BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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we have discussed the progress of education in Free India.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. Lesson 4. In. 9 . During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. and Jain system of education. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. discusses the regional educational development in India. The need. Lesson 5. Lesson 2. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Jainism and their educational implication. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government.

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2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.4.1.1 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.3.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .4.1.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.1.6.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.5.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.5 Jain system of education 1.1.LESSON 1.1.1.1.5.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.6.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.5.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.6.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.1.1.3.1.5.2 1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1.6.1.6.1.1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.6 Education during British Era 1.1.

education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. That 12 .7 1. both present and future.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.9 1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. 1.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. Indian in blood and colour.3. India. but English in taste.1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.1. Muslim and British periods. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. in morals and in the intellect”. elucidate the education during British Era.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. describe the Jain system of Education 4.6. The history of education passed through Buddhist.1.1. in opinion. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.8 1. 1.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. you will be able to: 1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.1.1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.1. 1. Education in India.6. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. British system of education presented the modern western model.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. has a long past history starting in vedic education. “a class of persons.

The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. with grants of land or money. from darkness. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. managed entirely by Brahmans. 10. 11. Individual Teaching. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. 13. No State Control on Education. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. 9. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Residential Schools. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. The immediate aim of education. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. generally. Teacher as Parents. Pupils were taught. and to agriculture and trade. 8. followed by explanation by the teacher. 6. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. 12. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. to light. from eternal to immorality 2. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. religious and spiritual. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. High Status of Teachers. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Free and Accessible. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Where pupils were many. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. individually. Education was a private affair of the people. 4. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. the monitorial plan was followed. 3. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work.knowledge was real. It was also moral. Immediate Aim Vocational. Role of Travel in Education. It was not merely intellectual. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. as it is generally considered to be at present. 13 . Education of Moral. questioning by the pupil. 16. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Method of Instruction. Method of Study. Curriculum. Forests as Centres of Education. Religious and Spiritual. There was. if they thought fit to do so. 5. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. however. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. not en masse by the class method. 14.

What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. They were very cordial and intimate.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . It was suited to the needs of the society. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. It was freely available to all those who wanted.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1. Wide-Spread Education in Women. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.1. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. studied Vedas. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values.17. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . lived a life of celebacy.

every class in society. watching dances or listening to music. Consequently. impure conduct. It was denied only to the ill. Right activity 5. Right speech 4. except the Chandals. He was then ordained to obey ten rules.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. the student had his head shaved of all hair. which included abstaining from theft.C. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Right thought 3. Right means of livelihood 6. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. killing of any living being. taking things without being offered. had the right to receive education. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. Right memory 8. etc. Right endeavour 7. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. disease and death of the human beings. 1. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. After attaining the age of 20. I take Refuge to Sangh. in which. the handicapped.1. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. Right knowledge 2. the most significant of which were the following 1. partaking of food at prohibited times. 2. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. the student remained in a state of Shramana. medium of Pali.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. dressed himself in yellow clothes. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. use of cosmetics. Education was imparted through the. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. I take Refuge to Dharma.4. he was qualified to become a monk. 15 . Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. use of intoxicating things. Right contemplation 1.

magic. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. the presence of the monks was essential. depth and range. nature.4. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. so long as it successfully does so. therefore. bodily gestures. meaning. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. archery.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. women occupied a position inferior to men. 4. control over sensuous activities. assumptions. etc. wear three items. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. 7. and. 6. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. cottage industries. As reality is becoming. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. After this ritual. etc. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. animal husbandry. Later on. along with education in script writing. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. handicrafts. 5. elephant lore. aspirations and. geology. etc. archery. medicine. On this occasion. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. Even at this stage. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. 2. 1. has no metaphysical value for life. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. These are called later Buddhist schools. 3. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. military science. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. nothing is of any permanent consequence. Hence. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. changing the goals. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. agriculture. It comprehended education in writing.. approach. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. eat food thrice a day.3. be considered the aim of education It. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. a change is not only total but also perpetual. beg for alms. commerce. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. arithmetic and religious discussion. a continuous change creating 16 . it is regarded as true”. however. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. Whatever its nature and extent. of clothes. Initially. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. 8. Life is in a flux. the science of taming and training animals. knowledge of reviving the dead. objectives of human life. education was impart in art.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. whatever works are true and good. 5. it is much older than the latter. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. and to give it a shape that it has today. 1.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Write Eight fold path . Education must. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Validity is effective and consequences. goes to Vardhaman. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.new and peculiar situations. and its refusal to believe in supreme God.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. therefore. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. In fact. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. however.. i. such as. Its chief feature. However. Jainism insists 17 .e. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. its pessimistic outlook on life.5. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching.

but on both. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. 6. Development of personality as an individual. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. 18 . it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. more stress on individual aims. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. 4. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. and is to be redeemed and liberated. c) Not to steal. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. 2. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. 10.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. b) Right knowledge. 3.1. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character.5. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. 3. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 9. and believe in happiness to all. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. They are: a) Not to injure. it has a foot in both the words. e) To renounce the world. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. thought and deed. d) To lead a celibate life. c) Right conduct. 8. 5. As such. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. 7. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. 2. Hence. 1. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. 1. b) Not utter falsehood.

Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. education should develop sense of discrimination. 8. 5. 19 . 3. 1.5. therefore. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. here and now. and should bring happiness to all. education must be action based and ideally oriented. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Belief in transmigration of soul. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. 2. success and love. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue.5. Teaching should be social and tolerant. that would be socially desirable. Hence. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. practised and not only aspired for. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 3. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. Teaching must develop these faculties. 1. 2.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Jiva is essentially karmic. 4.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are Triratnas ? .4.

a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.6.6. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. and not for life. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. To set up separate departments of.1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. 1953). Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. 2. However. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. North West Province and Punjab. primary 20 . with rally and rout.6. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. philosophy and literature of Europe. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. Madras. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. Bombay.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. science. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. 1.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools.1. 1. 1.6. 1.

1. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations.6. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. secondary education became a step towards university. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. namely.K.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. 1. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. • Secondary education. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). The universities dominated the secondary education. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. Later on. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. In 1882. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men.education was neglected. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. At that time M. 1. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. • Universal free primary education. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. self-respecting and competent. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools.6. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system.6. at the primary level. To ensure qualitative improvement.

Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12.At the primary stage (6-11 years). The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. all children are to have a common curriculum. After this stage. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. 10. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions.1. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9.

4. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. archery. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. geology.. Right thought. The immediate aim of education. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. 3. 4. the science of taming and training animals.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Right endeavour. a. 1. During the Buddhist period. 5. establishment of universities. Right activity. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. The system of education was well-organised. along with education in script writing.education of European literature. b. 2. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools.1. 3. Right contemplation. Right knowledge. 6. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Right memory. followed by explanation by the teacher. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. military science. science and English language. 1. It was suited to the needs of the society. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. education was impart in art. Right means of livelihood. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education.1. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. handicrafts. arithmetic and religious discussion. etc. 23 . questioning by the pupil. Right speech. 2.

Singh. Ltd. Right conduct. J. Ltd. Right faith. History of Indian Education System. Y.C. Sargent report 12. Sharma. Development of Educational System in India.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.1. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. b. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.K. a. 10. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. 9. Right knowledge. Improvement of Literature. 1937 1. more stress on individual aims.K. a. 11. 1882. (2009). (2005). J. Development of personality as an individual.7. 8. (1984). Aggarwal. 24 . R. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). c. and Nath. Y. b. Hence.C.

1 University Education Commission 1.LESSON 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.2.2.3. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.2.2.2.6 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.2.9 1.2.2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.3.1 1.3.2.2 1.4 1.2.3 Kothari Commission 1.3.2.5 1. The 25 .1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.7 1.8 1.2.

conditions of the teachers. curriculum. diversification of courses of studies. you will be able to: 1. vocational education. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. technical. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6.2. S. medical and legal education. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4.2. New Educational Policy. National Council for Women’s Education 5.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. There had been vast institutional expansion. 1986 1. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. standard of teaching. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. examination system. National Board of Teacher Education 10.2. expansion of vocational. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. secondary and higher education. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. technological engineering. Post-graduate 26 . The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. girls and women education besides primary. explosion of enrolment. analyse the progress of education in free India. Kothari (1964-66) 8. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. 2.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3.

the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.2. 1. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. Education for Equality. A. However. 1986. 4.3.2. Therefore. D. 3. A meaningfully Partnership. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. 1952. Government of India. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. 1966. research et.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. the chairman of University Grants commission.2. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. National System of Education. Kothari. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. material and spiritual.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. in January 1985. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. The Essence and Role of Education. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education.teaching. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . quality. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. accumulated over the years. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. Finally. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. quantity.3. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. 1. 2. utility and financial outlay. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission.S. the New National Policy on Education. 1. Problems of access. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29.3. Education is the key to our allround development. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. Thus. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. The UNESCO Report. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. the minorities and the handicapped. By working with hands. attitudes. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations.” Thus. the concepts of work experience. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. 28 . work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage.2. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. It can train practical aptitudes. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes.

The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . if he wishes.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. According to. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. As such. Besides.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. With adequate planning. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. In 1955. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. The Education Commission.” The Mudaliar Commission. The Radhakrishnan Commission. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. co-ordinations.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. “The aim of these colleges. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. the Commission.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. it will conduce self. “It may be described.

admission requirements to vocational courses. With a view to relating education to the life. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work.ot her. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. The Central Advisory Board of Education. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. the. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated.. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. Subsequently. the rigid streaming of courses. Therefore. for quality of life in the rural areas. etc. In addition. the semester and credit system. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. raising the special facilities. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs.

which are useful to the community. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions.. meaningful. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 31 . its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. who conceived the System of Basic Education. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. which swept the country for over two decades. felt that education should be centred around a craft. which offer scientific. manual work resulting in either goods or services. The wave of Basic Education. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. aimed at this goal. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. giving importance to productivity in the national development. technological courses including Agriculture. etc. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. under the diversified curricula of seven streams.2. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”.and the world of work. meaningful. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. In short. 1.defined S UP W as “purposive. Commerce. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. According to committee. The Father of Nation. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. preferably spinning and weaving.

