BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Lesson 2. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. 9 . The need. and Jain system of education. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. Lesson 4. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. discusses the regional educational development in India.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Jainism and their educational implication. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Lesson 5. In. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education.

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1.1.1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.6.6.1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .5.1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1.2 1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1.3.3.1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.5.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.6.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.6.4.1.1.5 Jain system of education 1.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.6 Education during British Era 1.LESSON 1.1.1.1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.1 1.5.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.5.1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.6.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.4.

elucidate the education during British Era. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.1. you will be able to: 1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.1.1. both present and future.1.9 1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.1.1.1. in opinion. describe the Jain system of Education 4.3. Muslim and British periods.1. 1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.1. in morals and in the intellect”.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. British system of education presented the modern western model. has a long past history starting in vedic education.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.6. Education in India.1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. India.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Indian in blood and colour. “a class of persons. 1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.8 1. but English in taste. 1.6.7 1. The history of education passed through Buddhist. That 12 .1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.

6. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. individually. to light. 11. Teacher as Parents. Where pupils were many. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. religious and spiritual. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. followed by explanation by the teacher. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. the monitorial plan was followed. managed entirely by Brahmans. Education of Moral. Religious and Spiritual. 16. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Method of Study. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. The immediate aim of education. from darkness. questioning by the pupil. 13 . Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. No State Control on Education. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Curriculum. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Method of Instruction. and to agriculture and trade. with grants of land or money. Individual Teaching. generally. however. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. 3. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. if they thought fit to do so. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. It was also moral. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. 14.knowledge was real. Role of Travel in Education. 5. 4. 9. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. 12. Education was a private affair of the people. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Forests as Centres of Education. not en masse by the class method. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. There was. Immediate Aim Vocational. from eternal to immorality 2. 8. 10. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. as it is generally considered to be at present. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. High Status of Teachers. It was not merely intellectual. 13. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Free and Accessible. Residential Schools. Pupils were taught.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 .17. studied Vedas. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Wide-Spread Education in Women. It was suited to the needs of the society. 2. lived a life of celebacy. It was freely available to all those who wanted. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. They were very cordial and intimate. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times.1. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. the most significant of which were the following 1. dressed himself in yellow clothes. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. except the Chandals. killing of any living being.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. Right speech 4. Right endeavour 7. It was denied only to the ill. impure conduct. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Right activity 5. use of intoxicating things. Right memory 8. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period.4. he had to perform the Pababja ritual.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. Right knowledge 2.C. Education was imparted through the. 2. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. the student had his head shaved of all hair. partaking of food at prohibited times. which included abstaining from theft. Right thought 3. 1. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. etc. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. After attaining the age of 20. he was qualified to become a monk. every class in society. the student remained in a state of Shramana. the handicapped. I take Refuge to Sangh. medium of Pali.1. Right contemplation 1. use of cosmetics. had the right to receive education. 15 . accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. disease and death of the human beings. Right means of livelihood 6. Consequently. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. taking things without being offered. watching dances or listening to music. in which. I take Refuge to Dharma. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people.

a continuous change creating 16 . Life is in a flux. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. Initially. 4. Even at this stage. commerce. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. it is regarded as true”. of clothes. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. the science of taming and training animals. objectives of human life. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. agriculture. 1. so long as it successfully does so. changing the goals. be considered the aim of education It. 6. animal husbandry. nothing is of any permanent consequence. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. archery. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. meaning. 5. approach. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years.4. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. the presence of the monks was essential. etc. eat food thrice a day. education was impart in art. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1.3. aspirations and. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. a change is not only total but also perpetual. assumptions. 2. military science. After this ritual. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. arithmetic and religious discussion. has no metaphysical value for life. depth and range. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. These are called later Buddhist schools. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may.. women occupied a position inferior to men. control over sensuous activities. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. 7. magic. therefore. 3. knowledge of reviving the dead. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. along with education in script writing. archery. bodily gestures. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. beg for alms. Later on. Hence. and. wear three items. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. however. It comprehended education in writing. handicrafts. etc. etc. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. As reality is becoming. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. On this occasion. geology. cottage industries. nature. 8. elephant lore. Whatever its nature and extent. medicine.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. its pessimistic outlook on life. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism.. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. i. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. Validity is effective and consequences. goes to Vardhaman.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects.new and peculiar situations. 5. therefore. Jainism insists 17 . the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. however. and to give it a shape that it has today. it is much older than the latter. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Its chief feature. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.1.e. such as.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. Write Eight fold path . What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. In fact. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. However. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. whatever works are true and good. Education must. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. 1. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’.5.

Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. but on both. b) Right knowledge. e) To renounce the world. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. rather than the interpretation of the universe. 2. 7. 3. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 4. 9. 1. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. 2. 10. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. c) Not to steal. As such. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Hence. They are: a) Not to injure. d) To lead a celibate life. 5. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. and is to be redeemed and liberated. 3. b) Not utter falsehood. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 6. more stress on individual aims. 8. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. thought and deed. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 18 . The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom.1.5. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. 1. Development of personality as an individual. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. it has a foot in both the words.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. and believe in happiness to all. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. c) Right conduct. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect.

1. 3. 4. Knowledge is through senses and meditation.4. Belief in transmigration of soul. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 5. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories.5. 1. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. 2. Jiva is essentially karmic. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. success and love. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. therefore. education should develop sense of discrimination. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Teaching should be social and tolerant. that would be socially desirable. Hence. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 3. 19 . What are Triratnas ? .5. practised and not only aspired for. 2.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. and should bring happiness to all. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. here and now. 8. education must be action based and ideally oriented. Teaching must develop these faculties. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue.

philosophy and literature of Europe. North West Province and Punjab.6. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. 1. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute.6. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. Madras. 1953). 1. However. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. 1.6. Bombay. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. To set up separate departments of.6. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. 1. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. 2. and not for life. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. primary 20 . Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools.1. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own.1. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. science. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. with rally and rout.

it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. At that time M. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. Instead of being a self-sufficient course.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners.6. 1.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. • Universal free primary education. To ensure qualitative improvement.K.6. • Secondary education. The universities dominated the secondary education. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. secondary education became a step towards university. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. In 1882. namely. they named these schools as polytechnic schools.education was neglected. 1. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. Later on. 1. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. at the primary level. self-respecting and competent. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937.6.

What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. After this stage. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. 10. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. all children are to have a common curriculum.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians.At the primary stage (6-11 years). The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11.

education was impart in art. 1. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life.. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. questioning by the pupil.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. geology. Right thought. 3. 23 . 6. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. Right knowledge. The system of education was well-organised. followed by explanation by the teacher. Right speech. science and English language. It was suited to the needs of the society.1. The immediate aim of education. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. a. establishment of universities. Right endeavour. Right means of livelihood. 5. arithmetic and religious discussion. b. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. During the Buddhist period. military science.1. the science of taming and training animals. 1. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Right memory. etc. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. 4. 4. 3. archery. Right activity. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. handicrafts. 2. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Right contemplation. along with education in script writing. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil.education of European literature. 2.

History of Indian Education System. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.7. Singh. Ltd.C. (2005). Development of Educational System in India.K. 10. Sharma.K. Sargent report 12. (2007). 8. Aggarwal. J. Y. R. Right conduct. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Y.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. 11. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Development of personality as an individual. (1984).1. b. (2009).C. Right knowledge. Improvement of Literature. 24 . Hence. Ltd. a. and Nath. Right faith. a. more stress on individual aims. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. 1882. b. J. c. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. 1937 1. 9. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

1 1.2.3.2.2.LESSON 1.2 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2.2.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.4 1. The 25 .3.1 University Education Commission 1.2.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.3.3 Kothari Commission 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.9 1.2.6 1.2.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.3.8 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5 1.2.2.7 1.2.

understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. National Council for Women’s Education 5. examination system. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. curriculum. New Educational Policy. There had been vast institutional expansion. technological engineering.conditions of the teachers. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. standard of teaching. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. secondary and higher education. medical and legal education. vocational education. diversification of courses of studies. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. S. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. 1. Post-graduate 26 . you will be able to: 1. analyse the progress of education in free India. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. expansion of vocational.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. 1986 1. technical. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. girls and women education besides primary.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. explosion of enrolment.2.2. Kothari (1964-66) 8. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service.2. 2. National Board of Teacher Education 10.3. 1. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan.

Problems of access. quantity. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. the New National Policy on Education. utility and financial outlay.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. 2.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. quality. the chairman of University Grants commission. A. Kothari. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country.3. A meaningfully Partnership. 4. However. Therefore. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Essence and Role of Education.2. 3. accumulated over the years. 1966. research et. National System of Education. material and spiritual. in January 1985. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission.2. 1. 1986.3. D. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation.2.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. 1. 1952. 1. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. Education is the key to our allround development. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. Education for Equality. Finally.3.teaching. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.S. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. Government of India. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986.

of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education.2. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. By working with hands. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Thus. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. The UNESCO Report. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. the minorities and the handicapped. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. It can train practical aptitudes. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 28 . attitudes.” Thus. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the concepts of work experience.

the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. The Radhakrishnan Commission. In 1955.” The Mudaliar Commission. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. According to. co-ordinations. The Education Commission. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. “The aim of these colleges. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. the Commission. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. it will conduce self." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. if he wishes. With adequate planning.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. Besides. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . As such.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. “It may be described. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries.

etc. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. In addition.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . the semester and credit system. raising the special facilities. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976.. the rigid streaming of courses. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. With a view to relating education to the life. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. the. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. admission requirements to vocational courses. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. Subsequently. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. for quality of life in the rural areas. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work.ot her. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. The Central Advisory Board of Education. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. Therefore. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W).

It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. technological courses including Agriculture. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. 1.2. Commerce. etc. which swept the country for over two decades. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. felt that education should be centred around a craft. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. which offer scientific. The Father of Nation. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji.defined S UP W as “purposive. The wave of Basic Education. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. meaningful. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. preferably spinning and weaving. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. aimed at this goal. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. who conceived the System of Basic Education. manual work resulting in either goods or services. meaningful. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. 31 . In short.and the world of work. According to committee. giving importance to productivity in the national development. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence.. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. which are useful to the community.

in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Clothing 5. Experimentation with materials. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Health and Hygiene 2. as far as possible. Educative and 3. locally available materials and tools. tools and techniques and 3. so that it is educational in essence. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. be that the work involved is: 1. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Culture and recreation 6. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Productive 2. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. 2.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. Shelter 4. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. The teachers should make use of. Food 3. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. 32 . analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Community work and social service. 4. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. 3. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Work practice.

this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. 6. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. removal of illiteracy. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. improve discipline. Merits of the Programme 1.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. etc. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. It can become an instrument to build character.5. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. inculcate a faith. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. Check on educated unemployed 4. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. To make education more realistic. slum clearance. as far as possible. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. the local community should be actively associated. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Community Service In-1972. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Productive Work 33 . Education through work The SUPW should. 1.2.

AICTE was set up in year 4. The community. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. skills and better future for the children. offering first aid. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. traffic control.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. should involve itself in the educational effort. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. etc. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. in turn. if not productive. Define SUPW 34 . It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. helping the adults-in productive work. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other .the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods.

d. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. Radhakrishnan 2.1. e.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. 2. 35 . c. 6.2.2. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. f. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. 1.2. meaningful. b. which are useful to the community.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1955 4. manual work resulting in either goods or services. a. 3. 1952 3. 1. Dr. Write short note on SUPW. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5.

New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Y. Amala.H. (2007). Rao.(2005). V. Y. Anupama.K. History of Indian Education System. History of Education. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt.2. Ltd.P. R. (2007). P.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. and Nath.K. and Rao.K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. B. New Delhi: A. (2009).C. Publishing Corporation.P. 36 . History and Problems of Indian Education. A.1. Development of Educational System in India. Singh. (2005). New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.D. : Sharma..

every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.1 Significance of DPSP 1.3. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.9 1.7 1. Being the supreme law of the country.1 1.5 1. equality.3.3. 1949. procedures.6 1. establishing the structure.3. Besides the English version.3.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. assuring its citizens of justice.3. it came into effect on January 26.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. 1950. 37 . for a total of 117.3. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3. directive principles and duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.4 1.369 words in the English language version.3. democratic republic.8 1.3.2 1. there is an official Hindi translation.3.3. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.3.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. and liberty. containing 395 articles.

2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. 4. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. spread over a period of 2 years.3. 1947. learn the role of central and state government on education. According to the constitution.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy.3. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24.3. with Dr. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. understand our Indian constitution. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. 2. 1950. 1. political. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society.3. After many deliberations and some modifications. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. the Drafting Committee was appointed. in sessions open to public. economic. 1947. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. 3. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. Two days later. Through them. you will be able to: 1. legal and environmental. for 166 days. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. Dr.In the August 14. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. social. administrative. 38 .1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. On August 29. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 1. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. The Assembly met. 1. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee.

old age. Equal justice and free legal aid. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. and in other cases of undeserved want. Protecting children from exploitation. in particular. on the basis of equal opportunity. That the health and strength of workers. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes.government. Condition for dignity of children. Minimising inequalities in status.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Article 42. Right to work. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. The State shall endeavour to secure. 39 . Article 41. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Article 39A. No abuse of children. and shall. Equal pay for both sex. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. The State shall. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. provide free legal aid. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Protecting health of the workers. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Organisation of village panchayat. Liking wage etc. men and women. for workers. Article 43. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. sickness and disablement. Article 40. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment.

