable those. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans.480.After the Planning Process has originated. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. while some States like Bihar. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Jammu and Kashmir. NERIST. Guwahati. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects.14. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. Tezpur.84 crore was released in 2005-06. library buildings. These projects are in various stages of implementation. 1. Out of this.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity.. After the attainment of independence. In the Central sector. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. academic buildings. since its inception in 1998-99. books. Even in each State. scholarships. Regional Centres of IGNOU. the State Governments. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. Itanagar. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. remained under developed. approved proposals worth Rs.g. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. etc. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. Rs. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. NIT.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. 63 . Nagaland and NEHU. Silchar. However.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. Central Universities of Assam. the Union Government. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums.392.5.
Out of this an amount of Rs. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.187.500.501.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. A provision of Rs. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.05 crore and Rs. Tezpur University. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.8 per cent in 05). Government expenditure on education. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. Moreover. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu.261.57 crore and Rs.5.40. 64 . too. During 2003-04.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.
notes the study. Kerala and Gujarat. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. Andhra Pradesh. Tamil Nadu. The Chandigarh Administration. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Moreover. too. Karnataka. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). is very low compared to Southern and western parts. Medical education. To add to the woes. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Listing the positives. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. telecom. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. for instance. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. 1. too. pharma. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. for which 16 sites.5. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Karnataka. health services and welfare of the citizen population. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. too.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . English. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. engineering and R&D. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside.
people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. In the same manner. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. life-oriented and environment slanted. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. the socio-physical conditions. Hence it is called as need-based. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. and so on. The working hours of educational institutions. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. the vocations. For a learner living in a rural area.year. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. in which the learners live. while the former does not. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. 66 . when he will not be sure of time. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. the interests. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. the teaching methods. Of course. which a non-tribal person cannot do. The living conditions. Then education become realistic and idealistic. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. taking the average in the middle. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. the curricular subjects. even actually looking at the watch. the working days: an academic . the needs.
Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. to suit education to different environments? 1. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. 1. 2. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 67 .11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.5. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.5.
A. (2008). remained undeveloped 3. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. 68 . (2002). Dubey.K. (2001). Education in Developmental Arena. a. S. Educational Development in India. and Nair. Education Scenario in India. C. during the British rule. some States have become more developed than others b. R. some of areas which were under the native rulers. (2001). New Delhi: Authors press.N. Salim.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.G. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.5. 60% 1.H.2. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. Giridhar. S.
UNIT – II 69 .
International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. National Integration. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. semi literate and illiterates. 71 . The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. community development. school community and mass media. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home.
5.1 2.6 Education for Secularism 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.6.2 2.1.9 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 184.108.40.206.3 2.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 220.127.116.11.5.1.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.LESSON 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 18.104.22.168.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.7 2.1.8 2.1.4 2.
1. understand the concept of democracy.1. there should be made no distinction of caste. socialistic and secular state. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.2. 3) Provision of Manual Work. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. you will be able to: 1. This is the political aspect of democracy. 2. Abraham Lincoln. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. colour or wealth.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. socialism and secularism 2. In the matter of admitting students in schools. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. 2.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. creed. for the people by the people”. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Democracy thus means power of the people. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy.1. 73 . Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’.1. socialism and secularism 2. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission.
debates. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 11) Student Parliament. 12) Visits to Legislatures. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. it soon spread all over the world.1. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. There are different brands of socialism. 74 . 8) Opportunities for Social Service. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. may be planned. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. 2. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. declamation contest etc. Democracy means 2. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching.
the wealthy and the poor.5. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. but on the path of non-violence.1. none high”. Under it. oppression and disparity. the prince and the peasant. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 2. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 75 .1. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. free from exploitation. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 7) Special facilities for girls. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 2. service and cooperation.5. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 2) Socialism aims at equality. the employer and the employee are all on the same level.
10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. According to Holydake. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. 2. Write any two main features of socialism. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 11) State schools. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. 76 .1. secularism is being propagated.” In every political and educational corner. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. "which seeks the development of physical. Everyone says. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. “India is a secular-country. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’.
1. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. 77 . there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. That is why. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas.6. the belief that the state morals. 5) It implies tolerance.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing.opposed to religious education. 9) It stress free inquiry. people have narrow mindedness. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. Equality. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. “Webster further says. people started believing in regionalism. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. 8) It believes in co-existence. liberty. A large number of people is uneducated. fraternity. During the recent past.6.1. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. In this type of prevailing situations. Moral values have to be imbibed. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. 2) It permits freedom of religion. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. should be independent of religion. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. 3) It permits freedom of worship. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. There is need of making the people open minded. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 2. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. education etc.
Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. that the central string of all religions is one. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. 1) Moral Education. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . education. Patiala. students belonging to different religions should be associated. In the hands of such teachers. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. No doubt. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. There should be some internal checking of the material being. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. tours and trips may be organized. While doing so. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. The very sight of the building. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show.1. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions.6. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. 2. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape.presented by the students in the gathering. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. Religious Education. In the celebration of each such function.
The term secularism was first used by 8.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . Define Secularism 9. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. No doubt. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions.1. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. The word “Seculum” means 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering.
How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. creed.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. 2. Socialism aims at equality. 4. In the matter of admitting students in schools. 4. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. colour or wealth. for the people and the people”. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. Socialism aims at social justice. there should be made no distinction of caste. b. 3. c. 5. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Tuition free education b. Since socialism stands for equality. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Provision of Manual Work. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. 6. b. Equal Opportunities for Admission. Abraham Lincoln.1. a. a. George Jacob Holydake 80 .9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. Respect of Individual Personality. 3. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Power of the people 2. 5. d. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.1. This present age 7. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. a. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism.
(2004). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. K and Narang C. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Mohanty. Modern Trends in Indian Education. a. J. Theory and Principles of Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. the belief that the state morals. 10. K.8. (2005).” 9.C. P. (2007). should be independent of religion. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Dash. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions.1. (2008). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. 81 . b. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. education etc. N. It permits freedom of religion. It treats all religions on an equal footing. J. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Bhatia. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. L. New Delhi : Pahuja. (2003). Ltd. a. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. B. b. Ltd.
2.2.1 2.6.LESSON 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.7 22.214.171.124 2.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2 2.1 International understanding in the school 126.96.36.199.4 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 188.8.131.52 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.8 184.108.40.206.2.2.3 2.2.9 2.
Children are the potential wealth of a nation. application. development. The developmental roles of children. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. as it is t he aim o f modern education. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. It involves physical. 2. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. aims and objectives of the school. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. moral. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. social. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals.generation to another.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. mental. 3. as workers. you will be able to: 1. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. as citizens.2. social and moral aspects. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. and 4. as learners. emotional. skills. 2. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. a r e 1. A teacher is first and foremost. 2. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils.an instructor of school children. as persons. understandings. who are placed in his custody.2. therefore. 83 .
As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. social and emotional health. experiences and acceptance. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. 2. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. He is to become an active member. 1. 2. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. morally. intellectually. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. and aesthetically to become. a part of their day in 84 .4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. culturally confident. He has to look after their physical. The students live. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. physically fit for socially efficient. socially. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. morally.2. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. mentally. 3. motivated. The following are some of such roles described in brief. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. inquisitive. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born.All education should lead to better behavioural development. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. emotionally. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. mental. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. member of his community at the outset. Teacher as a Citizen Next. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. economically effective. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a.
Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. Dr. activities of the society into which he is born. creeds. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. science club. 4.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. photographic clubs.2. India is a land of many castes. fine art associations. Unless. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. It 85 . This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. faiths.the school being under the custody of teachers. 2. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. languages and religions. They will be spending with their parents. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. solve them.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. List out the role of teachers towards community development . and most of hours. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly.
1. c. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. this integration of the Indian people. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . b. Let us.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. and make into one strong national unit. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. Radhakrishnan.is. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. At the primary stage the importance of stories. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. the citizens of the Republic of India. poems.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. social studies.5. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. folklore and teaching of social studies. with straight backs and look up at the skies. The only process is the process of education. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. It should broaden the outlook. ‘We should not become parochial.2. should be emphasised.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. Sampurnanand remarked. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . national anthem and other national songs. narrow-minded provincial. a. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis.” 2. Nehruji has explained this as. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. therefore. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. stand up straight. the study of language and literature. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961.” Regarding the role of education.
culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Co-Curricular Activities. 8. 3. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. 87 . one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. dramatics and youth festivals. 10. sports. symposia. debates. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. and picnics. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important.different social sciences. Taking Pledge. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. educational excursions. tours. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. ACC. Uniform for School Children. languages and literature. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. Reverence of National Flag. 2. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. t he st udent s and t he community. Celebrations of National Days. 5. National Days—January 26. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. 7. Scouts and Guides. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. militar y training like the NCC. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. 9. 6. Singing of National Anthem. Student Camps. Textbooks. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. 4.
t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . Admissions. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery.11. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. 12. Students Exchange and Tours. flora and fauna. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. Recognition of Institutions. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Admissions to schools. School Projects. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. iii. Educational and Travel Documentaries. 88 . Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. colour. ii. 13. ways of thinking and doing things. 15. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. iv. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. v. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. region or religion. 16. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. 14. language. 2. Open-Air Dramas. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa.2. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country.5.
All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. camps. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? .2. 2. Community dinners. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. vii. ix. viii.vi.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. irrespective of national boundaries. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Define National Integration 3. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. cultures and races on equal bases. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained.
often in connection with anniversaries.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.as important as that of a national citizenship. 5. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. 2. Teachers 90 . Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. therefore. patriotism is not enough. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”.6.6. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. C. Organising of debates and. that war..friendships between children of different countries.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. 3. (c) fairly tales. Strong has observed. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. Therefore. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. if it happens. 2. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. In a very real sense. Dr. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.2.F. the international level. This. (b) stories of children of other lands.” 2. and the healthy development. of his body and mind. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. 6. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . 4. Radhakrishnan states.e.2.
Indian and American. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. They should not be propagandists. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . an Englishman.” Well Informed About World Situations. Russian. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. a German. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Impartial in their Treatment.
Defects of the educational System .2. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. majority of people are. which results in agitation and aggression language. If this is done. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. Wide Spread Frustration . 2. It does not prepare students for life. As the school is but a miniature society. the education function can be carried.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. Chronic Poverty .7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals.Another major.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies.2. 4. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. Devaluation of Values .For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. leading to.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . and help the students to over . Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . there is wide spread frustration among all people. understand and indiscipline: 1. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. 5. 3.