Food 3. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. locally available materials and tools. The teachers should make use of. Shelter 4. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. Work practice. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Educative and 3. be that the work involved is: 1. so that it is educational in essence. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. 3. Some Hints to Teachers 1. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Experimentation with materials. Culture and recreation 6. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. 32 . The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. 2. Health and Hygiene 2. Community work and social service. tools and techniques and 3. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. 4. Clothing 5. as far as possible. Productive 2. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home.

adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Check on educated unemployed 4. 1. Merits of the Programme 1. as far as possible. To make education more realistic. Productive Work 33 .5. 6. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. the local community should be actively associated. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor.2. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. It can become an instrument to build character. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. inculcate a faith. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. Community Service In-1972. removal of illiteracy. improve discipline. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. etc. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. slum clearance. Education through work The SUPW should. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful.

helping the adults-in productive work. skills and better future for the children. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. if not productive. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. etc.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. offering first aid.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. should involve itself in the educational effort. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. traffic control. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Define SUPW 34 . AICTE was set up in year 4. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The community. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. in turn.

Dr. b. 1. 6. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. 2. 1952 3. 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Write short note on SUPW.2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. f.1. 1955 4. d. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. which are useful to the community. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. e.2. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. a.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. meaningful.2. Radhakrishnan 2. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. manual work resulting in either goods or services. 35 . c. 1.

History of Education.P.P. Amala. New Delhi : Shipra Publications..K. (2009). and Nath.2. Ltd. New Delhi: A. B. Development of Educational System in India. V. Rao. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. 36 . and Rao. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. History and Problems of Indian Education. Y. : Sharma. R.K.C. (2007).1. (2005). Anupama. Singh. Y.K. History of Indian Education System.D.H. P. A. J. (2007).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.(2005).

3.3. Being the supreme law of the country. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.3. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.6 1. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. democratic republic. for a total of 117. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. directive principles and duties of citizens.369 words in the English language version.3.3. 1949.3.5 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.3. equality. 37 . every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.3. there is an official Hindi translation. 1950.1 Significance of DPSP 1. containing 395 articles.9 1.3.4 1.8 1. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. it came into effect on January 26.3. establishing the structure.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. and liberty.3.1 1.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.7 1.3. Besides the English version. procedures.2 1.3. assuring its citizens of justice.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.

analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. 1. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.3. the Drafting Committee was appointed. embodied in Part IV of the constitution.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. 3. in sessions open to public. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. On August 29. 1947. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. understand our Indian constitution. for 166 days. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. political. Dr. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. 1950. After many deliberations and some modifications. The Assembly met. social. Through them. legal and environmental.3. 1947.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. spread over a period of 2 years. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. administrative. According to the constitution. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. Two days later. 4. 1. 38 . the government should keep them in mind while framing laws.3. economic.In the August 14. with Dr. 1. learn the role of central and state government on education. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. 2. describe the important constitutional articles related to education.3. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. you will be able to: 1. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee.

within the limits of its economic capacity and development.government. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Minimising inequalities in status. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. provide free legal aid. No abuse of children. on the basis of equal opportunity. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Condition for dignity of children. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Article 41. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Right to work. The State shall. Appropriate concentration of wealth. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Protecting children from exploitation.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Equal justice and free legal aid. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. Article 43. Equal pay for both sex. Organisation of village panchayat. and in other cases of undeserved want. That the health and strength of workers. for workers. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Protecting health of the workers. old age. in particular. Article 39A. 39 . The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. and shall. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Liking wage etc. Article 40. men and women. sickness and disablement. Article 42. The State shall endeavour to secure.

for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Article 48A.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. The State shall endeavour to provide. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Article 48. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. and. industrial or otherwise. Note: Subs. [declared by or under law made by 40 . agricultural. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. to all workers. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. a living wage. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. in particular. Article 45. in particular. 2002 for “45. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 49. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. See also Article 21A). Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. in particular. Article 44. (Original Article 45. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Article 43A. Participation of workers in management of industries. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Article 47. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. The State shall take steps. Article 46. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. work. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. by suitable legislation or in any other way. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.

The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2.3. Promotion of international peace and security. 1.Parliament] to be of national importance. destruction. Article 45 . as the case may be. 2. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. disposal or export. Separation of judiciary from executive. from spoliation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Article 51. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Article 50. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. Article-21A Right to Education. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. 2002. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. may be law determine”. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. disfigurement. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. removal.

“The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. if such person is a minor. iii. in particular. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. and shall protect them. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. race.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. his guardian has given his consent thereto. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. language or any of them”. 7. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. ii. 2002. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. 6. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. and. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. 4. 5. caste. 8.” 42 . from justice and all forms of exploitations. 3.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. and by drawing. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. 43 . the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational Reforms From time to time. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. Article 351 gives importance to 6. the forms. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies.9. 2. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. wherever necessary or desirable. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. & 1. The central government determines targets and promotes education.3.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. for its vocabulary. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country.

to achieve the desired ends. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. 4. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. 8. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). 6. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Production of suitable for children and adults f.. 5. The following pilot projects. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. So as to encourage education on right lines. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Local bodies and private enterprise. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. By starting these projects. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . private agencies etc. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. All India Council of Medical Science. So that they may work well. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. etc. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. 7. the state governments. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc.3. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education.

Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Material concerning nation-wide interests. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. handicapped. The 45 . training and statistics. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. books. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. 11. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. 9. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. research. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. 1. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. are published by it. is the state responsibility. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. education for women. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. 1.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. 4. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. 3. 12.3. 10. reports etc. etc. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. articles in the Directive principles. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. 5. 46 . Article 45 b. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? .8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain Directive principles 2.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. 1.3.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Article 46 4. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Article 21A c. 1. Write short notes on a.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 2002. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. a. Article 46 5. Dr. a. Article-21A Right to Education.5. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. may be law determine”. 2002. Describe the educational role of State Government. 1. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 47 . Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 3.3. Article 29 and 30 7. b. b. The Directive Principles of State Policy. Article 45 . Clearing House function 9. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Ambedkar 2. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. a. Development of Hindi Language 6.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 4. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.

Bhatia. Education in Emerging Indian Society.1. Education in Emerging Indian Society. L. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. (2009). B. K. (2008). (2007). New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. S. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. N. 48 . Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. (2004). Dash. Ghosh. K and Narang C. S.

4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.5 1. Jainism.4 Moral education 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.4.4.4.7 1.4.4.4.4.4. religious education should be broad based.2 1.4.1 Why Moral Education 1. Students should be 49 .3. Buddhism etc.4.4.1 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.3.4. Christianity. Islam.8 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3.4.6 1.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.

” Education broadens human outlook. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. you will be able to: 1. 1. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). As result of which. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. "In A multireligious society like ours. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. state meaning and need for moral education 1. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. According to E. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. beauty and goodness so that 50 .. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. Thus. religious education and the concept of secularism. duty-consciousness. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. integrity. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. know the position of religious education in our country 3. enumerate the aims of religious education 4.and dedication. In the complicated and complex society of today.4.D. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. India' can produce men of character.4. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon.

This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. Children attend these organizations. through religious practices and 51 . As a matter of fact.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. castes and creeds. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. all citizens are free to follow any creed.” From the above. In short. Thus.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. According to Article 22. Hence. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. 1947 we achieved our freedom. According to Article 19. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society.4. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. it is clear that the State has no religion. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. if not regularly. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. at least occasionally.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. No religious tax can be imposed on them.3. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. "In view of the provision in the Constitution.4. religion and democracy are same. realizes God in himself. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. Viewing the defects of religious education.3. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. rancour. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. They thought that any kind of narrow. 1. 1. As our country is a country of diverse religions.

Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. If unreleased. which can mould. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. and what is evil.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. moral and spiritual values. for the development of the individual and the society. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. temperament etc. As a result of which. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . He also learns about social. Good education. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. what is done and what is not done etc. It helps to modify habits attitudes. which help him for the development of his character. aggressive.teachings. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. intellectual and physical faculties of children. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. one fully developed. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. when he becomes an adult.. It is religious education. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment.

The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Therefore. If we open the pages of history. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. This should not be allowed to happen. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. 1. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. 53 . Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. which is the basic need of a democratic life. 2. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. towards the society. 3. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way.4.3.

stories of moral greatness. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. Life histories of great persons of the world. 11. fellow-feeling. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. 10. Write Article 22 2. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. therefore. churches and mosques 7. For this. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. examples of patriotism. they should be discussed in the right earnest. 9. Since all religions have virtues. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values.5. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Gurudwara as. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

4. 2. Without moral values. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Swadeshi (Patriotism). 1. in the home. They will play their role effectively. Self sacrifice. let men see well of one another. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 6. Asvada (Control of palate). Patriotism. 7. Brahmacharya (celebacy). is that which develops moral values. 5. Moral education. Purity. 3. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. 7. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 4. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. The content of the curriculum.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. 5. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. 3. the methods of teaching. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 8.acquisitiveness). Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Aparigarha (Non. 1. Service to others. Satyam (truth). Fearlessness. 55 . Cultivation of emotions. 2. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. students. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 8. Ahimsa (Non-violence).of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Non-injury. 4. therefore. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. 6. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. “Let all be happy and free from disease.4. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1.

The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.4. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Sharivashram (Physical work). Efficiency. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. The School Assembly should be held for a few. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . National unity and Spiritual values. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Good temper. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). 11. 3.9. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. 1. 10. Discipline. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Integrity. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. 2. In the school programme. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 3. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. discipline. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. loyalty and self-sacrifice. 56 . Secondary Stage 1. religions may be included in the syllabus. minutes in the morning for group singing. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. 4. Good manners. Unity of mankind. Asatyam (Non-thieving).

4. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. In other words. University Stage 1. love of humanity. 57 . the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Silent meditation should be encouraged. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. should form a normal part of school programme. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. patriotism and self-discipline. 2. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion.4. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. 5. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . 5. In this connection.

4. In short. 2. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 1. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. a. b.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. For this. the. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. The School Assembly should be held for a few. minutes in the morning for group singing. a. 2. Discuss the aims of Religious education. 58 . b.1. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. 1.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Sri Prakasa 6 . a. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully.4. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times.4. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. 1959 5. Training of Character 3. 4.