The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The State shall endeavour to provide. (Original Article 45. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. in particular. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Note: Subs. work. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Article 46. Article 43A. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Article 47. Article 48A. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. a living wage. [declared by or under law made by 40 . wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Participation of workers in management of industries. agricultural. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 45. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. The State shall take steps. Article 48. 2002 for “45. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Article 49. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. and. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Article 44. industrial or otherwise. See also Article 21A). Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. by suitable legislation or in any other way. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. in particular. in particular. to all workers.

disposal or export. Article-21A Right to Education. Promotion of international peace and security. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. as the case may be. Article 50.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 .Parliament] to be of national importance. Article 45 . maintain just and honourable relations between nations. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. 2. removal.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. 2002. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Separation of judiciary from executive. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. from spoliation. disfigurement. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. destruction. 1. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. may be law determine”. Article 51. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.

7. 4. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language.” 42 . No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. language or any of them”. 8. if such person is a minor. caste. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. 5. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. and. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. iii. 2002. ii. from justice and all forms of exploitations. race. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. and shall protect them. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. his guardian has given his consent thereto. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. 3. in particular. 6.

for its vocabulary. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. and by drawing. & 1. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country.9. The central government determines targets and promotes education. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Article 351 gives importance to 6. 2.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. wherever necessary or desirable. 43 . These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies.3. Educational Reforms From time to time. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. the forms.

5. private agencies etc. the state governments. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Promoting Inter-state understanding g.. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education.3. Production of suitable for children and adults f. The following pilot projects. 4. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. So as to encourage education on right lines. 7. So that they may work well. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. 6. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. All India Council of Medical Science. to achieve the desired ends. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. etc. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. By starting these projects. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). 8. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Local bodies and private enterprise.

The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. 1. 3. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. handicapped. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. books. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. 11. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. The 45 . Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. education for women. 1.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. reports etc.3. is the state responsibility. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. training and statistics. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. 12. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. research. Material concerning nation-wide interests. are published by it. etc. 9. 10. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. 4. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose.

Explain Directive principles 2.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Write short notes on a. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? .recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. 1. 1. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. articles in the Directive principles. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. Article 45 b. Article 46 4. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 46 . 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Article 21A c.

Article 45 . (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Development of Hindi Language 6. The Directive Principles of State Policy. a. 47 . Ambedkar 2.3. b. b. 2002. 3. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Article 29 and 30 7. Clearing House function 9. Dr. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. a. 1. Article-21A Right to Education. 4. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Article 46 5. a.5. may be law determine”. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. 2002.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Describe the educational role of State Government.

(2008). S. (2004). Ghosh.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. (2009). (2007). New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. B. K. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society.3. Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. N. S. K and Narang C. Dash. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Bhatia. L. New Delhi: Shipra Publications.1. 48 . Education in Emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.

1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.4.3.1 1.5 1. religious education should be broad based.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1. Buddhism etc. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.8 1.4.4.4.4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.4.1 Why Moral Education 1.4.4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4.3.3.4.2 1. Students should be 49 .7 1.4.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4 Moral education 1. Islam.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.4. Jainism.4.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.6 1. Christianity.

Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. know the position of religious education in our country 3. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. religious education and the concept of secularism.and dedication. you will be able to: 1. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions.D.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. state meaning and need for moral education 1. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication.. beauty and goodness so that 50 . 1. India' can produce men of character. As result of which.4. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). According to E.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education.” Education broadens human outlook. Thus. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. "In A multireligious society like ours. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. duty-consciousness. In the complicated and complex society of today.4. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. integrity.

As our country is a country of diverse religions. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. Hence. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. all citizens are free to follow any creed. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. In short. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. if not regularly. As a matter of fact. 1. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. Children attend these organizations.4. 1947 we achieved our freedom. through religious practices and 51 .” From the above. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. it is clear that the State has no religion.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. realizes God in himself. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. According to Article 22.3. Viewing the defects of religious education. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full.4. According to Article 19. They thought that any kind of narrow. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. Thus. religion and democracy are same. 1. rancour. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August.3. castes and creeds. at least occasionally. No religious tax can be imposed on them.

which help him for the development of his character. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . As a result of which. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. aggressive.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. temperament etc. when he becomes an adult. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual.teachings. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. He also learns about social. which can mould. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. If unreleased. intellectual and physical faculties of children. one fully developed.. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. Good education. It helps to modify habits attitudes. It is religious education. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). what is done and what is not done etc. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. moral and spiritual values. and what is evil. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. for the development of the individual and the society.

about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. 2. This should not be allowed to happen. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. Therefore. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. which is the basic need of a democratic life. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and.4. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. 3. 53 . In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. towards the society. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument.3. 1. If we open the pages of history.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. 10. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. churches and mosques 7. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Since all religions have virtues. examples of patriotism. fellow-feeling. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Write Article 22 2. For this. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Life histories of great persons of the world. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Gurudwara as. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. they should be discussed in the right earnest. therefore.4. stories of moral greatness. 11.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . List out any two aims of religious education? 3.5. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. 9.

1. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. 6. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels.acquisitiveness). Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. 55 . let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 2. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 7. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. “Let all be happy and free from disease. Cultivation of emotions.4.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. 5. Patriotism. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Fearlessness. 1. Aparigarha (Non. students. Satyam (truth). 8. 6. 8. Self sacrifice. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Asvada (Control of palate). 2. therefore. Ahimsa (Non-violence). is that which develops moral values. 3. It they learn what morality is in their early years.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Without moral values. They will play their role effectively. 3. 5. Service to others. the methods of teaching. The content of the curriculum. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 7. let men see well of one another. Non-injury. Purity. Moral education. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position.4. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. 4. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). in the home. Swadeshi (Patriotism). 4. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our.

Unity of mankind. minutes in the morning for group singing. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . In the school programme. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. National unity and Spiritual values. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. 3. The School Assembly should be held for a few. 11. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Integrity. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Sharivashram (Physical work). Efficiency. 4.4. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. discipline. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Simple texts and stories concerning different. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Secondary Stage 1. Discipline. Good manners. 2. Asatyam (Non-thieving). 3. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. 56 . 10. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Good temper. 1. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. loyalty and self-sacrifice. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability).9. religions may be included in the syllabus.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. University Stage 1. should form a normal part of school programme. patriotism and self-discipline. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Silent meditation should be encouraged. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. In other words. 57 . Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. 5. love of humanity. In this connection.4. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. 4. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. 3. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. 2.

10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1959 5. 2. the. b. In short. a. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. b. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 1. 2. a. For this.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.4.1. Training of Character 3. 1.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. 58 . 4. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education.4. a. Discuss the aims of Religious education. Sri Prakasa 6 . aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other.4. minutes in the morning for group singing.

11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2003). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. P.H. K. Bhatia. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.P. (2004).4.1. Pahuja. Dash. J. M. Theory and Principles of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi: A. L. 59 . New Delhi : Siddiqui. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Ltd. B. (2008).H.C. K and Narang C. (2007). N. N. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2008).

5.5.5.5.7 1.6 1.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.4 1.5 1. Although.e.2 1.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.9 1.1 1.5.3 1. 60 .5.5. i.5. disparities between provinces/States.8 1.11 1.10 1. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5.5.12 1.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.

waters. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. work hard towards this end. Accordingly. know the education suited to different environments. understand the regional educational development in India 3.1. 1.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. This leads to separatist movements. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 8. roads.5.5. 1. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication.5.5. 5. 2.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. etc. 61 . 1. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. 6. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. They therefore. 3. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. energy. 7. for example. they take appropriate measures. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. 4. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.

5. 4. Tight security arrangements should be made. 3. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. on the basis of regional development may be formed. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. and. some average.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. 62 . • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. Secularism. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. 2. some States became educationally far advanced. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. Therefore. • Separate States (of course viable States). while others remained educationally backward.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II.

etc. Regional Centres of IGNOU. and provision of informal education to enable those.392. library buildings. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. Jammu and Kashmir. NIT. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. etc.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. Rs. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged.. approved proposals worth Rs.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT.480. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. scholarships. Mizoram. remained under developed. After the attainment of independence. Funds amounting to Rs. the State Governments. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. Tezpur. NERIST.14. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. Guwahati.g. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. These projects are in various stages of implementation. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e.After the Planning Process has originated. Silchar. However. while some States like Bihar. 1. the Union Government. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. In the Central sector. Even in each State. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. 63 . academic buildings. Nagaland and NEHU. Out of this. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted.5. Central Universities of Assam. books.84 crore was released in 2005-06. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. Itanagar.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. since its inception in 1998-99.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity.

it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. A provision of Rs. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west).05 crore and Rs.500. During 2003-04.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.5. Out of this an amount of Rs. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.8 per cent in 05). The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.57 crore and Rs. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Moreover. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.261. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. Tezpur University.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.501. Government expenditure on education. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.40. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. too.187. 64 . Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.

1. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Medical education. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. engineering and R&D. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. The Chandigarh Administration. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Karnataka. telecom. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. notes the study. Kerala and Gujarat. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. for instance. pharma. Andhra Pradesh. too. To add to the woes. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. Listing the positives.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Karnataka. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. Tamil Nadu.5. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Moreover. English. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. for which 16 sites. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. too. too. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu.

Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. taking the average in the middle. the interests.year. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. life-oriented and environment slanted. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. even actually looking at the watch. the working days: an academic . a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. the curricular subjects. Hence it is called as need-based. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. The living conditions. For a learner living in a rural area. the teaching methods. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. the needs. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. while the former does not. 66 . The working hours of educational institutions. when he will not be sure of time. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. in which the learners live. In the same manner. Then education become realistic and idealistic. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. the vocations. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. Of course. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. and so on. the socio-physical conditions. which a non-tribal person cannot do. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them.

5.5. 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 67 . Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. to suit education to different environments? 1. 2. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.

A.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2002). some States have become more developed than others b. Salim. Dubey. (2001). S. and Nair. Education Scenario in India.G. a. some of areas which were under the native rulers. C.K.H.5. Education in Developmental Arena. remained undeveloped 3. 68 . New Delhi: Authors press. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 60% 1. during the British rule. Giridhar.N. (2008). New Delhi: Anmol Publications. Educational Development in India. S.2. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. (2001). New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. R.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

71 . Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. secularism and democracy through Indian education. semi literate and illiterates. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. school community and mass media. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. community development.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. National Integration.

1.6 Education for Secularism 2.2 2.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.5.3 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.8 2.6.1.9 2.1.6.1.1.1.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1.1.1 2.1.1.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.LESSON 2.7 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.6.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.5.4 2.

4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. Abraham Lincoln. there should be made no distinction of caste. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. socialism and secularism 2. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. socialistic and secular state.1.1.1. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow.1. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.2. In the matter of admitting students in schools.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. colour or wealth. Democracy thus means power of the people. socialism and secularism 2. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. understand the concept of democracy. 73 . The students may be associated with the management of the school. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. 3) Provision of Manual Work. 2. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 2. for the people by the people”. This is the political aspect of democracy. creed.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. you will be able to: 1.

Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Democracy means 2. 11) Student Parliament. may be planned. declamation contest etc. 74 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. There are different brands of socialism. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems.. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. it soon spread all over the world. debates. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. 2. 12) Visits to Legislatures. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work.1. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.1. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 2. the prince and the peasant. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 75 . In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 2.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society.1.5. the wealthy and the poor. service and cooperation. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. free from exploitation. 7) Special facilities for girls. Under it. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. oppression and disparity.5. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. stationary and uniforms to the needy students.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. none high”. but on the path of non-violence.

10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. 5. According to Holydake. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. Write any two main features of socialism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. Everyone says. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. secularism is being propagated. 76 . "which seeks the development of physical. 11) State schools. “India is a secular-country.” In every political and educational corner.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.

9) It stress free inquiry. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. During the recent past. people have narrow mindedness. 5) It implies tolerance. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. In this type of prevailing situations. A large number of people is uneducated. liberty. There is need of making the people open minded.1.opposed to religious education.1. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. Equality.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. should be independent of religion. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. Moral values have to be imbibed. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 77 . 2. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. “Webster further says. fraternity. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. That is why. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. the belief that the state morals.6. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. 3) It permits freedom of worship. education etc. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state.6. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. people started believing in regionalism. 8) It believes in co-existence.

Corruption and disbelief are rampant. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. education.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. In the hands of such teachers. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. 2. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. The very sight of the building. There should be some internal checking of the material being. tours and trips may be organized. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. No doubt. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. Religious Education. While doing so. that the central string of all religions is one. 1) Moral Education. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. Patiala. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 .6. In the celebration of each such function. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. students belonging to different religions should be associated. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers.presented by the students in the gathering.1. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University.

this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. No doubt. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. 2. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Define Secularism 9. The term secularism was first used by 8. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. The word “Seculum” means 7.