5. fellow feeling. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. sympathy and good will among the nations. 93 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2.2. etc. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. 2. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. 3. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . 4. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. co-operation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out six characteristics of a good teacher.democratic nature. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. 2. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. community development. 2. love.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 220.127.116.11 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 18.104.22.168 Functions and role of schools in the society 22.214.171.124 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 126.96.36.199 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 188.8.131.52 Radio as an agency of education 184.108.40.206 Television as an agency of education 220.127.116.11 Press as a medium of education 18.104.22.168 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
22.214.171.124 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 126.96.36.199 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
188.8.131.52 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
184.108.40.206 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
are increasingly used in education. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Hence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. Then came newspapers. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. He taught his students orally. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 .V. Emphasising this thing. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual.3. Moreover. the invention of the printing press. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Define community. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. In fact. periodicals. art galleries. Now internet is being used.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. led to the printing of books. books. 2. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Crow and Crow write. During the course of time. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. To make them achieve their aim. “All the citizens of the community.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Museums.
G. “Listening participation” in current history. 2. the place of importance. rather than on picture. Important happening inventions. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. current affairs and other areas. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. In collaboration with the experts. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. music. the teacher still occupies. Reynolds. It enlightens public opinion. Effective means of presenting music. 2. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. It stimulates curiosity and interests. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Students listen various talks. dram appreciation. Various talks. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world.6. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. languages. Thus. politics. It is also an important source of entertainment. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion.telecast. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. A lot of work by way of pre. In the emphasis is on sound. Thus.3. art. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. 101 .classroom teachers. social studies.
There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. speech. 5. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. mathematics. 102 . travel talks. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. audibility and presentability. at any place. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. at drawing room. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. Team-teaching demonstrations. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. 3. At present. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. School concerts. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. development of lessons. fol classical music. at play. Making learning an open system.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. projects or creative activities. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. 4. Before presenting the programme. style. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. Participation of local teachers and pupils. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. at recreational centers. plays. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. informal and non-formal education. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 220.127.116.11 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
18.104.22.168 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 22.214.171.124 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
3.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.1 2.6 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.5 2.4.2 126.96.36.199.4.4 Non formal educational system 188.8.131.52.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.8 184.108.40.206.4.LESSON 2.7 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Limitations of formal education 2.3.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.4.
the temple. the family. imparted at the residence of the teacher.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To realize this objective of education. compare formal and non formal system of education.3. say the Government or the private enterprise. the most important agency of formal education. 2.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. Education. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. you will be able to: 1. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. 9. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school.4. 6. the community. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. School is. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. Education associated with a degree or certificate..3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. 110 .4. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. 4. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. open school. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. Education organised by some agency. 5. 2. 3. the mass media et. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. starting and ending at -a particular age. it was mostly. 8. 2. 3. the learner are acquainted. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. 2. open university. 4. his mental alertness. 2. In ancient time in India.4. 7. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.2.4. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises.
depending on the jurisdiction. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world.3. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills.2. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. structured education. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . and relations are formed and developed through normal play. third stage. also called tertiary. Some education systems have separate middle schools. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. as well as vocational education and training.4.4. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Through early formal education. Higher Education: Higher education. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. the elements of language are first learned.3. 2. Concepts of proportion. In general. or academic degrees. capacity. such as a high school or secondary school. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education.a secondary education. or post secondary education. diplomas. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six.
late beginners etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Agencies can be classified as 2. and remote dwellers.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. 3. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.3. is an important agency of formal education. 4. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. What are levels of formal educational system? . children with disabilities. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 .4.4. Write any two characteristics of formal education? .which will help for nation's development. 2.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities.
non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. adding up to a true learning society. Thus. It is functional. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. place of instruction. etc. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. curriculum. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education.formal education. systematic. Non-formal education includes adult education. to help themselves.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. one could say that non-formal education is an active. It unlocks the doors of development plans. systematic.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. Therefore. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Adiseshiah. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. “Non-formal education should 113 . staffed. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. However. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system.learning client take some learning objectives. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. adults as well as children.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. It is deliberate.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school.e. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. continuing education and on the job oriented education. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns.. planned. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. it is a more effective tool for rural development. i. admissions. it has its own valid claim to reality. Open university. financially supported life formal education. According to Malcolm A. It is much more responsive to needs and change. until 1970 it had not been defined. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. open learning.
To develop in the student. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. Part-time education. To help industrial workers to better their skills. evaluation etc. 2. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. age. exploring.” 2. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.4. It should lay emphasis on the self. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. curriculum.e. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields.4. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. 3. self. Preparation for future needs.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Process of sharing. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. Flexibility in various aspects of education. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.learning pattern.S. 7. 5. 2. national integration. socialism. Covering life span of an individual. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. i. co-curricular activities. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs.S. Lawrence. admissions. 4.4. modes of teaching.4. 6. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. 114 . international understanding.” According to H. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. place of education. the Ideas of citizenship.be marketable and vocationalised. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge.renewal. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.
5.4. 7. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. • 2. 3. 5. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country.4. 10. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. To offer Secondary. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. Eradication of adult literacy. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. Senior Secondary. school dropouts.4. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. 2. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn.4. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Technical. 8. 6. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 2. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 115 . Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 9. 3. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 4. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. publication and information dissemination. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Universalisation of primary education. 4. in villages and those who live in towns. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. working adults.
5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. Therefore.full time to learners – can be home. if organised in isolation. etc. training centres in factories. factory. others are formal and informal. 2.4. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. Institutions for formal education.4.. 4. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. open space. self-employment iii. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. farm. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. etc.2. To increase knowledge and 2. public libraries. centres of correspondence education. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. Again. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies.4. Radio and television. To better qualifications. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. 3. effective in modern societal context.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . library. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . 2. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. All-round development i. To make if.
Teaching to face teaching. institution. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 7. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. 117 . 6. Lecturing T. .V. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Written tests. Face Contact programmes. radio.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Give examples of non formal education? . Define non formal education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Correspondence lesson. List out any two aims of non formal education.
Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. 2. 4. Open School. adults as well as children.4. The school. a. the college and the university come under this category. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. School 3. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Open University. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.4. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Open learning and Correspondence Courses.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. b. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. 3. 2. a. 4. Pre-school level. 118 . Primary level. Secondary level. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. Formal and Non Formal 2. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. systematic. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. 7.” 6. 5. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education.4. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.2. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Higher Secondary level and University level.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal.
L. K. Gupta. N. Dash. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. N. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Bhatia.4. Ltd. K and Narang C. Theory and Principles of Education. (2004). (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2008). Mohanty. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Modern Trends in Indian Education. S. B. Ltd. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : 119 . (2003). (2008). J. Anmol Publications Pvt.C. Pahuja. Education in Emerging India. P. (2005).2. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.
3.5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.5.4 Open University 188.8.131.52 Continuing education for persons in service or business 184.108.40.206 2.6 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.4 Need for Open University 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.5.4.LESSON 2.5 2.1 2.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.4.1 Characteristic features of open University 220.127.116.11 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.3 Objectives of Open University 2.2 18.104.22.168.5.5.
It is a lifelong process. Thus. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. 2.5. 2. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. characteristics of open university 4. economic field or such other fields.3. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. industries. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. continuing education is a boon. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. know the need and objectives of open university.5. you will be able to: 1. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. give the meaning.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. For them. farmers. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.5. 2. This knowledge may be in political field. However. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 .1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other.5. labourers and half educated individuals.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India.2. Any person. It is a continuous process. Under these circumstances.
thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Throughout the country. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. On the other hand. if he gets opportunity to develop them.5. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. 2. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas.V. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Thus.3. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Cinema. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures.directly related to his job. Doctors. cultured and progressive. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. For them too continuing education is essential. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Radio and T.literate person. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. After the achievement of independence.V. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. On the other hand. T. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. deteriorating to his character and personality. Block Development Officers. Radio. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. are also contributing their might for the purpose. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. Persons engaged in health services.
(14) information about bringing up young children.. These books are not very useful. (17) modern international and national events. (8) psychology of adults. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (15) music. 4. (2) basic religious matters. Inspite of the great efforts. (16) liking. 6. 2. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons.3. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as.5. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. (13) psychology of child behaviour. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. 3.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1.V. 2.3.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.5. we have not been able to achieve our targets. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. 7. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. and Radio. habits of people of other lands. (10) first aid. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. (1) ancient history. 2. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (6) folk stories. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. Of course. especially women. 123 . (7) folk songs. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. 5.
What is the objectives of NLM? 3. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4. attendance restrict ion.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. NLM was launched in the year 2. lack of time etc. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. 2. of educational opportunities. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.
Education is not a once for-all process. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. IGNOU was established in the year 6. 4. No one is too old or too late to learn. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning.4. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. Which was the first open university in India? . d. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. it makes use of educational techno logy. 3.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. but 125 . 2. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . e. b. c. 5.5. and in teaching. the higher the degree of openness.unobserved. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. its education is not class room based but home based.
T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 2. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. Mo re o ver. 126 . ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. 4. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . it a ims at wider and hig her. cho ice o f co ur ses.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 4.4. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. 3. 3. 2. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all.5. who were deprived of t he same earlier. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 5. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. or who realised too late that they need it. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced.4. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. 2. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies.who did not get it.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. 6. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc.5. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. supplementing the existing provision. 2.
learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated.4. 8. List out any four methods of Open University? .5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.5. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . a society.5.2. 2. 1.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Self instructional materials. Every day. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. Tutor Comments. 6. school drop outs. 4. 3.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Therefore. 8. 127 . In the present day world. 7. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. a state or nation. Correspondence tuition. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. semi – literates. you have learnt the concept. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. Laboratory works. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. 2. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . 5. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will.
(2) basic religious matters. d. which may include house wives. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. youth. 1988.ambitious learners. agricultural and industrial workers. a. 7. Explain the objectives. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. unskilled workers and other professionals. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. need and characteristics of Open University. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. 2. b.5.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Television Lessons. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 2. 6. 1985. 128 . 3. P r int med ia b. 7. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. its education is not class room based but home based. (4) the fundamentals of economics. cho ic e o f co u r ses. b. aspirants for continuing education. 8. 4. (1) ancient history. 8. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes.5. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. a. 9. Broad casting lectures c.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. a.
Modern Problems of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.S.5. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. (2004). New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Reddy. (2007). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. L. R.2. (2001). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.K. K and Narang C. 129 . Udaiveer. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. S. (2004).. K.
UNIT – III 131 .
Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. All which is the need of the hour. which may claim the attention of those concerned. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. and teacher education. examination. the education of women. Examination reform. its causes and remedial measures. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. wastage and stagnation. Training teachers for all levels of education. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. 133 . In Lesson 2.
