Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

UNIT: 1 – V



Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer



Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56


Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University


67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5



3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education

127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233


5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4


UNIT – I 7 .

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we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. and Jain system of education. Lesson 2. 9 . discusses the regional educational development in India. In. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Lesson 5. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. Jainism and their educational implication. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. The need.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Lesson 4. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west.

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2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.6.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 . Wood’s Despatch (1854) Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1 1.1.2 Jain system of education Buddhist system of Education Practical teachings of Jainism 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education Education during British Era 1.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.LESSON 1.1.6.

but English in taste. 1. you will be able to: 1.6. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. elucidate the education during British Era.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.8 1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.3. Muslim and British periods.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.7 1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. British system of education presented the modern western model. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. The history of education passed through Buddhist.1. 1.1. Indian in blood and colour.1. in opinion. Sargent Report (1944) 1.1.9 1. Education in India. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. both present and future. in morals and in the intellect”.6. has a long past history starting in vedic education. That 12 . describe the Jain system of Education 4. India. 1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.1. “a class of persons.

Immediate Aim Vocational. 9. Forests as Centres of Education. It was not merely intellectual. 13 . 4. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. not en masse by the class method. Individual Teaching. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. to light. if they thought fit to do so. 8. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Education was a private affair of the people. Education of Moral. individually. High Status of Teachers.knowledge was real. Method of Instruction. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. Method of Study. The immediate aim of education. as it is generally considered to be at present. 5. 3. 13. with grants of land or money. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. from darkness. Role of Travel in Education. religious and spiritual. 11. There was. Where pupils were many. generally. 14. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Pupils were taught. 12. Residential Schools. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. 10. followed by explanation by the teacher. and to agriculture and trade. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Curriculum. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. No State Control on Education. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. 16. 6. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. managed entirely by Brahmans. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Free and Accessible. questioning by the pupil. It was also moral. from eternal to immorality 2. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Teacher as Parents. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. the monitorial plan was followed. Religious and Spiritual. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. however. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas.

It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. They were very cordial and intimate. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. studied Vedas. Wide-Spread Education in Women. It was freely available to all those who wanted. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.1. 2. lived a life of celebacy.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. It was suited to the needs of the society.17.3. 1. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . besides preparing for worldly pursuits. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection.

a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. Right knowledge 2. had the right to receive education. 1. impure conduct. After attaining the age of 20.1. he was qualified to become a monk. I take Refuge to Sangh. dressed himself in yellow clothes. Right endeavour 7. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. the student had his head shaved of all hair. except the Chandals.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. in which. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. the most significant of which were the following 1. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. It was denied only to the ill. Education was imparted through the. every class in society. Right activity 5. Right speech 4. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. Right contemplation 1. killing of any living being. use of cosmetics. Consequently. I take Refuge to Dharma.C. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. disease and death of the human beings. medium of Pali.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. watching dances or listening to music. etc. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. which included abstaining from theft. 2. Right memory 8. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. the student remained in a state of Shramana. use of intoxicating things. Right means of livelihood 6. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. 15 .4. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. Right thought 3. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. taking things without being offered. the handicapped. partaking of food at prohibited times.

2. As reality is becoming. etc.. 3. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. On this occasion. a continuous change creating 16 . education was impart in art. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. archery. nothing is of any permanent consequence. After this ritual. These are called later Buddhist schools. 6. 4. It comprehended education in writing. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. women occupied a position inferior to men. changing the goals. archery. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. wear three items. the science of taming and training animals. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. so long as it successfully does so. of clothes. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. medicine. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life.3. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. military science. animal husbandry. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. Initially. along with education in script writing. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. etc. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. 5. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. cottage industries. assumptions. Hence. eat food thrice a day. Later on. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. geology. arithmetic and religious discussion. 7. etc. and. however. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. beg for alms. elephant lore. the presence of the monks was essential. control over sensuous activities. 1. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. agriculture. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. Life is in a flux. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. a change is not only total but also perpetual. handicrafts. approach. Whatever its nature and extent. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. magic. Even at this stage. knowledge of reviving the dead. 8. aspirations and.4. meaning. be considered the aim of education It. bodily gestures. nature. commerce. has no metaphysical value for life. objectives of human life. therefore. it is regarded as true”. depth and range.

and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet.e. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6.. However. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. therefore. i. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism.1. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. such as. however. its pessimistic outlook on life.5. Write Eight fold path .5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. whatever works are true and and peculiar situations. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. 1. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. 5. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. goes to Vardhaman. it is much older than the latter. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. Jainism insists 17 . Its chief feature. In fact. Validity is effective and consequences. Education must. and to give it a shape that it has today. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas.

b) Not utter falsehood. 2. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. 18 . as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. thought and deed. As such. 7. 10. 5. c) Right conduct. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva.1. 1. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. but on both. They are: a) Not to injure. 3. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. and believe in happiness to all. Hence. 8. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. 9. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. more stress on individual aims. rather than the interpretation of the universe. 1. 4. b) Right knowledge. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul.5. 6. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. 2. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. e) To renounce the world. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. d) To lead a celibate life. 3. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. and is to be redeemed and liberated. c) Not to steal. Development of personality as an individual. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. it has a foot in both the words. Self-realisation as jiva is divine.

‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Teaching should be social and tolerant. 2. 1. What are Triratnas ? . hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. Hence. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. and should bring happiness to all. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. 8. 19 .5.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Teaching must develop these faculties. Jiva is essentially karmic. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. that would be socially desirable. therefore. 3.5. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. 1. success and love. education must be action based and ideally oriented. 3. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . education should develop sense of discrimination.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. here and now. 2. 5. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Belief in transmigration of soul. practised and not only aspired for.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.

6. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. primary 20 . a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. North West Province and Punjab.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. 1. 1. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. and not for life.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. 1.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts.6. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. However. Bombay.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. 1953). they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India.6. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.1. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. with rally and rout.6. science. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. Madras. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854).1. philosophy and literature of Europe. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. 1. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. 2. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. To set up separate departments of.

Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. self-respecting and competent. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. 1.6. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. To ensure qualitative improvement. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. At that time M. 1. secondary education became a step towards university. at the primary level.6. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially.K.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). Instead of being a self-sufficient course. namely. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. • Secondary education. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education.6. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. 1.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. The universities dominated the secondary education. Later on. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. • Universal free primary was neglected. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. In 1882.

Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. all children are to have a common curriculum.1. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. 10. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. After this stage. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

the science of taming and training animals. establishment of universities. 4. Right knowledge. handicrafts. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. 5. Right speech. Right thought. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. questioning by the pupil.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. science and English language.1. geology. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. archery. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. b. arithmetic and religious discussion.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1. along with education in script writing. a. The system of education was well-organised. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. It was suited to the needs of the society. During the Buddhist period. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. etc. education was impart in art. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 6. Right endeavour. military science. The immediate aim of of European literature. Right contemplation. 2. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era.. 4. followed by explanation by the teacher. 3. Right means of livelihood. 3. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. 1. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 1. Right activity. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. 2. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. Right memory. 23 . Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education.

1.K.7. b. Sharma. History of Indian Education System. Hence. b.C. Development of Educational System in India. Ltd.C. and Nath. 11. Aggarwal. (2007). (2009). R. 9. more stress on individual aims. 1937 1. J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. a. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Y. a. Singh. (1984). c. Improvement of Literature. 10. Right knowledge. (2005).K. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Sargent report 12. J. Development of personality as an individual. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Right faith. Y. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. 1882. Right conduct. 8. 24 . Ltd.

2.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.3.1 1.2 1.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.6 1.5 1.2.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.7 1.3.3 Kothari Commission 1.8 1.2.3. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner. 1. The 25 .9 University Education Commission 1.2.LESSON 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.

diversification of courses of studies.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. 1.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. curriculum. analyse the progress of education in free India. New Educational Policy. Post-graduate 26 . Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. Kothari (1964-66) 8. expansion of vocational. National Board of Teacher Education 10.2. vocational education. standard of teaching. There had been vast institutional expansion. National Council for Women’s Education 5. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. girls and women education besides primary. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7.2. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. technical. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. you will be able to: 1. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1986 1.2. 1. technological engineering.3. explosion of enrolment. 2. secondary and higher education. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. examination system. medical and legal education.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. S. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service.conditions of the teachers.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.

Government of India. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. Education for Equality. Education is the key to our allround development. Therefore. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. utility and financial outlay. quantity. 1.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. in January 1985.3. Problems of access. 1.2. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . 1966. Finally. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. A meaningfully Partnership. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. 1.teaching. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.S. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. quality. 3. material and spiritual.2.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23.3. The Essence and Role of Education. D. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. the chairman of University Grants commission. National System of Education. A. 1986.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. the New National Policy on Education. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. However. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.3. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 4. 1952. research et. 2. Kothari. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. accumulated over the years. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986.

28 . Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. attitudes. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation.” Thus. Thus. The UNESCO Report. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. the concepts of work experience.2.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. By working with hands. the minorities and the handicapped. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. It can train practical aptitudes.

1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. the Commission. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. if he wishes. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. The Education Commission. it will conduce self. “It may be described. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . co-ordinations. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. As such. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. Besides. In 1955. The Radhakrishnan Commission. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. “The aim of these colleges.” The Mudaliar Commission.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. With adequate planning. According to.

“For harmonious development of the child’s personality. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education.ot her. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. Therefore. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. The Central Advisory Board of Education. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. raising the special facilities. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. admission requirements to vocational courses. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. In addition. With a view to relating education to the life. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . etc. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). Subsequently. the. the rigid streaming of courses..” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. for quality of life in the rural areas. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. the semester and credit system.

meaningful. which swept the country for over two decades. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. In short. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. giving importance to productivity in the national development. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. According to committee. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. meaningful.and the world of work. felt that education should be centred around a craft. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. Commerce.2.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. technological courses including Agriculture. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence.. manual work resulting in either goods or services. 1. who conceived the System of Basic Education. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. preferably spinning and weaving. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. aimed at this goal. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. The wave of Basic Education. The Father of Nation. etc.defined S UP W as “purposive. 31 . which offer scientific. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. which are useful to the community.

Culture and recreation 6. locally available materials and tools. 4. Educative and 3. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Experimentation with materials. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Productive 2. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Shelter 4. 32 . The criterion for selection of activities should thus. The teachers should make use of. Health and Hygiene 2. as far as possible. Some Hints to Teachers 1. be that the work involved is: 1. Community work and social service. 2. Work practice. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. so that it is educational in essence. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. 3. Clothing 5. Food 3. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. tools and techniques and 3. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme.

6. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. 1. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. slum clearance. To make education more realistic. Merits of the Programme 1. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. removal of illiteracy. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. inculcate a faith. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. as far as possible.5. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. Such activities may include projects of village uplift.2. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. etc. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. It can become an instrument to build character. Community Service In-1972. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. the local community should be actively associated. improve discipline. Check on educated unemployed 4. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Productive Work 33 . It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Education through work The SUPW should.

Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. helping the adults-in productive work. should involve itself in the educational effort.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. in turn. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . traffic control. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. skills and better future for the children. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. The community. AICTE was set up in year 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. if not productive. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. Define SUPW 34 . Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. offering first aid. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.

2. b.2. f. 1. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. meaningful. manual work resulting in either goods or services. 1955 4.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. which are useful to the community. e. 1952 3. Radhakrishnan 2. 6. d. 2. 1. 3. a.1. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 35 . Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.2. Write short note on SUPW.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Dr. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. c.

K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. 36 . Publishing Corporation.C. (2009).1. Development of Educational System in India. A. History of Education. Y.P.K. and Rao.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.2. New Delhi: A.K. : Sharma. Rao. V. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. and Nath. Amala. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. (2007). B.. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.D. History and Problems of Indian Education. P.P.H. J. R. Singh. Anupama. (2007). (2005). History of Indian Education System.(2005). Ltd. Y.

every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.5 1. establishing the structure. 37 .3.3.6 1.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. directive principles and duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. Besides the English version. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. containing 395 articles. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.3. and liberty. 1950.4 1.9 1.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. there is an official Hindi translation. equality.3.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.2 1.3. democratic republic.3. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.1 Significance of DPSP 1.3.3. for a total of 117. procedures.8 1.1 1.369 words in the English language version. it came into effect on January 26. Being the supreme law of the country. assuring its citizens of justice.3.7 1.3. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.3.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. 1949. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.3.

Dr.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. administrative. with Dr. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. the Drafting Committee was appointed. in sessions open to public. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. for 166 days. 1. 1. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24.3. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. 1947. learn the role of central and state government on education. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. 1947 meeting of the Assembly.3. 3. spread over a period of 2 years. 4. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. After many deliberations and some modifications. social. 38 . are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Two days later.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Through them. 2. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. describe the important constitutional articles related to education.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. 1947. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. legal and environmental. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. you will be able to: 1. understand our Indian constitution.3. According to the constitution. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. 1. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. 1950. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. On August 29.In the August 14. political. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. economic.3. The Assembly met.

in particular. 39 . to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Minimising inequalities in status. make effective provision for securing the right to work. men and women. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. old age. The State shall endeavour to secure. sickness and disablement. for workers. Article 40. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. That the health and strength of workers. Organisation of village panchayat. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice.government. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Liking wage etc. Condition for dignity of children. Protecting health of the workers. Equal pay for both sex. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. on the basis of equal opportunity. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Protecting children from exploitation. Right to work. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Article 41. Appropriate concentration of wealth. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Equal justice and free legal aid. Article 43. Article 39A. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. and shall. No abuse of children.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Article 42. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. provide free legal aid. The State shall. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. and in other cases of undeserved want.