Power of the people 2. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. a. 2. a. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. 3. for the people and the people”. Since socialism stands for equality. Socialism aims at equality.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. there should be made no distinction of caste. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Tuition free education b. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 5. colour or wealth. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. 4. The students may be associated with the management of the school. 6. Socialism aims at social justice. 5. 4. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. c. b. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. b. Equal Opportunities for Admission.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Respect of Individual Personality. d. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. creed. Provision of Manual Work. 3. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. George Jacob Holydake 80 .1. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Abraham Lincoln. This present age 7. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. In the matter of admitting students in schools.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic.

Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.” 9. K. N. Ltd. L. B. the belief that the state morals. (2008). 81 . (2004). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. b. Mohanty. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. 10. J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.8. (2007). N.1.C. education etc. K and Narang C. Dash. a. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Bhatia. Anmol Publications Pvt. b. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Ltd. J. should be independent of religion. (2005). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2003). School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. P. Theory and Principles of Education. It treats all religions on an equal footing. a. It permits freedom of religion. New Delhi : Pahuja.

8 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2.2.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.5.2.6.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.3 2.2.10 2.2.2.2.7 2.2.2 2.5.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.9 2.2.LESSON 2.2.2.1 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2.4 2.6.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .

2. aims and objectives of the school. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. who are placed in his custody.an instructor of school children. as workers.2. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. moral. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3.generation to another. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. as citizens. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. and 4. development. mental. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. therefore. 2. 3. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. skills. It involves physical. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. emotional. a r e 1. 83 . as learners. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. you will be able to: 1. 2. application. The developmental roles of children. social and moral aspects. 2. social. as it is t he aim o f modern education. understandings. A teacher is first and foremost. as persons. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge.

2. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. The students live. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. 2.All education should lead to better behavioural development. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. He has to look after their physical. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. mental. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y.2. a part of their day in 84 . mentally. He is to become an active member. 1. socially. social and emotional health. 3. economically effective. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. Teacher as a Citizen Next. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. morally. motivated. experiences and acceptance. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. morally. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. intellectually. inquisitive. physically fit for socially efficient. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. The following are some of such roles described in brief. member of his community at the outset. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. culturally confident. emotionally. and aesthetically to become.

They will be spending with their parents. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. List out the role of teachers towards community development . Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. faiths. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. activities of the society into which he is born. 4.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. science club. It 85 . This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. fine art associations. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. creeds.the school being under the custody of teachers. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. photographic clubs. India is a land of many castes. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. languages and religions. Unless. solve them. and most of hours. Dr. 2. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties.

it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. a. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 .” 2.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. 1. ‘We should not become parochial. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme.” Regarding the role of education.5. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. folklore and teaching of social studies. the citizens of the Republic of India. b. should be emphasised. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. At the primary stage the importance of stories.is. the study of language and literature. Radhakrishnan.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. therefore. Nehruji has explained this as. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. c. The only process is the process of education. Let us. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. and make into one strong national unit. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. It should broaden the outlook.2. this integration of the Indian people. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . stand up straight. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. Sampurnanand remarked. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. social studies. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. with straight backs and look up at the skies. national anthem and other national songs. narrow-minded provincial. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. poems.

one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Celebrations of National Days.different social sciences. sports. 87 . Co-Curricular Activities. 3. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. 7. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. 10. dramatics and youth festivals. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. symposia. 4. 5. 6. t he st udent s and t he community. ACC. Taking Pledge. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. 9. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Textbooks. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. educational excursions. Student Camps. National Days—January 26. 2. tours. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. 8. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Scouts and Guides. Singing of National Anthem. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. militar y training like the NCC. Reverence of National Flag. debates. Uniform for School Children. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. languages and literature. and picnics. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country.

Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. ii. flora and fauna. 16. language. v. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. 88 . Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. Admissions. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. colour. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. 14. ways of thinking and doing things. Educational and Travel Documentaries. Admissions to schools. Recognition of Institutions. 2. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . iv. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. Open-Air Dramas. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Students Exchange and Tours. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. 15. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school.5.11. 13. School Projects. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. region or religion. iii. 12. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country.2. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i.

Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. ix. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. 2.2. cultures and races on equal bases.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. viii. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. vii. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities.vi. camps. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. irrespective of national boundaries. Define National Integration 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Community dinners. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? .

1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. often in connection with anniversaries.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. C. This. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.2. 4. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. (c) fairly tales. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.F. 6. Organising of debates and. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.6. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. therefore.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. 2. (b) stories of children of other lands. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum.2. Strong has observed. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.” 2. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war.e. if it happens.6.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. Therefore. Radhakrishnan states. Dr. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. patriotism is not enough. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. the international level.as important as that of a national citizenship. 5. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. Teachers 90 . and the healthy development. 2. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .. of his body and mind.friendships between children of different countries. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. In a very real sense. that war. 3.

They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Russian. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 .should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. They should not be propagandists. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. Impartial in their Treatment. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew.” Well Informed About World Situations. a German. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. an Englishman. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Indian and American.

If this is done. which results in agitation and aggression language. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 .Another major. Chronic Poverty . 5. 2.2. there is wide spread frustration among all people. understand and indiscipline: 1. It does not prepare students for life. and help the students to over . It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. As the school is but a miniature society. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. 3. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. Devaluation of Values . 4. the education function can be carried. Wide Spread Frustration . A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. majority of people are. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.2. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. Defects of the educational System . leading to.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them.

93 . 4. 3.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. sympathy and good will among the nations. fellow feeling. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding.2. love. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. 5. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. community development. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.2. etc. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. co-operation.democratic nature. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. 2. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. List out the factors causing social tension in schools .

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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art galleries. To make them achieve their aim. Then came newspapers. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. Emphasising this thing. Hence. books. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. are increasingly used in education. Museums. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. led to the printing of books. the invention of the printing press. periodicals.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times.V. Crow and Crow write. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. In fact. He taught his students orally. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Now internet is being used.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. Moreover. Define community.3. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. “All the citizens of the community. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. During the course of time. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher.

art. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. music. It stimulates curiosity and interests. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. It enlightens public opinion. In collaboration with the experts. Various talks. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. 101 . Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Thus. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. rather than on picture. In the emphasis is on sound. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools.6. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science.G. dram appreciation. politics. social studies. 2. Effective means of presenting music. Important happening inventions. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. Students listen various talks. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world.telecast. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching.classroom teachers. It is also an important source of entertainment. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. 2. “Listening participation” in current history. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. the place of importance. languages. A lot of work by way of pre. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. current affairs and other areas. Reynolds. Thus. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded.3. the teacher still occupies. for the teacher through school broadcasts.

projects or creative activities. Participation of local teachers and pupils. informal and non-formal education. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. 3. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. audibility and presentability. travel talks. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. Before presenting the programme. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. School concerts. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. plays. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. style. 4. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. 102 . Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. at recreational centers. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. 5. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. mathematics. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. speech.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. at any place. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. fol classical music. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. development of lessons. At present. at play. Team-teaching demonstrations. Making learning an open system. at drawing room. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

3.4.4.4.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.4.2 2.7 2.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.4.4.1 2.4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.4.4.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4.5 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.LESSON 2.6 2.4.4.4.4.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.3.8 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.3.4.4.4.4.3.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.

3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system.3. open school. 3.4. 4. Education organised by some agency. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. 8. 6. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. 5. 2. his mental alertness. 110 . say the Government or the private enterprise. 2. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. Education associated with a degree or certificate. compare formal and non formal system of education. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. open university. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. 7. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. To realize this objective of education. the temple. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. starting and ending at -a particular age. 2. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. imparted at the residence of the teacher.. Education. the mass media et. the learner are acquainted. In ancient time in India. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. 9. the most important agency of formal education. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 3. the family. 2.4. you will be able to: 1.2.4. School is.4. it was mostly. 2. the community.

Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. 2. Concepts of proportion. Some education systems have separate middle schools.2. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. depending on the jurisdiction. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals.3. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. Higher Education: Higher education.a secondary education. such as a high school or secondary school. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection.3. diplomas. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start.4. In general. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. also called tertiary. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. third stage. or academic degrees.4. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. capacity. structured education. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. the elements of language are first learned. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. as well as vocational education and training. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. or post secondary education. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Through early formal education. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. 3.4. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.3. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. What are levels of formal educational system? . 2. 2. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . is an important agency of formal education. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. and remote dwellers. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Agencies can be classified as 2. children with disabilities.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. late beginners etc.which will help for nation's development. 4.

” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. It is functional.learning client take some learning objectives.formal education.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. Open university. i. It is deliberate. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. one could say that non-formal education is an active. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. open learning. place of instruction. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. staffed. curriculum. However. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. Non-formal education includes adult education. financially supported life formal education. Adiseshiah. It unlocks the doors of development plans. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Therefore. “Non-formal education should 113 .” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population.. systematic. to help themselves. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. admissions. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. planned. systematic. continuing education and on the job oriented education. Thus. it is a more effective tool for rural development.e. adding up to a true learning society.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. According to Malcolm A. etc. It is much more responsive to needs and change. adults as well as children. it has its own valid claim to reality. until 1970 it had not been defined.

are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. To develop in the student. 6. international understanding. place of education.renewal.4.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. To help industrial workers to better their skills. the Ideas of citizenship. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. Covering life span of an individual. Lawrence. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. admissions. It should lay emphasis on the self. Preparation for future needs. Process of sharing. 7. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. age. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. 114 . national integration. 2. socialism.S.” According to H. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. i. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things.learning pattern. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs.” 2. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them.4. 3. modes of teaching.4. evaluation etc. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. exploring. 5. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. curriculum. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. Part-time education. Flexibility in various aspects of education. self. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. co-curricular activities. 4. 2.S. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.4.be marketable and vocationalised.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.e.

school dropouts. in villages and those who live in towns. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country.4. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. Senior Secondary. working adults. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2.4. 9. publication and information dissemination. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. 3. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 8. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. 115 . • 2. 5. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 7. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. 2.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.4. 10. 4. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. Eradication of adult literacy. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 6. 5. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research.4.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. 3. Universalisation of primary education. To offer Secondary. Technical. 4. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 2.

a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute.2. if organised in isolation. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. Again. Therefore. centres of correspondence education. public libraries. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. 2. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1.full time to learners – can be home. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. To increase knowledge and 2. open space.4. etc.4. 4.4. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . factory. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. others are formal and informal.. Radio and television. All-round development i. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. To make if. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. 2. self-employment iii. farm. 3. effective in modern societal context. Institutions for formal education. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. training centres in factories. To better qualifications. library. etc. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii.

Teaching to face teaching. 6. Give examples of non formal education? . 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. radio. List out any two aims of non formal education. 7. . period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 117 .6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Lecturing T. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Correspondence lesson.V. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Written tests. . institution. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Define non formal education. Face Contact programmes.

The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. 2. a.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.4. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. 4. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 4. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. adults as well as children. b. Formal and Non Formal 2.2. School 3. 2. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Secondary level. 5. the college and the university come under this category. Higher Secondary level and University level.4. Open University. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.” 6. 2. a. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. 118 . 7. Primary level.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. The school. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. systematic. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. b.4. Open School. 3. Pre-school level.

Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Modern Trends in Indian Education. K and Narang C. N. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Pahuja. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2007). J. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Mohanty. J. (2008). Bhatia. B. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2005).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. N. (2003).2. (2008). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Dash. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004).C. P. Ltd. Theory and Principles of Education. L. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. K. S. Gupta. Ltd. New Delhi : 119 . Education in Emerging India.4.

4.1 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.3.5.4.7 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.2 2.5.5.4.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.5.3.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.4.5.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.6 2.5.3.5.5.3 Objectives of Open University 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.4 Need for Open University 2.5.4 Open University 2.4.5.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.LESSON 2.5.5.5.5.5 2.3.5.

it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. labourers and half educated individuals. This knowledge may be in political field. know the need and objectives of open university. 2. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. continuing education is a boon. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same.5. economic field or such other fields. It is a lifelong process. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. Any person.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. farmers.5. For them. However. understand the meaning of continuing education 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. It is a continuous process. 2. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education.2. 2. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. characteristics of open university 4. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture.3. give the meaning. Thus. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. you will be able to: 1. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 .1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. industries. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. Under these circumstances.5.

our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. For them too continuing education is essential. Thus.5. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education.V. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. After the achievement of independence. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. cultured and progressive.directly related to his job. Cinema. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Block Development Officers. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. T. On the other hand.literate person.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . On the other hand. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature.3. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Radio. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Radio and T. Persons engaged in health services. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. 2. Throughout the country.V. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. deteriorating to his character and personality. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Doctors. are also contributing their might for the purpose. if he gets opportunity to develop them.

2.5. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it.3. (8) psychology of adults. and Radio. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. 123 . (2) basic religious matters. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. we have not been able to achieve our targets. (10) first aid. (15) music. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 6. 7. Of course.V. habits of people of other lands. (16) liking.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation.. 4. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education.3. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. especially women. 5. (7) folk songs. (1) ancient history. (13) psychology of child behaviour. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (17) modern international and national events. These books are not very useful. 2. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (14) information about bringing up young children. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. 2. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as.5. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. 3. (6) folk stories. Inspite of the great efforts. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities.

restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e .5.5. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. of educational opportunities. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. 2.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. attendance restrict ion. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. lack of time etc. NLM was launched in the year 2. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.4. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University.