3.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.8 3.3 New initiatives.5 22.214.171.124.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.126.96.36.199.1.6 3.7 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.1 3.2 3.LESSON 3.1 EFA – For whom? 3.3. 135 .4 3.2 EFA – How? 3.1.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.
Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). On the other hand. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. understands the country. you will be able to: 1. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. directed that. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate.1. therefore. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. Therefore. 2. “The State shall 136 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). economic or cultural. Eradication of Illiteracy. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. education received added importance and significance. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. 3. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. social. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education.1. may be political.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. Continuing Education (CE) 1.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. (EOI) 2. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3.3.
Even then we have not yet achieved the target.endeavour to provide. Universalization of Enrolment. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Universalization of Retention. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. It enables the parents to send their children to School. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Therefore. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. 137 . Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Three Stages for Universalization. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Due to the adoption of democratic system. 3. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Continuing Education (CE). After the attainment of independence. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. the national Government under. rights and responsibilities.
3. 1990. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. educational enterprise. It is safe to assure. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence.3. Write Article 45.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. then to 1976. UNESCO Bulletin states. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. present and future. This target had to be revised to 1970. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. later to 1988.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2.1. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. Therefore. 1995 (for upper primary stage). 138 .
9. NAEP. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. 3.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. FELF. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. 3. their enrolment and retention. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). By undertaking survey. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. and Women’s education programme should be improved. the art of preparing fruit-juice. The Social Education. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). their social economic status and occupations. 12. 8. adolescent and adult. Apart from primary education. Early childhood education should be streamlined. In order to make the programme of education for all community. 10.3. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. rural areas.1. Education of Girls. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. 139 . nutrition education and sports and games. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. 6. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. 5. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. Education of the Impaired. problem of literacy. creed. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. sex. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Emphasis must be given on health education. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. slum areas. Disabled. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. 11. Jams and Jellies. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. etc.
If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4.1.3 NEW INITIATIVES. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.e. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.1. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Wastage and Stagnation.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. 4. Expand MLL and SSA .4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.3. 3.
The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. it is considered as wastage.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. School Factors . Familial Factors . Social Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . Personal Factors .first stage of education.
7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Wastage. . . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Enumerate the causes of Wastage.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. 142 .
School Factors .3. Personal Factors .1. Societal Factors . They are described hereunder :1. rural or urban 3. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.The following factors. relating to home.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . Family Factors . in his home. school or society.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.
uniforms. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. stationary. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. mid-day meals. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . Define Stagnation? 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 144 . casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. etc.
. a. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. a. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. improvement of curriculum. 4.” 3. Universalization of Provision b.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. 6. “The State shall endeavour to provide. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. Minimum Levels of Learning b. therefore.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA.3.1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.1.1. 3. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. Universalization of Retention 2. a. 4. 2. directed that. Universalization of Enrolment c. Hartog Committee. b. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. 145 . Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. 3. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.
T. (2001). 9. New Delhi: 146 . 3. Familial Factors c. introduce graded curriculum.1.N. Social Factors 8. a. Personal Factor b.K. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. School Factors d. Hemchand. a.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Crescent Publishing Corporation. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.7. S. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. improve examination system. (2007). Problems of Elementary Education. (2008). S. Sharma. b.K.
2 Grade System 3.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .188.8.131.52.4.5.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.1 Problems of examination 184.108.40.206 Choice Based Credit System 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.5.LESSON 220.127.116.11.2.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 18.104.22.168 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.5.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.7 Open book examination 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 188.8.131.52.5 New evaluation procedures 3.6.2 3.3.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 184.108.40.206.4 Question banks 3.2.
managing of co-educational schools is 148 . 3.3. suggest the new evaluation procedures. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.2.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. Besides.2. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. 3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. 3. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.8 3. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.2. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. you will be able to: 1.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .2.9 3.2.2. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. but on the other. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. 4. 3.
2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 3. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. waiting rooms for girl students. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. etc. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. 149 . separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education..2. etc. etc. If the students are in sufficient number. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. which the educational authorities have to face. roadside Romeoism. hostel facilities. schools for them wherever necessary. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. They develop secondary sex characteristics. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. They may cause problems relating to discipline.3. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. The following steps should be taken up.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances.
This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Instruction. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. 150 .2. appointment of paper-setters. conduct of internal examinations. teachers. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. public administrators and statesmen. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. public interested in education. the examination system has an important role to play. With the mass growth of educational enterprise.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations.2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. assessment and Finance.4. 3. It is considered as a major sub-system.
invigilators. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters.4. validity and practicability. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. etc. etc. training of examiners. scrutinizers. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. introducing objective-based testing. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. etc. etc.2. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. etc. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. examiners.printing and distribution of question papers. values.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. 3. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . tabulators. establishing reliability. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. announcement of results.
lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. Vagaries in making. stereotyped questions. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. it can be said that they become examination-oriented.4. halo-effect. may also discredit them. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. 2) From the angle of content of education.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally.. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. lack of objectivity etc. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. takes the place of comprehensive learning. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education.2.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. Subjects... 3) With respect to method of teaching. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. it s a common experience that subjectivity. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. 152 . Rote memorisation. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. 7) In connection with the question papers. do not appeal to the students and parents. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. 3. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. which they are expected to study.
Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. .a part of internal assessment. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Question Books may be developed in all schools. re-numbering of answer scripts. 153 . Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t.. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. List any two merits of examination.develop true love for education. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. etc. revaluation. Spot valuation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. may be introduced.
This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . 3.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Their interests. he is given extra credit points. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Every paper is treated equal. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. skills are given importance. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.2. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination.5. The new scheme of assessment. attitudes. In this system. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. Advantages More autonomy is given to students.5.3.2. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. When a person chooses to work extra. It is complicated.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society.2. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. In actual practice. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. The students can take any course offered in any department. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .
this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. Groupism is encouraged. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course.good.5. An example is a seminar. In the new system.poor. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. courses can have weightages defined. v. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. or as a 4 credit course. only the total credits to be earned is specified.2. These weightages are called credits. 3. This system reduces comparison of marks. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 .discipline. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. While designing syllabus. poor.
This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. the need for re-evaluation should not arise.5. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.2. However. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. 156 . The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. 3. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.2. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. 3. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. 3. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.5.2.5. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education.
. There are no proper procedures for selection. 3.2. Therefore. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. recruitment. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.2. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard.5. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . In the hierarchy.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. However. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. List any four new evaluation procedures. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.
looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. interpersonal relationships and so on. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. inspecting the class-room teaching. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. books are followed. school buildings. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. When they are fully realised. staff. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. wherever necessary. finding out whether the prescribed text. laboratory equipment. requirements.. Academic inspection.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is.2. qualifications. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. 3. whether the syllabus has been covered. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. finding out the adequacy of. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. etc. taking up the follow-up programmes. 1.qualified personnel. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making.6. of late. complaints and compliments. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. playgrounds. etc. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. library books. in contrast. disciplinary problems. 158 . The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. They are. in a sense. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures.. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. being realised as two different functions. submitting of the inspection reports.
M. 3. 159 . at least. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. Similarly. or.2. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. their professional knowledge. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought.. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. In the light of these conceptualisation. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. modern.Ed. course in either educational. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well.Ed. once in five years. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. In the case of departmental candidates. aptitude. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection.. Insistence on specialisation in the B. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. courses.
a. 3. 3. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. 5. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. 2. assessment and Finance. a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Grade System.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit.2. Administration. Instruction. 3. 3. c. b. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. d. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection.2. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. b. examination reforms and supervision and inspection.2. 160 . b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. a.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
a. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. b. b. a. Question banks. 3. 5. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.a part of internal assessment. 7. b. (2004). Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.4. K.2. Open book examinations. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Educational Reforms. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. S.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Vaidya. (2005). Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Multiple sets of question paper. R and Sharma. New 161 . Problems of Education in India. (2002). History and Problems of Education in India. K. c. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. a. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment.
3.3.5 3. 2.3. 5. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3.3. you will be able to: 1.LESSON 3.3.6 3.3.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.2 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. 162 .1 3.4 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.9 3.7 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. identify the needs of rural India and social. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.8 3.3. 3.3.3 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. 220.127.116.11.10 3.3.
etc. 8 years of general education. The. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. 10 years of general Secondary Education. 2. i. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. the Banaras Sanskrit College.. and 3 years of First Degree Course. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. The Calcutta Madras. Consequent on the recommendations. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. University Education. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates..3. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education.e. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education.e.specialisation programmes 3. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. e. Commission emphasised to continue. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Similar is the case with some other States... in Andhra Pradesh. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre.g. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education.3.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines.
is also a plus point . Provision for transfer of credits to students.3. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 7. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self.a sense of dignity of labour.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. educational channels. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. b.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 5) to help for the social. and. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. historical. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9.confidence in students. 5. 6. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . cultural and economic development of the country. 8. who desire to change from one stream to another. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. 10. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. However. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. 3. to prepare. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. to imbibe. economical and political. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . habits of hard work and develop . social.
A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. 3. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Psychologically. and.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. cooperativeness. and that required to enter the tertiary level. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. Philosophically it is not the conception. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. international understanding. Sociologically it is undesirable. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level.national integration. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. The General Educational Spectrum. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission.. 1. to develop national character. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . cultural and' religious tolerance. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. at the other. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. on one hand.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. etc. democratic living.3. social justice. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone.
courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. such as Agriculture. commerce. rural health. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. industrial agricultural production is growing. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. 3. Science. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. chemistry. commerce. Biology. technical. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. and vocations based on dairy-farming. 2. educational and cultural services. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. or other machinery. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education.3.— tube-wells. In the vocational spectrum. professional. vegetable growing. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. the rural areas have suffered very much. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. medical plants. horticulture. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. 166 . Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. technological. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. physics or mathematics. In our country. All these need for an. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. In the matter of language. Commerce and other disciplines. India is a land of villages. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. fish culture. Agriculture is the main occupation.
Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3.3. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 .7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. and the needs. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. There had been favourable reaction from the students. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. interests and aptitudes of the students. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. In this way. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. and 5.. can be ensured.etc. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the local resources available. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely .. 4. In this it may be concluded. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In time. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. etc. social justice.
(2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education.3. b.C. New Delhi : 168 . S. General Educational Spectrum and b.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. Anmol Publications Pvt.3. (2007).3. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Vocational Sepctrum. Calcutta University Commission 2. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. 3. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 3. J.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.3. objectives. b. we studied the history. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. habits of hard work and develop . Ltd. (2008). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4.K. a. (2001). curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. B. to imbibe. 3. 3. a. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. 2.a sense of dignity of labour.3. Mohanty. N. Dash. a.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. J. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.