Article 47. agricultural. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Article 43A. The State shall endeavour to provide. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. The State shall take steps. in particular. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. 2002 for “45. a living wage. [declared by or under law made by 40 . in particular. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. work. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. to all workers. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Article 49. (Original Article 45. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Uniform civil code for the citizens. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Article 46. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 45. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Article 48A. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. by suitable legislation or in any other way. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Article 44. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Participation of workers in management of industries. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. in particular. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Note: Subs. See also Article 21A). By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. and. industrial or otherwise. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Article 48.

Promotion of international peace and security. Article 51. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. destruction. as the case may be. 2. may be law determine”. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. disposal or export.Parliament] to be of national importance. Article 50. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Article-21A Right to Education. 2002. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. disfigurement. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.3. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Separation of judiciary from executive. from spoliation. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. removal. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Article 45 . and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

(Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 6. 4. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. if such person is a minor. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. 7. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes.” 42 . iii. ii. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. caste. language or any of them”. and shall protect them. race.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. from justice and all forms of exploitations. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. 5. and. in particular. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. his guardian has given his consent thereto. 8. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. 3. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. 2002. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i.

Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis.9.3. Educational Reforms From time to time. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. & 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. 2. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. the forms. 43 . The central government determines targets and promotes education. and by drawing. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. wherever necessary or desirable. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . for its vocabulary. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language.

standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. The following pilot projects. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. private agencies etc. 4. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. 5. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry.. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. So as to encourage education on right lines. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Production of suitable for children and adults f. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. All India Council of Medical Science.3. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. 7. 8. the state governments. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. By starting these projects. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. etc. So that they may work well. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. to achieve the desired ends. 6. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Local bodies and private enterprise.

6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. reports etc. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. 9. handicapped. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. research. 3. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. training and statistics. 10.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. 12. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. books. etc. 1. education for women. 1. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. 4. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. is the state responsibility.3. 11. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. are published by it. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. The 45 .

Article 21A c. 1. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. 1. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 46 . Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education.3. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. articles in the Directive principles.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Explain Directive principles 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Article 46 4. Write short notes on a. Article 45 b. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.

4. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 47 . Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Clearing House function 9. Describe the educational role of State Government.3. Article-21A Right to Education. a.5. Article 46 5. a. 2002. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Ambedkar 2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 2002. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. The Directive Principles of State Policy. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 3. Dr. b. Development of Hindi Language 6. a. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. b. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Article 29 and 30 7. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. may be law determine”. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Article 45 .

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.1. S. (2004). Education in Emerging Indian Society. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Ghosh. Dash. 48 . (2008). (2007). N. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Bhatia. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.3. K. S. K and Narang C. B.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. (2009). New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. L.

5 Aims of Religious Education 1.7 1.4.1 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4. Christianity.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.4.4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1. Buddhism etc.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India. 1.3.8 1.1 Why Moral Education 1.4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4.4. Jainism.4 Moral education 1. religious education should be broad based.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1. Students should be 49 .3.2 1. Islam.4.

beauty and goodness so that 50 . The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. you will be able to: 1.D. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. India' can produce men of character. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. know the position of religious education in our country 3.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon.4. In the complicated and complex society of today.4.” Education broadens human outlook. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. religious education and the concept of secularism. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.and dedication. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. Thus. integrity.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. According to E. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. state meaning and need for moral education 1. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. "In A multireligious society like ours. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. As result of which. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. duty-consciousness. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals..

They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes.3. at least occasionally. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. all citizens are free to follow any creed. it is clear that the State has no religion. religion and democracy are same. As a matter of fact. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity.3. According to Article 22. As our country is a country of diverse religions.4. Viewing the defects of religious education. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal.” From the above. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. 1. 1947 we achieved our freedom. rancour. 1. castes and creeds. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. realizes God in himself. through religious practices and 51 . In short.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. Children attend these organizations. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. Hence.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. They thought that any kind of narrow. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. No religious tax can be imposed on them. According to Article 19. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism.4. Thus. if not regularly. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy.

Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. It helps to modify habits attitudes. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . one fully developed. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. temperament etc.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. He also learns about social. moral and spiritual values. when he becomes an adult. It is religious education. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. Good education. If unreleased. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. which can mould. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. As a result of which. for the development of the individual and the society. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. aggressive.teachings. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. what is done and what is not done etc. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna).. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. intellectual and physical faculties of children. which help him for the development of his character. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. and what is evil. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society.

Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. 3. 2. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. 1. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. If we open the pages of history. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. which is the basic need of a democratic life. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual.4. Therefore. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. 53 . towards the society. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and.3.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. This should not be allowed to happen. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds.

Life histories of great persons of the world. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. they should be discussed in the right earnest. therefore. fellow-feeling.5. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. stories of moral greatness. 11. churches and mosques 7.4. examples of patriotism. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. 9. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Since all religions have virtues. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 10. For this. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Write Article 22 2.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Gurudwara as.

Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness).6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. therefore. Aparigarha (Non. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). is that which develops moral values. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Service to others. 1. Cultivation of emotions. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society.4.4. 7. in the home. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Purity. Self sacrifice. The content of the curriculum.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 8. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 3. They will play their role effectively. 6. Moral education. 5. 3. students. 5. 1. 2. 4. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Fearlessness. let men see well of one another. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Patriotism. Ahimsa (Non-violence). 6. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Without moral values. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Non-injury. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Asvada (Control of palate). It they learn what morality is in their early years. 8. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. 2. 55 .acquisitiveness). “Let all be happy and free from disease. 7. Satyam (truth). Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. the methods of teaching. 4. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow.

1.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. 3. 4. In the school programme. National unity and Spiritual values. Unity of mankind. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Good manners. religions may be included in the syllabus. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Good temper. 2. minutes in the morning for group singing. Integrity. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage.9. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour.4. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Secondary Stage 1. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Asatyam (Non-thieving). The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. 11. 56 . The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. discipline. Discipline. 3. Simple texts and stories concerning different. 10. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Sharivashram (Physical work). The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Efficiency. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5.

love of humanity. 57 . 4. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. University Stage 1.4. 2. In this connection. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. patriotism and self-discipline. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Silent meditation should be encouraged. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. should form a normal part of school programme. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. In other words. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. 5. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. 5.

1. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. 4.4. Training of Character 3. 58 . Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. a. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. The School Assembly should be held for a few. 2. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education.4. Sri Prakasa 6 . 1. b. 2. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. For this. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. b. Discuss the aims of Religious education.1.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. a.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. 1959 5. a.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. minutes in the morning for group singing. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. the. In short.

Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2007). P. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. N. J.H. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Publishing Corporation.H. (2004).1. B. Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Siddiqui. N. Bhatia. (2008). M. L.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. K and Narang C. Pahuja. (2008). Dash.C.4. (2003).P. K. 59 . New Delhi: A.

5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.6 1.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. disparities between provinces/States.5.12 1.5.1 1.5. i.11 1.8 1.5.10 1.2 1.5..5 1. Although.5.e.5.5.9 1.5.4 1.3 1.7 1.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5. 60 . Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.

state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.1. 4. 7. 5.5. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. know the education suited to different environments. for example. etc.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. Selfishness of the regional political leaders.5. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. 3. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region.5. 8.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 6. 1. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. roads. They therefore. 61 . understand the regional educational development in India 3. you will be able to: 1.5. Accordingly. they take appropriate measures. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. waters. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. work hard towards this end. 1.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. 1. This leads to separatist movements. energy. 2.

The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. and. 2. 62 . • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. some States became educationally far advanced. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. while others remained educationally backward.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. 4.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. some average. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided.5. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. Tight security arrangements should be made. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. on the basis of regional development may be formed. • Separate States (of course viable States). some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. 3. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. Secularism. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. Therefore. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only .

14. These projects are in various stages of implementation. etc. Central Universities of Assam. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. library buildings.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.After the Planning Process has originated. scholarships. NERIST. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. the State Governments. However. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. and provision of informal education to enable those. In the Central sector.g.480.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. Even in each State. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. Silchar. Funds amounting to Rs. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. NIT. academic buildings. Guwahati. since its inception in 1998-99. the Union Government.. books. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. Rs. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. 1. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. Out of this. 63 . the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. Jammu and Kashmir.392.5.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. approved proposals worth Rs. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. Mizoram. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. After the attainment of independence. while some States like Bihar. Regional Centres of IGNOU. remained under developed. Nagaland and NEHU. Itanagar. Tezpur. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. etc.84 crore was released in 2005-06.

the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. 64 . there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.57 crore and Rs.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.05 crore and Rs.40.8 per cent in 05). Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.5.500.261. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. A provision of Rs.187. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Tezpur University. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west).501. too. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Out of this an amount of Rs.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Government expenditure on education. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Moreover. During 2003-04.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.

is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Andhra Pradesh. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. 1. engineering and R&D. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Tamil Nadu. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Moreover. telecom.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. too. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. too. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. To add to the woes.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Karnataka. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Medical education. notes the study. Listing the positives. Karnataka. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. for which 16 sites. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. English. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South.5. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. too. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. pharma. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. for instance. The Chandigarh Administration. Kerala and Gujarat.

which a non-tribal person cannot do. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. and so on. the socio-physical conditions. Of course. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. even actually looking at the watch. in which the learners live. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. The working hours of educational institutions. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even.year. the vocations. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. the teaching methods. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. Then education become realistic and idealistic. when he will not be sure of time. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. the working days: an academic . For a learner living in a rural area. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. the needs. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. the curricular subjects. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. life-oriented and environment slanted. Hence it is called as need-based. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. 66 . the interests. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. taking the average in the middle. The living conditions. while the former does not. In the same manner. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs.

11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.5. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. 2.5. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. 67 . How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. to suit education to different environments? 1.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. 60% 1. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Dubey. S.G. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.2.K. Education in Developmental Arena. Educational Development in India. Salim.H. (2001). Education Scenario in India. S. A. C. remained undeveloped 3. some States have become more developed than others b. (2008). (2001). (2002). during the British rule. and Nair. New Delhi: Anmol Publications.N. New Delhi: Authors press. 68 . Giridhar. R. some of areas which were under the native rulers. a.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.5.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. National Integration. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. school community and mass media. 71 . secularism and democracy through Indian education. community development. semi literate and illiterates. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.4 2.1 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.6 Education for Secularism 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.6.1 Main features of Socialism Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .5.7 2.3 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.2 2.1.9 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.8

73 .1. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. understand the concept of democracy. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. Abraham Lincoln. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Democracy thus means power of the people. socialism and secularism 2. socialistic and secular state. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. creed. 2. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. you will be able to: 1. In the matter of admitting students in schools.1. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. for the people by the people”. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. socialism and secularism 2. The students may be associated with the management of the school.2.1. 3) Provision of Manual Work. This is the political aspect of democracy. colour or wealth. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. there should be made no distinction of caste.1.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. 5) Encouragement to Group Work.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy.

debates. it soon spread all over the world. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. 11) Student Parliament. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. may be planned. Democracy means 2. There are different brands of socialism.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. 12) Visits to Legislatures. 74 . 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3.. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. declamation contest etc.

none high”.1. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 2. free from exploitation. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. Under it. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. the wealthy and the poor.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 2.5. oppression and disparity. service and cooperation.5.1. 2) Socialism aims at equality. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 7) Special facilities for girls.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. the prince and the peasant. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 75 . but on the path of non-violence. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Everyone says. 76 . Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. "which seeks the development of physical. 11) State schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. According to Holydake. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. 5. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.” In every political and educational corner.1. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. Write any two main features of socialism. secularism is being propagated. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. “India is a secular-country. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. 2.

opposed to religious education. 2) It permits freedom of religion. education etc. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended.6. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. “Webster further says. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. fraternity. liberty. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. people started believing in regionalism. People have different religions and they have different beliefs.1. people have narrow mindedness. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. should be independent of religion. 3) It permits freedom of worship.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. In this type of prevailing situations. the belief that the state morals. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. 77 . Equality. During the recent past.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. There is need of making the people open minded.1. 8) It believes in co-existence. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. That is why. Moral values have to be imbibed. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 9) It stress free inquiry. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. A large number of people is uneducated. 2. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values.6. 5) It implies tolerance. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact.

Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. students belonging to different religions should be associated. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. There should be some internal checking of the material being. that the central string of all religions is one. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. tours and trips may be organized.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. No doubt. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution.6. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. In the hands of such teachers. 1) Moral Education. Religious Education. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University.1. In the celebration of each such function. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education.presented by the students in the gathering. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. Patiala. The very sight of the building. While doing so. 2. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. education.

No doubt. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. Define Secularism 9. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. The word “Seculum” means 7. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The term secularism was first used by 8. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For.1.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. 2.