T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements.4. 2. its education is not class room based but home based. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. e. b.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. 5. Which was the first open university in India? . Education is not a once for-all process.5. d.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. IGNOU was established in the year 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.unobserved. the higher the degree of openness. c. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. but 125 . and in teaching. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. No one is too old or too late to learn. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 2. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. it makes use of educational techno logy. 3.

In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. who were deprived of t he same earlier. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. 3.5. 4. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals.4. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 4. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”.who did not get it. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. 2. 2. or who realised too late that they need it. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. Mo re o ver. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 6. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 3.5. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. supplementing the existing provision. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. 2. it a ims at wider and hig her. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. cho ice o f co ur ses. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies.4. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 5. 2. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. 126 .

4. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. In the present day world. Correspondence tuition. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. semi – literates. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. 8. school drop outs.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . 7. List out any four methods of Open University? . s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. Tutor Comments.5. 2. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. Self instructional materials.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. 6. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. 8. 1. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. 2. a state or nation. Therefore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. you have learnt the concept. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . Laboratory works.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Every day. 5. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. 4. 127 . a society.5.

Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 8. 4.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. cho ic e o f co u r ses. 1988. a. 1985. aspirants for continuing education. (1) ancient history. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. its education is not class room based but home based. P r int med ia b. b. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals.5. unskilled workers and other professionals. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. need and characteristics of Open University.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. youth.ambitious learners. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 8. d. 7. Explain the objectives. which may include house wives. 9. 2. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. Television Lessons. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. b. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. agricultural and industrial workers. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. (2) basic religious matters. a. 7. 2. 6. 128 .5. a. 3. Broad casting lectures c.

Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. 129 . K and Narang C. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. L..8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.K. R. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. K. (2007). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. (2004).5. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Modern Problems of Education. Reddy. Udaiveer. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. S. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.2.S. (2004). (2001).

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

and teacher education. Examination reform. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. Training teachers for all levels of education. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. examination. 133 . Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. wastage and stagnation. In Lesson 2. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. All which is the need of the hour. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. its causes and remedial measures.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. which may claim the attention of those concerned. the education of women. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation.

134 .

1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.2 EFA – How? 3.1.6 3.1.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.3 New initiatives.1. 135 .1.3.1 EFA – For whom? 3.1.1.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5 3.1.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.1.1 3.4 3.1.8 3.3.2 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.LESSON 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.7 3.1.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.

In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. 2. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). may be political. “The State shall 136 . Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. you will be able to: 1. economic or cultural. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. (EOI) 2. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. directed that.1. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. Continuing Education (CE) 1. Eradication of Illiteracy. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development.1. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). social. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. therefore. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. Therefore. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). education received added importance and significance.3. On the other hand. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. 3. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. understands the country.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education.

Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Universalization of Enrolment. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. After the attainment of independence. 137 . This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Universalization of Retention. 3. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. the national Government under. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. rights and responsibilities. Continuing Education (CE). It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Due to the adoption of democratic system. It enables the parents to send their children to School.endeavour to provide. Therefore. Three Stages for Universalization.

later to 1988.1. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. 138 . We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. This target had to be revised to 1970. UNESCO Bulletin states.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. 3. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. Therefore. 1995 (for upper primary stage). While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. Write Article 45. educational enterprise. then to 1976. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. It is safe to assure. present and future. 1990. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India.

The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Apart from primary education. 11. creed. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. 139 . Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. the art of preparing fruit-juice. 9. 10. 5. Jams and Jellies. slum areas. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). we have to develop the programme of Adult education. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Disabled. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. 6. 3. Education of the Impaired. adolescent and adult. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. FELF. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme.1. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. rural areas. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas.3. 8. 12. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. Early childhood education should be streamlined. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. The Social Education. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. their social economic status and occupations. etc. By undertaking survey. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Emphasis must be given on health education. their enrolment and retention. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. NAEP. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. problem of literacy. and Women’s education programme should be improved.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. Education of Girls. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). nutrition education and sports and games. sex. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. 3.

e. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Expand MLL and SSA . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Wastage and Stagnation. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. 3. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.1.3. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.1. 4. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.

Familial Factors .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. School Factors . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. Social Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. it is considered as wastage.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Personal Factors .first stage of education.

. 142 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 7. Define Wastage. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. . Enumerate the causes of Wastage.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.

They are described hereunder :1. Societal Factors . school or society. in his home.1. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.3. rural or urban 3.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . Personal Factors .The following factors. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. Family Factors . relating to home. School Factors .

144 . etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. mid-day meals. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? .discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. stationary. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. uniforms. Define Stagnation? 9.

a.1. 4. Universalization of Enrolment c. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA.3. therefore. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. 4. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Hartog Committee.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. 145 . Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. Universalization of Provision b. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. 3. Minimum Levels of Learning b. a. 3. 2.1. a.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Universalization of Retention 2. 3.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. improvement of curriculum. 6. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. directed that. “The State shall endeavour to provide. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.” 3.. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. b.1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.

Teacher and Education in Indian Society. a. Social Factors 8.7. New Delhi: 146 . New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. School Factors d. Sharma.N. 3. improve examination system. (2007). Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Problems of Elementary Education. Familial Factors c. a. Personal Factor b. introduce graded curriculum.K. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations.K.1.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S. S. Crescent Publishing Corporation. T. Hemchand. 9. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. (2001). b. (2008).

5 New evaluation procedures 3.2.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2.2.3.2.2.3.5.4.2.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.1 3.7 Open book examination 3.5.2 Grade System 3.2.5.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2.2.2.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.5.5.5.2 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.6.LESSON 3.1 Problems of examination 3.4.5.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.4.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2.2.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.2.4 Question banks 3.2.2.

2.2. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.3. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.2. 3. you will be able to: 1. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. 3. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.8 3. 3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. but on the other.3.2.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.2. 3. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. 4.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Besides.2. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.9 3.2. suggest the new evaluation procedures.

The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. They may cause problems relating to discipline.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. roadside Romeoism. If the students are in sufficient number. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. etc. waiting rooms for girl students. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. etc. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. etc. which the educational authorities have to face. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. schools for them wherever necessary. The following steps should be taken up. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty.2. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. 149 . also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. hostel facilities.3.. 3. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. They develop secondary sex characteristics. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. by providing free education and liberal scholarships.

2.2. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. It is considered as a major sub-system. Instruction. assessment and Finance. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. appointment of paper-setters. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. conduct of internal examinations. teachers. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. the examination system has an important role to play.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country.4.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. 3. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. public administrators and statesmen. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. public interested in education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 150 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

4. scrutinizers. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. etc. 3. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. validity and practicability. establishing reliability. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. introducing objective-based testing. invigilators. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . etc. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. reducing the domination of knowledge objective.printing and distribution of question papers. etc.2. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. tabulators. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. values. etc. training of examiners. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. etc. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. announcement of results. examiners.

2) From the angle of content of education.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. halo-effect. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. 3. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. it can be said that they become examination-oriented.2. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. do not appeal to the students and parents.. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. stereotyped questions.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education.. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. 152 . may also discredit them. 7) In connection with the question papers. it s a common experience that subjectivity. takes the place of comprehensive learning. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview.4. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. lack of objectivity etc. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. 3) With respect to method of teaching. Vagaries in making. which they are expected to study. Rote memorisation. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. Subjects.. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public.

a part of internal assessment. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. may be introduced.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. etc. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Spot valuation. 153 . Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. revaluation. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. List any two merits of examination. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. . Question Books may be developed in all schools. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. re-numbering of answer scripts.develop true love for education. 4. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers..

5. attitudes. he is given extra credit points. Their interests. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. The students can take any course offered in any department. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. skills are given importance. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . In this system.5. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. Every paper is treated equal.2. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times.3. In actual practice.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. The new scheme of assessment. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .2.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. It is complicated. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. Advantages More autonomy is given to students.2. 3. When a person chooses to work extra.

only the total credits to be earned is specified. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. v. or as a 4 credit course. In the new system. poor. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. An example is a seminar.5. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal.2.good.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . 3. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Groupism is encouraged. These weightages are called credits. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. courses can have weightages defined.poor.discipline. While designing syllabus. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. This system reduces comparison of marks. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses.

It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.5.2. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students.2. However. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. 3. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. 3. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. 3. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.2.5. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. 156 .5.

Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. Therefore. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . . Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.2. 3. However. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. List any four new evaluation procedures. In the hierarchy. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. There are no proper procedures for selection. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . 6.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.2. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India.3. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. recruitment. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.

Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. qualifications. wherever necessary. submitting of the inspection reports. etc. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. library books. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools.6. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools.qualified personnel. being realised as two different functions. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. staff. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. whether the syllabus has been covered. in a sense. books are followed. 1.2. of late. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. They are. 3.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. When they are fully realised. playgrounds. Academic inspection. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. interpersonal relationships and so on. requirements.. taking up the follow-up programmes. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. 158 . school buildings. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. finding out whether the prescribed text. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision.. in contrast. inspecting the class-room teaching.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. complaints and compliments. disciplinary problems. etc. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. finding out the adequacy of. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. laboratory equipment.

Ed. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. aptitude. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. once in five years. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them.. M. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. modern. their professional knowledge. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field.Ed. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. In the light of these conceptualisation. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. or. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Similarly. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. at least. 159 .. Insistence on specialisation in the B. courses. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. In the case of departmental candidates. course in either educational. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. 3.2. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. Being a special category of educational administrative officers.

Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. 3. Instruction. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 3. d. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country.2.2. Grade System. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 160 . Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. b. a. 5.2. a.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. 3. 4. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. c. assessment and Finance. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. Administration. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. a. b.

To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. b. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. (2005). New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. b. New 161 . Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. 5. Open book examinations. R and Sharma.a part of internal assessment. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. a. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. History and Problems of Education in India. c. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. K. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Problems of Education in India. S. a. b. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .2. K. Multiple sets of question paper. Vaidya. Question banks. a. Educational Reforms. (2004).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. 7.4. (2002). 3.

8 3. 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 3.3.3. 4. you will be able to: 1.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3. 2. identify the needs of rural India and social.3. 3. 162 .1 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3.3 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3.3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.5 3.3. 5.9 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.6 3.3.3.LESSON 3.10 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.7 3.

University Education. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1.. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. in Andhra Pradesh. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination.3. the Banaras Sanskrit College. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education.3. 10 years of general Secondary Education. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. 2. etc.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. and 3 years of First Degree Course. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. Consequent on the recommendations. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education.specialisation programmes 3. Similar is the case with some other States. Commission emphasised to continue. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta..e. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. 8 years of general education. The.g. e.. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. The Calcutta Madras.e. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States.. i.

to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. is also a plus point . 8. and. b. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . educational channels. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. habits of hard work and develop . cultural and economic development of the country. 5) to help for the social. 10. 5.3. 3. who desire to change from one stream to another. to prepare. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self.confidence in students. to imbibe. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. social. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. Provision for transfer of credits to students. 7.a sense of dignity of labour.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. economical and political. 6. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. historical. However. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a.

to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. and. Philosophically it is not the conception. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies.national integration. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. The General Educational Spectrum. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. Sociologically it is undesirable. etc. social justice. cooperativeness. cultural and' religious tolerance. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities.3. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. 1.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. democratic living. at the other. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 .. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. international understanding. on one hand. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Psychologically. and that required to enter the tertiary level. to develop national character.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. 3.

Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Science. Biology. rural health. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. In the vocational spectrum. and vocations based on dairy-farming. chemistry. 3. such as Agriculture. fish culture. In the matter of language. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. India is a land of villages. technological. 2. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. All these need for an. industrial agricultural production is growing. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. vegetable growing. medical plants. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. professional. or other machinery. Commerce and other disciplines. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. horticulture. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. Agriculture is the main occupation. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. semi-skilled and unskilled levels.— tube-wells. commerce. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. physics or mathematics. 166 . Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. educational and cultural services. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. In our country. the rural areas have suffered very much. commerce.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially.3. technical. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students.

3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. the local resources available. In this it may be concluded. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. social justice. In time. and the needs. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. In this way. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. can be ensured. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised.. 4. interests and aptitudes of the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b..etc. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. 3. There had been favourable reaction from the students. etc. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. and 5. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 .

11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.a sense of dignity of labour.3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.3. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. b. Calcutta University Commission 2. (2007).3.C.K.3. 3. Mohanty. J. a. S. J. 3. a. Anmol Publications Pvt.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.3. (2008). we studied the history. B. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. to imbibe. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. N. Ltd. Vocational Sepctrum. General Educational Spectrum and b. 2. New Delhi : 168 . (2001).8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 3. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. b. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2005). 3. objectives. Dash. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. a. habits of hard work and develop . Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

4.7 3.4.13 3.4.4.4.1 3.9 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.12 3.6 3.4.4.4.4.LESSON 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.3 3.11 3.4.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.2 3.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5 3. Education contributes to human development.4.10 3.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.8 3. but the lighting of a fire”.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.4.4. social and 169 .

understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4.4. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. family. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. Home Economics. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. Teaching and Fine Arts. you will be able to: 1. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. 3. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. During the year 1937. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. although we have miles to go. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. Nursing. There is a close connection between education and development. The relevance of women’s education to social. particularly 170 . Dr. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom.4. These courses were. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. community and nation is universally acknowledged. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. economic.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. For the first time in the history of India. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. While women constituted only 9.higher education in particular. higher education of girls developed immensely. analyze the women and distance education. In the post —independence period. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. Education . 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. cultural and political development of the individual.