3 3.13 3.7 3. social and 169 . but the lighting of a fire”.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.8 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.12 3. Education contributes to human development.4.LESSON 3.4.10 18.104.22.168 3.4.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.22.214.171.124.11 126.96.36.199 3.9 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.6 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.1 188.8.131.52.
known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. particularly 170 . economic. There is a close connection between education and development.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence.higher education in particular. community and nation is universally acknowledged. you will be able to: 1. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. although we have miles to go.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. family. Education . 3. The relevance of women’s education to social. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. 3. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. In the post —independence period. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. Nursing. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. While women constituted only 9. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. Home Economics. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. Dr. These courses were. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century.4. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. For the first time in the history of India. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. Teaching and Fine Arts. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. cultural and political development of the individual. analyze the women and distance education.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .4. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. higher education of girls developed immensely. During the year 1937.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916.
9 14.0 Today. 3. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Yet. levels and professions.9 27. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Coimbatore. In the rest of the country.0 43. 3.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.1 31. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.D. The idea of women’s education for equality. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.0 32.women.4. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.N.T Women University.1 24. Mumbai.4. In 1950-51. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . Even today.2 22. Mother Teresa Women University. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. Kodaikanal. in our country.0 16.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.4.65 lakhs in 1994-95. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. we have more than 1200 institutions. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.2 29. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. out of 9200 and odd colleges.
73 10.4.17 52.4%) prefer Arts subjects.56 64. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? . 3.36 3.that of boys. 3. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 and 14. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.66 66.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .54 12.1 respectively. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .44 35. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.83 47.53 34.27 89.63 Female % 34. 2.34 33.4.47 65.46 82.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.4. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .
hinders the girls from getting higher education. particularly. distance of the college or university from home. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. irrelevance of the content of education. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Also. The major hurdles. 3. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. They gave up their studies to enter home life. In college. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. what is the need for higher education for her. Book banks should be established. Thus. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. According to a survey. curriculum not suited to their requirements. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. promoted and increased. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. financial difficulty of the parents. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. 173 . marriage is a very common I factor. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. In every third family.4. and coeducation may spoil her character. etc. she will only learn fashion. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the.
Education. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Empowerment in a nutshell. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. It is a productive investment. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. 3. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. and the limitations of the conventional education system. is the only tool for realising empowerment.4. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. It enables to study. resources and socio .4. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. There are constraints of time.economic disabilities faced by women. Geographic distance of educational institutions. Full-time employment. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Distance education is a boon to women. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. It also brings about 174 . space. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. 3.
on their own. for full development of our human resources. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. This can be achieved through reflection. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. empowerment means being assertive.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. education of women is of paramount importance. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. Women are partners in development. Empowerment is an active. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. higher learning. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. 3. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women.4. education of women must be given priority in national plans. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . The major objectives of women's higher education. legal awareness and economic independence. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life.
which is pending for a long time. especially so in the developing countries. which had been the sole domain of men. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Reservation for women. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. 176 . has to be implemented at the earliest. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. The educational institutions. But their number is small. 3. will encourage them to venture new grounds.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. The local administration. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Scholarships and concessions for women. who are eager to take up courses.4. Better opportunities. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women.
International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. 3. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Australia.000 women in the country.4. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.9%). participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.3 percent. According to Lindy Hyam. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. engineering and related technologies (16. capacities etc. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.8%). it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. Also. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. talents. Chief Executive. IDP Education. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities.. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates.1%) and architecture and building (38. But. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . especially in developing countries like African countries.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.
4. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. 3. 43% 6. Mother Teresa Women University. Mumbai. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. A. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. (2000). impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3.4.to the family. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. 3. R. Rao. Women and Education.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. SNDT Women’s University. Mishra. R. 4. Women Education. (2005). Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Rajasthan 5. and Suryalatha. 178 . individuals and society b. Mumbai. Annakodi. A.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. R. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. create the right attitude towards life. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. S. (2007). Women Education. Centre for Women’s Studies. Coimbatore. S. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.4. and Swain. Coimbatore. (2008). Kodaikanal.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. a. SNDT Women’s University.C. 2.4.K.R. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. community and the nation. 3. Pattanaikj.
There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.4 3.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation. whole.5.7 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 184.108.40.206.3 3.8 3.2 3. They should be trained.11 3.LESSON 3.10 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 220.127.116.11 3.personality of children in and out of school. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.9 3.1 3.5.5.
After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has.5. 4. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. equality and justice. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. national consciousness. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. and national character. Shorter working hours. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. 3. Dearth of new technology of teaching. social and emotional integration.5. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. 3. you will be able to: 1. 180 . international. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. understanding and strong desire for international peace. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. Lack of physical facilities.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. know the pre service and in service training facilities. 5. understand the training teachers for Primary.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education.
a Diploma course and a Degree course. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course.Ed. If the student teachers are working teachers. higher secondary teacher education. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work.5.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. levels. At the diploma level. it is called the Extension teacher Education. (NCERT) New Delhi.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . 3.. the state Government. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. Depending on the levels.. the secondary teacher education. 3. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. students. Lop-sided curriculum. it is called the In-service teacher education. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. and M. Inadequate training in practical skills. the primary teacher education. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. the centre.5. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. inservice and extension education programmes. and the collegiate teacher education. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. etc.Ed. who have not been trained earlier. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years.Less qualified teacher educators. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education cells. extensio n service. Science Education units. 3. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose .Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. non-formal. Evaluation unit. are established.. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Also Guidance Bureaux. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. state Institutes of Educat ion. collegiate cells. etc.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY.5. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Educational teehnology cells. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Expand NCERT 2. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . depart ments etc. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? .
to improve curricular programmes. material conditions relating to libraries. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. schools and sister institutions.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . despite its vast expansion. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. to ensure teacher competence.. and 183 . primary and secondary school teachers. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B.. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. and so on.Ed. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . which should include experience in the primary schools too. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and .Ed.. degree. audio visual aids. to prescribe conditions for recognition. laboratories. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . to offer consultative services. which help breaking isolation from one another . The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. should be improved on a top priority basis.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life.
With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. etc. whether they should have professional education or. Organisation of Content Courses. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. To meet this exigency. 184 . Modern Methods of Evaluation. Hence. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Agriculture. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Modern Techniques of Teaching. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. Psychology of Students. not came up once again.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. etc.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Workshops. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. though no pre-service training. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training.secondary education. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. and XII. The problem. methodology and evaluation. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. Induction Courses. Meanwhile.
The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. in Education. Courses leading to B. 3. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. courses and M. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Post-Graduates also undergo B... the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. Point out two defects in primary teacher training ..A..D. (Education) and M. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. Ajmer.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. For re-orienting the teachers.Ed. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. Degree and M. M.. Pre-service training is for those. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.’s are elig ible for M. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. (Education) are organized by 185 .’s for Ph. State Institutes of Education.S. training..Ed.Ed.Ed. Degree. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.Ed. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.Ed. These facilities are available for regular students. All B Ed. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.A.5..
3.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. Hence the employability of M. 5. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . of conduct—written or unwritten.A..).A. 4. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. However. they should be conscientious . Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. .some Faculties of Education of some Universities. (Ed). 186 . 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. and B. 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the role of ERIC? . (Ed. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. established by tradition and teachers of the past. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.5.. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics.
these problems are not as such cannot be solved. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. However. a. 2. National Council of Educational Research and Training. b. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. 4. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b.3. 3. Ajmer. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. a. 3. The necessity is however this. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 5.5. Shorter working hours. 3. 187 .5. 4. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. 6. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. 3. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful.5. Explain code of conduct for teachers. Bhopal. b. 2. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. they should be conscientious.
and Teacher Education. Teacher Education. P. Mohanty. (2010). Teacher Education. Corporation. B. Publication Pvt. J.5.N. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. A.D.3. Tewari. (2009). Ltd Aggarwal. (2003).12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .
UNIT – IV 189 .
The person’s environment is equally important. 191 . objectives and role of the physical education. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. In lesson 4. Since food is the source of nutrients. common ailments of children. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. In lesson 1. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. preservation of nutrients. economic and educational developments. objectives. objectives. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. communicable diseases and their prevention. If the diet is poor. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. consuming the right amounts becomes important. the focus is on the school health programmes. nutritional deficiency diseases. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning.
5 4. emotional and social.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1.e.1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1.1 4.11 4.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.LESSON 4. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.7 4. mental.1.1.2 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody.4 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. physical. 193 .1.3 4.1.6 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i. It is a miniature society.9 4.8 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.
4. 194 . e.1. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 4. 6. know the need for sex education.1. 10. 11. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. list the common ailments of children 3. understand school health programmes 2. 4.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. training of teachers and evaluation. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 8. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 3. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. to his family and to the community at large.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To develop healthy health habits among children. cleanliness and healthful living. 5. To give information regarding health rules. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. Instruction. 2.. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. content of health education. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students.g. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 7. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. training in first aid and etc. To develop certain skills concerning health. 9. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. explain the importance of First aid 5.
( iii) sanit at io n. 3. Triple Antigen Vaccination. (vi) nutrition education. 2.. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . B. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. organisation of school health days. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. etc. inoculation against cholera. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. excusing late. 4.coming or absence. The school buildings should be spacious. B.G. (viii) first aid. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. proper doors and windows. 5. as described below 1. The flooring should not be damp. Arranging better transportation facilities. 2.4. “Play-for-all” programmes. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. minimizing the travelling distance. vaccination. (v) safety education. (xl) mental health. typhoid. is imperative. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided.. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. direct lighting. cleanliness weeks.C. Vaccination for small pox. There should be good drainage facilities. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. The surroundings of schools should be clean. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. (ii) communit y healt h. play festivals. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. (xii) smoking education etc.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. There should be regular water supply.1. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. suitable furniture. First aid facilities should be made readily available. (x) choice aid use of health services and products.
if epidemic is wide-spread. C. • Have adequate rest and sleep. and other accidents. fractures. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • When sleeping in groups. sports and games in the interest of their health. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. drowning. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. burns. • Take nutritious food. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row.. 196 . bleeding. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. cuts. etc. isolate and notify. • Keep all rooms clean. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. wounds. D. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. • Close the schools. poisons. insect stings. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. dislocations. scalds. • Find out the cases. fainting (epileptic fit).
Once these germs get into the body. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. backache. Mention the school health programmes. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air.1. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. fever. List out the Health curriculum 3. headache.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. These diseases are called communicable diseases. They are: i) The incubation stage. 4. water or bodily contact.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. 2.1. cough. asthma. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. which are – cold. So they easily get illnesses. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. There are three stages in any communicable disease. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . measles etc. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. chicken pox. pain in the joints. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. tuberculosis. polio.