In the matter of admitting students in schools. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.1. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. 4. a. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. b. a. 3. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. a. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. 4. 5. Abraham Lincoln. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Tuition free education b. 2. Power of the people 2. Provision of Manual Work.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. colour or wealth. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Socialism aims at equality.1. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Respect of Individual Personality. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. for the people and the people”. Socialism aims at social justice. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Equal Opportunities for Admission. George Jacob Holydake 80 .9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. creed. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. d. Since socialism stands for equality. This present age 7.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. c. 5. 6. The students may be associated with the management of the school. there should be made no distinction of caste. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. b.

New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ltd. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Modern Trends in Indian Education. P. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2003). K.8. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. b.C. J. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. (2008). should be independent of religion. Mohanty. It treats all religions on an equal footing. (2004). Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. b. a. New Delhi : Pahuja. L. Theory and Principles of Education. N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. 81 . Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Dash. K and Narang C. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. 10. the belief that the state morals. (2005). B. Bhatia. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. education etc.1. It permits freedom of religion.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2007). a.” 9.

9 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.5.7 2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration Teacher’s role towards International understanding International understanding in the school 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.3 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.LESSON 2.5.10 2.4 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .8 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.6.

application. therefore. social and moral aspects. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their instructor of school children.generation to another. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. 2. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. you will be able to: 1. as learners. development. moral.2.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. aims and objectives of the school. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. 2. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. as citizens. as it is t he aim o f modern education. A teacher is first and foremost. 83 . A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. a r e 1. 3. 2. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. and 4. who are placed in his custody. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. skills. as persons. mental. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. social. It involves physical. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. emotional. understandings. as workers. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower.2. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. The developmental roles of children.

2. The students live. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. mental.2. experiences and acceptance. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. motivated. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. 1. a part of their day in 84 . mentally. social and emotional health. morally.All education should lead to better behavioural development. The following are some of such roles described in brief. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. morally. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. He is to become an active member. He has to look after their physical. socially. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. member of his community at the outset. culturally confident. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. 2. intellectually. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. and aesthetically to become. inquisitive. economically effective. 3. physically fit for socially efficient. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. emotionally. Teacher as a Citizen Next. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. teacher has to play the role of a citizen.

List out the role of teachers towards community development . 2.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas.2. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. India is a land of many castes. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. 4. and most of hours. activities of the society into which he is born. Dr. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. languages and religions. fine art associations. Unless. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. solve them. faiths. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. creeds. They will be spending with their parents.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school.the school being under the custody of teachers. photographic clubs. It 85 . helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. science club.

maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. b. Let us. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. 1. poems. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. The only process is the process of education. stand up straight. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. c. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis.2.” 2. folklore and teaching of social studies. “National integration cannot be built by brick and social studies. It should broaden the outlook. ‘We should not become parochial. national anthem and other national songs.” Regarding the role of education. this integration of the Indian people. Nehruji has explained this as. and make into one strong national unit. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. with straight backs and look up at the skies.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. narrow-minded provincial. therefore. Sampurnanand remarked. should be emphasised.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. the study of language and literature. Radhakrishnan. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. the citizens of the Republic of India. At the primary stage the importance of stories. a. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things.

Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. t he st udent s and t he community. militar y training like the NCC. Taking Pledge. Co-Curricular Activities. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. and picnics. 3. ACC. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. 9. dramatics and youth festivals. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. tours. Student Camps. Textbooks. educational excursions. Celebrations of National Days. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. National Days—January 26. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. debates. 7.different social sciences. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. languages and literature. 5. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. symposia. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. 8. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. 4. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. 10. 87 . 6. Scouts and Guides. sports. 2. Uniform for School Children. Reverence of National Flag. Singing of National Anthem.

88 . Admissions to schools. Educational and Travel Documentaries. ii. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. flora and fauna. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. 16. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. colour. Students Exchange and Tours. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. 14. language. iv. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. v.2. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics.5. ways of thinking and doing things. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. 2. School Projects. Open-Air Dramas. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . Admissions. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. Recognition of Institutions. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. 15. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. 12.11. region or religion. 13. iii.

ix. irrespective of national boundaries. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. Community dinners.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. vii. camps. 2. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. cultures and races on equal bases. viii. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. Define National Integration 3. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The Secondary Education Commission Report Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.

Organising of debates and. (b) stories of children of other lands.2. Radhakrishnan states. 4. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. In a very real sense. (c) fairly tales. therefore.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. Therefore.2. 6. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. often in connection with anniversaries.friendships between children of different countries.6..6. that war. 5.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. Strong has observed. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. patriotism is not enough. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. 2. and the healthy development. the international level. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. Teachers 90 . Organisation of UN Societies and international important as that of a national citizenship. Dr. C.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.e. This. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. 3.” 2. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . 2. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. if it happens.F. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. of his body and mind.

They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. an Englishman. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Impartial in their Treatment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” Well Informed About World Situations. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. a German. They should not be propagandists. Russian. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Indian and American. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew.

they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. If this is done. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. which results in agitation and aggression language. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . majority of people are.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves.Another major. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students.2. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. the education function can be carried. and help the students to over . It does not prepare students for life. 2. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. Defects of the educational System . 4. Soon after they leave their educational institutions.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. Devaluation of Values . understand and indiscipline: 1. leading to. Chronic Poverty . 3. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. there is wide spread frustration among all people.2. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. As the school is but a miniature society. Wide Spread Frustration . 5.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. love.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.2. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination.2. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. 2. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. 2. co-operation. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. 2. 5. 3. sympathy and good will among the nations. fellow feeling. etc. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. community development. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. 4. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.democratic nature. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . 93 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System


Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.


STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency Functions and role of schools in the society Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency Radio as an agency of education Television as an agency of education Press as a medium of education Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”. IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.

9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.

16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together. MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.




1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society


2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.


periodicals. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. art galleries. books. led to the printing of books.3. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. are increasingly used in education. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. “All the citizens of the community. To make them achieve their aim. Crow and Crow write. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence. 2. Moreover.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. He taught his students orally.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Define community. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation.V. In fact. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. the invention of the printing press. Now internet is being used. Museums. Then came newspapers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. Emphasising this thing. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. During the course of time.

political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom.G. Various talks. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. social studies. the teacher still occupies. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. “Listening participation” in current history. dram appreciation. Effective means of presenting music. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. 2. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force.6. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. music. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. languages. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Students listen various talks.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R.3. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Thus. Reynolds. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. It enlightens public opinion.classroom teachers. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. the place of importance. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. Important happening inventions. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. current affairs and other areas. politics. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. 101 . It is also an important source of entertainment. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. 2. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. In collaboration with the experts. rather than on picture. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures.telecast. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Thus. art. A lot of work by way of pre. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. In the emphasis is on sound.

There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Team-teaching demonstrations. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. 102 . plays. At present. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. 5. at drawing room. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. Participation of local teachers and pupils. fol classical music. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. Before presenting the programme.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. at recreational centers. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. mathematics. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. projects or creative activities. Making learning an open system. development of lessons. audibility and presentability. School concerts. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. at play. 3. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. 4. speech. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. style. informal and non-formal education. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. at any place. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. travel talks. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.


Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.


For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.


Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.

2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.

Dhiman, O. P. (2007). Non formal educational system 2.4.7 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.5 2.1 Characteristics of formal education Aims of Non formal education 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.LESSON 2.8 Advantages of formal education FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.1 Limitations of formal education 2.4.

the family. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. To realize this objective of education.4.4. 2. 2. the mass media et. the learner are acquainted. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 6. open school.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. 9. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. open university. say the Government or the private enterprise. the temple. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. compare formal and non formal system of education. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 110 . 4. 3. the most important agency of formal education. the community. 7. it was mostly. 2. imparted at the residence of the teacher. 2. 8. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. School is. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period..3. In ancient time in India. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and.4.2. his mental alertness. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. you will be able to: 1. 5. starting and ending at -a particular age. 3. 4. 2.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college.4. Education organised by some agency.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. Education.

Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools.2. the elements of language are first learned. Through early formal education. Some education systems have separate middle schools. diplomas. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. depending on the jurisdiction. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. third stage.a secondary education. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. or post secondary education.4. also called tertiary. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. capacity. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Concepts of proportion. or academic degrees. structured education. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world.4. such as a high school or secondary school. 2. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality.3.3. In general. Higher Education: Higher education. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . as well as vocational education and training. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education.

Agencies can be classified as 2. What are levels of formal educational system? .4.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. and remote dwellers. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . is an important agency of formal education. 2. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . 4. 3.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. 2.which will help for nation's development. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. children with disabilities. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. late beginners etc.3.

In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. until 1970 it had not been defined. continuing education and on the job oriented education. it is a more effective tool for rural development. financially supported life formal education. to help themselves. Adiseshiah. It unlocks the doors of development plans. staffed. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. curriculum. According to Malcolm A. adding up to a true learning society.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. i. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population.e. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. It is much more responsive to needs and change. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. one could say that non-formal education is an active. systematic. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.learning client take some learning objectives. Thus.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. However. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. systematic. Therefore. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. it has its own valid claim to reality. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized..” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action.formal education.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. open learning.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. It is deliberate. adults as well as children. etc. Non-formal education includes adult education. place of instruction. Open university. admissions. planned. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. It is functional. “Non-formal education should 113 .

analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.learning pattern. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status.renewal. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. i. 4. 2. 114 .4. To develop in the student. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.S. admissions. exploring. evaluation etc.4.S. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Part-time education. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. 6. 2. Covering life span of an individual. the Ideas of citizenship.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. It should lay emphasis on the self. 5. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. self.4. To help industrial workers to better their skills. curriculum. co-curricular activities. Preparation for future needs. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. place of education. national integration.4. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. Flexibility in various aspects of education. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs.” 2.” According to H. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. 3. modes of teaching. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education marketable and vocationalised. age. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. Process of sharing. socialism. 7. Lawrence.e. international understanding.

Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. To offer Secondary.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods.4. 5. 8.4. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. Senior Secondary. 10. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. in villages and those who live in towns. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 115 . • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 3. Meeting the omissions of formal education. 9.4. 6. working adults. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. 5. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. 4. school dropouts. Eradication of adult literacy. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Universalisation of primary education. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 2. Technical. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. • 2. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. 2. 3. 7.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. publication and information dissemination. 4.4. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn.

effective in modern societal context. public libraries. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. self-employment iii. 2.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. To better qualifications. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education.4. centres of correspondence education. 4. library. others are formal and informal. factory.. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. Again. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. Institutions for formal education. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. farm.4. All-round development i. etc.full time to learners – can be home. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. training centres in factories. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. To increase knowledge and 2. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . Therefore. etc. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . 3. Radio and television. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. if organised in isolation. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. open space.4. To make if.2. 2.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. .V. institution. . 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. 7. Lecturing T. Define non formal education. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Essay Assignments and short answer questions.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. 117 . Teaching to face teaching. Give examples of non formal education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Correspondence lesson. 6. List out any two aims of non formal education. Face Contact programmes. Written tests. radio.

Formal and Non Formal 2.4. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Secondary level. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education.” 6.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 3. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. 2. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. 4. 118 . Explain the different levels of formal system of education. 2. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 4. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. b. 5.2. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Open School. adults as well as children. 2. b. Open University. Pre-school level. a. Primary level. a. School 3. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. 7. Higher Secondary level and University level. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. The school. systematic. the college and the university come under this category.4.

9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. P. N. (2005). Dash. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Gupta. K. Ltd. (2004). Ltd.C. New Delhi : 119 . Anmol Publications Pvt. (2008). (2003). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. K and Narang C. Theory and Principles of Education. Pahuja.2. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. B. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.4. Bhatia. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. S. (2008). J. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Mohanty. Education in Emerging India. J. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. L. (2007). N. Modern Trends in Indian Education.

4.3.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.3.2 Characteristic features of open University 2.3.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.5 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.4 Open University 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.6 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.4.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.3 Objectives of Open University Need for Open University 2.7 2.5.2 Philosophy of Open University Methods of teaching in Open University System

continuing education is a boon. For them.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. farmers. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. It is a lifelong process. This knowledge may be in political field. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education.5. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. However. characteristics of open university 4. Under these circumstances. It is a continuous process. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. 2. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education.5.5. industries.2. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically.3.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. economic field or such other fields. Any person. 2. labourers and half educated individuals. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts.5. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. know the need and objectives of open university. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. 2. Thus. give the meaning. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies.

cultured and progressive. Cinema. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. deteriorating to his character and personality. Radio and T. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education.literate person. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. On the other hand.V. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education.3. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Radio. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. Block Development Officers.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures.directly related to his job. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Persons engaged in health services. Throughout the country. if he gets opportunity to develop them. T. For them too continuing education is essential.V. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. Thus. are also contributing their might for the purpose. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. Doctors. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. After the achievement of independence. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. 2. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 .5. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. On the other hand. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further.