9 14.0 Today. The idea of women’s education for equality. Even today.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.T Women University. 3. In the rest of the country. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.2 29. out of 9200 and odd colleges.4.women.2 22.1 31. Kodaikanal.0 16. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.9 27. Coimbatore. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Mumbai. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. levels and professions. 3.65 lakhs in 1994-95. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. we have more than 1200 institutions. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.N.4. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Mother Teresa Women University. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. In 1950-51. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. in our country.D. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.0 32. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. Yet.1 24.4. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.0 43.

3.53 34.36 3. 2. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .1 respectively.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .4%) prefer Arts subjects. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.27 89.4.46 82.56 64. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.44 35.1 and 14.63 Female % 34.that of boys. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .66 66.4. 3.83 47.47 65.34 33.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.54 12.17 52.4.73 10.

If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. particularly. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. promoted and increased. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. curriculum not suited to their requirements. They argue that when their daughter need not earn.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. irrelevance of the content of education. marriage is a very common I factor. distance of the college or university from home. etc. what is the need for higher education for her. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. In college. she will only learn fashion. Also. Book banks should be established. and coeducation may spoil her character. 3. Thus. The major hurdles. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education.4. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas.hinders the girls from getting higher education. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. In every third family. They gave up their studies to enter home life. According to a survey. financial difficulty of the parents. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. 173 . Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided.

It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously.4. 3. Distance education is a boon to women. Education. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. It also brings about 174 . which is the most dynamic factor of development. Geographic distance of educational institutions. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. It enables to study. space. Empowerment in a nutshell. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. resources and socio .4. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. It is a productive investment. Full-time employment. and the limitations of the conventional education system.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development.economic disabilities faced by women. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. 3. is the only tool for realising empowerment. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. There are constraints of time. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world.

conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. The major objectives of women's higher education. education of women is of paramount importance. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex.4. for full development of our human resources. 3. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. legal awareness and economic independence. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. Empowerment is an active. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. This can be achieved through reflection. higher learning. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. empowerment means being assertive. on their own. education of women must be given priority in national plans. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. Women are partners in development. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity.

more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Reservation for women. The local administration. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. will encourage them to venture new grounds. especially so in the developing countries. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. Scholarships and concessions for women. 3. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women.4. which is pending for a long time. which had been the sole domain of men. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. who are eager to take up courses. The educational institutions. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. has to be implemented at the earliest. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . But their number is small. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. 176 . Better opportunities. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops.

engineering and related technologies (16. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.8%).000 women in the country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. But.3 percent. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. Chief Executive. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. IDP Education. especially in developing countries like African countries. capacities etc. 3. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. Also.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? .. According to Lindy Hyam. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem.4.1%) and architecture and building (38.9%). it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. Australia. talents. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates.

Kodaikanal. SNDT Women’s University. Coimbatore. A. Women Education. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. SNDT Women’s University.4. Pattanaikj.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Mother Teresa Women University. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Rao. individuals and society b. community and the nation. Mumbai. R. Mishra. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.C. Mumbai. 2. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Rajasthan 5. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. 3.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. 4. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. (2000). create the right attitude towards life. a. Centre for Women’s Studies. (2007). 3. R. Women and Education. 43% 6.4. and Suryalatha. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Women Education. A. 178 . “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. 3. 4. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. (2008).to the family. R. (2005). S. Coimbatore.4.K. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Annakodi. and Swain. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. S.R.

4 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.1 3.5.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5.5. whole.5.5 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.5.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.10 3.5.5.3 3.5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. They should be trained.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.9 3.LESSON 3.8 3.personality of children in and out of school. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.6 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.7 3.11 3.

4. understand the training teachers for Primary.5. 180 . analyze the general problems of teacher education 2.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. know the pre service and in service training facilities. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. international. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. social and emotional integration. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. 3. national consciousness. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. equality and justice. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 5. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals.5. and national character. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Lack of physical facilities. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. understanding and strong desire for international peace.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. 3. you will be able to: 1. Shorter working hours.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. Secondary and Higher Secondary level.

the primary teacher education. Depending on the levels. it is called the In-service teacher education. 3. the secondary teacher education.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. Inadequate training in practical skills. and M. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. (NCERT) New Delhi. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. a Diploma course and a Degree course. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. it is called the Extension teacher Education. If the student teachers are working teachers.. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B.5. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work.5.Ed. inservice and extension education programmes. 3. and the collegiate teacher education. who have not been trained earlier. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service.. Lop-sided curriculum. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . At the diploma level. the centre. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. students. higher secondary teacher education. etc.Less qualified teacher educators. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. levels.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course.Ed. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. the state Government.

extensio n service. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Education cells. non-formal. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . Educational teehnology cells. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training.5. 3. Evaluation unit.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Expand NCERT 2.. collegiate cells. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . state Institutes of Educat ion. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Science Education units. depart ments etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. are established. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Also Guidance Bureaux. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research.

to ensure teacher competence. primary and secondary school teachers. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. which should include experience in the primary schools too. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training .Ed. to offer consultative services. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. and so on. schools and sister institutions.. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. laboratories. which help breaking isolation from one another . degree... should be improved on a top priority basis. to prescribe conditions for recognition. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and .Ed.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . despite its vast expansion. audio visual aids. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. to improve curricular programmes. material conditions relating to libraries. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. and 183 .post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240.

Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. Meanwhile. etc.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. Agriculture. not came up once again. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. Modern Techniques of Teaching. Organisation of Content Courses.secondary education. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. Hence. Psychology of Students. Modern Methods of Evaluation. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. etc. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. To meet this exigency. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. Workshops. whether they should have professional education or.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. and XII. Induction Courses. though no pre-service training. methodology and evaluation. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. 184 . The problem. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher .Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed.

These facilities are available for regular students. Post-Graduates also undergo B.Ed. (Education) and M.S. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Ed. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates... Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.D. Courses leading to B. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.’s for Ph.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.5. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.A. M. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.Ed. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.Ed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. All B Ed. Degree. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. in Education. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. training.. Ajmer. courses and M.A.. 3.Ed.Ed.. Pre-service training is for those. State Institutes of Education. (Education) are organized by 185 .. Degree and M. For re-orienting the teachers. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.’s are elig ible for M. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.

some Faculties of Education of some Universities. 4. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession.5.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . (Ed). 3. What is the role of ERIC? . as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned.A. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. However. 5. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. and B. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. . 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. Hence the employability of M. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned.). Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .A. (Ed. of conduct—written or unwritten.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. established by tradition and teachers of the past. they should be conscientious . and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 186 .

However.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a.5. The necessity is however this. 3. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. National Council of Educational Research and Training.3. 6.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 3. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Shorter working hours. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. Bhopal. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. Ajmer. b. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 3. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 2. Explain code of conduct for teachers. a. b. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 3. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. a. 2.5. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. 4. 5. 4. 187 . they should be conscientious.

12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. Tewari. A. J. B. Publication Pvt. Teacher Education.D. Teacher Education. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . (2009). Mohanty.5. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Ltd Aggarwal. and Teacher Education. P. (2010). (2003).N. Corporation.3.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

In lesson 4. If the diet is poor. the focus is on the school health programmes. consuming the right amounts becomes important. common ailments of children. The person’s environment is equally important. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. preservation of nutrients. communicable diseases and their prevention. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. 191 . Since food is the source of nutrients. nutritional deficiency diseases. objectives. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. objectives. economic and educational developments.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. objectives and role of the physical education. In lesson 1.

192 .

It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i. physical.2 4.LESSON 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody. It is a miniature society.8 4. 193 .1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.9 4.1.1. emotional and social.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.11 4.6 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.1.1.1.e.1.3 4.7 4.1.1.1.10 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. The programmes of school health education are quite important. mental.4 4.1.1 4.5 4.1.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.

. 11.g. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. To develop healthy health habits among children. 5. 9. know the need for sex education. 10. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12.1. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. Instruction. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. 8. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. explain the importance of First aid 5. 6. To give information regarding health rules.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. understand school health programmes 2. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. list the common ailments of children 3. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. 4. training of teachers and evaluation. cleanliness and healthful living. To develop certain skills concerning health. content of health education. 194 . 3.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. you will be able to: 1. e. to his family and to the community at large. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 7. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. training in first aid and etc. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. 4. 2. 4.

Toilet rooms should be amply provided.1. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. suitable furniture. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. (viii) first aid. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. as described below 1. vaccination. is imperative. B. The school buildings should be spacious. 2. proper doors and windows. 3. First aid facilities should be made readily available.G. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. organisation of school health days. Arranging better transportation facilities. minimizing the travelling distance. “Play-for-all” programmes. play festivals. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. There should be regular water supply. Vaccination for small pox. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 .. Triple Antigen Vaccination. 4. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. etc. (v) safety education. inoculation against cholera.C.coming or absence. ( iii) sanit at io n. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. (xii) smoking education etc. cleanliness weeks. B. (vi) nutrition education. excusing late. The flooring should not be damp. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. direct lighting. (xl) mental health.4. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. 2. There should be good drainage facilities.. 5. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. (ii) communit y healt h. The surroundings of schools should be clean. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. typhoid.

drowning. • Have adequate rest and sleep. cuts. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. and other accidents. fractures. • When sleeping in groups. C. • Keep all rooms clean. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. isolate and notify. fainting (epileptic fit). The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. 196 . Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. D. bleeding. • Take nutritious food. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. • Find out the cases. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. burns. dislocations. scalds. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. poisons. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. if epidemic is wide-spread. sports and games in the interest of their health. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease.. wounds. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. etc. insect stings. • Close the schools.

They have less resistence to diseases than adults. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. fever. Once these germs get into the body. asthma. water or bodily contact.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. headache. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. chicken pox.1. Mention the school health programmes. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. backache. which are – cold. These diseases are called communicable diseases. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. tuberculosis. They are: i) The incubation stage.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. 4. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. cough. polio. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. pain in the joints. measles etc. 2.1.. So they easily get illnesses. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. There are three stages in any communicable disease. List out the Health curriculum 3. 4. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children.

The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. The symptoms include cold. This is caused by cold virus. The following are the common communicable diseases. Tonsilitis . The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Some suffer cold due to allergy. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Others make the children very weak. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. unhygienic bottle feeding. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems.This disease is caused by bacteria. Mumps . etc. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Hence it is called a killer disease. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. Ear Infections . Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath.It is caused by measles virus. Throat is affected. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Scabies . There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Common Cold . Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. After three or four days of fever. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. The child may have fever. head-ache and cough. eating food which is not clean. unhygienic living conditions. Diarrhoea . nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. sugar and water. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. 198 .When a child suffers from scabies. cough and fever. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Measles .

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the child is not able to breathe. 199 . The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Diphtheria . the child may die. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. If proper treatment is not given. Shortly. What are communicable diseases? 6.• • • • Chicken Pox . Typhoid . The child may also have diarrhoea. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. 5. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. It begins with fever.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. By scratching he causes secondary infections. Enlist the common ailments of children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. face and waist. raised pink spots appear on head. As the disease progresses. separate. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. Expand DPT . The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days.

2. 5. wounds. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation.1.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. bleeding.1. Sprains .7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. bruises. drowning.4. man-woman behaviours.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. swelling. so-called sex books and periodicals. cuts. sprains. scorpion stings. eye injury. 4. 200 . Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. exciting and body-oriented. simple fractures. In such cases. and films. fainting.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. snakebites. it is a subject of art. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. and Community Work and Social Service. sprains. Cuts and Bruises . head injury.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. Drowning .Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. Wounds . fiction. Sex is popular. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. 3. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. It is both biological and psychological. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. films and jokes. dislocation. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. 4. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. etc.g. It has its rightful place in education too.

Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. In secondary schools. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. health. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. 2. 3. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. they would be treading the path of sure doom. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. In today's liberal and interactive society. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. celibacy are age. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. sex education is being recommended in schools. Hence. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. The values of life. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Should the boys and girls. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. in their ignorance. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. the religious organisations. but preserve them from disaster and disease. the school.co-operatively to give sex education to the young.. try experimenting with their bodies. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . B. The home. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease.old values. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS.

202 . common ailments of children. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. communicable diseases and their prevention. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. when the courses are already overloaded. the school health programmes. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. hence. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. What are the major components of Sex Education. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. 4. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. Teacher education institutions are. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. first aid and sex education. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. there will no crisis in its implementation.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. C. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions.1) 2) 3) as a separate course.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. 209 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Mention the food nutrients 2. Rickets is the deficiency of 5.