Measles . Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Hence it is called a killer disease. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. The following are the common communicable diseases. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. etc. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Common Cold . Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil.It is caused by measles virus.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. The child may have fever. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. sugar and water.When a child suffers from scabies. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. The symptoms include cold. Throat is affected. Mumps . This is caused by cold virus.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. After three or four days of fever. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. 198 . Some suffer cold due to allergy. unhygienic living conditions. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Children catch cold from persons having cold. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink.This disease is caused by bacteria. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Scabies . unhygienic bottle feeding. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Diarrhoea . Others make the children very weak. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. eating food which is not clean. Ear Infections . cough and fever. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Tonsilitis . head-ache and cough. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough.
This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily.• • • • Chicken Pox . the child may die. Enlist the common ailments of children. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. If proper treatment is not given. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. separate. Typhoid . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. 5.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. As the disease progresses. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Expand DPT . raised pink spots appear on head. the child is not able to breathe. Shortly. The child may also have diarrhoea. It begins with fever. 199 .Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. By scratching he causes secondary infections. What are communicable diseases? 6. Diphtheria . A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. face and waist. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day.
3. and Community Work and Social Service.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. head injury.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. 2. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. 4. It has its rightful place in education too. drowning. man-woman behaviours. bruises. fiction. scorpion stings. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. etc. snakebites. it is a subject of art. Drowning . Sex is but an integral part of human personality. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. 200 .” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. bleeding. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. It is both biological and psychological. so-called sex books and periodicals.4. Sprains .Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. Wounds . It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. simple fractures. sprains. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. wounds. exciting and body-oriented. films and jokes. Sex is popular. 5. and films. dislocation. eye injury. swelling.1. Cuts and Bruises . Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation.g. cuts. In such cases. fainting. sprains. 4.1.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex.
Hence.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . In today's liberal and interactive society. the school. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers.. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. health. sex education is being recommended in schools. Should the boys and girls. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. The home.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. B. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. the religious organisations. in their ignorance. The values of life. try experimenting with their bodies. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. In secondary schools. 3. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. they would be treading the path of sure doom. 2. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems.old values. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. but preserve them from disaster and disease. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. celibacy are age. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child.
Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. common ailments of children. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. offering sex education as a part of their curricula.1. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. when the courses are already overloaded. first aid and sex education. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. the school health programmes. Teacher education institutions are. hence. communicable diseases and their prevention. 4. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. there will no crisis in its implementation. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. C. 202 . What are the major components of Sex Education. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 126.96.36.199 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Mention the food nutrients 2. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 209 . List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6.
Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.4. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.2. minerals. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. If you look at the definition carefully. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. 210 . U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . Let us talk about each of these aspects. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.2. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s.
in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. paratha and poori. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. it is also specific to a given activity level . In other words.one in the morning and the other at night. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. the social and religious practices of that region. sex. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. Even within given States there is considerable variation. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. People in the east of our country prefer rice.g.6. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). moderate or heavy work.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. There is no point. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. 4. activity level and physiological stress. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). Preferences/customs are also important. A balanced diet is specific firstly.2. dosa are typical of the south. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. construction labourer).1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . In the case of adults. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati.g. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex.sedentary. These are: region where the person resides and income. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). for example.
You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. One person may be fond of milk products. for example. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. fat and sugar tend to increase. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. however. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. Among the social factors. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. customs. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. however. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. while another may hate them. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. As income increases. taboos related to food may play an important role. income plays a vital role. Having more money. Judicious selection of food is. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements.planning the diet. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. Including these 212 . These determine the acceptability of foods. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. However. One must. Even among flesh foods. nuts and dry fruits. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. If you think of your own religious group. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. however. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. vegetables and fruits. In addition to these. As you read this discussion. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. as important for the rich as for the poor. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving.
green leaves. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 213 . 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. For this. eggs . Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. 17. fruits. Define balanced diet. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. but they should be thrown away. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. mouth. 8.eating is hazardous. if the teachers have good food habits. List out any two healthy food habits. etc. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. meat.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. 8) Walk a while after eating. over-eating or under. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables.
Beri Beri 4. preservation of nutrients. Conjuctival xerosis. Discuss good food habits. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . 4. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. When the diet is inadequate. b.2. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Explain food nutrients 4. a.2. d. e. Vitamin D 5. Night blindness. Keratomalacia 3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. c.2.4. In fact. 4. Corneal xerosis.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Bitot’s spots. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. good nutrition is essential for good health. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A.
(2008). plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. (2009).2. 4. mouth. Health and Nutrition Education. A Text Book of Foods. Sri Lakshmi B. Nutrition Science. 8. b. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. (2008). Nutrition and Dietetics.C. P. a . U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . Food and Nutrition Education. Hands. minerals. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. a.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. (2004). Food should be consumed after eating well. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.6. S. R. R. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. b. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . Food and Nutrition Education.N.M. (2005). 7. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Chopra.
3.3.7 4.3.3 Impact on Education 4. 216 .10 4.LESSON 188.8.131.52.3.3.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5 4.2 4.12 184.108.40.206.4 4.3.11 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.9 4.3 4.8 4.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.1 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.13 220.127.116.11.1 Impact on social development 4.3.3.
4.3. the causes of population change.4. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. describe the impact of population growth on social.3. It is not sex education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It is a much wider co ncept. population characteristics. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. community. There is some difference. state the meaning. 4. the stress is. and the consequences of these processes. Whenever we talk of sex education. Population Education. his family. 217 .3. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. family planning and sex education etc. his societ y and the world. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. objectives and need for population education 2. therefore. economic and educational development 3. you will be able to: 1. understand the importance of small family norm 5. aims at providing the younger generation. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. characteristics and changes for himself. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education.
4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. Define Population Education 2.4. List out any two objectives of Population Education. the nation and the world.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. the family. 4.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. the society. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.
With the larger families. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. Family is considered as a social unit. economic and educational development of the country. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. When the family is small. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare.3. 219 . They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood.6. the family programmes are also handicapped. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Every second two thousand children are being born. social welfare schemes can be implemented well.3. 4. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. 4. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. health and happiness of its citizens. which will not be possible without population control.
They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. in buses and trains. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. heavy intern I migration etc. teacher index. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends.e. pollution of the environment. Many students herded in a small room. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. organization index and material index.3. 4. in parks and other places of public gatherings. The gulf between them is widening further. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. in cinema halls and theatres. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. unemployment.6. 4. Swollen cities.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. toilets. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. i. facility for drinking water. lack of proper health care. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. 220 . The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.3. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. and so on..3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. In developing countries.6. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index.
3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Social Studies Statistics on population education. 221 . family planning etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and laboratory equipments. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4.3. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. Hindi and English. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. essays.. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. less budget for education. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. Regional Language. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. can be studied in science and health education. There would be poor library facilities.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. can be taken up. even text books would be in short supply. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. reproduction. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. There would be very few audiovisual aids. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. blank verses etc. bar graphs etc. thus. less space facilities.
causes of deaths etc.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 12. Brazil.3. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 8. Children may compare two families. Uttar Pradesh. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 15. deaths. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. 5. They may arrange them as per average density of population. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 9. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 14. 11.4. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Children with the help of parents. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. area and average density of population. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. 13. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Bihar. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. China. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. 2. 4. Canada. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. United States of America. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 10. 3. West Bengal. 7.
The question. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. age at marriage. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. 17. Comparing life in various respects in two families. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. preferences for sex. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife.3. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. 16. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children.be opened in their schools. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. we have no right to stop 223 . 18. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. values and role children etc. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage.
should be overcome at the intellectual levels.were implemented 224 . In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. especially the expansion of child immunization services . at varying places in different regions. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. The Family Welfare Program. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . continued . however.3. fertility levels have declined throughout the country.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. and the child survival components of the news: program. Since the program's inception.to emphasize family planning services. 4.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. which education can only do. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).their entry into the world”.. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. on an overall basis. More than 45 years ago. “He who is responsible for population growth.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.4-6.
The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. men. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. and the World Conference on Women. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. and nominal fees for services. Therefore. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. reliance on local women as community health workers. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive.earlier than the safe motherhood components. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. a focus on health promotion. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. expansion of services to unmarried women. In April 1996. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. Local programs vary in their approaches. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. At these meetings. the community appears willing to pay for services. In October 1997. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. Moreover.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. What are the goals of RCH? 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. nation and the world. Describe the impact of population growth on social. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. 226 . 3. 1997). economic and educational development 4.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.emphasizing the needs of the client. 4. family. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. Its main purposes are to create awareness. involving the community. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. community.3. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training.3.
3. b. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. 4. a. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. 3. population characteristics. less budget for education. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 6. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. a. 227 . less space facilities. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Canada.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Brazil. and the consequences of these processes. China. his society and the world.4. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. area and average density of population. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. characteristics and changes for himself. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. b. 5. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. bar graphs. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. the causes of population change. United States of America. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. his family. 7. a.” 2. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.
3. Modern Trends in Indian Education. T. (2004).K. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Kantikar. Coimbatore. Bhende. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Principles of Population Studies. (2005). V. Modern Problems of Education. Reddy. Ltd. (2002).4. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Changing attitudes to Education in India. (2005). Centre for Women’s Studies. (1992). 228 . Udaiveer. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Jayapoorni. N. A. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. J.
9 4.4 Lead up games 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124.10 4.4.1 Minor games 126.96.36.199 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.LESSON 4.2 4.4.3 Indigenous games 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .7 4.11 18.104.22.168 Major games 4.5 4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.8.
It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. perseverance.4. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. as it should 230 . 4. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. full records of physical activities should be maintained.4. which forms its most valuable assets. you will be able to: 1. The concept of physical education has been made broader. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. social fitness. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. the youth of the country.4. team spirit. classify the different types of games. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. leadership and balance in defect. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. 4. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. mental alertness.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education.4. moral fitness and emotional fitness.
moderation in victory and balance in defeat. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. To be more precise. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. The educational efforts at home.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Therefore. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. leadership. They are inseparably united together. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Every individual is a part of society. obedience to rules. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. They go hand in hand. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. team spirit. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice.
“The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. Physical exercises. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. a sound health. mo ral. nor body but the whole man. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. C. 4. Regarding the significance of physical education.” Montaigue writes. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system.4. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. pleasing manners. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. H. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. ment al. Rousseau states.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. Just like Education.” The Secondary Education Commission. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. Buck has observed that 232 . Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. game and sports.
without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. endurance.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. coordinative abilities.4. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. initiative. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. strength. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. etc. 233 . It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility.” 4. Froebel says. “If we wish to develop the whole being. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. speed. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life.a properly directed physical education should result in health. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. elegance.” In brief. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. efficiency and character. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. flexibility and power. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. we must exercise the whole human being. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. happiness. resourcefulness and smartness.
” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. in greater or lesser degree. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. While wars. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. its adherents and its enemies. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. plagues and famines. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Every age has its artists. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Tournaments foster this sentiment. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. including all racial groups and historical ages. systems of government. poetry and painting. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. they may form gangs. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. If no opportunity is provided to the students. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. 234 (i) (ii) . “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. these fundamental things have always been present.
Write any two importance of Physical Education. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. to develop tolerance. respect for rules.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. B. etc. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. self. 2.\ to develop perseverance. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems.sacrifice. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. obedience. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. bravery and interest in games and sports. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. 235 .
5. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. students. Haag. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 4. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health.4. 11. 12. and readmission after they have recovered.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 2. Posture screening should be done. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Act as a leader.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Usually parents. 10.4. 4. 8.4. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. 9. 3. Always keep the whistle ready. Be sportive. Be punctual. defects. and. 14. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Inform health principles. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Keep the field ready for the activities. 236 1. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. is essential. Be self-confident. 6.H. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Be well-prepared. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Be in the uniform. injuries among pupils should be made. 15. 16. . teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 7. 13. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students.
fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. 2.8. Such inst incts as imitation. their development is handicapped. chasing. Indigenous games. 4. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.4. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. 4.4. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. frolic and jo y. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. the play. As such they are well enjoyed by children. less equipment and less expense. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. 1. Lead up games. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Moreover. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. 237 . 4.
the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. heading. Basket Ball. bowling etc. with implements or without implements. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. On lawns. skipping. The dimension of the posts and nets. Cricket. benefit in playing minor games. Ball Badminton. pitching. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. driving. Volley Ball. Tennikoit. Dodging. They are played for a shorter duration. Throwing.8. wherever the kids assemble. For each game the rules are many. stopping. snatching the kerchief. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. 238 . trapping. on mountain tops and on river beds. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. under ball pass Relay. on sea-shore. Shuttle Badminton. Jumping. muffling. zig zag relay. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Except a few games. These games require varied skills such as running. Khokho. finding the partner. Tennis. Jump the stick clay and so on. spiking. hitting. Hopping.With a very few rules. the games can be modified according to convenience. dribbling.4. 4.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. the play equipment. boosting. Soft Ball. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. some of them are played indoors. catching. Hockey. couple tag. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. While many of them are played in the open playfields. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. over ball pass Relay. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Kabaddy etc. the number of players and substitutes. women take part most of the games.. on hard courts.
4. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. they are in existence. While observing the players in action. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. All the fundamental tactics. They have an abundant social value. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. 7.8. festivals connected with religion and public functions. birth. 4. and . Games may be classified as 6. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 .3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. List out some major games. On occasions like marriage. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.8. these games being popular.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Kho-kho. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. An example for indigenous game is 8.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.4. For example. death.
4. 4. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. 3. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education.4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. to secure physical health b.4. a. a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. physically and emotionally fit and alert. 5. b. c. a. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Minor and Major 240 . a. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. b.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. 2. 4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. Posture screening should be done. d.4. aims and objectives and need of physical education.4. 2. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. 4. b. to develop physical stamina. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. 3.
(2008). Aggarwal. J. Hockey. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2005). Khokho 8. Shuttle Badminton. Modern Trends in Indian Education.K. Basket Ball. Kabaddy 7. Tennikoit. G. J. 4. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Krishna murthy. Health. Volley Ball. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ball Badminton. Ltd. (2008). Tennis. Cricket. Soft Ball. (2009). Foot-ball. 241 . New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.4.6.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. J. Khokho. Physical Education and Sports. Mohanty. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Handbook of Physical Education.C.
5.LESSON 22.214.171.124 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 126.96.36.199 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.10 4.2 4.4 4.1 Natural Environment 4.8 188.8.131.52 4.9 4.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.6 4.2 Manmade Environment 184.108.40.206 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.1 4.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 220.127.116.11 4.5.
explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. role of teacher in environmental conservation. political. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. social. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Details are given below: I. 5. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. 3. 2.5. aesthetic and educational factors. Knowledge. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. 6.5. Essential knowledge about the Environment. population explosion and resource depletion could be.5. Evaluation Ability. economic. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. you will able to: 1.educat ion for the environment. The best place to start such learning is school. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. it covers the following elements: 1. Broadly. list out the types of environment 3. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. 243 . 4. 4. Attitude. education about the environment and education through the environment. Skills. 4. Awareness. 3. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Participation.
B. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Oxidants Other pollutants. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. F. • Biological magnification E. D. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. a. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. 244 . 2. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle.
and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Use of medical science i. B. Birth control through education b. 2. 3. Persuasion: i. 4. Abortion iv. economic. The pill ii. Sterilisation. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Family planning ii. 2. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. c. Socio-economic measures. Control of population growth a. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . III. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Intrauterine device iii. The human ecosystem II.3. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1.
Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. e) Recycling. 246 . (UNESCO. Water pollution abatement. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Air pollution abatement ii.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Define Environmental Education. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. 3. 1983). 3. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. 2. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education.
They interact with each. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.5.4. includes the plants. way is called environmental or ecological factor.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain.5. to his needs. A change in one brings about a change in the other. telex. -other. b. These are biotic components. Biological environment The biological environment. He modifies according”. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . Environment may also be classified into following two kinds.5.5.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 .other components of the environment. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. 4.5. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. animals and other organisms (biotic).5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. fax agricultural apparatus. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.5. Any constituent or condition of the environment. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. a.
need for bio-diversity. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. preventing siltation of dams. use of pesticides. nuclear energy. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. noise control. reasons. of civilizations. sources. are the topics which may be taught in History. effects. importance of nitrogen cycle.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. air pollutants from industries. etc. population. wars and hazards of war. food chain and food-web. ozone depletion. alternate sources of energy. social studies. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. biogas plants. supplying timber for various uses. solar cookers. mineral survey. greenhouse effect. change in climate may be added. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . etc. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife.. noise pollution. need for conservation. use of medicinal plants. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. nuclear warfare. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. preserving the watersheds. water scarcity. extinction of species. windmills. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. industrial survey. river systems. acid rain. relation between population and pollution. explosion deforestation. (ii) Air pollution. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. effects o f CFC. desertification 248 . t heir role in preventing pollution. ozone layer deplet ion. maintaining the ecological diversity. balance of nature. natural way of controlling pests. excellent recreation sites. History The rise and fall. sources of pollut ion. evolution. industrial pollut io n. trees reducing noise pollution. role of trees in building economy. over exploitation of ground water. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects.
Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 6. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Peepal and Tulsi. 4. 9. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education.5. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. animal and plants. 8. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. 7. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. group discussions and seminars. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 10. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 12. 4. Organising conferences. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 3. 11. aims and scope. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 249 . Providing. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 5. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 13. 2.may be inc ded in Geography. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 14.
Reuse carrier bags. Never put any left over chemicals. If it is done. Use public transport wherever it is possible. World Environmental falls on 250 . old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. used oils down the drain.Send their waste oil. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. all these can cause serious pollution. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. or form a car pool for everyday travel. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. it will cause pollution. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. 6. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Don’t burn any waste. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. especially plastics.
dest roying nat ural habitats. Att itudes of balance towards nature. etc. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . Harmony with the nature . To arrange for visiting speakers. Concern for species. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. To provide materials needed for practical work. To discuss the approach to problems or topics.. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions.4. nuclear wars. viz. CFCs. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. Social responsibilit y (common good. loss of bio-diversity.mat erials. orderliness and beauty). Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. and 251 . concern for others). values and habits. rather than conquest and mastery. (cleanliness. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. Conservation of natural resources. depletion of ozone. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. prevention of irretrievable loss of species.5. diversity and stability.). To provide reference materials for children’s use. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. developing desirable attitudes. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. etc. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. To arrange visits or expeditions. The groups may exchange. deforestation. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. potable water.
interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. 4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.5. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. preserving natural cycles.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. 4. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. 8. 252 . Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.
5.K. reasons. Organising conferences. group discussions and seminars. Environmental Education.K. Environmental Education. Publications Pvt. b. water scarcity. Rapid population growth. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. b. a. a. Nanda.\ 4. air pollutants from industries. S. a. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . S. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Social responsibilit y (common good. 4.. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Modern Problems of Education. new problems from science and technology. relat ion between population and pollution. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. concern for others). (2004). sources. Education for values. 8. ozone layer deplet ion. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Udaiveer. Anmol Publications Pvt. a. over exploitation of ground water. (2007). 6. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. New Delhi : Authors Press. importance of nitrogen cycle. T. New Delhi : Sharma. Knowledge. Kuldeep. explosion deforestation. sources of pollution. Ltd. effects. (1997). Awareness. 5. Environment and Human Rights. Providing. To provide reference materials for children’s use. acid rain.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. (ii) Air pollution. 3.K.K. Y. June 5 7. Ltd. b. b. (2007).2. population. To provide materials needed for practical work. greenhouse effect. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 18.104.22.168 Idealism and aims of Education 22.214.171.124 Idealism and Curriculum 126.96.36.199 Idealism and methods of teaching 188.8.131.52 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and aims of Education 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and Curriculum 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and methods of teaching 22.214.171.124 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 126.96.36.199 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
188.8.131.52 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 184.108.40.206 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. enrichment and transmission of culture. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. should be universal in nature. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure.” 5. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. moral.3. Spiritual Development.our life. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. Education according to idealism. Education must contribute to development of culture. According to Rusk'. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. The universe is regarded as a thought process. It is self-realisation. Therefore. man is essentially a moral being.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. in fact. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. promote and transmit it to rising generation. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind.1. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. Universal Education. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. the emancipation of spirit. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation.
The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. So he should embody. He carries the child from darkness to light. History. friend and guide. Mathematics etc. 4.” He is thus. For this no particular method has been suggested. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. the school is a garden. So cognition (knowing). Learning through imitation. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. 5. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. Herbert advocated instruction method.1. 3. Learning through discussion. should be there.” 5. a spiritual guide for the child. Ethics. hygiene. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. However. According to idealism. Learning through lecturing. affecting (feeling). He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. The teacher serves as a living model for the students.3. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. no doubt. Learning through questioning. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only.1. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. So health. It considers teacher as. 5. Philosophy.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. so subjects like Religion. Science. For intellectual development.3. According to Frobel. an indispensable necessity. The plant can grow. and collation (striving) should find due place.the spiritual qualities of mankind. subjects like Languages. He sets the environment in which education takes place. Learning through reading. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. 2. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. An idealist teacher is a philosopher.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant.
preservation. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Perfection of Human Machine. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.1.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. "Education should make 263 • . 5.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. text books.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. curricula. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. time tables. 5.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.perfection and beauty. formal lessons or examinations. In the words of Ross.1. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. Ross explains.