M.H. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Theory and Principles of Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. N. (2008). Pahuja.4. B. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A. K.C. (2004). Publishing Corporation. K and Narang C.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2003). J. Bhatia. (2008). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Anmol Publications Pvt.P. L. N.H. (2007). Dash. Ltd.1. New Delhi : Siddiqui. 59 . New Delhi : Shipra Publications. P. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

5.2 1.10 1..5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.8 1.5. 60 . i.5.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.3 1.5.5.7 1.1 1.e.6 1.5.5 1.5. disparities between provinces/States. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5.9 1.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5. Although.11 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4 1.12 1.5.

4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. work hard towards this end.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies.5. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. for example.5. 1. 61 . The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. 1.1. waters. 5. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. understand the regional educational development in India 3.5. 7. 1. They therefore. This leads to separatist movements. you will be able to: 1. etc. roads. Accordingly. they take appropriate measures.5. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 4.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. energy. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. 8. know the education suited to different environments. 6. 3. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. 2.

Secularism. • Separate States (of course viable States). some States became educationally far advanced. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. 62 . remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. some average. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. 2. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only .6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. while others remained educationally backward. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. 3. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. and. Tight security arrangements should be made. Therefore. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. education as a fundamental human right was recognized.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions.5. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. on the basis of regional development may be formed. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. 4.

Out of this. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. Nagaland and NEHU.g.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. Tezpur. remained under developed. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. In the Central sector. Funds amounting to Rs. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. NIT. approved proposals worth Rs. library buildings. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. scholarships. the Union Government. Central Universities of Assam. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. books. etc.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. since its inception in 1998-99. etc. However. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT.392.. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. Guwahati.84 crore was released in 2005-06. Silchar. Regional Centres of IGNOU. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. These projects are in various stages of implementation. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. Mizoram. NERIST.480. After the attainment of independence. 63 . the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. academic buildings.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. 1. while some States like Bihar.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005.5. Even in each State. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. Jammu and Kashmir.14. and provision of informal education to enable those. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. Itanagar. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. the State Governments. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. Rs.After the Planning Process has originated.

In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. During 2003-04.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Government expenditure on education. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. 64 . while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Moreover.5. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.8 per cent in 05).8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.187. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. Out of this an amount of Rs. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. too. Tezpur University. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. A provision of Rs.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.500.57 crore and Rs.40. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.05 crore and Rs. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west).501. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.261.

Karnataka. Moreover. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. for which 16 sites.5. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Listing the positives. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. Tamil Nadu. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. The Chandigarh Administration. too. engineering and R&D. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. notes the study. telecom. too. Kerala and Gujarat. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. 1. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. health services and welfare of the citizen population.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Medical education. for instance. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. pharma. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. To add to the woes. too. Andhra Pradesh. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. Karnataka. English. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level.

taking the average in the middle. the interests. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. life-oriented and environment slanted. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail.year. The working hours of educational institutions. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Hence it is called as need-based. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Of course. 66 . the working days: an academic . the socio-physical conditions. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. For a learner living in a rural area. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. the curricular subjects. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. the vocations. Then education become realistic and idealistic. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. The living conditions. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. the needs. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. which a non-tribal person cannot do. when he will not be sure of time. even actually looking at the watch. and so on. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. in which the learners live. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. In the same manner. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. the teaching methods. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. while the former does not. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life.

to suit education to different environments? 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5. 2.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1. 2.5. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. 67 .

during the British rule. some of areas which were under the native rulers.H.K.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Giridhar. Dubey. remained undeveloped 3. 60% 1. and Nair. Salim.N. Educational Development in India. S. R. some States have become more developed than others b. a. S. 68 .5. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. Education Scenario in India.G. C. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2001).2. (2002). New Delhi: Authors press. A. (2008). Education in Developmental Arena.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. secularism and democracy through Indian education. 71 . characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. National Integration. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. community development. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. school community and mass media. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. semi literate and illiterates. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university.

3 2.1.1.1.5.9 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.2 2.1.1.1.6 Education for Secularism 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.5.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.1 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.6.7 2.6.1.8 2.1.1.1.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.6.1.LESSON 2.4 2.1.1.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.

1. This is the political aspect of democracy. In the matter of admitting students in schools. 2.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. 3) Provision of Manual Work.1. Democracy thus means power of the people. socialism and secularism 2. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. there should be made no distinction of caste. 2. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. you will be able to: 1.2. for the people by the people”. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. socialistic and secular state. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. Abraham Lincoln. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.1. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic.1.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. understand the concept of democracy. socialism and secularism 2. 73 . colour or wealth. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. creed.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. There are different brands of socialism. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. 12) Visits to Legislatures. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. debates.. 74 . 8) Opportunities for Social Service. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. 11) Student Parliament. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. may be planned. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. it soon spread all over the world. Democracy means 2. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. declamation contest etc. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia.

free from exploitation.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 2. 2. Under it. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 2) Socialism aims at equality. none high”. the prince and the peasant. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books.5. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. but on the path of non-violence. service and cooperation.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 75 . “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. oppression and disparity. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 7) Special facilities for girls.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.1.1. the wealthy and the poor. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote.5. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. stationary and uniforms to the needy students.

secularism is being propagated. 2. Write any two main features of socialism. 11) State schools. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. 5.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools.1. Everyone says. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. According to Holydake. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. 76 . “India is a secular-country. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.” In every political and educational corner. "which seeks the development of physical.

Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. In this type of prevailing situations. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. That is why. should be independent of religion. liberty.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. 2. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity.1. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. 3) It permits freedom of worship. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights.6. education etc. A large number of people is uneducated. People have different religions and they have different beliefs.1. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values.6. people started believing in regionalism. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. 5) It implies tolerance. people have narrow mindedness. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. 9) It stress free inquiry. During the recent past. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. There is need of making the people open minded. fraternity. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. “Webster further says. Moral values have to be imbibed. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. 8) It believes in co-existence. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. Equality. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 77 .opposed to religious education. the belief that the state morals. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2.

2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. There should be some internal checking of the material being. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. 2. While doing so. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. that the central string of all religions is one.1. Religious Education. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. Patiala. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. The very sight of the building. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University.presented by the students in the gathering. students belonging to different religions should be associated. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. No doubt. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. In the celebration of each such function. 1) Moral Education. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. tours and trips may be organized.6. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. education. In the hands of such teachers. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution.

Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. No doubt. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. The word “Seculum” means 7. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions.1. Define Secularism 9. The term secularism was first used by 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.

George Jacob Holydake 80 .8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. there should be made no distinction of caste. The students may be associated with the management of the school. colour or wealth. Power of the people 2. Provision of Manual Work.1. Abraham Lincoln. 5. creed.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. This present age 7. c. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. 3. Socialism aims at social justice. b. for the people and the people”. a. Since socialism stands for equality. 5. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. a. Respect of Individual Personality. 6. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. d. 4. Equal Opportunities for Admission. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. 2. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. b. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 4.1. a. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Tuition free education b. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. Socialism aims at equality. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.

J. (2005).” 9. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. J. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. L. Ltd. N. K and Narang C. a. a. B. b.C. the belief that the state morals. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. 10.1. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. (2003). should be independent of religion. education etc. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. N. Theory and Principles of Education. 81 . Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. It permits freedom of religion. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Mohanty. K. Dash. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Pahuja. b. (2007). (2004). Ltd. P. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. Anmol Publications Pvt.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2008).8. It treats all religions on an equal footing. Bhatia.

2.5.6.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.2 2.2.2.1 International understanding in the school 2.9 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2.2.2.LESSON 2.2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.1 2.6.3 2.4 2.10 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2.2.2.2.2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.7 2.2.5.8 2.

therefore. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. moral. a r e 1. 3. 2. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. It involves physical. mental. and 4. as persons. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. who are placed in his custody. as it is t he aim o f modern education. as workers.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. aims and objectives of the school. The developmental roles of children. emotional. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. you will be able to: 1. social. as learners. as citizens. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. social and moral aspects.generation to another. understandings. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. 83 . 2. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. application. skills. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. A teacher is first and foremost.an instructor of school children. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental.2. 2. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. development.

Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. a part of their day in 84 .4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. intellectually. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. culturally confident. economically effective. He has to look after their physical. 2. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. He is to become an active member. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. and aesthetically to become. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. Teacher as a Citizen Next.2. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. motivated. morally. inquisitive. The following are some of such roles described in brief. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community.All education should lead to better behavioural development. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. emotionally. experiences and acceptance. mental. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. morally. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. 2. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. physically fit for socially efficient. socially. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. mentally. 1. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. The students live. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. social and emotional health. member of his community at the outset. 3.

Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. 4. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. science club. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. solve them. Unless. 2. languages and religions. and most of hours. India is a land of many castes. fine art associations. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. They will be spending with their parents. activities of the society into which he is born. faiths. photographic clubs. List out the role of teachers towards community development . Dr. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. creeds.the school being under the custody of teachers. It 85 .5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly.2.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward.

1. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . the citizens of the Republic of India. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. therefore. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. Nehruji has explained this as. Radhakrishnan. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. c.is. Sampurnanand remarked.” Regarding the role of education. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme.2. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. Let us. a. the study of language and literature. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. social studies. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. The only process is the process of education. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. poems. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. this integration of the Indian people. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things.” 2. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. should be emphasised. It should broaden the outlook. ‘We should not become parochial. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . narrow-minded provincial. and make into one strong national unit. with straight backs and look up at the skies. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. national anthem and other national songs. folklore and teaching of social studies. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. stand up straight. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961.5. b. At the primary stage the importance of stories.

educational excursions. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Co-Curricular Activities. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. languages and literature. ACC. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. 10. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. Scouts and Guides. 8. dramatics and youth festivals. Taking Pledge. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. 4. symposia. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. 2. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. 87 . Singing of National Anthem. 6. Student Camps. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. sports. Uniform for School Children. 7. 3. debates. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. t he st udent s and t he community. and picnics. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies.different social sciences. 5. tours. Textbooks. Celebrations of National Days. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. National Days—January 26. Reverence of National Flag. militar y training like the NCC. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. 9.

on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. flora and fauna. iii. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour.2. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. region or religion. v. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. Recognition of Institutions. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. 88 . In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places.11. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. 12. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc.5. 14. language. Educational and Travel Documentaries. colour. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . 2. iv. Admissions to schools. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. 13. Students Exchange and Tours. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. 16. ways of thinking and doing things. Open-Air Dramas. School Projects. Admissions. 15. ii.

camps. viii.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.vi. Define National Integration 3.2. cultures and races on equal bases. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Community dinners. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. ix. irrespective of national boundaries. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. vii. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity.

of his body and mind. often in connection with anniversaries.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. (b) stories of children of other lands. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. that war.friendships between children of different countries. In a very real sense.F. the international level. Dr.e. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. (c) fairly tales. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. Radhakrishnan states. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . 3. therefore. Strong has observed. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. Organising of debates and. 2. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries.2. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. Therefore. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1.6. if it happens. 2. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.” 2. Teachers 90 . 5. patriotism is not enough.. This. 6.6.2. and the healthy development. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. C.as important as that of a national citizenship. 4.