These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.2. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. minerals. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s .2. If you look at the definition carefully. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.4.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. 210 . Let us talk about each of these aspects. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .

People in the east of our country prefer rice. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first.6. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. There is no point. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex).g. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. moderate or heavy work.one in the morning and the other at night. Preferences/customs are also important. for example. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. construction labourer). A balanced diet is specific firstly. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. activity level and physiological stress. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. dosa are typical of the south. These are: region where the person resides and income. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). Even within given States there is considerable variation. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. the social and religious practices of that region.g. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. In the case of adults. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati.2. Rice or rice preparations such as idli.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. sex. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. 4. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. In other words.sedentary. paratha and poori. it is also specific to a given activity level . typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . A normal individual consumes a variety of foods.

however. However. fat and sugar tend to increase. however. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. vegetables and fruits. taboos related to food may play an important role. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. As you read this discussion. If you think of your own religious group. One person may be fond of milk products. Even among flesh foods. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. however. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. Having more money. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. As income increases. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. income plays a vital role. nuts and dry fruits. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Judicious selection of food is. while another may hate them. as important for the rich as for the poor. These determine the acceptability of foods. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. for example. In addition to these. customs. One must. Among the social factors. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting.planning the diet. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. Including these 212 . body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. Balanced diets should also be income-specific.

fruits. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. if the teachers have good food habits. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. 8. 17. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. etc. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables.eating is hazardous. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. eggs . 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. meat.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 213 . For this. over-eating or under. but they should be thrown away. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. Define balanced diet. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. 8) Walk a while after eating. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . mouth. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. green leaves. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. List out any two healthy food habits.

a.2. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . 4. Night blindness. In fact.4. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. e. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. Bitot’s spots.2. Conjuctival xerosis. b. When the diet is inadequate.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Beri Beri 4. c. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Keratomalacia 3. d. Vitamin D 5. good nutrition is essential for good health. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. preservation of nutrients. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Explain food nutrients 4.2. 4. Discuss good food habits. Corneal xerosis.

(2008). Nutrition and Dietetics. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. 8. R. P. minerals. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.N. 7. a.6. Food should be consumed after eating well. mouth. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . b. A Text Book of Foods. (2004). Sri Lakshmi B.C. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. b. S. R. (2005).M. Nutrition Science. Hands. Food and Nutrition Education. a . vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. (2008). 4. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. Food and Nutrition Education. Health and Nutrition Education. (2009).2. Chopra. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum.

3.2 Impact on economic development 4.6.3.4 4.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.5 4.3.3.6.3.7 4.9 4.8 4.3.3.3 Impact on Education 4.6.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4. 216 .13 4.LESSON 4.12 4.10 4.3.3 4.3.3.3.1 Impact on social development 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.1 4.3.3.11 4.3.2 4.3.3.

” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. the stress is.4. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. 217 . The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. aims at providing the younger generation. 4. the causes of population change. objectives and need for population education 2. economic and educational development 3. characteristics and changes for himself.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. describe the impact of population growth on social. There is some difference. Population Education. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. you will be able to: 1. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. It is a much wider co ncept. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. his societ y and the world. population characteristics.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.3. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. state the meaning.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning.3.3. and the consequences of these processes. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. 4. Whenever we talk of sex education. family planning and sex education etc. It is not sex education. understand the importance of small family norm 5. his family. therefore. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. community.

2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two objectives of Population Education. Define Population Education 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . the nation and the world.3.3. the family. the society.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.4. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well.

Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. which will not be possible without population control. health and happiness of its citizens. 4. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Family is considered as a social unit. 219 . Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.3. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race.6. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. economic and educational development of the country. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. Every second two thousand children are being born. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population.3. 4. When the family is small. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. the family programmes are also handicapped. With the larger families.

3.6. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. i. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. Swollen cities. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. Many students herded in a small room. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. lack of proper health care. in buses and trains. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. 4. The gulf between them is widening further. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. organization index and material index. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom.3. 4. unemployment. facility for drinking water.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. and so on. in cinema halls and theatres.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. are the results of demographic pressures on social life.e.. 220 . But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. toilets.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production.6. In developing countries. heavy intern I migration etc. pollution of the environment. teacher index. in parks and other places of public gatherings.

The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners..3. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. can be studied in science and health education. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. less space facilities. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. There would be very few audiovisual aids. essays. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Regional Language. can be taken up. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. even text books would be in short supply. reproduction. There would be poor library facilities. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Hindi and English. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. thus. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. less budget for education. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. family planning etc. bar graphs etc. 221 . can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. and laboratory equipments. blank verses etc. Social Studies Statistics on population education. there will be lacuna in many other spheres.

2. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. United States of America. 15. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 8. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 10. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 9. Bihar. deaths. 12. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). They may arrange them as per average density of population. 14. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. 3. Children may compare two families. West Bengal. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Brazil. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 7. Canada. Children with the help of parents. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. China. area and average density of population. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Uttar Pradesh. causes of deaths etc. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 11. 4. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. 13. 5.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation.4.3. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living.

The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. 17. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. we have no right to stop 223 . values and role children etc. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. 16. Comparing life in various respects in two families. age at marriage. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. The question. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. preferences for sex. 18. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”.3.be opened in their schools.

which education can only do. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . on an overall basis. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. however. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. 4. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. The Family Welfare Program. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Since the program's inception. “He who is responsible for population growth. at varying places in different regions. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. continued . More than 45 years ago.were implemented 224 . should be overcome at the intellectual levels. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.their entry into the world”. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).to emphasize family planning services. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. especially the expansion of child immunization services . and the child survival components of the news: program.4-6.3. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate..

This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. the community appears willing to pay for services. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. In October 1997. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. expansion of services to unmarried women. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. and nominal fees for services. Therefore. reliance on local women as community health workers. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. Local programs vary in their approaches. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. men. Moreover. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. a focus on health promotion. At these meetings.earlier than the safe motherhood components. In April 1996. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. and the World Conference on Women.

nation and the world.emphasizing the needs of the client. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. 226 . improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. 1997). Give your answer as instructed in each question b. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. 3. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. economic and educational development 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. family. 4. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. community.3. involving the community. Its main purposes are to create awareness. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Describe the impact of population growth on social. What are the goals of RCH? 4.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training.3. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future.

China. population characteristics. less space facilities. b. the causes of population change. his society and the world. 3. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. Brazil. 7. Canada. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. bar graphs. area and average density of population.3. a. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. 4.4. 6. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. and the consequences of these processes.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. 5. United States of America. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages.” 2. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 227 . his family. characteristics and changes for himself. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. less budget for education. b. a. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union.

Principles of Population Studies. (2005). N. (2005). Centre for Women’s Studies. (2004). Jayapoorni. Bhende. Coimbatore.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. (1992). Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House.4.K. Ltd. A. Ltd. Modern Trends in Indian Education. J. 228 . V. Kantikar. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Udaiveer. T. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2002). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Modern Problems of Education. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.3. Reddy.

9 4.4.8.4.4 Lead up games 4.4 4.4.7 4.2 4.LESSON 4.4.8.4.3 Indigenous games 4.1 Minor games 4.4.4.4.4.10 4.5 4.4.8.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.8.3 4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .1 4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.2 Major games 4.4.4.4.11 19.6 4.

you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. classify the different types of games. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. The concept of physical education has been made broader.4. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. 4. social fitness. the youth of the country.4. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education.4. mental alertness. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. team spirit. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. moral fitness and emotional fitness. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.4. 4. as it should 230 . perseverance. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. which forms its most valuable assets. leadership and balance in defect. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. full records of physical activities should be maintained. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools.

contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Every individual is a part of society. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. The educational efforts at home. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. To be more precise. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. team spirit. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. leadership. obedience to rules. They go hand in hand. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. They are inseparably united together. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Therefore.

mo ral. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. Just like Education.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. Rousseau states. pleasing manners. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. a sound health.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. C. Regarding the significance of physical education. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. H. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. 4.” The Secondary Education Commission. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field.” Montaigue writes.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. game and sports. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. Physical exercises. Buck has observed that 232 . “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. ment al. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. nor body but the whole man. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency.4.

Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. resourcefulness and smartness. Froebel says. coordinative abilities. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully.4. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. flexibility and power.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. 233 . elegance. efficiency and character. we must exercise the whole human being. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. happiness. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent.” In brief. endurance. speed. “If we wish to develop the whole being. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. initiative. strength. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength.” 4. etc.a properly directed physical education should result in health. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively.

students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. including all racial groups and historical ages. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. If no opportunity is provided to the students. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. poetry and painting. systems of government. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. in greater or lesser degree. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. While wars.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Tournaments foster this sentiment. plagues and famines. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. they may form gangs. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. 234 (i) (ii) . Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. these fundamental things have always been present. its adherents and its enemies. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Every age has its artists.

to develop tolerance. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination .\ to develop perseverance. 235 . bravery and interest in games and sports. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. B. respect for rules. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline.sacrifice. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. obedience. 2. Write any two importance of Physical Education. etc. self.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements.

Emergency care procedures should be followed. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. 7. 6. Keep the field ready for the activities. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. defects. 14.H. Always keep the whistle ready. is essential.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential.4. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Be in the uniform. Inform health principles. 3. 10. students. 5. Be punctual.4. Posture screening should be done. Usually parents. 16. 4. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 11.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there.4. 4. 12. injuries among pupils should be made. 9. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. . Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. and. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 236 1. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 13. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. 8. Act as a leader. Be well-prepared. 2. 15. Haag. Be sportive. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Be self-confident. and readmission after they have recovered. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health.

They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. frolic and jo y. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. 4. Lead up games. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. 4. As such they are well enjoyed by children.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. 4. the play. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. Moreover.4. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. their development is handicapped. 2. less equipment and less expense. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. chasing. Indigenous games.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. 237 . Such inst incts as imitation.8.

They are rules approved by the International Associations. These games require varied skills such as running. spiking.4. bowling etc. skipping. on hard courts. Dodging. zig zag relay. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Basket Ball. For each game the rules are many. Except a few games. Hopping. Tennis. the number of players and substitutes. Khokho.With a very few rules. The dimension of the posts and nets. under ball pass Relay. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Throwing. While many of them are played in the open playfields. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Tennikoit. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. Soft Ball.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Cricket. dribbling. Jump the stick clay and so on. Jumping. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Shuttle Badminton. They are played for a shorter duration. Ball Badminton. On lawns. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. wherever the kids assemble. with implements or without implements. 238 . catching. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. stopping. on sea-shore.8. heading. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. over ball pass Relay. boosting. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. women take part most of the games. couple tag. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. on mountain tops and on river beds. the games can be modified according to convenience. muffling. Kabaddy etc. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. benefit in playing minor games. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools.. Volley Ball. trapping. hitting. the play equipment. finding the partner. some of them are played indoors. 4. snatching the kerchief. Hockey. driving. pitching.

in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 4. they are in existence. On occasions like marriage.4. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 .8. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. List out some major games. 7. birth. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. All the fundamental tactics. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. An example for indigenous game is 8. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8. death.4. While observing the players in action. For example.4.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. They have an abundant social value. and . Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. these games being popular. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. Games may be classified as 6. Kho-kho. festivals connected with religion and public functions.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.

It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept.4. a. 2. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 2. b. physically and emotionally fit and alert. 3.4. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. Minor and Major 240 . d. aims and objectives and need of physical education. b. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. 4. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Posture screening should be done. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. a. a. b. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. c.4. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 4. 3. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. Briefly discuss the different types of games. 4. to develop physical stamina. 4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5. a. to secure physical health b. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose.

Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. (2009). New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Tennikoit. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Cricket. Volley Ball. Handbook of Physical Education.6. J. Shuttle Badminton. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.C. 4. Ball Badminton. G.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Khokho. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2008). Physical Education and Sports.K. 241 . Soft Ball. Foot-ball.4. Mohanty. Khokho 8. J. Tennis. Aggarwal. Basket Ball. Health. Kabaddy 7. Krishna murthy. (2005). Ltd. J. Hockey. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2008).

5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.5.2 4.5.5.5.5.LESSON 4.5.5.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .11 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.1 4.5.9 4.5.5.8 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.6 4.3 4.5.10 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.7 4.1 Natural Environment 4.4 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.5.

aesthetic and educational factors. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Attitude. 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. 5. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. list out the types of environment 3. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast.5. Awareness. Essential knowledge about the Environment. political. role of teacher in environmental conservation. Details are given below: I. 243 .5. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. population explosion and resource depletion could be. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. 2. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. 2. The best place to start such learning is school. you will able to: 1. 3. Participation. social. it covers the following elements: 1. economic. 4. Broadly. Skills.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Evaluation Ability. education about the environment and education through the environment.5. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution.educat ion for the environment. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Knowledge. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. 6. 3. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement.

Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Oxidants Other pollutants.B. • Biological magnification E. F. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. a. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. 244 . Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. D. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. 2. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle.

Family planning ii. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Persuasion: i. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. c. The human ecosystem II. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. III. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. The pill ii. Socio-economic measures. Use of medical science i. 2. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems.3. Sterilisation. B. 4. 2. economic. Control of population growth a. Birth control through education b. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Intrauterine device iii. Abortion iv. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. 3.

Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. 246 . Define Environmental Education. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. e) Recycling. Air pollution abatement ii. 3. Water pollution abatement. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. 1983). (UNESCO. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Planning human intervention on the natural processes.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i.

This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. a. A change in one brings about a change in the other. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. They interact with each.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. includes the plants.5. way is called environmental or ecological factor.5. to his needs.other components of the environment.5. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. fax agricultural apparatus. -other. Biological environment The biological environment.5. He modifies according”. Any constituent or condition of the environment.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. b.5. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific.4. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . animals and other organisms (biotic).5. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. 4. telex. These are biotic components.

(ii) Air pollution. supplying timber for various uses.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. industrial pollut io n. excellent recreation sites. industrial survey. use of medicinal plants. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. explosion deforestation. change in climate may be added. alternate sources of energy. balance of nature. sources. reasons. desertification 248 . languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . nuclear energy. t heir role in preventing pollution. effects. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. preserving the watersheds. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion.. preventing siltation of dams. wars and hazards of war. natural way of controlling pests. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. extinction of species. acid rain. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. role of trees in building economy. need for conservation. over exploitation of ground water. solar cookers. trees reducing noise pollution. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. social studies. relation between population and pollution. air pollutants from industries. noise control. are the topics which may be taught in History. evolution. river systems. use of pesticides. biogas plants. ozone depletion. of civilizations. History The rise and fall. importance of nitrogen cycle. ozone layer deplet ion. sources of pollut ion. food chain and food-web. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. need for bio-diversity. nuclear warfare. greenhouse effect. water scarcity. etc. etc. noise pollution. windmills. mineral survey. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. effects o f CFC. maintaining the ecological diversity. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. population.

aims and scope. animal and plants. 12. 3. Providing. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 2. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 11. 10. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan.may be inc ded in Geography.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 7. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. 8. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. 5. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 9. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. 13. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 6. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 4. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes.5. 14. Peepal and Tulsi. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Organising conferences. group discussions and seminars. Developing awareness about environmental issues. 249 . 4.

and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. World Environmental falls on 250 . Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment.Send their waste oil. all these can cause serious pollution. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. If it is done. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Don’t burn any waste. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. or form a car pool for everyday travel. especially plastics. Reuse carrier bags. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. 5. Use public transport wherever it is possible. it will cause pollution. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Never put any left over chemicals. used oils down the drain. 6. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal.

diversity and stability. nuclear wars. etc. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. values and habits.). The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. potable water.5. developing desirable attitudes. Harmony with the nature . etc.mat erials. depletion of ozone. dest roying nat ural habitats. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. To arrange visits or expeditions. To provide materials needed for practical work. Concern for species. Conservation of natural resources.4. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. viz. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. The groups may exchange. deforestation. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. Att itudes of balance towards nature.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. To provide reference materials for children’s use. To arrange for visiting speakers. rather than conquest and mastery. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Social responsibilit y (common good. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. CFCs. loss of bio-diversity. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. and 251 . disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . concern for others).. (cleanliness. orderliness and beauty).

It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. preserving natural cycles.5. 8. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3.5.5. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. 252 . 4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.

3.\ 4. a. a. (2007). new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. S. Awareness. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Nanda. Udaiveer. b. 6. Ltd. New Delhi : Sharma.K. (1997). T. b. sources. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. new problems from science and technology. Publications Pvt. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. explosion deforestation. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. (ii) Air pollution. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. over exploitation of ground water. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . Social responsibilit y (common good. Rapid population growth. Knowledge. Modern Problems of Education. (2004). New Delhi : Authors Press. Ltd. group discussions and seminars. sources of pollution. effects. Organising conferences. ozone layer deplet ion.. Kuldeep. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. 8.K. a. Environmental Education. Y.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. b.5. To provide reference materials for children’s use. air pollutants from industries.K. water scarcity.2. (2007). concern for others). Providing. relat ion between population and pollution. b. 4. Environment and Human Rights. To provide materials needed for practical work. Education for values. Anmol Publications Pvt. Environmental Education. S. reasons. acid rain. population. June 5 7. 5. importance of trees in the production of oxygen.K. a. greenhouse effect. importance of nitrogen cycle.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. moral. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve.1. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. The universe is regarded as a thought process. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. Universal Education. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. Therefore." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. promote and transmit it to rising generation. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. man is essentially a moral being. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. in fact. Spiritual Development. should be universal in nature. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure.3. It is self-realisation. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. Education according to idealism.” 5. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . the emancipation of spirit.our life. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. According to Rusk'. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. enrichment and transmission of culture.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. Education must contribute to development of culture.

games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. So cognition (knowing). He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. so subjects like Religion. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection.the spiritual qualities of mankind. Learning through discussion. hygiene. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming.1. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1.3. So he should embody. and collation (striving) should find due place. 5. 5. For intellectual development.3. subjects like Languages. Ethics. should be there. Mathematics etc. The plant can grow. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . However. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. affecting (feeling). Learning through imitation. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher.1. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. 2.” He is thus. He sets the environment in which education takes place. Philosophy. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. Learning through questioning. Science. Herbert advocated instruction method. 4. He carries the child from darkness to light. According to Frobel. So health. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. friend and guide. no doubt. Learning through lecturing. It considers teacher as. Learning through reading.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. The teacher serves as a living model for the students.” 5. the school is a garden. a spiritual guide for the child. For this no particular method has been suggested. 3. History. According to idealism. an indispensable necessity.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types.

curricula. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. Ross explains.perfection and beauty.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. 5.1. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.preservation. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. "Education should make 263 • . text books. 5. time tables.1. Perfection of Human Machine. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. formal lessons or examinations. In the words of Ross.4. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.

Chemistry. subjects like history. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Education should. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Zoology. is based on the nature of the child. 264 . Punishment is given by nature in its own way. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Biology. It is based on the psychology of the child. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. In all. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. “Education finds its purpose. • 5.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. useful and mature child. Therefore. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. There is no place for religious and moral education.1. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. rational harmoniously balanced. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Botany etc Language.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Literature. 4. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Naturalistic curriculum.4. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Arithmetic. education should develop the child into Joyous. It stresses basic sciences. therefore.

The main aim of Naturalism is & 4.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. a supplier of materials and opportunities. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 .1.5. a provider of an ideal environment. Learning through observation. 4. 2. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism.4.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.4. 5. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . the stage. he should be taught by experience alone. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. In the .3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology.1. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. 5. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. It discards all rigid.1. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. Heuristic method. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Learning by doing. Learning through experience. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Rousseau says. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Dalton Plan.

interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Vocational and 266 . Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Continuous Growth. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Social Efficiency. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education.5. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. social and moral aspects. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning.1.absolutism of idealism. 5. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Subjects.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. History. Personal Social Adjustment.5. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Agriculture. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Sciences. Geography.1. of human personality is in terms of his physical. diversified and flexible. All Round Development of an Individual. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. 5. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Physical training. Social Science. is true. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. intellectual. The aim of educational development.

Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. activities and experience should be integrated properly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. a senior partner and a sincere guide.Technical Education. alert and resourceful. Learning by Doing. He must be trained. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. The subjects. a teacher occupies an important position. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. 5. should find proper place. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .1.1. He has to be active.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” 5. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child.5. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher.

It favours child-centered. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic.6.5.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. 4. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. 3. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Biography Philosophy. 3. Sex Education. Population Education. specific. practical. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Education is preparation for a complete living. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. 5. Psychology. The basic tenets of realism are 1. literary or humanistic education. History. Astrology. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. 2.1. Crafts. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. scientific and psychological education. rich and happy. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Biology. 4. liberal. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Art. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real.6. Chemistry. 2. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Geography are unnecessary 268 .1. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Literature.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Music and Dance.1.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Mathematics. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Study of Subjects like Language. 5. 5. intellectual.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.6.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. easily and pleasantly. certainly and clearly.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.5. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .6.

Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1.1. 6. naturalism.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Social Science. e. Education according to pragmatism.5. Languages. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Learning through imitation. 3. Sciences. c. Learning through reading. Learning through lecturing. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Vocational and Technical Education. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. a. in this lesson. Experimentation d. Learning through discussion. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. has no end other than growth.1. a. 5. 5. History. Universal Education 2. Learning through questioning. pragmatism and realism. d. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Learning through experience b. 5. Child centered c. Agriculture. b. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Geography.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Tours / Excursion e. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Self Realisation b. a. Rousseau 5. Physical training. & curriculum. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life.1.

5. L.P.H. Publishing corporation. P. Pahuja. O. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. K. 271 .1.P. New Delhi : A. of Pathak. (2007). Anmol Publications Pvt. P. N. (2004). R. Foundations of Education. Theory and Principles of Education. (2007). New Delhi : Bhatia. Ltd.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. Narang C. (2003). K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.

5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.2.4.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.3 Methods of teaching 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2.4.3 Methods of teaching 272 .2.2.2.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.3.4 Views about teacher 5.2.4.2.3 Methods of Teaching 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.3.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2.3.2.2 5.2.2.2.2 Curriculum 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.4.1 5.4 Views about teacher 5.2 Curriculum 5.3.2.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.3.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.5.4.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.2.5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.LESSON 5.3.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.

a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. 5. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. content and methods. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.7 5. 273 . economic and political reconstruction in our country.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life.2.2. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. you will able to: 1. Tagore was a poet. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. 5. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. 3. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.6 5. Gandhiji was primarily a social.5.2.2. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. mind and spirit. 2. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.2.4 Role of the teacher 5.2. an artist.8 5. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.5. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2.2.

strength of mind. self-restraint and service of humanity. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. In the words of Gandhiji. "I attach more. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. through life and for life. mind and soul of children He further observed. nor the gross animals body. 274 . His scheme of education is life centred. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character.supporting. it is education of life.2. 5. righteousness. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour." Dignity of Labour. 'Man is neither mere intellect. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations.3. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. It really provides opportunity for character building. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim.

3. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. leather work have been suggested. Music.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. metal work. gardening. Individual and Social Aims. Mother-tongue. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. General Sciences. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders.Training for Leadership.2. "Development of the moral character.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. According to Gandhi. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. wood work. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. the realization of the ultimate reality. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Only good individual forms a better society. 5. Drawing and Hindustani. Art.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.2.3. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.2. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. men of 276 . proficient. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.trained. Basic education is other wise known as 4.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.

Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . That is why. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Education must be child centered.3.knowledge. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. 3. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. He also advocates freedom for the child. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist.2. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots.

• Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. • Education should involve manual work. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. Gandhi in 1937.4. • Ideal of citizenship. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.3. He was deadly against untouchability. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.” Like all other ideals. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . 5. • Cult of non-violence.K.2. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. He believed in the oneness of humanity.2. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. he was a true Vedantist 5. He was a true patriot. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.

It should help the learner have good physique. Tagore said. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. could help in forging unity among all. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. International understanding. International Understanding. etc. Civics. Botany. Chemistry. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. 279 . Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. them solve problems of day to day life. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. "Mankind must realise a unity. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. (vi) Philosophy. the more dedicated and devoted. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Therefore. deeper in. Music. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Dance. sentiment. stronger in power than ever before. Religion and Psychology.4. Zoology." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. complete manhood could be attained. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education.Language and Literature . Purposeful and Meaningful Education. wider in range. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Geography. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. It should help.2. That way only. he said.

The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.4. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child.2. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.2.4. 5. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. Activity Method Heuristic Method. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. 5. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.2. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual." 5. In 1921. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. Tagore rightly says. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. 280 .4.” He further says. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. 10. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment.g. It is open to all irrespective of country. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. 281 . 9. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. race.

The whole beauty of life is linked with it. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . who possess sweet and amicable tempers. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Education for Self-reliance. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace.” 5. Education for strong Moral Character. He believed in to learning or selflearning. man making. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only.5. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself.2. 2. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all." He was against the theoretical type of education. Freedom. Education for Self-realization. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. Purity of thought. 4. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. work and deeds come out of it. Education should make a person self-reliant.2. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Book learning.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. 3.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Concept of Education.5.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. According to him. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself.

A physically strong person is the need of the society.5. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. Secondly he wanted Science. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts.the learners on different students in the discussion. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Discussion Method. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other.5. And above all. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. 5. Every individual should be trained for concentration. 283 . 5. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Education for Physical Development. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. philosopher and guide to the students He. Thirdly he wished that games. 6. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners.2. Religion.5. Swami.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.5. engineering and technical subjects.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Of course.2. 5. Philosophy and Theology. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. That will serve the purpose of education fully.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. The teacher should be the facilitator. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.2.

broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. 12. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. naturalist. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. in this lesson.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. Their educational ideas. Write short notes on Basic education. 3.2. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. of course. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. legs. We have seen that Tagore. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. ears and eyes.6 LET US SUM UP We have.Substantiate your answer.2. Gandhiji as a Idealist.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. 284 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. 5. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. and pragmatist .