It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. It stresses basic sciences. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Education also aims at helping the individual t.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. therefore. education should develop the child into Joyous. Chemistry. Therefore. In all.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. It is based on the psychology of the child.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Botany etc Language. Literature. useful and mature child. Education should. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. geography should also be included in the curriculum. is based on the nature of the child. Arithmetic. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3.4. Zoology. 264 . aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. rational harmoniously balanced. Naturalistic curriculum. subjects like history. 4. • 5. “Education finds its purpose. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction.1. Biology. There is no place for religious and moral education. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 .4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher.5. the stage. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. a supplier of materials and opportunities. a provider of an ideal environment. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. 5. Heuristic method. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. In the . Here the emphasis is on the individual method.1. 4. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. 5. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. It discards all rigid. Dalton Plan. Learning by doing. Rousseau says. 3. Learning through experience.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. he should be taught by experience alone.1. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . 2.4. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.1. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers.4. Learning through observation.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching.
5. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. The individual has not only to adjust himself.1. Subjects. Sciences.1. 5. intellectual. Personal Social Adjustment. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Geography. Social Science. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. is true. The aim of educational development. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. social and moral aspects.5. Social Efficiency. All Round Development of an Individual. History. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. 5. Continuous Growth. Physical training. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning.absolutism of idealism.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. diversified and flexible. Agriculture. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Vocational and 266 . It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons.
Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. a senior partner and a sincere guide. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. should find proper place. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. The subjects. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences.1. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . He has to be active. Learning by Doing. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.5. alert and resourceful. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. activities and experience should be integrated properly. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life.5. 5. He must be trained. a teacher occupies an important position. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child.” 5.Technical Education. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.
practical. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Crafts. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Biology.6. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Psychology. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. 4. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. It favours child-centered. 3. Music and Dance. Geography are unnecessary 268 .6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Astrology. 4. specific. Population Education. 3.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Study of Subjects like Language. Biography Philosophy. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Mathematics. 2. History. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. literary or humanistic education.1. 2. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. liberal.5. The basic tenets of realism are 1. 5. rich and happy. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Satisfaction of individual and social needs.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Education is preparation for a complete living. intellectual. 5. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist.1. scientific and psychological education. 5.1. Art.6. Literature. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Sex Education. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Chemistry. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life.
List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.5. certainly and clearly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. easily and pleasantly.220.127.116.11 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.
Languages. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. a. c. d. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Physical training. 5. Self Realisation b. Child centered c. Tours / Excursion e. History. Agriculture. & curriculum. Geography. Vocational and Technical Education. Rousseau 5. e. Experimentation d. pragmatism and realism. Education according to pragmatism. Sciences.1. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Learning through discussion.1.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Self preservation & Self expression 4. b. Social Science.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Learning through reading. 5. Universal Education 2. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Demonstration and Observation 270 . has no end other than growth. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. a. Learning through experience b. naturalism. 3. a. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4.5. Learning through questioning. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. 5. Learning through imitation. in this lesson. Learning through lecturing.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 6.1.
Foundations of Education.1. R. (2007). (2004). (2007). New Delhi : A. Publishing corporation. L. P. New Delhi : Bhatia. O. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2003).5. Narang C. Theory and Principles of Education. of Pathak. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 271 . Ltd.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Pahuja. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.P. N. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. K. P.P.H.
3.1 Aims of Education 5.1 Aims of Education 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.1 18.104.22.168 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.3 Methods of Teaching 22.214.171.124 Methods of teaching 126.96.36.199.2.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2.LESSON 5.2 188.8.131.52 Methods of teaching 272 .5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 184.108.40.206 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.4 Views about teacher 5.3.1 Aims of Education 5.4.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.4.4 Views about teacher 220.127.116.11.2.2 Curriculum 18.104.22.168.2 Curriculum 22.214.171.124.2.5.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2.
6 5. 2. 5.2. mind and spirit. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. you will able to: 1. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2. Tagore was a poet. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. 273 . Gandhiji was primarily a social. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. an artist.2.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2.2. economic and political reconstruction in our country. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. content and methods. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.2. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.8 5.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life.5. 3. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.2.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.7 5. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.2.4 Role of the teacher 5. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. 5.
5. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. it is education of life.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education.3. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. It really provides opportunity for character building. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. strength of mind. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.2. In the words of Gandhiji.supporting. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. 274 . righteousness. "I attach more. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. mind and soul of children He further observed." Dignity of Labour. 'Man is neither mere intellect. through life and for life. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. His scheme of education is life centred. nor the gross animals body. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. self-restraint and service of humanity.
leather work have been suggested. the realization of the ultimate reality. "Development of the moral character. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Drawing and Hindustani.3. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Music. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Art. General Sciences. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Mother-tongue.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered.2. gardening. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. 5. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Only good individual forms a better society. metal work. According to Gandhi. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Individual and Social Aims. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. wood work.Training for Leadership.
all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.2. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.trained. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. men of 276 . Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.3. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. Basic education is other wise known as 4. proficient.2.
men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. 3. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. He has an experimental approach towards life 2.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Education must be child centered. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . 5. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says.3. He also advocates freedom for the child. That is why. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.knowledge.
• Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. • Ideal of citizenship.2. he was a true Vedantist 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.” Like all other ideals.4. He believed in the oneness of humanity. 5.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. Gandhi in 1937. He was a true patriot. • Education should involve manual work. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. He was deadly against untouchability.K.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.3.2. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. 5.2. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. • Cult of non-violence. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.
4. stronger in power than ever before. That way only. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Dance. (vi) Philosophy. Chemistry. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics.2. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. could help in forging unity among all. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . "Mankind must realise a unity. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. International understanding. complete manhood could be attained. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. It should help the learner have good physique. deeper in. etc. the more dedicated and devoted. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. them solve problems of day to day life. Botany.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. sentiment.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Religion and Psychology. he said. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Therefore. International Understanding.Language and Literature . It should help. Zoology. Civics. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. 279 . Geography. wider in range. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Tagore said. Music." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education.
In 1921. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.2. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. Tagore rightly says. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”.2. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.4." 5. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.2. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. Activity Method Heuristic Method.4. 280 . 5.” He further says. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. 5.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child.4.
atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. It is open to all irrespective of country. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. 10. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. 9.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.g. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. race. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. 281 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9.
Education for Self-reliance.5. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Purity of thought.” 5. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Education for strong Moral Character.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. According to him.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. work and deeds come out of it." He was against the theoretical type of education. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only.2. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. 3. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. 4. Freedom. 2. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. character forming and assimilation of ideas. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Concept of Education. Education should make a person self-reliant. He believed in to learning or selflearning. man making.2.5. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Book learning. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. Education for Self-realization. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education.
The teacher should be the facilitator. Thirdly he wished that games. 6. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. A physically strong person is the need of the society. philosopher and guide to the students He. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Secondly he wanted Science. Every individual should be trained for concentration.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Of course. Discussion Method. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Education for Physical Development.5. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners.2.5. And above all. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. Religion. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Philosophy and Theology.5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. 5. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.2. 5.2. 5. engineering and technical subjects. 283 . Swami. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion.the learners on different students in the discussion. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. That will serve the purpose of education fully.5. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other.
Their educational ideas. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. naturalist. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action.Substantiate your answer. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. 284 . Gandhiji as a Idealist. 3.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. and pragmatist . We have seen that Tagore. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. in this lesson. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. 12.2. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. ears and eyes. 5. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. of course. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. legs.6 LET US SUM UP We have. Write short notes on Basic education. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man.2. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. 2. 5.
Activity Method d. a. Discussion Method 285 . Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. 10.2. f. Meditation and concentration c. gardening. a. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Ideal of citizenship. 1937 7. Nai Talim 4. 11. c. Technique of Correlation 6. b. c. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Cult of non-violence. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 8. a. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. 5. wood work. Basic education. e. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Self-Study b. 5. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Activity Method b. d.4.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. 3. 5. Teaching while Walking b. leather work have been suggested. Learning by Doing c. 9. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Explain Vishwabharathi. metal work. Education should involve manual work. Self realization. Debate and Discussion Method. a. Heuristic Method.
New Delhi : Aggarwal. (2003). 286 . Anmol Publications Pvt. O. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. L. K and Narang C.P. (2007). J.5. (2004). N. Theory and Principles of Education. P. K. Pahuja. N. (2002). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : A. Dhiman. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Foundations of Education.2. Ltd. B.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. P. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.H. (2007). Publishing Corporation. on Bhatia. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. C.
3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.LESSON 126.96.36.199 5.3.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.3.1 5.3.6 5.4 5.10 5.3. In this lesson.3 5.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.5 5.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.7 5.8 5.3.2 5.9 5.3.
It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. living in the hilly area. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. the desert area.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. there is a large number of communities. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. While education is learning. the plain area. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. in fact . Both the processes are integrated. state the meaning of curriculum 2.3. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’.3. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . maintained or eliminated. In the former sense.3.. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. 5.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. is a means to the process. 5. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. In the words of Kerney and Cook.S. Then in a big country like India. curriculum. Since the demands. In it. in the U. the plateau area and 288 . curriculum signifies situations for learning. it is identical wit h socializat ion. From the latter point of view. new behaviour may be acquired. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. A g o o d curricu lu m. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. in the form of new experience. While education is a process.under the direction of the school. present behaviour may be modified.A. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. in Russia or in Japan.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. you will be able to: 1. Curriculum is intimately related to education.
5. Again.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. irrespective of their needs and environment. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. It must differ from locality and from society to society. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. From a slave-country we became secular. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. studying therein. the learning capacity of children. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. too. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. Besides craft. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. differs from individual to individual. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. democratic and socialistic country. and 289 . therefore. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”.3. it is. environment. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. In fact . However. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. customs and needs.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. according to modern trends in the educational process. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule.