They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7.” Well Informed About World Situations. an Englishman. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. They should not be propagandists. Impartial in their Treatment. a German. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Indian and American. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Russian. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 .

there is wide spread frustration among all people. leading to. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. understand and indiscipline: 1. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. As the school is but a miniature society. 3. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. 5. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. If this is done. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. 2. Wide Spread Frustration . Devaluation of Values . 4. which results in agitation and aggression language. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. majority of people are. and help the students to over . factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. Defects of the educational System .2.Another major.2.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. Chronic Poverty . It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. It does not prepare students for life. the education function can be carried.

3. love. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. etc. fellow feeling. 2. List out the factors causing social tension in schools .2. community development. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development.2. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination.democratic nature. sympathy and good will among the nations. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. co-operation. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. 4. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. 2. 93 .8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. 5. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. 2.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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Emphasising this thing. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. are increasingly used in education.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. periodicals. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Moreover. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. art galleries. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . During the course of time. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. books. Hence. In fact.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. 2. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. Crow and Crow write.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. He taught his students orally. Museums.3. Then came newspapers. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. the invention of the printing press. Define community.V. led to the printing of books. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. Now internet is being used. “All the citizens of the community. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. To make them achieve their aim. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T.

3.classroom teachers. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. Various talks. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. dram appreciation. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. music. In the emphasis is on sound. It enlightens public opinion. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Important happening inventions. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. social studies.6. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. 2. It is also an important source of entertainment. Thus. politics. 101 . programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. “Listening participation” in current history. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. A lot of work by way of pre. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. Effective means of presenting music. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. Reynolds. Students listen various talks. 2. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. In collaboration with the experts. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. art. rather than on picture. the place of importance.telecast.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. languages. It stimulates curiosity and interests. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion.G. current affairs and other areas. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. the teacher still occupies. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. Thus. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries.

Before presenting the programme. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. At present. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. 3. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. 5. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. informal and non-formal education. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. Team-teaching demonstrations. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. at any place. at recreational centers. mathematics. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. speech. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. Participation of local teachers and pupils. travel talks. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. 4. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. fol classical music. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. development of lessons. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. 102 . dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. audibility and presentability. at play. Making learning an open system. at drawing room. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. School concerts. plays. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. style. projects or creative activities. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.4.4.8 2.3.4.2 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4.4.4.3 Advantages of formal education 2.6 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.3.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.4.4.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.5 2.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.4.4.1 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.4.4.4.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4 Non formal educational system 2.4.4.4.7 2.LESSON 2.3.2 Levels of formal education system 2.3.4.

9. 2. 4. 2. it was mostly. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. 2. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 2. imparted at the residence of the teacher. the mass media et. compare formal and non formal system of education. 3. starting and ending at -a particular age. Education. To realize this objective of education. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner.4. the most important agency of formal education. his mental alertness.4. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. the temple. say the Government or the private enterprise. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. In ancient time in India. the family. 3. 5. Education organised by some agency. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’.4. the learner are acquainted. 4. 7. School is. 2. 6.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. open university.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. Education associated with a degree or certificate. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. 110 . open school.. 8. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. you will be able to: 1. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education.3. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. the community.4.

3.a secondary education. Higher Education: Higher education.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. diplomas. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. structured education. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . such as a high school or secondary school.4. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. or post secondary education. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. as well as vocational education and training. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. third stage.4. depending on the jurisdiction. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. also called tertiary. the elements of language are first learned. Some education systems have separate middle schools. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. capacity. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. Concepts of proportion. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society.3. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start.2.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. or academic degrees. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. 2. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. In general. Through early formal education. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing .

4.which will help for nation's development. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.4. and remote dwellers. What are levels of formal educational system? . Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. 4. 2.3. children with disabilities. 2.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. is an important agency of formal education. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. late beginners etc. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. Agencies can be classified as 2.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system.

open learning.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. continuing education and on the job oriented education. adding up to a true learning society. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. It unlocks the doors of development plans. place of instruction. However. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. planned.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. It is functional. Therefore. systematic. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word.. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education.learning client take some learning objectives. According to Malcolm A. until 1970 it had not been defined. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.e. it is a more effective tool for rural development. to help themselves. “Non-formal education should 113 .” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. admissions. It is deliberate.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. adults as well as children. systematic. one could say that non-formal education is an active. financially supported life formal education. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. Open university. Non-formal education includes adult education. it has its own valid claim to reality. etc.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work.formal education. It is much more responsive to needs and change. staffed. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. i. Thus. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. Adiseshiah. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. curriculum.

The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. Process of sharing. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. international understanding. evaluation etc. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. 4. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. Part-time education. socialism. self. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs.4. It should lay emphasis on the self. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields.e. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. 114 .4. exploring.4.learning pattern. Covering life span of an individual. 6. i. modes of teaching.renewal. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. Preparation for future needs. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth.be marketable and vocationalised. 5.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. the Ideas of citizenship.” According to H.S. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status.S. 2. national integration. place of education. To help industrial workers to better their skills. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. To develop in the student. Flexibility in various aspects of education.” 2. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.4. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. admissions. 7. 3.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Lawrence. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. curriculum. 2. age. co-curricular activities.

Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Eradication of adult literacy. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. school dropouts. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. Senior Secondary.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. 10. 4. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up.4. To offer Secondary. Technical. 5. Universalisation of primary education. 115 . To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances.4. working adults. 2.4. 9. 6. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 8. • 2.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. in villages and those who live in towns.4. 7. 5. 3. publication and information dissemination. 4. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. 3. 2.

4. etc.. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. others are formal and informal. 2. To increase knowledge and 2. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. if organised in isolation. public libraries. All-round development i. factory. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. 3.4. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies.full time to learners – can be home. etc. library. training centres in factories.4. effective in modern societal context.2. self-employment iii. Therefore. centres of correspondence education. farm. Again. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . 4. To make if. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . To better qualifications. Institutions for formal education. 2. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. Radio and television. open space. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.

Written tests. Correspondence lesson. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Lecturing T. . Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Define non formal education. 7. Give examples of non formal education? . radio. institution.V. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. List out any two aims of non formal education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Teaching to face teaching. Face Contact programmes. 117 . . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods.

Explain the different levels of formal system of education. Higher Secondary level and University level. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress.4. Open University. 5. adults as well as children. 118 .8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. b. systematic.4. a. Primary level. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. The school.4. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. b. Formal and Non Formal 2. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. 3. 2. Secondary level. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 2. Pre-school level. the college and the university come under this category. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. School 3. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. 2. 4.” 6. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Open School.2. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. a. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. 7. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss.

(2003). N.2. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : 119 .4.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.C. Ltd. P. Gupta. K and Narang C. Ltd. (2008). B. Dash. J. N. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2004). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. K. Mohanty. (2007). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. J. Theory and Principles of Education. Pahuja. L. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education. S. Bhatia. (2008). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Education in Emerging India.

5 2.5.5.4 Open University 2.3.6 2.4 Need for Open University 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .4.5.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.LESSON 2.5.4.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5.4.5.5.5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.3.5.5.5.5.1 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.5.4.3 Objectives of Open University 2.3.5.3.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.2 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.4.7 2.

know the need and objectives of open university. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. 2. industries. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. For them. farmers. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened.2. 2. Thus. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. However. you will be able to: 1. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. It is a continuous process. labourers and half educated individuals. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. continuing education is a boon. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts.5. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. give the meaning.5. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture.5. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. 2. It is a lifelong process.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India.5. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. characteristics of open university 4.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. economic field or such other fields. Any person. This knowledge may be in political field.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. Under these circumstances. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.

2. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. deteriorating to his character and personality. Doctors. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. After the achievement of independence.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation.V. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. Block Development Officers. For them too continuing education is essential. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. T. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Thus.directly related to his job. Throughout the country. cultured and progressive. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. if he gets opportunity to develop them. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education.literate person. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. On the other hand.V. are also contributing their might for the purpose. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. On the other hand. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. Radio and T. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. Radio. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened.3.5. Cinema. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Persons engaged in health services. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans.

4. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. 3. especially women. (8) psychology of adults.5. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (2) basic religious matters. (10) first aid. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases.V. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely.3. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. 123 .4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (15) music. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (16) liking. Of course. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. 5. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. habits of people of other lands. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (4) the fundamentals of economics. we have not been able to achieve our targets. Inspite of the great efforts. and Radio. (13) psychology of child behaviour. 7. (14) information about bringing up young children. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. 2.5. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. These books are not very useful. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. 2. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education.3. 2..are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 6. (6) folk stories. (7) folk songs. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (1) ancient history. (17) modern international and national events.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.5. NLM was launched in the year 2. lack of time etc. attendance restrict ion. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background.4. 2. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. of educational opportunities. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. What is the objectives of NLM? 3.

4. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. Which was the first open university in India? .unobserved. it makes use of educational techno logy. No one is too old or too late to learn. c. the higher the degree of openness. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e.5. b. IGNOU was established in the year 6.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. d.4. 2. its education is not class room based but home based. and in teaching. Education is not a once for-all process. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. but 125 . The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. e. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. 3. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 2. 5. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning.

They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. it a ims at wider and hig her. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. supplementing the existing provision. Mo re o ver. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n.5. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced.5.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. 4.who did not get it. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. 2. who were deprived of t he same earlier. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 126 . To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. 3.4. cho ice o f co ur ses. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. 2. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books.4. 4. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 6. annu al wr it t en examinat io n.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 2. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 5. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. 3. or who realised too late that they need it. 2. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc.