Education should involve manual work. a. Technique of Correlation 6. Cult of non-violence. Nai Talim 4. d. a. Debate and Discussion Method. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. 5. Activity Method b. f. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. metal work. a. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. a. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. e. Ideal of citizenship. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Learning by Doing c. c. Self realization. Activity Method d. 5. leather work have been suggested. gardening. 3. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. 11.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Meditation and concentration c. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. 10. Self-Study b. Discussion Method 285 . Explain Vishwabharathi. wood work. 2. Teaching while Walking b. Heuristic Method. 8.4.2. 5. 9. Basic education. c. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. b. 1937 7.

Theory and Principles of Education.2. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. on Bhatia. (2004). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.P. Dhiman. (2003). Anmol Publications Pvt. Foundations of Education.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash.5. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. B. Publishing Corporation. 286 . Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Ltd. O. K and Narang C. N. C. New Delhi : Aggarwal. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.H. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. (2007). New Delhi : A. (2002). Pahuja. P. N. P. K. J. L. (2007).

3 5. In this lesson.3.LESSON 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.1 5.10 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3.7 5.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.8 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3.4 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.11 5.5 5.3.3.3.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .9 5.3.3.2 5.6 5.3.

Then in a big country like India. A g o o d curricu lu m. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences.3. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. Curriculum is intimately related to education.3. it is identical wit h socializat ion. in the U. curriculum signifies situations for learning. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. state the meaning of curriculum 2.under the direction of the school. new behaviour may be acquired. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static.A. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . in Russia or in Japan. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”.3. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. While education is learning. curriculum. Both the processes are integrated. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Since the demands. present behaviour may be modified. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. From the latter point of view. In the words of Kerney and Cook. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. is a means to the process. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. In the former sense. maintained or eliminated.S. While education is a process. in the form of new experience. in fact . Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. you will be able to: 1. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. 5. 5. there is a large number of communities. the desert area.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. the plateau area and 288 . the plain area. In it. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5.. living in the hilly area.

according to modern trends in the educational process. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. Besides craft. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. therefore. and 289 .3. it is. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. In fact . (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. environment. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. irrespective of their needs and environment. However. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. studying therein. democratic and socialistic country. Again. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. From a slave-country we became secular. customs and needs. It must differ from locality and from society to society. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. 5. differs from individual to individual. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. the learning capacity of children. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. too.

specific. etc. They are visionary goals e. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. general or specific.g. uninspiring and unscientific.g. which may or may not be attained. they depend on the political. They speak of perfect goals. unambiguous and functional. of classroom..(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived.. Knowledge Objective. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. aims. in instructional objectives. e. Application Objective. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. Understanding Objective. Goals of Secondary Education. individual or Social and so on. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. They may be ultimate or proximate. 1. etc. emotional.. The word “Curere” means 2. tangible. They are achievable. Goals of Primary Education. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made .g.. social. So it is inadequate. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. aesthetic and spiritual development. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. e. National Integration. social. eg. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. 4. moral. 3. Self Realisation. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They speak of immediate purposes of education. 290 . remote or immediate. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. 2. 5.. unsatisfactory. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Vocational Efficiency.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture.3.

finding them very interesting and captivating. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. needs.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. Crow and Crow remarks. The interests. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. educationists. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects.” 291 . heavy fire.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. abilities. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. but it includes the totality of experiences. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.5. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. in the class rooms. on the playing fields. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. According to Crow and Crow. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit.3. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. Raymont rightly says. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. capacities.

They often waste it or rather kill it. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. moral. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. aptitudes. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. Due to these variations and differences. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. mental. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. time in a useful manner.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. tendencies. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. capacities and abilities.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. urges. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure.

supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. analysis and concretise the curricular elements.curricular. organized.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. 3. 2. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. 293 . elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. To ensure success of the process. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. Similarly. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. development of professional capability at all levels. administrative programme need be planned. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. phased preparation. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic.

17. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. 1937 19. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. library. Child Centred Education b. Run. 5. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. 12. 10. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. in the class room. 18. Relation with Life c. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. workshop. 11.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16.3.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. principles of curriculum construction. laboratory.

P.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. and Sarita Kumari. (2007). Innovations in Education. Bhalla. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. D. S.K. S. New Delhi : Authorspress. 295 . (2001).3. N. New Delhi : Isha Books. Curriculum and Instruction. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Lakshmi. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. (2007).5.S. (2007). Curriculum Development.

2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.4.7 Scientific Attitude 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.6.4.7.6.4 5.5 5.4.4.4.4.9 5.4.10 5.2 5.4.7.4.3 5.4.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.8 5.LESSON 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4.1 5.4.4.4.7.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.7.

297 . 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. superstition or emotion. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. tolerance for the opinions of others.4. newer and newer industries started growing. 2. 3. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. explain the concept of scientific attitude. know the importance of science education.during the second half of this century. 4. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. Gradually.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. open-mindedness.5. you will be able to: 1. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. We mean curiosity. in the economic reconstruction of society.4. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. honesty. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth .1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. 5. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners.

3. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. as well as of the society.4. 5. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. 7. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Devotion towards nature increases. 2. 4. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Through examinations. 6. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Through newspapers. Schemes of teaching science. Selection for science education. After such experience and training.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. 4. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 5.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. 3.So that. Love for truth enhances. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 5. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 5. Thinking and memory develops. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Central science workshop. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. 6. Promotion of science clubs.4. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Principles are formulated. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. seminars and symposiums. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. 2. Organisation of science fairs. stipends and appreciations in various ways.

based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. 5. They encounter many social events as they grow.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. In the inquiry approach. They ask many questions about the objects they see. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. sex or religion. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. essential that teachers. should provide opportunities to. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. It is. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Enquiry teaching is.6. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. 7.4. 5.4. each child to “enquiry skill building”. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. Training of science teachers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. They experience natural phenomenon. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. After presenting the problem. For laboratory and workshop techniques. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. therefore. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. objectivity.needs and conditions. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. Write any two advantages of Science Education.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature.

6. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook.4. commands or orders. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 5. . to ask questions and experience things. It requires consistent thinking. Appreciating pupils ideas. 4. Evidence. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Social sciences. 5. 2. Adopting creative models of teaching. 300 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.4.books. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. stern pursuit of accurate data. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe.6.Herma Wouk. . proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 3. test.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . 5. if they like. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. Giving less directions.

open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. practiced. school and society at large. to develop among the learners. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. friends. These include open mindedness.(Smith 2008). see and feel the need of developing this attitude. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. neighbourhood. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. The students observation. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. and emphasized during the learning process . The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. keen observation. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. 5. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role.7.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. of vast resources running waste. (Vaidya 2007). There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. critical thinking and suspended judgments. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. To achieve this we should understand what it means.4. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. it must be encouraged. therefore should be unbiased and objective. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. For instance. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education.

Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained.7. 5. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. understanding and logic. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. 2007). intuition or wishful thinking”. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. rumor. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. (Das. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. or superstitions. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. In considering a situation or a problem. think and work it”.4. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. he studies all aspects of it. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. 302 .

He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. • 5. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.7. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.4. but to begin only after careful planning.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.4. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .7. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. 5. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.

manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. it must be encourages. 304 . Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education.4.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook.

M. Love for truth enhances. 16. Yadav. 2. 5.4. Rao. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. b.5. New Delhi : Anmol Publications.B (2008). b. (2008). a. 4. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. Reflections on Scientific attitude. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. 305 . The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Adopting creative models of teaching. S.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b.4. 3. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Planning of activities 5. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. a. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. Study of superstitions d. N.4. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Proper example of the teacher c. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. 5. Vaidya. Wide reading b. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. (2006). a. a.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. objectivity. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. (2000). D.S.

306 .5. you will be able to: 1.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. areas of institutional planning.3 5. 5.11 5.5.1 5.5.5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5 5. 2.10 5. state the concept. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.6 5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.5.5.5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.LESSON 5.8 5.5. actively.5.5. objectives and characteristics.2 5.4 5.9 5.5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.7 5.

executive as well as public. which become the bases for further planning at the district. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. and. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. 5. and each student are regarded as separate entities. every parent. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. and supplement planning from above. Institution should be regarded as the unit. each teacher. • to make planning development-oriented.5. 5. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. • To make institutional planning more successful. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. teachers and students is not lost sight of. State and national levels from below.5. • to involve teachers and school administrators.3. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . and every student in the process of educational planning. in the task of educational planning. every teacher.

which will be discussed in the general. Examinations. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. council and. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. Classwork.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning.• implemented. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. 308 . The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. Co-curricular activities. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.curricular Activities. Syllabus. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. (2) Co. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.5.5. approved after making necessary modifications. 5. and Personnel services. etc. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. it becomes the basis for school inspection.

2. Organisation of class-room libraries. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Courts. scientific and historical excursions.No. Improving the internal assessment. Conducting of educational. Fair distribution of syllabi. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Organisation of Pupils. Organising play-for-all programmes. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Preparation of instructional material. Celebrating of national and international festivals. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Running science clubs. etc. 1. etc. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. etc. hobby-centres. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. etc. Equipping of laboratory and library.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. charts and apparatus. Preparation of models. Editing the school magazine. Organisation of Students’ Association. Preparation of audio-visual aids.

involving mainly human materials. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. pupil310 . teacherinspector. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. etc. teacher-managing body. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. administrator-administrator. which are divided as the in. pupils. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. teachers. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. co-operation.5. parent-teacher associations. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system.5. teacher-State. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. teacher-pupil.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system.” The human relationships in. teacher-teacher. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. and solidarity. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. ii. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. administrator-supervisor. Administrator-State. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. science teachers’ associations. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. students’ associations. administrator-pupil. headmasters associations. and —pupil-pupil. understanding. parents.

8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. etc. pupil-parent. and to serve. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. It covers personnel and material management. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. to attend. pupil-non-official functionaries. V. According to C. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. to carry out. to accomplish. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. control. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. teacher-community leader. superintendence. Good. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. 311 . As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. organisation and management. now-a-days." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. supervision. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. It is also being modernized to become a technique. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. To administer means to manage. organisation. administrator. teacher-parent. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. pupil-community leader.State.5. social sciences and other disciplines. supervision and superintendence. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. pupil-inspector.

This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.Any good management will always have good public relations.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. 6.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. The relationship should change from master. Decision Making . This is the latest democratic trend in management. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. He should be an artist in human relationships. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. Leadership . Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. 4.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. 3. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. 11.The manager should have leadership traits. Socio-Scientific Approach . He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. low.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . 12. 13. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. Better Human Relationships .The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. Rapport between the Management and Employees . 7.Of all the approaches. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. Motiviation . Democratic Management . If the cost benefit ratio is less. Liasion with the Public . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. 2. Those. it is not worth-while. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. Cost-Benefit Analysis . 9. Communication . Worker Participation . 8. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. If it is more. 10. Economic Management . 5. who occupy the managerial positions.

indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. improvement of teaching methods.too. 18. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management.5. enrichment of curricula. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. to improve the quality of education it provides.g. 313 . 14. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. objective. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. 19. and cooperative performance should be ensured. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions.5.These two are. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too.

(2001).5. Instruction. R.K. b. NUEPA. Examinations. Co-curricular activities. 4. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. e.5. c. Tarachand and Prakash. d. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Leadership c. Syllabus. S. a. Educational Administration. 2. b.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. In group and Out group 5. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. (2003). APH Publishing Corporation. it becomes the basis for school inspection. a. Classwork. Communication 5. H. (1995).5.M. a.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. f. b. Fundamental of Educational Management. Decision Making b. and Personnel services. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. 314 . New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. Singh. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Motiviation d. a.

5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Buddhist and Jain system of education. Common ailments of Children. wastage and Stagnation 3. School. Communicable diseases .Religious and Modern Education 1.teachers should have : 1. population education.4 India's Secular Policy .3 Directive Principles .1 School Health Programme.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.5 Regional Educational Development in India .Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. social Impact 3. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Examination reforms.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.1 Inculcation of Socialism.Pre-service and In-services facilities.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .Article 45 .3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. First Aid.3 Educational Influences of Home. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. Healthy Food Habit 4. Preservation of nutrients.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. higher education.I. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.1 Primary Education : Education for all. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. New evaluation procedures. nutritional requirement. Balanced diet. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Code of conduct for teachers. Realized the problems of school education. Sex-education 4.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.1 Gurukula system of education. physical education and environmental education 5. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. women education and teacher education in India.CORE PAPER . 4.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Community and Mass Media 2. Economic 315 . UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.2 Nutritional deficiencies. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. 1. Inspection and Supervision 3. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.Preventive measures. 2.

5. Hemchand.N.Aim. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. Ram S. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: NCERT 3.1 Idealism. curriculum and teacher's role 5.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5.K.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Pandy V. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Delhi : University Publications 2. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. 7. Mishra.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . (2005) Foundations of Education. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. REFERENCE 1.4. Tagore 5. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Prof. Saraswathi T. Naturalism and Pragmatism . and Dash B. Taneja V. Ghanta R.K. 316 . (1999) Culture.S. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. B.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Curriculum and national goals . and Human Development. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. and Sharma R. Sharma. Socialization. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. R.K.N.C. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. T. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms.R. and Mohanty R. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. (2004) Problems of Education in India. Mahatma Gandhi.4 4. Realism.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5.K.

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