4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. 6. (4) the fundamentals of economics. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. 5. (15) music. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (8) psychology of adults. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons.3. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. 2. (16) liking. habits of people of other lands.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. 4. (7) folk songs.3. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. 123 . (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (10) first aid. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (6) folk stories. (17) modern international and national events. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (14) information about bringing up young children. Of course. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it.5. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (2) basic religious matters. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. 3.5. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements.V. (1) ancient history. especially women. Inspite of the great efforts. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. 7.. (13) psychology of child behaviour. we have not been able to achieve our targets. These books are not very useful. and Radio. 2.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. 2.

lack of time etc. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 .1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.4.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.5.5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. of educational opportunities. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . It also attempts to pr ovide equality. NLM was launched in the year 2. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. attendance restrict ion. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.

its education is not class room based but home based. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. 4. Education is not a once for-all process.unobserved. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. 2. and in teaching. it makes use of educational techno logy. IGNOU was established in the year 6. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. but 125 . e. b. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . its students can study according to their own pace and convenience.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. 5. 3. No one is too old or too late to learn. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. d. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. 2.4. the higher the degree of openness. c.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Which was the first open university in India? .” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a.

Mo re o ver. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. supplementing the existing provision. who were deprived of t he same earlier. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 2. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. 126 .5.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. cho ice o f co ur ses.who did not get it. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”.4. 4. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 3.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. or who realised too late that they need it. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. 2. 3. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. it a ims at wider and hig her. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s.4. 2. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. 4.5. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. 6. 2. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 5. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country.

semi – literates.4.2. 2. 4.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . 7. 127 . List out any four methods of Open University? . 6. school drop outs. Tutor Comments. Correspondence tuition. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Therefore. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . Self instructional materials. 1.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 3. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated.5. you have learnt the concept.5. 8. Laboratory works. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 8. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. 2. a state or nation. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In the present day world. 5. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. Every day. a society. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons.

9. P r int med ia b. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.5. (2) basic religious matters. unskilled workers and other professionals.5. a.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. cho ic e o f co u r ses. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. 7. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. (1) ancient history. b. 6. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. a. 4. 1988.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. agricultural and industrial workers. 7. Television Lessons.ambitious learners. 1985. 2. its education is not class room based but home based. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 8. Broad casting lectures c. 3. 8. 128 . met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. need and characteristics of Open University. b. youth. aspirants for continuing education. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. Explain the objectives. 2. d. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. which may include house wives.

. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Reddy. S. (2004). Udaiveer. L. (2001). 129 . Recent trends in Non Formal Education. K and Narang C.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi: Rajat Publication.S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. K.K. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2004). Modern Problems of Education. R. (2007). Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.5.2.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

The problems pertaining to the aim of education. examination. which may claim the attention of those concerned. All which is the need of the hour. its causes and remedial measures. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. In Lesson 2. 133 . wastage and stagnation. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. the education of women. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Examination reform. Training teachers for all levels of education. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. and teacher education. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen.

134 .

3.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.6 EFA – How? 3.1.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2 3.1.8 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.3.1 EFA – For whom? 3. 135 . They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1 3.LESSON 3.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.7 3.1.4 3.3 New initiatives.5 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1.

economic or cultural. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. (EOI) 2. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. you will be able to: 1. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. may be political. Therefore. 2. On the other hand.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). social. education received added importance and significance. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy.1. 3. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. directed that. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. Continuing Education (CE) 1. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986.3. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3.1. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. understands the country. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. “The State shall 136 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Eradication of Illiteracy. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. therefore.

endeavour to provide. Due to the adoption of democratic system. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. 3. Continuing Education (CE). for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. the national Government under. Universalization of Retention. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. 137 .” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Therefore. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Universalization of Enrolment. After the attainment of independence. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Three Stages for Universalization. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. It enables the parents to send their children to School. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. rights and responsibilities.

“Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. It is safe to assure. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. This target had to be revised to 1970. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development.3. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Therefore. 1990. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. educational enterprise. Write Article 45.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. later to 1988. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. 138 .” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. 3. then to 1976. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. 1995 (for upper primary stage). we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. UNESCO Bulletin states. present and future. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960.1.

colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. Emphasis must be given on health education. nutrition education and sports and games. Early childhood education should be streamlined. By undertaking survey. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. 5. Education of the Impaired. 12. FELF. the art of preparing fruit-juice.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. 11. 6. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Apart from primary education. 3. their enrolment and retention. sex. rural areas. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Jams and Jellies. NAEP. Disabled. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Education of Girls. creed. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. 8.3. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). The Social Education. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. etc. In order to make the programme of education for all community. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7.1. 139 . and Women’s education programme should be improved. slum areas. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. problem of literacy. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. 10. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. their social economic status and occupations. 9. 3. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). adolescent and adult. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children.

According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.1.3. Expand MLL and SSA . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Wastage and Stagnation. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. 4. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.3. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. 3.e. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.

The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Social Factors . School Factors . Wastage is more in girls than that in relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.first stage of education. Personal Factors .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. it is considered as wastage. Familial Factors .

Define Wastage. . Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. 142 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. 7.

School Factors . school or society.The following factors.1.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. They are described hereunder :1. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. Personal Factors . Family Factors . a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. relating to home.3.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. in his home.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. Societal Factors . rural or urban 3.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 144 . appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. mid-day meals. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . uniforms. stationary.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. Define Stagnation? 9.

for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. 4. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. 3. Universalization of Retention 2.. Universalization of Enrolment c. 6. directed that.” 3. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.1. a. a. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. 2. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. improvement of curriculum. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 3.3. a. 145 .6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. b. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community.1. “The State shall endeavour to provide. Hartog Committee. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. therefore. 3. Universalization of Provision b. 4.1. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.

Social Factors 8. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. a. Personal Factor b. (2001). (2007). School Factors d. (2008). b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. T.K. introduce graded curriculum. Sharma.N.7.K. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Problems of Elementary Education. New Delhi: 146 .9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. improve examination system.1. Familial Factors c. Crescent Publishing Corporation. a. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. S. S. Hemchand. 9. 3.

3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2 Grade System 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2.2 Modern reforms of examination 3.2.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education Open book examination 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.4 Question banks 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts Problems of examination 3.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education New evaluation procedures The problem of reform of Examination 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper Choice Based Credit System 3.6.LESSON 3.2.7 Let us sum up 147 . Merits and demerits of examination 3.5.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.3.

They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.2. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.3.2.2. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . 3.8 3.2.2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.9 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. 3. you will be able to: 1.3. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. 4. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. 3.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. Besides.2. suggest the new evaluation procedures. 3. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. but on the other. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.

etc. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.3. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. They develop secondary sex characteristics. roadside Romeoism. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. They may cause problems relating to discipline. which the educational authorities have to face. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. etc. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. etc. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. 149 . The following steps should be taken up. 3. schools for them wherever necessary.. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. hostel facilities.2. If the students are in sufficient number. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. waiting rooms for girl students.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner.

The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. teachers. 150 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. It is considered as a major sub-system.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. conduct of internal examinations. assessment and Finance. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. the net-work of examination system has also become vast.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.2.4.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. Instruction. public interested in education. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. the examination system has an important role to play. appointment of paper-setters. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. public administrators and statesmen. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.

4. announcement of results. values. tabulators. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. establishing reliability. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. scrutinizers. validity and practicability.printing and distribution of question papers. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. examiners. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . 3. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. invigilators. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. etc. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. training of examiners. etc. introducing objective-based testing. etc. etc. payment of remuneration to paper-setters.2. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. etc.

halo-effect. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. 6) With reference to scoring procedure.. it s a common experience that subjectivity. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. Subjects. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. stereotyped questions. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. lack of objectivity etc. 7) In connection with the question papers. which they are expected to study. 3. takes the place of comprehensive learning. Vagaries in making. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. Rote memorisation. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. 152 . 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed.2. 3) With respect to method of teaching.4. may also discredit them. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable..3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. 2) From the angle of content of education. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education.. do not appeal to the students and parents.

Spot valuation. . Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. 4. may be introduced. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. revaluation. re-numbering of answer scripts.. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two merits of examination. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination.develop true love for education.a part of internal assessment. 153 . and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions.

When a person chooses to work extra.2. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. The students can take any course offered in any department. Every paper is treated equal. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. Their interests. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .2.3. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. he is given extra credit points.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. skills are given importance. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3.5.5. The new scheme of assessment.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. In this system.2. It is complicated. 3. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . In actual practice. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. attitudes. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth.

discipline. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. v. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. An example is a seminar.poor. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. While designing syllabus. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. courses can have weightages defined. only the total credits to be earned is specified. Groupism is encouraged. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. or as a 4 credit course.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. This system reduces comparison of marks. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. poor. These weightages are called credits. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. In the new system. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. 3.2. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 .good. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison.5.

6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students.2. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education.5.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.5. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. 3.2. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. 3. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.2. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. However. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.5. 3. 156 .

2. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Therefore. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. There are no proper procedures for selection. List any four new evaluation procedures. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships.5. 3. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.2.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions.3. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. recruitment. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. . The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. However. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. In the hierarchy.

1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now.6. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. 3. playgrounds. library books. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work.. staff.2. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. qualifications. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. inspecting the class-room teaching. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties.qualified personnel.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. requirements.. whether the syllabus has been covered. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. 1. complaints and compliments. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. of late. etc. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. interpersonal relationships and so on. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. finding out the adequacy of. They are. When they are fully realised. etc. in contrast. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. disciplinary problems. laboratory equipment. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. books are followed. Academic inspection. submitting of the inspection reports. taking up the follow-up programmes. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. school buildings. wherever necessary. finding out whether the prescribed text. in a sense. being realised as two different functions. 158 .

educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. 159 . course in either educational.. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. In the case of departmental candidates. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. In the light of these conceptualisation. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection.. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. M. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors.Ed. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. their professional knowledge. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. or. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. at least. courses. aptitude. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. Insistence on specialisation in the B.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. 3. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Similarly. once in five years.2. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. modern. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought.Ed.

3. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Administration.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. 3. 3. b. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 4. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. 3. d. assessment and Finance. a. Instruction. 160 . 5. 3. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. b. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country.2. Grade System. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. c. a. b. a.

3. S. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Vaidya. New 161 . a.4. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Open book examinations. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. c. 7. Multiple sets of question paper. R and Sharma. a. b.a part of internal assessment. Question banks. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. (2002). Problems of Education in India. History and Problems of Education in India. (2005). Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. a. (2004). Oral and practical tests may be taken as . K. b.2. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. 5. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. K. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. b. Educational Reforms.

1 3.10 3.2 3. 162 . 3.3. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. identify the needs of rural India and social.3.5 3.3.9 3.3 3.7 3.3.6 3.3.4 3.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3.3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. analyze the general and vocational spectra. you will be able to: 1.8 3.3. 4. 3.3. impact of Higher Secondary Education. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities. 2.3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.3.LESSON 3.

A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. Commission emphasised to continue. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. 10 years of general Secondary Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . University Education. etc. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919.. Consequent on the recommendations.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.3. the Banaras Sanskrit College. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. The Calcutta Madras. The.e. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. 2. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education... The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education.e. 8 years of general education. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre.3.specialisation programmes 3. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country.. Similar is the case with some other States. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. e. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. i. and 3 years of First Degree Course.g. in Andhra Pradesh.

a sense of dignity of labour. is also a plus point . The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. educational channels. 7. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 .3. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. and.confidence in students. that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. cultural and economic development of the country. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. 5) to help for the social. habits of hard work and develop . It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . to prepare. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. economical and political. b. 6. 8. to imbibe. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. However. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. who desire to change from one stream to another. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. 5. 3. Provision for transfer of credits to students. 10. social.

and. at the other. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. cooperativeness. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. Philosophically it is not the conception. cultural and' religious tolerance..5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. to develop national character. international understanding. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. and that required to enter the tertiary level. 3.3. 1.national integration. on one hand. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. democratic living. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. etc. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. The General Educational Spectrum. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Sociologically it is undesirable. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. social justice. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Psychologically. Here the choice of subjects is provided for.

physics or mathematics. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. such as Agriculture. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. fish culture. the rural areas have suffered very much.3.— tube-wells. vegetable growing. 2.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. industrial agricultural production is growing. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. technological. 166 . the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. professional. rural health. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Agriculture is the main occupation. 3. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. commerce. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. Biology. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. All these need for an. horticulture. In the matter of language. In the vocational spectrum. technical. Science. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. or other machinery. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities.—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. In our country. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. educational and cultural services. India is a land of villages. chemistry. Commerce and other disciplines. and vocations based on dairy-farming. medical plants. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations.

.. 3. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In time. and 5. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. the local resources available. interests and aptitudes of the students. and the needs. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. There had been favourable reaction from the students. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education.etc. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. In this it may be concluded. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. can be ensured. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging.3. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. In this way. social justice. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. etc.

to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. 3. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. b. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : 168 . New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.3.3. objectives. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage.K. B. (2001).3. a. J. J. to imbibe.a sense of dignity of labour. Ltd. Calcutta University Commission 2. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Vocational Sepctrum. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. (2008). N. a. b. 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.3. we studied the history. S.3.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2005).11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. Dash. General Educational Spectrum and b. 2. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2007). 3. habits of hard work and develop .C. Mohanty.