5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 3. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. you have learnt the concept. 5. 4. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. 2. 2. a society. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . 8. 8. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored.4.5.5. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Every day. Therefore.2. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n .5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. school drop outs. In the present day world. Tutor Comments. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. List out any four methods of Open University? . 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Correspondence tuition. 7. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Laboratory works. 127 . The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. 6. a state or nation. Self instructional materials. semi – literates. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. agricultural and industrial workers. 1985. unskilled workers and other professionals. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. 8. cho ic e o f co u r ses. b. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. its education is not class room based but home based. b. d. a. which may include house wives. 128 . 1988. 9. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 4. Broad casting lectures c.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. youth. aspirants for continuing education. Explain the objectives. 7. 3. a. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 2. 7. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.ambitious learners.5. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. 6.5. P r int med ia b. a. 8. 2. (1) ancient history. (2) basic religious matters. need and characteristics of Open University. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. Television Lessons. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals.

(2001).5. (2007). Ltd. Modern Problems of Education. (2004). S.. K. Udaiveer. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. R. K and Narang C. (2004).2. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Reddy.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.S. 129 . Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. L. Recent trends in Non Formal Education.K. New Delhi: Rajat Publication.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

examination. Examination reform. 133 . the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. wastage and stagnation. which may claim the attention of those concerned. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. All which is the need of the hour.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. and teacher education. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. the education of women. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. its causes and remedial measures. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. In Lesson 2. Training teachers for all levels of education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself.

134 .

1.1.LESSON 3.2 EFA – How? 3.5 3.8 3.2 3.1 3.1.1.3.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.3.1.1.1.7 3.1.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education. 135 .1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.3.4 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.3 New initiatives.6 3.1.

3. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. 2. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. therefore.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. may be political. social. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. you will be able to: 1. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures.1. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. economic or cultural. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. On the other hand.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years.1. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. education received added importance and significance. Therefore. directed that. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. “The State shall 136 . Eradication of Illiteracy. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE).3. Continuing Education (CE) 1. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). understands the country. (EOI) 2.

As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas.endeavour to provide. Universalization of Retention. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. Universalization of Enrolment. Three Stages for Universalization. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Continuing Education (CE). It enables the parents to send their children to School. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. 3. the national Government under. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. Due to the adoption of democratic system. rights and responsibilities. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. After the attainment of independence. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Therefore. 137 .

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 138 . inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. 3. UNESCO Bulletin states. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind.1. It is safe to assure. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. later to 1988. educational enterprise. This target had to be revised to 1970. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. Therefore. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country.3. then to 1976. 1990. present and future. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. Write Article 45. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. 1995 (for upper primary stage). What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence.

Emphasis must be given on health education. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Disabled.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Jams and Jellies. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. 10. rural areas. their enrolment and retention. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. 139 . To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. 3. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. the art of preparing fruit-juice. 9. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. FELF. NAEP. 5. adolescent and adult. 12. slum areas. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. Early childhood education should be streamlined. and Women’s education programme should be improved. By undertaking survey. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. etc. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. The Social Education. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. 11. creed. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. Apart from primary education.1. nutrition education and sports and games.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. 8. 6. Education of Girls.3. Education of the Impaired. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. sex. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. 3. their social economic status and occupations. problem of literacy. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all.

According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Wastage and Stagnation.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Expand MLL and SSA .e.1. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 .3. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.1. 3. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. 4. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.

Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. it is considered as wastage. Familial Factors .first stage of education.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . Personal Factors . Social Factors . School Factors .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.

occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. . Enumerate the causes of Wastage. 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Wastage. . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. 142 .

relating to home.The following factors. Family Factors . are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.1. rural or urban 3.3.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. School Factors . Societal Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. Personal Factors . It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. in his home.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . They are described hereunder :1. school or society.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. etc. stationary. mid-day meals. Define Stagnation? 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. 144 . uniforms.

8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. Universalization of Enrolment c. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA.1. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. 145 . 6. Hartog Committee. Universalization of Retention 2. a. 3. 4. “The State shall endeavour to provide. a.” 3. improvement of curriculum. 3. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. therefore. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.1. 3. Minimum Levels of Learning b. a. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. directed that. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.1. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. 2. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. b.. Universalization of Provision b. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. 4.

9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.K. Familial Factors c. S.1. Hemchand. Problems of Elementary Education.7. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. 3. a.K. Crescent Publishing Corporation. Social Factors 8. T. Sharma. School Factors d. (2001). (2008). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. 9. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Personal Factor b. b.N. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. introduce graded curriculum. improve examination system. (2007). S. New Delhi: 146 . a.

2.2.7 Let us sum up 147 .2.4.5.5.2.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2.4 Question banks 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.6.2.2.5.3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2.2 3.1 Problems of examination 3.5.2.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2.2.2.3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.1 3.2.4.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.4.2.LESSON 3.5 New evaluation procedures 3.5.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.2.2 Grade System 3.5.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2.2.7 Open book examination 3.2.5.2.

but on the other.9 3.2. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2. 3. 3. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.2. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Besides. 3. you will be able to: 1. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. suggest the new evaluation procedures. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.2.3.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. 3. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. 4. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .2. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.2.2. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.3. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.8 3.

boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions.2. schools for them wherever necessary. waiting rooms for girl students.3. roadside Romeoism. 3. If the students are in sufficient number. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. which the educational authorities have to face.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. hostel facilities. 149 . They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. etc. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. etc. etc. The following steps should be taken up. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age.. They develop secondary sex characteristics. They may cause problems relating to discipline. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life.

150 . teachers.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. public interested in education. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Instruction. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. the examination system has an important role to play. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. 3. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. appointment of paper-setters. It is considered as a major sub-system. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations.2. assessment and Finance. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3.4. conduct of internal examinations. public administrators and statesmen. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils.

Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. tabulators. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members.4. announcement of results. examiners. values. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. etc. etc. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. 3.printing and distribution of question papers. validity and practicability. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. introducing objective-based testing. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. scrutinizers. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. establishing reliability. etc. etc. etc.2. invigilators. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. training of examiners.

not meant to be assessed in the examinations. 152 . 7) In connection with the question papers. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. takes the place of comprehensive learning. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. which they are expected to study. Vagaries in making. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. Rote memorisation.. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. 3. stereotyped questions. Subjects. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. 2) From the angle of content of education. 3) With respect to method of teaching.4. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education.. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. may also discredit them. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. it s a common experience that subjectivity.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. lack of objectivity etc.2. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. do not appeal to the students and parents. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc.. halo-effect.

Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. . etc. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. re-numbering of answer scripts. 153 .a part of internal assessment. Spot valuation. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. revaluation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. may be introduced. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Question Books may be developed in all schools.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers.. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination.develop true love for education. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . List any two merits of examination. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques.

aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. Their interests. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . he is given extra credit points. When a person chooses to work extra. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination.5. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. In this system.2.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure.3. The new scheme of assessment. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. In actual practice. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. 3. It is complicated. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . attitudes. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.5. The students can take any course offered in any department.2. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. Every paper is treated equal. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures.2. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. skills are given importance.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society.

The human error of evaluation is ± 10. instead of specifying number of paper/courses.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. This system reduces comparison of marks. or as a 4 credit course. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v.2.5. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. 3. In the new system. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents.discipline. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120.poor. An example is a seminar. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. These weightages are called credits. v. While designing syllabus.good. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. Groupism is encouraged. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. only the total credits to be earned is specified. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. courses can have weightages defined. poor. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper.

in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.2. 3. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. 3. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners.2.5. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. However. 156 . Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. 3.2.5.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.5.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.

7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. 3. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Therefore. List any four new evaluation procedures. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. There are no proper procedures for selection. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. recruitment. .3. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . In the hierarchy. However. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. 6. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.2.

2. When they are fully realised. etc. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. interpersonal relationships and so on. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. in a sense. of late. complaints and compliments. playgrounds. laboratory equipment. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. etc.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. finding out whether the prescribed text. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. library books.qualified personnel. submitting of the inspection reports. inspecting the class-room teaching. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. 158 . Separation of Inspection and Supervision. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. staff. requirements. in contrast. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. books are followed.. finding out the adequacy of. 3. 1. taking up the follow-up programmes. qualifications. disciplinary problems. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools.6. Academic inspection. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. They are. whether the syllabus has been covered. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. being realised as two different functions. wherever necessary.. school buildings. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect.

In the case of departmental candidates. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. course in either educational. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. modern.2. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher..Ed. Insistence on specialisation in the B.. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. In the light of these conceptualisation. courses. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field.Ed. M. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. once in five years. 3. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. at least. Similarly. 159 . Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. aptitude. their professional knowledge.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. or. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors.

3. 3.2. b. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. 2. b. Grade System. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. b. 3. 4. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. a. 160 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. c.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. d. Administration.2. 3. a. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. 5.2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. assessment and Finance. Instruction. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India.

Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. (2005). a. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. R and Sharma. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. New 161 . and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Educational Reforms. Open book examinations. b. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. K. S. c. Vaidya. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Multiple sets of question paper. (2004). Problems of Education in India. b. K. 5. 3. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma.2. (2002). b.a part of internal assessment. a. a. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. History and Problems of Education in India. 7.4.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Question banks.

state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. identify the needs of rural India and social.2 3.3 3.5 3.3. 3.3. impact of Higher Secondary Education. you will be able to: 1. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities. 162 .11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.3.3.3.3.3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.4 3.9 3. 5.3.LESSON 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.10 3.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3.6 3. 4. 3.7 3.1 3.8 3. 2.3.

Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. 10 years of general Secondary Education.. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. 8 years of general education. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education.. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. e. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 .3. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education.. 2. The Calcutta Madras. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. etc. the Banaras Sanskrit College. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. Similar is the case with some other States. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. and 3 years of First Degree Course. Consequent on the recommendations. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1.3. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . i. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta.g. The. Commission emphasised to continue. in Andhra Pradesh..specialisation programmes 3.e.e. University Education.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education.

However. 3. 8. 5. Provision for transfer of credits to students. social. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. is also a plus point . reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. and. to prepare. 5) to help for the social. historical. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. 10. 6. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. who desire to change from one stream to another. educational channels. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . 7.confidence in students. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students.3. economical and political.a sense of dignity of labour.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . cultural and economic development of the country. to imbibe. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. habits of hard work and develop . b.

The General Educational Spectrum.3. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. at the other. international understanding. etc.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education.. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission.national integration. democratic living. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. to develop national character. social justice. and that required to enter the tertiary level. cultural and' religious tolerance. 3. Sociologically it is undesirable. and. Psychologically. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. on one hand. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Philosophically it is not the conception. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. 1. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . cooperativeness. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone.