T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. eg.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. which may or may not be attained. uninspiring and unscientific. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.g. social. 1.3. aims. emotional. aesthetic and spiritual development. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. 4. of classroom. They may be ultimate or proximate. remote or immediate. 5. tangible. unsatisfactory. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Goals of Primary Education. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education.. moral. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. They speak of perfect goals. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. 290 . etc.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. 3. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes.. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. They are achievable. etc. Knowledge Objective. So it is inadequate. etc. in instructional objectives.. social. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. Vocational Efficiency. National Integration. individual or Social and so on. e. Self Realisation.g. unambiguous and functional.. they depend on the political. general or specific. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. 2. Understanding Objective. Goals of Secondary Education. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery.g. Application Objective. The word “Curere” means 2. specific. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . They are visionary goals e. They speak of immediate purposes of education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. e. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3..
needs. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization.3. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. Raymont rightly says.5. educationists. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. heavy fire. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. but it includes the totality of experiences. Crow and Crow remarks. The interests. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. abilities.” 291 . in the class rooms. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. on the playing fields. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. According to Crow and Crow. capacities. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. finding them very interesting and captivating. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects.
and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. time in a useful manner. They often waste it or rather kill it. moral. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. urges. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. Due to these variations and differences. mental. tendencies. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. aptitudes. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. capacities and abilities. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them.
supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. 293 . The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. administrative programme need be planned. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. development of professional capability at all levels. To ensure success of the process. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. 2. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills.curricular. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. phased preparation. 3. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. organized. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. Similarly. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. a. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. 5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. 18.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9.3. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Child Centred Education b. laboratory. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. 10. library. Run.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16.3. 17. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. in the class room. 1937 19. workshop. 12. 11. principles of curriculum construction. Relation with Life c. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments.
P. Curriculum Development. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S. (2001).K. N. New Delhi : Authorspress. Innovations in Education. 295 . Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2007). and Sarita Kumari. (2007). S. Lakshmi. D. New Delhi : Isha Books.5.S. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. (2007). Bhalla.3. Curriculum and Instruction.
10 5.LESSON 188.8.131.52.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.5 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 184.108.40.206 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.2 5.3 220.127.116.11.4.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .8 5.7.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 126.96.36.199.9 5.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.1 5.7.4 5.4.
It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. tolerance for the opinions of others. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. honesty. newer and newer industries started growing. 4. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not.4. know the importance of science education. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners.5. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. in the economic reconstruction of society. 2. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. 3. you will be able to: 1. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. open-mindedness.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. explain the concept of scientific attitude. 5. We mean curiosity. 297 . They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.4. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations.during the second half of this century.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . superstition or emotion. Gradually. 5.
models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Through newspapers. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Love for truth enhances. Principles are formulated. as well as of the society.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Thinking and memory develops. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work.4. 7. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. 5. 5. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. stipends and appreciations in various ways. 4. Through examinations. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Devotion towards nature increases. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 2. 3. Promotion of science clubs. 3.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Central science workshop. 6. 6. Organisation of science fairs. 2. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. seminars and symposiums.4. Schemes of teaching science. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 5. 5.So that. After such experience and training. Selection for science education. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 4. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases.
They encounter many social events as they grow. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. For laboratory and workshop techniques. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. Training of science teachers. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.needs and conditions. 7. 5. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. each child to “enquiry skill building”. sex or religion. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. They ask many questions about the objects they see. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. therefore. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. It is. should provide opportunities to. They experience natural phenomenon. essential that teachers.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 .6. Write any two advantages of Science Education. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. Enquiry teaching is.4. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force.4. After presenting the problem. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. objectivity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. In the inquiry approach. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions.
2.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. 5.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. if they like. 3. stern pursuit of accurate data. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Social sciences.6. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. 6. Appreciating pupils ideas.books. Giving less directions. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. .Herma Wouk. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Evidence. It requires consistent thinking.4. test. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook.4. 300 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. commands or orders. 5. to ask questions and experience things. Adopting creative models of teaching. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 4. 3. . 5.
of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. To achieve this we should understand what it means. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. (Vaidya 2007). In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. it must be encouraged. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . practiced. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. The students observation. critical thinking and suspended judgments. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. friends. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. For instance. of vast resources running waste. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. neighbourhood. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. see and feel the need of developing this attitude.(Smith 2008). The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. school and society at large. and emphasized during the learning process .Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. 5. keen observation. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. therefore should be unbiased and objective. These include open mindedness.7. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education.4. to develop among the learners.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students.
302 . He is patient and reserved in his judgement.4. he studies all aspects of it. rumor. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. (Das.7. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. understanding and logic. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. intuition or wishful thinking”. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. 2007). He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. In considering a situation or a problem. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. think and work it”. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. The intention to respect another’s point of view. or superstitions. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. 5. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained.
The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .7. but to begin only after careful planning.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. • 5.4. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. 5. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.4. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.7.
304 . The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude.4. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. 5. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. it must be encourages. 5.
2. 3. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Adopting creative models of teaching.4.4. (2006).S. a. 5. 5. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. a. Study of superstitions d. Rao. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. S. D. M. a. Planning of activities 5. 16.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. 4. Proper example of the teacher c. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. N.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Vaidya.5. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Reflections on Scientific attitude. b. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. objectivity. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.4. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. The intention to respect another’s point of view. 305 . It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. a. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude.B (2008). (2000). (2008). b. Wide reading b. Yadav. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. b. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Love for truth enhances.
5.5. areas of institutional planning.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.1 5.6 5. you will be able to: 1.5.5 5.10 5. 306 .8 5.5.3 5.5. 2.5.11 188.8.131.52.7 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.LESSON 5.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.2 5. state the concept.5.4 5.5. actively.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.9 5. objectives and characteristics.5.5.
the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . • To make institutional planning more successful. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. State and national levels from below. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. teachers and students is not lost sight of.3. • to involve teachers and school administrators.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. every parent. 5. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. every teacher. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. which become the bases for further planning at the district. executive as well as public. and every student in the process of educational planning. and each student are regarded as separate entities. • to make planning development-oriented. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. and.5. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. each teacher. 5. and supplement planning from above. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. in the task of educational planning. Institution should be regarded as the unit.5. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy.
and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. 308 . (3) TeachingLearning Aids. council and.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning.• implemented. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. approved after making necessary modifications. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Syllabus. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. Classwork.5. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. which will be discussed in the general. etc. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. and Personnel services.curricular Activities. Co-curricular activities. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. Examinations.5. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. (2) Co. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. 5.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers.
Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Organisation of Self-Government Days. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Celebrating of national and international festivals. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1. Organising play-for-all programmes. etc.No. Equipping of laboratory and library. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Conducting of educational. etc. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Fair distribution of syllabi. etc. Organisation of class-room libraries. 2. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Editing the school magazine. Organisation of Pupils. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Organisation of Students’ Association. charts and apparatus. Running science clubs. Preparation of instructional material. Courts. Preparation of models. scientific and historical excursions. etc. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Improving the internal assessment. 3. etc. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. hobby-centres. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 .
headmasters associations. pupils. teacher-teacher. teacherinspector. teacher-State. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. involving mainly human materials. administrator-administrator. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. students’ associations. teacher-pupil. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. co-operation. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. and solidarity. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. pupil310 .” The human relationships in. parent-teacher associations. understanding. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. teachers. Administrator-State. etc. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. and —pupil-pupil. ii. administrator-supervisor. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships.5.5. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. science teachers’ associations.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. parents. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. administrator-pupil. which are divided as the in. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. teacher-managing body.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe.
supervision and superintendence. now-a-days. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. etc. social sciences and other disciplines. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. organisation and management. to attend. superintendence. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. to accomplish. to carry out." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. Good. organisation. and to serve. It covers personnel and material management. pupil-non-official functionaries. pupil-community leader. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 311 . supervision. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies.5. Management may be taken as a narrow concept.State. administrator. According to C. It is also being modernized to become a technique. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. pupil-parent. teacher-parent. control. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. To administer means to manage. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. teacher-community leader.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. V. pupil-inspector. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5.
11. If it is more.Any good management will always have good public relations. it is not worth-while. 3.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. This is the latest democratic trend in management. 6.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. who occupy the managerial positions. 9. 8.Of all the approaches. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. Better Human Relationships . 7. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. Motiviation . Rapport between the Management and Employees .Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. He should be an artist in human relationships.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . The relationship should change from master. Cost-Benefit Analysis .lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship .The manager should have leadership traits. Decision Making . He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. 2. Communication . Democratic Management . He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. 5. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. Economic Management . 4. 13. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. 12. Leadership . He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. low. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. Socio-Scientific Approach . Liasion with the Public . without this the efficacy will be handicapped. Those. 10.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. If the cost benefit ratio is less. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . Worker Participation . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above.
g.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. 19. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. 5. improvement of teaching methods. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. 18.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. 313 . Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance .too. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. enrichment of curricula.These two are. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. objective. and cooperative performance should be ensured. 5. 14. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. to improve the quality of education it provides.5.
a. a. Tarachand and Prakash. Decision Making b. NUEPA. b. 314 . (2001). In group and Out group 5. Singh. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Educational Administration. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.5. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. c. b. Co-curricular activities. Leadership c.5. d. Syllabus. 2.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. b. a.5. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3.K. e. Fundamental of Educational Management. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Examinations. Motiviation d. APH Publishing Corporation. (2003). Classwork. and Personnel services. Instruction. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. a. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. R. H. 4. Communication 5. (1995).M. f.
2 Secondary Education : Co-education.2 Nutritional deficiencies. women education and teacher education in India.Religious and Modern Education 1. 4. Code of conduct for teachers. Community and Mass Media 2.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.3 Educational Influences of Home.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.CORE PAPER .2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .I. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.1 School Health Programme. nutritional requirement. Sex-education 4.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. higher education. Common ailments of Children.Preventive measures.teachers should have : 1. School. Healthy Food Habit 4. 2. Communicable diseases . CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. population education. Inspection and Supervision 3. Buddhist and Jain system of education.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .3 Directive Principles .3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Preservation of nutrients.1 Primary Education : Education for all. Economic 315 . Examination reforms. wastage and Stagnation 3. 1.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.1 Gurukula system of education.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . First Aid.Pre-service and In-services facilities.5 Regional Educational Development in India . social Impact 3. New evaluation procedures.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. physical education and environmental education 5. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Balanced diet. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.Article 45 . (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.1 Inculcation of Socialism. Realized the problems of school education. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.4 India's Secular Policy .
4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Naturalism and Pragmatism .N. Tagore 5. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Ghanta R.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.K. B.1 Idealism.K. 5.S. Taneja V. Socialization.C. Delhi : University Publications 2. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5.Aim. Mahatma Gandhi. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. 7.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. (1999) Culture. T. REFERENCE 1. Sharma. 316 .N. Realism. Saraswathi T. Prof. Hemchand. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. and Sharma R. Pandy V. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.R. and Human Development. and Dash B. Mishra. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. curriculum and teacher's role 5.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. New Delhi: NCERT 3. Kalan Paper Packs 10.4 4. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.K. Ram S. and Mohanty R.K. (2004) Problems of Education in India. (2005) Foundations of Education. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.4. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Curriculum and national goals . R.