1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4.13 3. social and 169 .10 3.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge. 3.9 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal. Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.12 3.4.4. but the lighting of a fire”.LESSON 3.4.6 3.3 3. Education contributes to human development. Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.11 3.4.7 3.2 3.8 3.

analyze the women and distance education. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. although we have miles to go.4. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up.4. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. The relevance of women’s education to social. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. For the first time in the history of India.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. higher education of girls developed immensely. Dr.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. community and nation is universally acknowledged. cultural and political development of the individual.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development.higher education in particular. Home Economics. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. 3. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. 3. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. particularly 170 . During the year 1937. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. economic. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. While women constituted only 9.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. There is a close connection between education and development. family. In the post —independence period. Nursing. Education . These courses were. you will be able to: 1. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. Teaching and Fine Arts. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered.

The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).0 Today.9 27.0 16. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .4.65 lakhs in 1994-95.D.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.9 14. The idea of women’s education for equality. we have more than 1200 institutions. out of 9200 and odd colleges. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. Yet.4. In 1950-51. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.1 24. 3. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.2 22. In the rest of the country. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.2 29. in our country. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.4. 3. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. Coimbatore.0 43. Mother Teresa Women University. Mumbai. Even today.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.1 31.0 32.women. levels and professions.N.T Women University. Kodaikanal. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.

particularly in the technical and industrial streams.73 10.56 64.17 52. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.54 12.63 Female % 34.36 3.1 and 14.1 respectively.83 47. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .27 89. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. 3. 2. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .that of boys.46 82.4. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.44 35.66 66. 3.4.53 34.34 33. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4%) prefer Arts subjects.4.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.47 65.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.

she will only learn fashion. They gave up their studies to enter home life. In college. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. promoted and increased. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. curriculum not suited to their requirements. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. Thus. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. According to a survey. Also. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities.4. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. irrelevance of the content of education. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. financial difficulty of the parents. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family.hinders the girls from getting higher education. etc. 173 . Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. particularly. distance of the college or university from home. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. The major hurdles. 3. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. In every third family. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. marriage is a very common I factor. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. what is the need for higher education for her. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. Book banks should be established. and coeducation may spoil her character.

space. Education. Geographic distance of educational institutions.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. There are constraints of time. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.economic disabilities faced by women. It enables to study. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. which is the most dynamic factor of development. and the limitations of the conventional education system. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Full-time employment. Distance education is a boon to women. It also brings about 174 . is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. is the only tool for realising empowerment.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Empowerment in a nutshell. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. resources and socio . It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. It is a productive investment.4.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. 3. 3. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests.4. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously.

but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. on their own.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. education of women is of paramount importance. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. for full development of our human resources. education of women must be given priority in national plans.4. Empowerment is an active. 3. higher learning. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. This can be achieved through reflection. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. legal awareness and economic independence. The major objectives of women's higher education. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. empowerment means being assertive. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. Women are partners in development.

Reservation for women. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. which is pending for a long time. Better opportunities. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Scholarships and concessions for women.4. 3. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. The educational institutions. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. who are eager to take up courses. The local administration. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. especially so in the developing countries.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . But their number is small.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. 176 . will encourage them to venture new grounds. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. has to be implemented at the earliest. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. which had been the sole domain of men.

IDP Education. According to Lindy Hyam. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%).Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. But.4.3 percent. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100.000 women in the country. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Australia.8%). especially in developing countries like African countries. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. talents.1%) and architecture and building (38.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. engineering and related technologies (16. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. Also. capacities etc. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Chief Executive. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations.9%). and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. 3.

3. Annakodi. 4.R. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. (2007). Rajasthan 5.K.C. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Mishra.4. Kodaikanal. R. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. S. Women and Education. and Suryalatha. Mumbai. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. 3. Coimbatore. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. S. Mumbai. 178 . a. and Swain. Women Education. A. 2. A. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. R. Coimbatore. SNDT Women’s University. 3. Centre for Women’s Studies. (2005). 43% the family. individuals and society b. Pattanaikj. 4. (2008). New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication.4.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. SNDT Women’s University. R. (2000). community and the nation. create the right attitude towards life. Mother Teresa Women University. Rao.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.4. Women Education.

8 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5 3. so as to enable them to acquire 179 . As is the case with others pursuing different arts. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. 3.5.1 3.6 3.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.9 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.10 3.personality of children in and out of school. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.7 3.5.2 3.5. They should be trained. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.4 3.3 3. whole.5.LESSON 3.

equality and justice.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. Dearth of new technology of teaching. national consciousness. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. understanding and strong desire for international peace. you will be able to: 1. international. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. understand the training teachers for Primary. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. Shorter working hours. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education.5. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. 180 . Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Lack of physical facilities.5. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. social and emotional integration. 5. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. 3. and national character. 4. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. know the pre service and in service training facilities. 3. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has.

Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. who have not been trained earlier.. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. etc.5. the centre. it is called the Extension teacher Education. Inadequate training in practical skills. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. 3. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. higher secondary teacher education.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. the secondary teacher education. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate.Less qualified teacher educators. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. At the diploma level. inservice and extension education programmes.Ed. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. the primary teacher education. and M. and the collegiate teacher education. If the student teachers are working teachers. a Diploma course and a Degree course. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. (NCERT) New Delhi. Lop-sided curriculum. students. levels.5.. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. 3. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. Depending on the levels. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years.Ed. the state Government. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. it is called the In-service teacher education.

6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. state Institutes of Educat ion. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education cells. Also Guidance Bureaux. collegiate cells. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. are established. Expand NCERT 2. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Evaluation unit. extensio n service. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Educational teehnology cells. depart ments etc.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. non-formal. Science Education units. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . 3. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory .. etc.

which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department.. and so on. to ensure teacher competence. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . degree. which help breaking isolation from one another . primary and secondary school teachers. and 183 . they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. to prescribe conditions for recognition. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre.. laboratories. to improve curricular programmes. despite its vast expansion. schools and sister institutions. to offer consultative services.Ed.. material conditions relating to degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . audio visual aids. which should include experience in the primary schools too. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. should be improved on a top priority basis. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and .Ed. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training .

With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. whether they should have professional education or. The problem. prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure.secondary education. Modern Methods of Evaluation. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. To meet this exigency. and XII. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Modern Techniques of Teaching. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Meanwhile. 184 . has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Workshops.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Psychology of Students. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. Organisation of Content Courses. Induction Courses. etc. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. methodology and evaluation. Hence. Agriculture. not came up once again. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. though no pre-service training. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education.

training.Ed.. Point out two defects in primary teacher training ... Degree..S. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Courses leading to B.D. Pre-service training is for those. Degree and M. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. (Education) and M. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. State Institutes of Education. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B..CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. These facilities are available for regular students.. Ajmer. All B Ed. in Education. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.A. 3. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.Ed.A. courses and M.’s for Ph. Post-Graduates also undergo B. M. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.Ed. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. For re-orienting the teachers. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Ed.. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.Ed.’s are elig ible for M. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. (Education) are organized by 185 .Ed.5.

4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. 5. (Ed.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .some Faculties of Education of some Universities. However. What is the role of ERIC? .List any two code of conduct for teachers? .A. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned.. (Ed). . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.A.5. 4. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. and B. 3. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. of conduct—written or unwritten. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. established by tradition and teachers of the past. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. 6. they should be conscientious . code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. Hence the employability of M.). 186 .

5. 4. a. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Explain code of conduct for teachers. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities.3. Bhopal. The necessity is however this. 3. Dearth of new technology of teaching.5. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. b. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Discuss the problems of teacher education. they should be conscientious. 3. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. However. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 5. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. National Council of Educational Research and Training. Shorter working hours. 2. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Ajmer. 187 . 6.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. 2. 3.5.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 3. a. a.

Ltd Aggarwal.5.3. P. Publication Pvt. and Teacher Education. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Mohanty.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. Teacher Education.D. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . (2010).N. (2009). B. A. J. Tewari. Corporation. Teacher Education. (2003).

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

objectives. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. 191 . scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. In lesson 1. If the diet is poor. communicable diseases and their prevention. Since food is the source of nutrients. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. consuming the right amounts becomes important. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. preservation of nutrients. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. nutritional deficiency diseases. In lesson 4. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. common ailments of children. objectives.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. objectives and role of the physical education. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. the focus is on the school health programmes. economic and educational developments. The person’s environment is equally important.

192 .

2 4.1. emotional and social. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.1 4.1. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1. physical.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.9 4.1.7 4.1.1. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. It is a miniature society.1.4 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time. 193 .1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.8 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.10 4.6 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody.e. 4.3 4.LESSON 4. mental.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.5 4.

know the need for sex education. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. To develop healthy health habits among children..1. To develop certain skills concerning health. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself.g. understand school health programmes 2.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student.1. list the common ailments of children 3. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. 4. 11. 7. content of health education. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. e. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. you will be able to: 1. training of teachers and evaluation. to his family and to the community at large. 6. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. explain the importance of First aid 5. 4. 5. 9. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. cleanliness and healthful living. Instruction. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 8. 10.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. 2. 194 . 3. 4. training in first aid and etc. To give information regarding health rules.

1. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. ( iii) sanit at io n. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. excusing late.C. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. inoculation against cholera. B. is imperative. Triple Antigen Vaccination.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. 5. The flooring should not be damp. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. 4. (xii) smoking education etc. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. (viii) first aid. proper doors and windows. minimizing the travelling distance. (vi) nutrition education. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. (xl) mental health. Vaccination for small pox.coming or absence.4. organisation of school health days. (iv) co mmunicable diseases.. (ii) communit y healt h. etc. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. suitable furniture. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. B. (v) safety education. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. There should be regular water supply.G. The surroundings of schools should be clean. vaccination. “Play-for-all” programmes. 2. direct lighting. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. There should be good drainage facilities. 2. The school buildings should be spacious. 3. cleanliness weeks. as described below 1. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . typhoid. Arranging better transportation facilities. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. First aid facilities should be made readily available. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. play festivals..

• Close the schools. sports and games in the interest of their health. 196 . • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. burns. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. D. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. fractures. etc. drowning. • When sleeping in groups. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. • Find out the cases. isolate and notify. C. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. fainting (epileptic fit). and other accidents. if epidemic is wide-spread. bleeding. wounds. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • Take nutritious food. insect stings. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Keep all rooms clean. dislocations. • Have adequate rest and sleep. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. cuts.. poisons. scalds.

They have less resistence to diseases than adults. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air.1. 4. fever. They are: i) The incubation stage. List out the Health curriculum 3. measles etc.. tuberculosis. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. which are – cold. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. chicken pox. 2. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. water or bodily contact. cough. These diseases are called communicable diseases. backache.1. There are three stages in any communicable disease. Once these germs get into the body. polio. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. So they easily get illnesses. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. headache. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. asthma. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. 4.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. pain in the joints. Mention the school health programmes.

unhygienic living conditions. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Common Cold . The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. After three or four days of fever. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. This is caused by cold virus. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. sugar and water. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. The child may have fever. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Scabies .This disease is caused by bacteria. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. unhygienic bottle feeding. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Ear Infections .is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Tonsilitis . Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Throat is affected. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Children catch cold from persons having cold. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Mumps . Diarrhoea . head-ache and cough. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Hence it is called a killer disease.It is caused by measles virus. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added.When a child suffers from scabies. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. eating food which is not clean.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Measles . Some suffer cold due to allergy. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Others make the children very weak. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. cough and fever. 198 . The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. The following are the common communicable diseases. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. etc. The symptoms include cold. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body.

The child may also have diarrhoea. Enlist the common ailments of children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. raised pink spots appear on head. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. face and waist. 5. the child is not able to breathe. As the disease progresses. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. What are communicable diseases? 6. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Diphtheria . separate. Expand DPT . Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. If proper treatment is not given. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless.• • • • Chicken Pox . Shortly.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. the child may die. It begins with fever. 199 . The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. Typhoid . By scratching he causes secondary infections.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings.

3.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. bruises. films and jokes. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. Wounds . eye injury. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. In such cases. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. Sex is popular. sprains. Drowning . swelling. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. wounds. bleeding. head injury. snakebites. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. It is both biological and psychological. man-woman behaviours. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. exciting and body-oriented. scorpion stings. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. and films. it is a subject of art. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. 2. drowning.1. 5. cuts. Sprains . 4. and Community Work and Social Service. It has its rightful place in education too. 200 . 4.4. etc.1. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. sprains. Cuts and Bruises . so-called sex books and periodicals. simple fractures.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1.g.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. fainting. dislocation.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. fiction.

It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. they would be treading the path of sure doom. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. In secondary schools. the school. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. 3. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. celibacy are age. but preserve them from disaster and disease. try experimenting with their bodies.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common.old values. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. The home. 2. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. the state and the private and public enterprises should work to give sex education to the young.. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. the religious organisations. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. B. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. In today's liberal and interactive society. Should the boys and girls. sex education is being recommended in schools. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. health. Hence. The values of life. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. in their ignorance. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. hence. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. common ailments of children. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. there will no crisis in its implementation. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. the school health programmes. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. first aid and sex education. communicable diseases and their prevention.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. C. Teacher education institutions are.1. when the courses are already overloaded. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. 202 . For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. What are the major components of Sex Education. 4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.



SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.


STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.


4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:


Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.


Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy


List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. 209 . Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Mention the food nutrients 2. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3.

Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a.2. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. Let us talk about each of these aspects.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s .6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. If you look at the definition carefully. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4.2.4. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. 210 . A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. minerals.

to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. moderate or heavy work.6. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness.g. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. construction labourer). But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. activity level and physiological stress. Even within given States there is considerable variation. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. A balanced diet is specific firstly. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. paratha and poori. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). Preferences/customs are also important. These are: region where the person resides and income. There is no point.sedentary. it is also specific to a given activity level . the social and religious practices of that region.g. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. In other words. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. People in the east of our country prefer rice. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. 4. sex. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. for example. dosa are typical of the in the morning and the other at night. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . In the case of adults. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable.2.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet.

Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. Balanced diets should also be income-specific.planning the diet. as important for the rich as for the poor. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. while another may hate them. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. vegetables and fruits. In addition to these. for example. As income increases. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. Even among flesh foods. These determine the acceptability of foods. However. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. income plays a vital role. taboos related to food may play an important role. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. customs. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. Having more money. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. One must. Including these 212 . The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. nuts and dry fruits. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. One person may be fond of milk products. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. As you read this discussion. If you think of your own religious group. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. however. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Judicious selection of food is. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Among the social factors. fat and sugar tend to increase. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. however. however.

17. etc. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. if the teachers have good food habits. over-eating or under.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. but they should be thrown away. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. 8) Walk a while after eating. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.eating is hazardous. Define balanced diet. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. eggs . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. green leaves. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. mouth. For this. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. meat. fruits. 8. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . List out any two healthy food habits. 213 .

there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Discuss good food habits. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.2. b. c. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. 4. Night blindness. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Explain food nutrients 4. Corneal xerosis. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease.4. 4. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Conjuctival xerosis.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Bitot’s spots. d. Beri Beri 4. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 .10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. When the diet is inadequate.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Keratomalacia 3. a.2. e. Vitamin D 5. good nutrition is essential for good health.2. preservation of nutrients. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. In fact.

a . Hands. Health and Nutrition Education. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. Food and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . R. A Text Book of Foods. 4. Food should be consumed after eating well. mouth.N. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. P. Chopra. (2004). Food and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Sri Lakshmi B. 8.2. b. 7. R. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. b. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.M. minerals. a. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . (2009). Nutrition and Dietetics. Nutrition Science. (2005). (2008). S.6.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum.C. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. (2008).

3.3.13 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.4 4.5 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.12 4.9 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3.1 4.6.3.LESSON Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth Impact on social development Impact on Education 4.3.7 4.2 4.3.3 4.8 4.3.11 4.10 4. 216 .3.

4.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. population characteristics. There is some difference. aims at providing the younger generation. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation.3.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. It is a much wider co ncept. It is not sex education. the causes of population change. his family. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. therefore. the stress is. and the consequences of these processes. understand the importance of small family norm 5. 4. Population Education. objectives and need for population education 2. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. family planning and sex education etc. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. his societ y and the world. describe the impact of population growth on social. characteristics and changes for himself. economic and educational development 3. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. Whenever we talk of sex education. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. 4. state the meaning. you will be able to: 1. 217 .3. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. community.3.

3. the family. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the nation and the world.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . List out any two objectives of Population Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.3. Define Population Education 2. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.4. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 4.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. the society. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.

Any modern state is responsible for the welfare.6. 219 . Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. the family programmes are also handicapped. Every second two thousand children are being born. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. With the larger families.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum.3. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. economic and educational development of the country. which will not be possible without population control. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. 4. 4.3. health and happiness of its citizens. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. When the family is small. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. Family is considered as a social unit.

pollution of the environment. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. lack of proper health care.6. Many students herded in a small room. unemployment. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population..The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. facility for drinking water. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. in cinema halls and theatres. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. in buses and trains.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. i. in parks and other places of public gatherings. 220 .6.e. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. 4. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. In developing countries. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’.3. organization index and material index. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. and so on. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. heavy intern I migration etc. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. Swollen cities.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. The gulf between them is widening further. 4. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. teacher index. toilets.3.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious.

bar graphs etc. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. There would be poor library facilities. There would be very few audiovisual aids. can be studied in science and health education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. 221 . essays.3.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. less space facilities. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. less budget for education. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. Social Studies Statistics on population education. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Hindi and English. and laboratory equipments. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. family planning etc.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. thus. reproduction. can be taken up. even text books would be in short supply. Regional Language. blank verses etc.

Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Brazil. Uttar Pradesh.3.4. area and average density of population. Bihar. 7. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 4. 12. China. 8. deaths. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. United States of America. They may arrange them as per average density of population. 15. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. 14. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. West Bengal. causes of deaths etc.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 3. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. 5. Canada. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Children may compare two families. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 11. Children with the help of parents. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. 10. 9. 13. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 2.

how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. 16. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. 18. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. opened in their schools. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. we have no right to stop 223 . automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size.3. values and role children etc. Comparing life in various respects in two families. age at marriage. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. The question. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. preferences for sex.

India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .their entry into the world”. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. and the child survival components of the news: program..4 births per woman in mid-1990s.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. Since the program's inception.were implemented 224 . The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. however. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. on an overall basis. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. The Family Welfare Program. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. especially the expansion of child immunization services . In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. which education can only do. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. at varying places in different regions. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. “He who is responsible for population growth. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. 4. More than 45 years ago. fertility levels have declined throughout the emphasize family planning services.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).3. continued .4-6.

Therefore. and the World Conference on Women. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. reliance on local women as community health workers. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . men. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. In October 1997. a focus on health promotion. Local programs vary in their approaches. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. In April 1996. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. the community appears willing to pay for services. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men.earlier than the safe motherhood components. expansion of services to unmarried women. At these meetings. Moreover. and nominal fees for services. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better.

involving the community. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. What are the goals of RCH? 4. 1997). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.3. Describe the impact of population growth on social. 226 . improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. 4. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. community. economic and educational development 4. 3. family. Its main purposes are to create awareness. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum.emphasizing the needs of the client.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. nation and the world. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.

Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. China. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. 3. the causes of population change.4. a. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. a. his family. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. 5. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. his society and the world. area and average density of population. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. and the consequences of these processes. United States of America. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Brazil. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods.3. bar graphs. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Canada. population characteristics.” 2. b. 7. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 227 . increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. b. 6. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. less budget for education. 4. less space facilities. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. characteristics and changes for himself. a.

J.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Bhende. Ltd. T. Coimbatore. (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.K. Principles of Population Studies. Centre for Women’s Studies. Kantikar. (2002). Modern Problems of Education.4. Reddy. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Udaiveer.3. Changing attitudes to Education in India. (2004). Jayapoorni. N. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. (2005). “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. (1992). V. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. 228 . A.

8.7 4.2 4.4.5 4.4.1 4.4 Lead up games 4.3 Major games 4.4.1 Minor games 4.10 4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.11 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.LESSON Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 . 4.3 Indigenous games 4.4.

4.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. team spirit. mental alertness. which forms its most valuable assets. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. classify the different types of games.4.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. moral fitness and emotional fitness. perseverance. full records of physical activities should be maintained.4. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. social fitness. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. the youth of the country. 4. leadership and balance in defect. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. understand the importance of Physical Education 4.4. The concept of physical education has been made broader. as it should 230 .4. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value.

To be more precise. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Every individual is a part of society. They go hand in hand. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Therefore. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. leadership. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. obedience to rules. They are inseparably united together. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. The educational efforts at home. team spirit. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise.

pleasing manners.4. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. nor body but the whole man. mo ral. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. H.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. Rousseau states. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. Physical exercises. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field.” Montaigue writes. 4. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. ment al. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. a sound health. game and sports. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical.” The Secondary Education Commission. Buck has observed that 232 .4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. Just like Education. C. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. Regarding the significance of physical education. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India.

we must exercise the whole human being. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. speed. strength.” In brief.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society.a properly directed physical education should result in health. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. happiness. initiative.4. resourcefulness and smartness. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength.” 4. endurance. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. Froebel says. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. etc. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. efficiency and character. 233 . flexibility and power. “If we wish to develop the whole being. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. elegance. coordinative abilities. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility.

plagues and famines. should help in the spiritual development of the student. have come and gone in the long record of mankind.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Every age has its artists. Tournaments foster this sentiment. its adherents and its enemies. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. these fundamental things have always been present. in greater or lesser degree. systems of government. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. poetry and painting. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. While wars. 234 (i) (ii) . If no opportunity is provided to the students.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. including all racial groups and historical ages. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. they may form gangs.

to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. to develop tolerance. 235 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.\ to develop perseverance. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.sacrifice. Write any two importance of Physical Education. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. 3. respect for rules. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. B. etc. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. obedience. bravery and interest in games and sports. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . self. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements.

defects. is essential. 13. Be in the uniform. Posture screening should be done. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Act as a leader. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. and.H. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 16. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of.4. and readmission after they have recovered. Be sportive. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities.4. Usually parents. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 2. 5. 11. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Haag. 4. 4. 6. Be well-prepared. 3. 15. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. students. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. 7. Always keep the whistle ready. 9. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. injuries among pupils should be made. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 10. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. 12. 8. 14.4.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Keep the field ready for the activities. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Inform health principles. Be punctual. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 236 1. Be self-confident. .

1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. less equipment and less expense. Lead up games.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. As such they are well enjoyed by children. 4. Indigenous games. the play. 1. Moreover. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games.8. frolic and jo y. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors.4. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. 2. chasing. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. 3. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. 4. Such inst incts as imitation. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. their development is handicapped. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play.4. 237 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

Khokho. These games require varied skills such as running. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. driving. bowling etc. Tennis. finding the partner. boosting. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. stopping. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Kabaddy etc. catching. the number of players and substitutes. zig zag relay. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Cricket. Volley Ball.. on mountain tops and on river beds. For each game the rules are many. Throwing. Except a few games.8. Ball Badminton. 238 . Hockey. with implements or without implements. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. trapping. Jump the stick clay and so on. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. heading. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people.4. benefit in playing minor games. On lawns. under ball pass Relay. Soft Ball. They are played for a shorter duration. pitching. 4. The dimension of the posts and nets. snatching the kerchief. muffling. some of them are played indoors. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. the games can be modified according to convenience. Dodging. the play equipment. Basket Ball. on hard courts. wherever the kids assemble. dribbling.With a very few rules. skipping. spiking. women take part most of the games. Hopping. on sea-shore. couple tag. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Jumping. hitting. While many of them are played in the open playfields. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. over ball pass Relay. Tennikoit. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Shuttle Badminton.

skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. All the fundamental tactics. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial.8.8. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. List out some major games. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. they are in existence. While observing the players in action. An example for indigenous game is 8. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. Kho-kho.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . birth. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.4. these games being popular. Games may be classified as 6. 4. For example. death. festivals connected with religion and public functions. and . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. They have an abundant social value. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. 7. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. On occasions like marriage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4.

3. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. a. 2. physically and emotionally fit and alert. a. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. to secure physical health b. 5. aims and objectives and need of physical education. Briefly discuss the different types of games. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. c. to develop physical stamina. d. b. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. 4. b.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. 4. Minor and Major 240 .4. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Schools should help students to keep them mentally.4. 4. a. 2.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. 3.4. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education.4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. b. 4. Posture screening should be done.

C. Ltd. Physical Education and Sports. (2008). Soft Ball. Health. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Foot-ball. Kabaddy 7. Shuttle Badminton. (2009).12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews.6. G.K. (2008).4. Khokho 8. Cricket. (2005). Khokho. J. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Mohanty. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. 4. Ball Badminton. 241 . Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. J. Tennikoit. J. Handbook of Physical Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Aggarwal. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Volley Ball. Tennis. Hockey. Krishna murthy. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Basket Ball.

5.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3 4.5.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.8 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.4 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.2 4.7 4.11 4.6 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.5.LESSON 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.10 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .1 Natural Environment

To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Evaluation Ability.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. aesthetic and educational factors. list out the types of environment 3.educat ion for the environment. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Broadly. Knowledge. 243 .4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. Skills. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 3. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. 4.5.5. 3. political. Essential knowledge about the Environment. economic. Details are given below: I. 2. 6. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. 2. it covers the following elements: 1. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. Participation. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. education about the environment and education through the environment. population explosion and resource depletion could be. The best place to start such learning is school. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 5.5. social. 4. Awareness. Attitude. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. 4. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. you will able to: 1. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment.

Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. a. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. D. • Biological magnification E. F. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality.B. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Oxidants Other pollutants. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. 2. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. 244 . Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system.

The human ecosystem II. 3. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. c.3. Control of population growth a. Socio-economic measures. Abortion iv. B. Family planning ii. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Persuasion: i. Sterilisation. III. Birth control through education b. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. The pill ii. 2. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Intrauterine device iii. Use of medical science i. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. 4. 2. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. economic. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems.

246 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. (UNESCO. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. e) Recycling. 3. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 3. Define Environmental Education. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. 2. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Air pollution abatement ii.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Water pollution abatement. 1983). Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection.

These are biotic components. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. includes the plants.5. 4. b. to his needs.5. Any constituent or condition of the environment. animals and other organisms (biotic).6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . fax agricultural apparatus. way is called environmental or ecological factor. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism.5. He modifies according”.5.other components of the environment. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. Biological environment The biological environment. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. telex.4.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. a. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. -other.5.5. A change in one brings about a change in the other. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. They interact with each.

natural way of controlling pests. wars and hazards of war. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. industrial pollut io n. ozone depletion. sources of pollut ion. t heir role in preventing pollution. etc. food chain and food-web. preserving the watersheds.. relation between population and pollution. ozone layer deplet ion. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. noise pollution. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. biogas plants. water scarcity. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. industrial survey. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. nuclear warfare. windmills. reasons. alternate sources of energy. excellent recreation sites. are the topics which may be taught in History. greenhouse effect.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. maintaining the ecological diversity. History The rise and fall. etc. noise control. desertification 248 . explosion deforestation. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. importance of nitrogen cycle. sources. use of medicinal plants. nuclear energy. preventing siltation of dams. evolution. effects. mineral survey. effects o f CFC. balance of nature. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . population. role of trees in building economy. change in climate may be added. (ii) Air pollution. need for bio-diversity. over exploitation of ground water. acid rain. need for conservation. use of pesticides. of civilizations. trees reducing noise pollution. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. river systems. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. air pollutants from industries. social studies. extinction of species. solar cookers. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. supplying timber for various uses.

4. aims and scope. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. 11. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 10. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 14. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. animal and plants. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 4. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 6. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Organising conferences. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. 2. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Developing awareness about environmental issues.may be inc ded in Geography. 9.5. 3. Providing. Peepal and Tulsi. 12. 8. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. 249 . This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. group discussions and seminars. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 7. 13. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 5. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant.

old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. or form a car pool for everyday travel. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. all these can cause serious pollution. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Don’t burn any waste. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Never put any left over chemicals. If it is done. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. World Environmental falls on 250 . Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. it will cause pollution. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. used oils down the drain. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. especially plastics.Send their waste oil. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Reuse carrier bags. 6. Use public transport wherever it is possible.

To initiate and develop discussion and debate. rather than conquest and mastery. To arrange for visiting speakers. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil.. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. CFCs. Harmony with the nature . Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. Conservation of natural resources. To provide materials needed for practical work. deforestation. Social responsibilit y (common good. diversity and stability. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. loss of bio-diversity. viz. dest roying nat ural habitats. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio .mat erials. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. Att itudes of balance towards nature. etc.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. depletion of ozone. (cleanliness.4. concern for others). To discuss the approach to problems or topics. etc. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information.5. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere.). The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. values and habits. Concern for species. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. The groups may exchange. To arrange visits or expeditions. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. nuclear wars. potable water. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. developing desirable attitudes. orderliness and beauty). and 251 .

9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 252 . Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. 8. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. 4.5. preserving natural cycles. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.5. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.

sources of pollution. 6.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Organising conferences. 5.5. Y. To provide materials needed for practical work. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Providing. acid rain. Kuldeep. Ltd. 3. group discussions and seminars. concern for others). a. 4. Environmental Education.K. (2007). sources. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. (ii) Air pollution.K. S. b. air pollutants from industries.\ 4. Awareness. over exploitation of ground water. (1997). Rapid population growth. (2004). Ltd. b.. Anmol Publications Pvt. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. a. relat ion between population and pollution.K. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Environmental Education. Environment and Human Rights. Social responsibilit y (common good. a. Modern Problems of Education. Knowledge. a. new problems from science and technology. explosion deforestation. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . b. S. T. 8.2. reasons. Nanda. population. Publications Pvt. Udaiveer.K. water scarcity. June 5 7. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. New Delhi : Authors Press. importance of nitrogen cycle. greenhouse effect. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. ozone layer deplet ion. b. New Delhi : Sharma. (2007). Education for values. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. effects. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.

254 .




Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.



STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism Idealism and aims of Education Idealism and Curriculum Idealism and methods of teaching Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism Naturalism and aims of Education Naturalism and Curriculum Naturalism and methods of teaching Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

259 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to

our life. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. moral." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. Education according to idealism. Spiritual Development.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. Therefore. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. in fact. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. inviolable and hence holy life” In short.3. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. man is essentially a moral being. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. the emancipation of spirit.” 5. The universe is regarded as a thought process. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. Universal Education. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. According to Rusk'. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. promote and transmit it to rising generation. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. enrichment and transmission of culture.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. It is self-realisation.1. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. should be universal in nature. Education must contribute to development of culture.

The plant can grow. History.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. It considers teacher as. So cognition (knowing).” He is thus. Learning through imitation. so subjects like Religion. For intellectual development. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. subjects like Languages. no doubt. an indispensable necessity. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. 2. Ethics. friend and guide. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. Philosophy. affecting (feeling). class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. and collation (striving) should find due place.the spiritual qualities of mankind.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. 5. 3. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. Learning through lecturing. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. Learning through questioning. So health.3. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. So he should embody.1. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection.3.” 5. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . According to idealism. the school is a garden. Mathematics etc. 4. Science. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. 5.1. For this no particular method has been suggested. Learning through reading. He sets the environment in which education takes place. However. According to Frobel. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. Herbert advocated instruction method. He carries the child from darkness to light. Learning through discussion. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. a spiritual guide for the child. should be there. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. hygiene.

Perfection of Human Machine. 5.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self.preservation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. 2. time tables. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.perfection and beauty. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.4. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. In the words of Ross. text books. "Education should make 263 • .1. 5. Ross explains. formal lessons or examinations. curricula. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

“Education finds its purpose. • 5. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Naturalistic curriculum.1. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Biology. Chemistry. Therefore. education should develop the child into Joyous. Education also aims at helping the individual t. It stresses basic sciences.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Art etc are subsidiary subjects.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Arithmetic.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. 264 . therefore. geography should also be included in the curriculum. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Botany etc Language. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. rational harmoniously balanced. 4. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. There is no place for religious and moral education. Zoology. Literature. In all. subjects like history. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. useful and mature child. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Education should. It is based on the psychology of the child. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality.4. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. is based on the nature of the child.

Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Dalton Plan. a provider of an ideal environment. 5. a supplier of materials and opportunities.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3.4. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Learning through experience. In the . 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. It discards all rigid. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. he should be taught by experience alone. 2.1.1. Heuristic method.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. 5.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Learning by doing. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. the stage. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning.1. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Learning through observation. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Rousseau says.4. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method.

Continuous Growth. Physical training. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Personal Social Adjustment. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Social Efficiency. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning.5. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Vocational and 266 . intellectual.1. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Agriculture. Social Science. social and moral aspects.1. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. 5. 5. The aim of educational development.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed.5.absolutism of idealism. The individual has not only to adjust himself. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Subjects. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Geography. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. of human personality is in terms of his physical. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. All Round Development of an Individual. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Sciences. is true. History. diversified and flexible. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. alert and resourceful. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely.” 5. should find proper place. 5. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. a senior partner and a sincere guide. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. The subjects. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.1. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. He has to be active. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life.Technical Education. a teacher occupies an important position.5. activities and experience should be integrated properly. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity.1. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child.5.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. He must be trained. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Learning by Doing.

A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Biology. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. It favours child-centered.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism.6. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Biography Philosophy. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Art. 5. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. practical. specific. scientific and psychological education.6. Education is preparation for a complete living. Mathematics. rich and happy. 4. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. intellectual. 4. 3. Population Education. Literature. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Astrology. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Study of Subjects like Language. 3. Sex Education. Psychology.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Music and Dance.1. Education must cultivate scientific outlook.5. literary or humanistic education. 5. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Crafts. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 2. Chemistry.1. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind.1. 5. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. liberal. History. 2. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life.

List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation Give your answer as instructed in each question b. certainly and clearly.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. easily and pleasantly.6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.

Self preservation & Self expression 4. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. has no end other than growth. Learning through experience b. b. Experimentation d. Learning through lecturing. Self Realisation b. a. Sciences. Vocational and Technical Education. c. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. 5. Physical training. Tours / Excursion e.1. Education according to pragmatism. a. Languages. in this lesson.5. Learning through reading.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. naturalism. 5. a. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Learning through questioning. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. 3. e. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. 6. Child centered c. Social Science. Geography. Learning through imitation. Rousseau 5.1. Agriculture. pragmatism and realism. Universal Education 2.1.7 LET US SUM UP We have. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. d. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Learning through discussion. & curriculum. History. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Demonstration and Observation 270 .

Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. (2004). Theory and Principles of Education.H. Publishing corporation. K. New Delhi : Bhatia.1. Narang C.P. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A. 271 . New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. P.5.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. O. Ltd. Anmol Publications Pvt. L. N. of Pathak. Pahuja. (2003). R. (2007). (2007). K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.P. P. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers.

4.2 Curriculum Methods of teaching 5.1 Aims of Education Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2 Curriculum Idealist and Pragmatist Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.LESSON 5.1 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.1 Aims of Education 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .3 Methods of Teaching 5.1 Aims of Education EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.4 Views about teacher 5.2 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum Views about teacher 5.

2. economic and political reconstruction in our country. 5.2. 273 .2. content and methods.4 Role of the teacher 5.8 5. 5. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. mind and spirit.2.5. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.7 5. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. 3. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. you will able to: 1.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.2. Gandhiji was primarily a social.2. an artist.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. Tagore was a poet. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.2. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. 2.5. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.2. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.6 5.

development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words.2. "I attach more. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. 5.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. His scheme of education is life centred. strength of mind. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. it is education of life. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. mind and soul of children He further observed. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. 274 . In the words of Gandhiji. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect.supporting. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. nor the gross animals body." Dignity of Labour. through life and for life. It really provides opportunity for character building. righteousness. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. 'Man is neither mere intellect.3. self-restraint and service of humanity.

"Development of the moral character. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. Individual and Social Aims.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. the realization of the ultimate reality.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme.3. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. Mother-tongue.Training for Leadership. Drawing and Hindustani. metal work. wood work. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . leather work have been suggested. General Sciences. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. gardening. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Only good individual forms a better society. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Art. Music. 5.2. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. According to Gandhi.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Basic education is other wise known as 4. men of 276 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.3. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.trained. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. proficient. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. That is why. Education must be child centered. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. He has an experimental approach towards life 2.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST.2. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . 3. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He also advocates freedom for the child.knowledge. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. 5.

3.2. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.2. • Cult of non-violence.” Like all other ideals. he was a true Vedantist 5. He was a true patriot. • Ideal of citizenship.2. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. He was deadly against untouchability. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.K. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 5. 5. Gandhi in 1937.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. • Education should involve manual work.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. He believed in the oneness of humanity. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.4. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.

279 . Purposeful and Meaningful Education. International Understanding. "Mankind must realise a unity. Zoology. could help in forging unity among all.4. stronger in power than ever before. Dance. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . complete manhood could be attained. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in.2. Geography. Therefore. Chemistry." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. That way only. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. International understanding.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. Botany. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. It should help. them solve problems of day to day life.Language and Literature . It should help the learner have good physique. Civics. (vi) Philosophy. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. Religion and Psychology. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. sentiment. the more dedicated and devoted. etc. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Tagore said. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. deeper in. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Music. he said. wider in range.

He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.2. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. Tagore rightly says. 5. Activity Method Heuristic Method.4.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service." 5.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. In 1921. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.2. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.” He further says. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.2.4. 5. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.4. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. 280 .

Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. race. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e.g. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. It is open to all irrespective of country. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. 10. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. 281 . atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. 9. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8.

According to him. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Freedom.” 5. Book learning. Education for strong Moral Character. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Education for Self-realization. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself.2. Education should make a person self-reliant.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. 2. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. 4.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. Education for Self-reliance. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life.5. Concept of Education. Purity of thought. man making. He believed in to learning or selflearning. who possess sweet and amicable tempers.2. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. 3.5. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. work and deeds come out of it. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. character forming and assimilation of ideas. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge." He was against the theoretical type of education. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him.

6.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. philosopher and guide to the students He. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.2. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. That will serve the purpose of education fully. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. And above all.2. engineering and technical subjects.2. 5. Education for Physical Development. 5. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. Every individual should be trained for concentration.5. Thirdly he wished that games. Religion. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. 283 .5.the learners on different students in the discussion. A physically strong person is the need of the society. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Philosophy and Theology. Of course. Discussion Method. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.5.5. The teacher should be the facilitator. 5. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Secondly he wanted Science. Swami.

in this lesson.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. Write short notes on Basic education. Their educational ideas. legs. naturalist. We have seen that Tagore. Gandhiji as a Idealist. ears and eyes. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. 2. of course. 284 . 12. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. and pragmatist . 5. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims.Substantiate your answer. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life.2. 3.6 LET US SUM UP We have. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. 5.

a. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Debate and Discussion Method. d. 11.4. Technique of Correlation 6. Basic education. Meditation and concentration c. f. Discussion Method 285 . Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Activity Method b. 5. leather work have been suggested. 5. Activity Method d. Education should involve manual work. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Learning by Doing c. a. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. 9. 10. b. Ideal of citizenship. 8. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Cult of non-violence. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. 1937 7. Self realization. wood work. Explain Vishwabharathi. gardening. a. Heuristic Method. Teaching while Walking b. c. Self-Study b. e. c. 2. Nai Talim 4. a.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. 5. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. metal work. 3.

Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). Foundations of Education. Dhiman. (2003). Ltd.2. O. P. (2004). N. (2002). New Delhi : A. Pahuja. K. Publishing Corporation. Theory and Principles of Education. K and Narang C. (2007). on Bhatia. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. C. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : Aggarwal. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.H. 286 . New Delhi : Shipra Publications. B. P.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. J. N. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. L.P.5.

9 5.3.11 5.3.3. In this lesson.3.1 5.5 5.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.3.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.2 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.4 5.7 5.LESSON 5. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.6 5.3.3 5.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.10 5.3.

state the meaning of curriculum 2. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. maintained or eliminated. there is a large number of communities. curriculum signifies situations for learning. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. is a means to the process.3. in the U. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s .3. new behaviour may be acquired.A. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. Since the demands. curriculum. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. present behaviour may be modified. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. 5.. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. While education is a process.3.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. A g o o d curricu lu m.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.under the direction of the school. From the latter point of view.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. While education is learning. the desert area. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. it is identical wit h socializat ion. in the form of new experience. 5. the plateau area and 288 . Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. In it. in fact . Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. in Russia or in Japan. In the words of Kerney and Cook. Curriculum is intimately related to education. Both the processes are integrated. you will be able to: 1. In the former sense.S. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. living in the hilly area. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Then in a big country like India. the plain area.

also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. environment. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. In fact . irrespective of their needs and environment. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. it is. the learning capacity of children. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. Again. It must differ from locality and from society to society.3. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. democratic and socialistic country. differs from individual to individual. customs and needs. studying therein. However. according to modern trends in the educational process.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. Besides craft. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. too. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. therefore. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. 5. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. From a slave-country we became secular. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. and 289 . A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour.

4. 2.. e. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. eg. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. etc.g. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. So it is inadequate. which may or may not be attained.3. unsatisfactory. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. tangible. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. The word “Curere” means 2. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. They speak of immediate purposes of education. Knowledge Objective. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery.. They are achievable. in instructional objectives. aesthetic and spiritual development. social. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. Goals of Secondary Education. of classroom. remote or immediate. Goals of Primary Education. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. Application Objective. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. 1. uninspiring and unscientific.g. They are visionary goals e. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. aims. moral. Vocational Efficiency. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . general or specific. They speak of perfect goals. 290 . What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Self Realisation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. unambiguous and functional. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. They may be ultimate or proximate. Understanding Objective. social. etc. they depend on the political..g. National Integration. etc. emotional. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. specific.. individual or Social and so on.. e.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country.

heavy fire. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children.” 291 . should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. educationists.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future.5. finding them very interesting and captivating. capacities. needs. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. in the class rooms. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. Crow and Crow remarks. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children.3.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. Raymont rightly says.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. According to Crow and Crow. but it includes the totality of experiences. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. abilities. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. The interests. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. on the playing fields.

time in a useful manner. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. tendencies. Due to these variations and differences. urges.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. aptitudes. moral. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . They often waste it or rather kill it. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. capacities and abilities.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. mental. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties.

reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. development of professional capability at all levels. 293 . administrative programme need be planned. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. 2.curricular. 3. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. Similarly. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. phased preparation. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. To ensure success of the process. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. organized. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously.

playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. 12.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. workshop. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. laboratory.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 18. 11.3. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. library. Child Centred Education b. a.3. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. Run. Relation with Life c. 10. principles of curriculum construction. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. 1937 19. 17.3. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. in the class room. 5. 5.

Lakshmi. and Sarita Kumari. Curriculum Development. S. D. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.3. New Delhi : Authorspress.K. P. 295 . (2007). Bhalla. Innovations in Education.S. (2001). New Delhi : Isha Books. N.5. (2007). (2007). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. S. Curriculum and Instruction.

6.1 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .LESSON Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.8 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.2 5.7.4 Techniques for developing scientific attitude Developing scientific outlook 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.3 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.10 Scientific Attitude 5.

We mean curiosity. 3.4.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not.4. Gradually. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. explain the concept of scientific attitude. 297 .4. 5.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. honesty.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. in the economic reconstruction of society.during the second half of this century. tolerance for the opinions of others. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. 4. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. 2. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . know the importance of science education. you will be able to: 1. superstition or emotion. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. newer and newer industries started growing. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. open-mindedness. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. 5.5.

stipends and appreciations in various ways. 5. 6. Principles are formulated. 3.So that.4.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. 5. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Devotion towards nature increases. 7. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Thinking and memory develops. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. as well as of the society. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Love for truth enhances. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Selection for science education. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. 4. Organisation of science fairs. After such experience and training. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Through newspapers. 5. 5. 3.4. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Central science workshop. seminars and symposiums. 2. 4. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Schemes of teaching science. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Through examinations. 6. 2. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. Promotion of science clubs.

It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. For laboratory and workshop techniques. Training of science teachers. 5. In the inquiry approach. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. sex or religion. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. They experience natural phenomenon. Enquiry teaching is.4.4. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 5. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. After presenting the problem.6. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. essential that teachers. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. each child to “enquiry skill building”. therefore. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Write any two advantages of Science Education. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. objectivity. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature.needs and conditions. should provide opportunities to. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. They ask many questions about the objects they see. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. It is. 7. They encounter many social events as they grow.

6.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1.6.4. to ask questions and experience things.4. stern pursuit of accurate data. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. if they like. . Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. 4. Giving less directions. It requires consistent thinking. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. test. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”.Herma Wouk. 3. Evidence. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . 3.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 5.books. Appreciating pupils ideas. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. commands or orders. Adopting creative models of teaching. 300 . 2. Social sciences. . 5.

4. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. These include open mindedness. For instance. to develop among the learners. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . (Vaidya 2007). keen observation. therefore should be unbiased and objective. of vast resources running waste. The students observation. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. critical thinking and suspended judgments. 5. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. neighbourhood. school and society at large. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. friends. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. practiced. and emphasized during the learning process .1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning.(Smith 2008). In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. To achieve this we should understand what it means.7. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. it must be encouraged. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students.

2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science.7. or superstitions.4. 302 . they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. 2007). Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. understanding and logic. think and work it”. In considering a situation or a problem. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. rumor. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. The intention to respect another’s point of view. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. he studies all aspects of it. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. 5. intuition or wishful thinking”. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. (Das. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes.

7. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. 5. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .7.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. • 5.4. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. but to begin only after careful planning.4. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity.

List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. 5. 304 . and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. practiced and emphasized during the learning process.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. it must be encourages. 5.4.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.

9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. a. M. (2006). What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. N. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. D. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Wide reading b. 3.4. b. 5. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Love for truth enhances. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics.4. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. objectivity. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. 4. a. b. 16. Rao.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa.S. Discuss the importance of science education 14. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. 5.B (2008). b. (2008). S. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Adopting creative models of teaching.5. Yadav. Reflections on Scientific attitude. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. (2000). Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 2.4. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. 305 . a. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. Planning of activities 5. Proper example of the teacher c. a. Study of superstitions d. Vaidya.

5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population. state the concept. 5.5 5. 306 .9 5. actively.5. you will be able to: 1.11 5.5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.2 5.5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.10 5.7 5.8 5.5.6 5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.5.LESSON 5.1 5.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. objectives and characteristics.5.5.4 5.5.3 5.5. areas of institutional planning. 2.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.

executive as well as public. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. • to involve teachers and school administrators.5. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. • To make institutional planning more successful. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. in the task of educational planning. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. and each student are regarded as separate entities. 5.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. each teacher. teachers and students is not lost sight of. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. every teacher. and supplement planning from above. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n.3. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. 5. every parent. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. • to make planning development-oriented. and every student in the process of educational planning. State and national levels from below.5. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. and. which become the bases for further planning at the district. Institution should be regarded as the unit. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution.

Examinations. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. etc. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. (2) Co. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. and Personnel services. 5. Co-curricular activities.• implemented. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. approved after making necessary modifications. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan.5. Classwork. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers.5. council and. Syllabus.curricular Activities. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. it becomes the basis for school inspection. which will be discussed in the general. 308 . and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5.

1. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Improving the internal assessment. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Organisation of Students’ Association. Courts. hobby-centres. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Preparation of instructional material. Celebrating of national and international festivals.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. etc. scientific and historical excursions. Organisation of Pupils. etc. Fair distribution of syllabi. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. Preparation of audio-visual aids. 2.No. etc. 3. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Running science clubs. Equipping of laboratory and library. Organisation of class-room libraries. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Conducting of educational. Preparation of models. Organisation of Self-Government Days. charts and apparatus. Organising play-for-all programmes. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Editing the school magazine.

5. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. etc. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. and solidarity. and out-group relationships are as given below i. parent-teacher associations. and —pupil-pupil. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. science teachers’ associations. parents. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. involving mainly human materials.” The human relationships in. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. teacher-managing body. teacherinspector. administrator-supervisor. teacher-State. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. administrator-administrator. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. headmasters associations. ii. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body.5. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. understanding. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. pupils. teacher-teacher. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. co-operation. administrator-pupil. teachers. pupil310 . which are divided as the in. Administrator-State. students’ associations. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system.

311 . V. to attend. teacher-community leader. pupil-non-official functionaries. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. supervision and superintendence. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. teacher-parent. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. and to serve. It is also being modernized to become a technique. now-a-days. to accomplish. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. It covers personnel and material management. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. to carry out. Good. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. pupil-inspector. supervision. To administer means to manage. pupil-community leader. superintendence. administrator. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. pupil-parent.State. social sciences and other disciplines. etc. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. organisation and management.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration.5. control. organisation. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. According to C. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”.

Any good management will always have good public relations. Democratic Management . 11.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. The relationship should change from master.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. 7. Motiviation . Better Human Relationships . 12. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. Rapport between the Management and Employees . He should be an artist in human relationships. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. Economic Management .This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. Worker Participation . Those.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. This is the latest democratic trend in management. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. low. If the cost benefit ratio is less. 6. If it is more. 9. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . 8. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 13.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship .Of all the approaches. Cost-Benefit Analysis . Decision Making . He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. Communication . 5. Leadership .sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. it is not worth-while.The manager should have leadership traits. Socio-Scientific Approach .There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. who occupy the managerial positions.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. Liasion with the Public .Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. 10. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. 4. 3. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . 2.

Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. enrichment of curricula. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.too.5. objective. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work.5. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. and cooperative performance should be ensured. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. 18.g. 313 . Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. to improve the quality of education it provides. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. improvement of teaching methods. 5.These two are. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. 14. 19.

New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. and Personnel services. a.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2001). S. f. a. R. 2. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. it becomes the basis for school inspection.M. Singh.K. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. 314 . Leadership c. Tarachand and Prakash. H. Instruction. 4. Educational Administration.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. (2003). d.5. c. APH Publishing Corporation. Communication 5. b. Motiviation d. NUEPA. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. Syllabus.5. Classwork. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. (1995). Co-curricular activities. Fundamental of Educational Management. b. a. Examinations.5. Decision Making b. a. In group and Out group 5. e.

teachers should have : 1.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.5 Regional Educational Development in India . First Aid.4 India's Secular Policy .Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.I.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .2 Nutritional deficiencies. Realized the problems of school education. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.1 Gurukula system of education. New evaluation procedures. Preservation of nutrients. Examination reforms. Balanced diet. Code of conduct for teachers.1 School Health Programme. population education.Article 45 .1 Primary Education : Education for all. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.1 Inculcation of Socialism. Healthy Food Habit 4. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.CORE PAPER .4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. physical education and environmental education 5. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.Pre-service and In-services facilities. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .Preventive measures.3 Educational Influences of Home. Sex-education 4. Common ailments of Children.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Community and Mass Media 2.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. social Impact 3.3 Directive Principles . Education by Christian Missionaries 1. 2.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. higher education. School.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Inspection and Supervision 3. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Communicable diseases . nutritional requirement. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. 4. Buddhist and Jain system of education. 1. wastage and Stagnation 3. Economic 315 . women education and teacher education in India.Religious and Modern Education 1.

flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Realism. R. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Hemchand. Kalan Paper Packs 10. New Delhi: NCERT 3. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. Pandy V.4. 7.K.S. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. Ram S.4 4. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.N. and Mohanty R. T.C.K. B. and Dash B.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. and Human Development.N. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Sharma. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. (2004) Problems of Education in India.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. 316 . Taneja V. Mahatma Gandhi.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. (1999) Culture. 5. Delhi : University Publications 2.K. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. REFERENCE 1. Saraswathi T. Curriculum and national goals .R. Prof.1 Idealism. Tagore 5. (2005) Foundations of Education.K.Aim. Naturalism and Pragmatism . Ghanta R. Socialization.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . and Sharma R. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Mishra.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. curriculum and teacher's role 5. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.

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