3. Commerce and other disciplines. rural health. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. horticulture. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. such as Agriculture. physics or mathematics. technical. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. commerce. and vocations based on dairy-farming. fish culture. All these need for an. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs.— tube-wells. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. technological. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. In our country. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Agriculture is the main occupation. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. chemistry. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. vegetable growing. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. Science. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. 3. educational and cultural services. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. Biology. 166 . medical plants. the rural areas have suffered very much. industrial agricultural production is growing. In the matter of language. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. commerce. professional. In the vocational spectrum. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. or other machinery. India is a land of villages.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. 2.

Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. etc. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the local resources available. In this way.. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. social justice. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream..7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and 5. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. In this it may be concluded. 4. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . There had been favourable reaction from the students. and the needs.etc. In time.3. interests and aptitudes of the students. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. can be ensured. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. 3.

3. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Dash.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Mohanty. N. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. to imbibe. we studied the history. a. Ltd. a. objectives. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4.3.3. habits of hard work and develop .3.K. J. New Delhi : 168 . General Educational Spectrum and b. J. B. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. 3. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. Calcutta University Commission 2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3. 3.a sense of dignity of labour. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. (2001).C. (2005). S. b.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 3. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Vocational Sepctrum. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education.3. (2007). a. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2008). 2. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.

1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.1 3.4.4.9 3.7 3.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.4. Education contributes to human development. social and 169 .4.10 3.LESSON 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.4.4.4.8 3.4.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”.13 3.12 3.4.6 3.3 3.4.4.4.2 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.5 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.11 3.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.

The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. Nursing. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. These courses were. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way.4. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. cultural and political development of the individual.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. you will be able to: 1. The relevance of women’s education to social. Dr. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. community and nation is universally acknowledged. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. 3.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. Home Economics. although we have miles to go.4. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. For the first time in the history of India. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. In the post —independence period. economic. During the year 1937. While women constituted only 9. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . There is a close connection between education and development. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. particularly 170 . the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. 3. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. Education . Teaching and Fine Arts. family.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom.higher education in particular. higher education of girls developed immensely. analyze the women and distance education. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered.

2 29. 3. levels and professions. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. Coimbatore. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. In the rest of the country. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.0 Today. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.65 lakhs in 1994-95.4. we have more than 1200 institutions. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. in our country. Yet. out of 9200 and odd colleges.1 31.2 22.9 14. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.0 43. Mumbai.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.4.1 24. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. Mother Teresa Women University. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.0 16. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .T Women University. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.D. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. The idea of women’s education for equality. In 1950-51.0 32. Even today.N. 3. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.women.9 27.4. Kodaikanal. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.

47 65. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .73 10. 3.46 82.17 52.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .34 33. 3.44 35. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .66 66. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.83 47.36 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 and 14.1 respectively.63 Female % 34. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .4.4.54 12.27 89.53 34. 2.4%) prefer Arts subjects. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.56 64.that of boys.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.

Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. particularly. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. According to a survey. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. and coeducation may spoil her character. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. 3. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. distance of the college or university from home. she will only learn fashion. Thus. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. etc. In every third family. financial difficulty of the parents. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. They argue that when their daughter need not earn.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. 173 . Book banks should be established. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. In college. Also. The major hurdles. marriage is a very common I factor. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. They gave up their studies to enter home life. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. curriculum not suited to their requirements.hinders the girls from getting higher education.4. what is the need for higher education for her. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. irrelevance of the content of education. promoted and increased.

Full-time employment. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. There are constraints of time. It also brings about 174 . Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. resources and socio . Distance education is a boon to women. is the only tool for realising empowerment. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. 3. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. 3.4. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. Geographic distance of educational institutions. It is a productive investment. and the limitations of the conventional education system. Empowerment in a nutshell. Education. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face.4. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation.economic disabilities faced by women.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. It enables to study. space.

and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. on their own. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. for full development of our human resources. Empowerment is an active. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 .4. legal awareness and economic independence. Women are partners in development. The major objectives of women's higher education. education of women is of paramount importance. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. 3. higher learning. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. This can be achieved through reflection. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. empowerment means being assertive. education of women must be given priority in national plans. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future.

more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. 176 . through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. But their number is small. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries.4.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. especially so in the developing countries. has to be implemented at the earliest. The local administration. which had been the sole domain of men.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. who are eager to take up courses.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. Better opportunities. The educational institutions. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. 3. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. Scholarships and concessions for women. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. Reservation for women. will encourage them to venture new grounds. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. which is pending for a long time.

3. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates.1%) and architecture and building (38. Also. According to Lindy Hyam. engineering and related technologies (16. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. But. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent.000 women in the country. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. talents. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. IDP Education. Australia. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9%). women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.3 percent. Chief Executive. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs..Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.8%). especially in developing countries like African countries. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. capacities etc. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2.

Coimbatore. S. 3.R. SNDT Women’s University.K. Coimbatore.4. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development.4. Mishra. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. (2005). 178 . Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. individuals and society b. 3. and Suryalatha. SNDT Women’s University.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.C. R. 4. Women Education. Rao. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Women and Education. Annakodi. R. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3.4. 43% 6.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. 4. Women Education. Kodaikanal. A. S. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. 2. A. and Swain. Pattanaikj. Centre for Women’s Studies. R. (2008). impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. create the right attitude towards life. community and the nation. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Rajasthan 5. Mumbai.to the family. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Mumbai. Mother Teresa Women University. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. 3. (2007). a. (2000).

5.3 3.5.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.personality of children in and out of school. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. whole.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.7 3.LESSON 3.5.10 3.11 3.2 3.8 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. They should be trained.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5 3.4 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.5.5.6 3.5.9 3.1 3.5.5.

3. 180 . equality and justice. understanding and strong desire for international peace. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. you will be able to: 1. Dearth of new technology of teaching. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. understand the training teachers for Primary. 4. know the pre service and in service training facilities. international. Lack of physical facilities. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. 5.5. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. and national character. Shorter working hours. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. national consciousness. social and emotional integration. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction.5. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching.

Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities.. and M. who have not been trained earlier. the state Government. At the diploma level. higher secondary teacher education. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier.. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities.Ed. the primary teacher education. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. it is called the In-service teacher education. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. it is called the Extension teacher Education. the centre. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. Inadequate training in practical skills. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. Depending on the levels.5. Lop-sided curriculum. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. inservice and extension education programmes. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. students. a Diploma course and a Degree course. and the collegiate teacher education. levels. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. 3. the secondary teacher education.5. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. etc. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . If the student teachers are working teachers.Ed. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. (NCERT) New Delhi. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 .Less qualified teacher educators. 3. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B.

6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Also Guidance Bureaux. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 .Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. are established. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Educational teehnology cells. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . etc. Evaluation unit. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. collegiate cells. Expand NCERT 2. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . state Institutes of Educat ion. depart ments etc. extensio n service. Education cells.5. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . Science Education units. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. non-formal.

which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B.. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. to ensure teacher competence. to improve curricular programmes. schools and sister institutions. degree.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . despite its vast expansion. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. and so on. should be improved on a top priority basis.Ed. audio visual aids. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed .. primary and secondary school teachers.. which should include experience in the primary schools too. which help breaking isolation from one another . they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . to prescribe conditions for recognition. laboratories. and 183 . the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . to offer consultative services. material conditions relating to libraries. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards.Ed.

to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. Meanwhile. Organisation of Content Courses. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. Agriculture. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. whether they should have professional education or. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. To meet this exigency. 184 . efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. Workshops. Psychology of Students.secondary education. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. Hence. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. etc. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Modern Methods of Evaluation. The problem. methodology and evaluation. not came up once again. Induction Courses. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. though no pre-service training.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. Modern Techniques of Teaching. etc. and XII.

(Education) and M.’s for Ph. 3.Ed. courses and M. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. Courses leading to B.. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. These facilities are available for regular students. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.D. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. in Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.’s are elig ible for M.. Degree.. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.. Ajmer. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.A. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.Ed.. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.Ed. (Education) are organized by 185 .Ed. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.S. State Institutes of Education. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.Ed.5. For re-orienting the teachers.A. Pre-service training is for those. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. All B Ed. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. M..CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Ed.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.. training. Post-Graduates also undergo B. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. Degree and M.

6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. What is the role of ERIC? .8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. 4. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.A. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . However.A. . Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. established by tradition and teachers of the past. 6. 5. (Ed. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.5. and B. 186 . this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively.).some Faculties of Education of some Universities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.List any two code of conduct for teachers? .. they should be conscientious . 3. of conduct—written or unwritten. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. Hence the employability of M. (Ed). 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics.

Ajmer. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. 4. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.5. Explain code of conduct for teachers. b. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. 3. 4. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. b. 3. Bhopal. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. a. 2. a. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education.5. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 3. 6. 187 . Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. However.3. Shorter working hours. The necessity is however this.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 5.5. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. they should be conscientious. National Council of Educational Research and Training. 2.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b.

3. Ltd Aggarwal. B. (2003). and Teacher Education. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. (2010). Publication Pvt. Corporation. Tewari. P.D. Teacher Education. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . J. (2009). Mohanty.N. A.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda.5. Teacher Education.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. Since food is the source of nutrients. preservation of nutrients. objectives. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. communicable diseases and their prevention. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. In lesson 1. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. nutritional deficiency diseases. economic and educational developments. common ailments of children. The person’s environment is equally important.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. objectives and role of the physical education. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. the focus is on the school health programmes. If the diet is poor. In lesson 4. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. consuming the right amounts becomes important. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. 191 . objectives. need for population education and impact of population growth on social.

192 .

1 4.10 4. mental.1.8 4.2 4.1.1. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.5 4.3 4.1.1.1.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. physical. for giving health education to the children under its custody.6 4.1.1.LESSON 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.4 4.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.e.9 4. It is a miniature society. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.1. 193 .7 4.11 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time. emotional and social. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1.

explain the importance of First aid 5. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4.1. To develop certain skills concerning health. to his family and to the community at large. 3.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. content of health education. To develop healthy health habits among children. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. 9. 194 . To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. e. training of teachers and evaluation. 10. 4.. know the need for sex education. 4. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. 4. cleanliness and healthful living. 2. To give information regarding health rules. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. you will be able to: 1. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation.g. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. Instruction. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. training in first aid and etc. understand school health programmes 2. 11. 7. list the common ailments of children 3. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health.1.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. 8. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. 6.

3. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. etc. The flooring should not be damp.. as described below 1. is imperative.1. organisation of school health days. First aid facilities should be made readily available. (viii) first aid.C. (xii) smoking education etc. (v) safety education. 5..G. B. Triple Antigen Vaccination. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. (vi) nutrition education. Arranging better transportation facilities. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. (xl) mental health. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. play festivals.4. suitable furniture. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . (ii) communit y healt h. “Play-for-all” programmes. B. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. 2. inoculation against cholera. The school buildings should be spacious. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. vaccination. There should be good drainage facilities. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. 2. direct lighting. minimizing the travelling distance. 4. cleanliness weeks. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. There should be regular water supply.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. Vaccination for small pox. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes.coming or absence. typhoid. proper doors and windows. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. ( iii) sanit at io n. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. The surroundings of schools should be clean. excusing late.

Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. and other accidents. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. burns. 196 . bleeding. if epidemic is wide-spread. • When sleeping in groups. poisons. fainting (epileptic fit). scalds. • Keep all rooms clean. etc. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • Find out the cases. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. • Close the schools. drowning. isolate and notify.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. C. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. dislocations. cuts. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. insect stings. • Have adequate rest and sleep. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. • Take nutritious food. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. sports and games in the interest of their health. D. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics.. fractures. wounds.

So they easily get illnesses. chicken pox. 2. These diseases are called communicable diseases.1. 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. asthma.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. They are: i) The incubation stage. 4. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. which are – cold. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. backache. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. fever. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. Once these germs get into the body. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. Mention the school health programmes. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. measles etc. headache. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs.. cough. pain in the joints. There are three stages in any communicable disease. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. water or bodily contact. tuberculosis. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage.1. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the Health curriculum 3. polio.

Throat is affected. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. The virus is present in the secretions of throat.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. etc. cough and fever. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Important salts and water are lost in this process. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Scabies .It is caused by measles virus. Some suffer cold due to allergy.When a child suffers from scabies. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Hence it is called a killer disease. unhygienic living conditions. eating food which is not clean. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Ear Infections . head-ache and cough. After three or four days of fever. Tonsilitis . The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Common Cold . Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. The symptoms include cold. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose.This disease is caused by bacteria. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. sugar and water. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Others make the children very weak. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Diarrhoea . Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Mumps . In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. The following are the common communicable diseases. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. The child may have fever. Hence liquid diet is recommended. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. 198 . This is caused by cold virus. unhygienic bottle feeding. Measles .

This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. 5. What are communicable diseases? 6. Typhoid . By scratching he causes secondary infections. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. Diphtheria . Enlist the common ailments of children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Shortly. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. face and waist. the child is not able to breathe. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. separate. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. Expand DPT . Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. If proper treatment is not given. raised pink spots appear on head. 199 . The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. As the disease progresses. It begins with fever.• • • • Chicken Pox . So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. The child may also have diarrhoea. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. the child may die.

and films. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups.g. fiction.1. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. Cuts and Bruises . bruises.4. films and jokes. bleeding.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Drowning . 5.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. Wounds .8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. sprains. simple fractures. scorpion stings. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. dislocation. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. wounds.1. fainting. man-woman behaviours. and Community Work and Social Service. It is both biological and psychological. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. so-called sex books and periodicals. etc.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. snakebites. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. It has its rightful place in education too. In such cases. Sex is popular. Sprains . exciting and body-oriented. 3.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. sprains. drowning. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. eye injury. 4. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. 200 . cuts. head injury. it is a subject of art. swelling. 2. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. 4. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex.

Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. 3. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. celibacy are age. In secondary schools. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. the religious organisations. 2. The home. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. Should the boys and girls.old values. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. try experimenting with their bodies. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. in their ignorance. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. B.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. health. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. they would be treading the path of sure doom. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. The values of life. Hence. the school.. sex education is being recommended in schools.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . In today's liberal and interactive society. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. but preserve them from disaster and disease.

common ailments of children. communicable diseases and their prevention. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. Teacher education institutions are. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. when the courses are already overloaded. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. C. the school health programmes. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. hence. first aid and sex education. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. 202 . offering sex education as a part of their curricula. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum.1. 4. What are the major components of Sex Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there will no crisis in its implementation. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 209 . Mention the food nutrients 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3.

These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.2. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s .2. minerals. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. 210 .4. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . But how do we select these foods? The major aim. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. If you look at the definition carefully. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. Let us talk about each of these aspects. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied.

So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 .g. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. These are: region where the person resides and income. In other words. for example. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. There is no point. moderate or heavy work. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. activity level and physiological stress. In the case of adults. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. Even within given States there is considerable variation. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately.6.sedentary. Preferences/customs are also important. dosa are typical of the south. construction labourer). Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. the social and religious practices of that region. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). it is also specific to a given activity level .2. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. People in the east of our country prefer rice. 4. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires.g. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. A balanced diet is specific firstly. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . paratha and poori. Rice or rice preparations such as idli.one in the morning and the other at night. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. sex. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south.

you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. If you think of your own religious group. however. as important for the rich as for the poor. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. nuts and dry fruits. Having more money. fat and sugar tend to increase. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. vegetables and fruits. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. Including these 212 . sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. however. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. One must. These determine the acceptability of foods. income plays a vital role. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. As income increases. for example. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. Among the social factors. In addition to these. As you read this discussion. however. Judicious selection of food is. However. Even among flesh foods.planning the diet. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. customs. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. One person may be fond of milk products. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. taboos related to food may play an important role. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. while another may hate them. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion.

3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. meat. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. For this. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. mouth.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 8) Walk a while after eating. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. List out any two healthy food habits. over-eating or under. but they should be thrown away. 17. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. fruits. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. eggs . 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 213 . 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. green leaves. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. if the teachers have good food habits. Define balanced diet.eating is hazardous. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students.

Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Corneal xerosis. 4. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Night blindness. Vitamin D 5. In fact.2.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Beri Beri 4. 4. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 .2. Bitot’s spots. Explain food nutrients 4.4. When the diet is inadequate. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. d. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. b. Conjuctival xerosis. good nutrition is essential for good health. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. preservation of nutrients. a.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. c.2. e. Keratomalacia 3. Discuss good food habits. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies.

A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. minerals. (2009). Hands. Sri Lakshmi B. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. a . A Text Book of Foods. R. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. b. Nutrition and Dietetics. 8.C.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. R. Chopra. S. Food and Nutrition Education. Food should be consumed after eating well. a. 7. Nutrition Science. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . (2005). Health and Nutrition Education. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.2. mouth. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. (2008). U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s .N. b. (2008).6.M. Food and Nutrition Education. P. 4. (2004).

3.3. 216 .5 4.2 4.LESSON 4.1 Impact on social development 4.1 4.3.9 4.13 4.3.7 4.3.3.3.3 4.6.3.4 4.8 4.11 4.3.2 Impact on economic development 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3.3.12 4.6.6.10 4.3.3 Impact on Education 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.3.3.3.3.

characteristics and changes for himself. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. economic and educational development 3. therefore.4. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. his family. state the meaning. understand the importance of small family norm 5. the stress is.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. objectives and need for population education 2. the causes of population change. family planning and sex education etc. Whenever we talk of sex education. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. It is not sex education. and the consequences of these processes.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. It is a much wider co ncept. aims at providing the younger generation. 217 . The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.3. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. his societ y and the world. you will be able to: 1. population characteristics.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. describe the impact of population growth on social. 4. Population Education. There is some difference.3. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. community.3. 4. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning.

3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. the nation and the world. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. the family.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.3.4. 4.3. Define Population Education 2. the society. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner.6.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. 4. Every second two thousand children are being born. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. the family programmes are also handicapped. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. When the family is small. which will not be possible without population control. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. With the larger families. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. 4.3.3. Family is considered as a social unit. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. health and happiness of its citizens. economic and educational development of the country. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. 219 . Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race.

pollution of the environment.e. i. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. In developing countries.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils.6. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio.6. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. in cinema halls and theatres. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. organization index and material index. teacher index. in parks and other places of public gatherings. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. 4. facility for drinking water. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. in buses and trains. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. Many students herded in a small room.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. Swollen cities. The gulf between them is widening further. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. toilets. 220 . Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. 4.3.3. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. unemployment.. and so on. lack of proper health care. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. heavy intern I migration etc. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth.

3. less budget for education. thus. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. reproduction. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. Social Studies Statistics on population education. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. bar graphs etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.. essays. There would be very few audiovisual aids. can be studied in science and health education.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. Hindi and English. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Regional Language. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. There would be poor library facilities. family planning etc. less space facilities. blank verses etc. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. and laboratory equipments. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. 221 . even text books would be in short supply.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. can be taken up.

United States of America. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes.3. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. deaths. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. 14.4. 9. China. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Canada. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 7. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. 10. 2. Brazil. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Children with the help of parents. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Uttar Pradesh. 12. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. 4. 15. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. West Bengal. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. 5. Children may compare two families. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 13. area and average density of population. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. 11. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. 8. Bihar. causes of deaths etc. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 3. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 16. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. preferences for sex. age at marriage. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village.3. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. The question. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. values and role children etc. Comparing life in various respects in two families. 17. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. we have no right to stop 223 .be opened in their schools. 18.

especially the expansion of child immunization services . fertility levels have declined throughout the country. continued .. Since the program's inception. which education can only do.4-6. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.3.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. at varying places in different regions.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. “He who is responsible for population growth.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. 4.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. The Family Welfare Program. on an overall basis. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. More than 45 years ago. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).were implemented 224 .their entry into the world”. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . should be overcome at the intellectual levels. however. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. and the child survival components of the news: program. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.to emphasize family planning services. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.

Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. men. In October 1997. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. Therefore. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. a focus on health promotion. At these meetings. reliance on local women as community health workers. and nominal fees for services. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. the community appears willing to pay for services. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. and the World Conference on Women. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. Moreover. expansion of services to unmarried women. Local programs vary in their approaches. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better.earlier than the safe motherhood components. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. In April 1996. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program.

economic and educational development 4. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum.3. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. 3. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. involving the community.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. Describe the impact of population growth on social. 1997).emphasizing the needs of the client. What are the goals of RCH? 4. nation and the world. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 226 .12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2.3. family. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. community. Its main purposes are to create awareness.

Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. China. bar graphs. 3. the causes of population change. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. less budget for education. United States of America. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. a.3. Brazil. b. a. characteristics and changes for himself. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures.” 2. less space facilities. his family.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 227 . Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. 6. his society and the world. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. area and average density of population. 4. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union.4. Canada. 7. 5. and the consequences of these processes. population characteristics. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. b. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. a.

Kantikar. Jayapoorni. Udaiveer.4. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Modern Problems of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Centre for Women’s Studies. Reddy. N. V. (2004).14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Bhende. (2002). A. Ltd. (2005). New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Principles of Population Studies. (1992). Coimbatore. Modern Trends in Indian Education.3. (2005). J. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Ltd. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.K. T. 228 .

12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .11 19.8.4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.10 4.4.4.4 Lead up games 4.4.4.4.4.2 4.LESSON 4.4.4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3 Indigenous games 4.9 4.5 4.1 Minor games 4.8.7 4.6 4.4.4.2 Major games 4.4.4 4.8.3 4.4.4.1 4.8.

teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. moral fitness and emotional fitness.4. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students.4. which forms its most valuable assets. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. The concept of physical education has been made broader. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. team spirit. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools.4.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. the youth of the country. as it should 230 . A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. 4. state the meaning of Physical Education 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. 4. perseverance. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. social fitness.4. you will be able to: 1. mental alertness. leadership and balance in defect. full records of physical activities should be maintained. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. classify the different types of games.

Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. obedience to rules. team spirit. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Every individual is a part of society. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . They go hand in hand. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. leadership. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. The educational efforts at home.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. To be more precise. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Therefore. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. They are inseparably united together.

H. Buck has observed that 232 . “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. game and sports. “Physical education does neither train up the soul.” Montaigue writes. Rousseau states. ment al. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. Regarding the significance of physical education. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.” The Secondary Education Commission. C. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. Physical exercises. 4.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. a sound health. Just like Education. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. mo ral. nor body but the whole man. pleasing manners.4. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.

Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. “If we wish to develop the whole being. speed.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.a properly directed physical education should result in health. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. coordinative abilities. Froebel says. etc.” In brief.” 4. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. endurance. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. happiness. flexibility and power. efficiency and character. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. initiative. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. resourcefulness and smartness. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.4. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. 233 . we must exercise the whole human being. strength. elegance.

including all racial groups and historical ages. in greater or lesser degree.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. plagues and famines. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Tournaments foster this sentiment. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. While wars. poetry and painting. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. they may form gangs. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. should help in the spiritual development of the student. 234 (i) (ii) . its adherents and its enemies. these fundamental things have always been present. systems of government.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Every age has its artists. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity.

2. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. 235 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. respect for rules.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements.\ to develop perseverance. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . B. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit.sacrifice. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. self. Write any two importance of Physical Education. to develop tolerance. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. obedience. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. bravery and interest in games and sports. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. etc.

6. Posture screening should be done. 12. Act as a leader. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Usually parents. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. students. 2. 7. . Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Haag. 9. Always keep the whistle ready. 10. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 236 1. 15. 13. 5. 3. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Be self-confident. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. 4.H. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration.4. Be sportive. 8. and.4. injuries among pupils should be made. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Keep the field ready for the activities.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 14. 11. Inform health principles. is essential. Be in the uniform.4. 4. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. and readmission after they have recovered. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. 16. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. defects. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Be punctual. Be well-prepared.

4. 4. Lead up games. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Indigenous games. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. 2.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. 4. 4. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. 237 . the play. 3. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. less equipment and less expense. chasing. Such inst incts as imitation. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun.4. frolic and jo y.8.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. their development is handicapped. As such they are well enjoyed by children. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Moreover.

These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. driving. The dimension of the posts and nets. catching. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level.. couple tag. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. muffling. Shuttle Badminton. stopping. Cricket. the number of players and substitutes. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. some of them are played indoors. Khokho. Ball Badminton. Hopping. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Dodging. skipping. 4. For each game the rules are many. on hard courts. dribbling. Tennikoit. bowling etc.With a very few rules. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. They are rules approved by the International Associations.4. Jumping. finding the partner. Jump the stick clay and so on. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. on sea-shore. under ball pass Relay. zig zag relay. Throwing.8. benefit in playing minor games. women take part most of the games.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. trapping. 238 . the games can be modified according to convenience. Hockey. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. wherever the kids assemble. They are played for a shorter duration. Kabaddy etc. over ball pass Relay. On lawns. Basket Ball. Except a few games. on mountain tops and on river beds. the play equipment. While many of them are played in the open playfields. Soft Ball. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. snatching the kerchief. These games require varied skills such as running. Volley Ball. heading. boosting. hitting. spiking. pitching. Tennis. with implements or without implements.

birth. 7. On occasions like marriage. They have an abundant social value. death. For example. List out some major games. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. Games may be classified as 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial.8. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. Kho-kho. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. and . village folk take a very keen interest and participate. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. All the fundamental tactics. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. festivals connected with religion and public functions. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games.4. these games being popular. An example for indigenous game is 8. 4.8. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. they are in existence. While observing the players in action. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . in these games with zeal and enthusiasm.

11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Posture screening should be done. 2. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. a. a. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. 5. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual.4. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education.4. 3.4. aims and objectives and need of physical education. a. physically and emotionally fit and alert.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. 2. Minor and Major 240 . The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. d. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. b. 4.4. b. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. a. 3. to secure physical health b. 4. 4. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. b. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. c. to develop physical stamina.

12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Hockey. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Soft Ball. Basket Ball. Aggarwal. Volley Ball.K. (2008). Shuttle Badminton. (2008). Physical Education and Sports. G. Khokho 8. Cricket. J. Health. Tennikoit. Ball Badminton. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Krishna murthy. (2005). Tennis. Ltd. 241 . Mohanty. Foot-ball.4.C. 4.6. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. J. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Kabaddy 7. (2009). Khokho. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Handbook of Physical Education. J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

5.10 4.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.8 4.5.4 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.LESSON 4.5.5.5.2 4.5.5.7 4.5.5.5.2 Manmade Environment 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.5.9 4.6 4.3 4.1 Natural Environment 4.5.1 4.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .11 4.5.5.

5. Attitude. Participation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. you will able to: 1. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Essential knowledge about the Environment. Knowledge. population explosion and resource depletion could be. social. 2. The best place to start such learning is school. 4.educat ion for the environment. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Details are given below: I.5. Evaluation Ability. economic. aesthetic and educational factors. role of teacher in environmental conservation. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. list out the types of environment 3. 6. Skills. it covers the following elements: 1. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Awareness. 5. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. 2. Broadly. 243 . 4. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. 3. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. political.5. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. education about the environment and education through the environment. 3. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems.

mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. D.B. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. 2. a. F. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. • Biological magnification E. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. 244 . Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Oxidants Other pollutants.

Use of medical science i. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. III. B. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. 2. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . 4. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. economic. Sterilisation. The human ecosystem II. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Socio-economic measures. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Family planning ii. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. c. 2. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Persuasion: i. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical.3. Intrauterine device iii. Control of population growth a. Birth control through education b. 3. The pill ii. Abortion iv.

Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Water pollution abatement. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. Air pollution abatement ii. e) Recycling. Define Environmental Education. 3. 246 . List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. 1983). (UNESCO.

This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. a. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.5. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.5. A change in one brings about a change in the other.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. He modifies according”. way is called environmental or ecological factor. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 .5. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .other components of the environment. 4. -other. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. Biological environment The biological environment. to his needs. includes the plants.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. They interact with each.5. telex. animals and other organisms (biotic). any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4.5. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. fax agricultural apparatus.4. These are biotic components.5.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. b. Any constituent or condition of the environment.

harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. importance of nitrogen cycle. History The rise and fall. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. alternate sources of energy. industrial pollut io n. noise pollution. population. water scarcity. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. excellent recreation sites. noise control. social studies. ozone layer deplet ion. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. sources of pollut ion. explosion deforestation. acid rain. river systems. greenhouse effect. air pollutants from industries. nuclear energy. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. sources. t heir role in preventing pollution. over exploitation of ground water. need for bio-diversity. (ii) Air pollution. supplying timber for various uses. industrial survey. preventing siltation of dams. etc. use of medicinal plants. reasons. food chain and food-web. extinction of species. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. desertification 248 . are the topics which may be taught in History. balance of nature. relation between population and pollution. of civilizations. trees reducing noise pollution. ozone depletion. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. change in climate may be added. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . effects o f CFC. nuclear warfare. solar cookers. need for conservation. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. use of pesticides. maintaining the ecological diversity. evolution. effects. wars and hazards of war. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. etc. mineral survey. preserving the watersheds. natural way of controlling pests. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. windmills.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. role of trees in building economy.. biogas plants.

Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material.5. Providing. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 13. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 10. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 11. 249 . 8.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 7. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. 14.may be inc ded in Geography. Organising conferences. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 2. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. group discussions and seminars. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 3. animal and plants. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 12. 6. 4. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. aims and scope. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. 5. 9. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Peepal and Tulsi. 4.

Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. World Environmental falls on 250 . Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. all these can cause serious pollution. If it is done. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. used oils down the drain. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. especially plastics. Reuse carrier bags.Send their waste oil. it will cause pollution. Never put any left over chemicals. Don’t burn any waste. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. 6.

The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. To arrange for visiting speakers. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources.mat erials. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. CFCs. diversity and stability.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. viz. etc.. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. dest roying nat ural habitats. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. potable water. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. The groups may exchange. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. Harmony with the nature . Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. (cleanliness. etc. developing desirable attitudes. Concern for species. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil.5. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. To provide reference materials for children’s use. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. loss of bio-diversity. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. depletion of ozone. values and habits. deforestation. concern for others). orderliness and beauty).). Att itudes of balance towards nature. nuclear wars. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. Social responsibilit y (common good. To arrange visits or expeditions. rather than conquest and mastery. and 251 . Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem.4. To provide materials needed for practical work. Conservation of natural resources.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. preserving natural cycles. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4.5. 8. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.5.5. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. 252 . It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. 4.

a.K. June 5 7.K. a. Kuldeep.. importance of nitrogen cycle. new problems from science and technology. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. concern for others). Modern Problems of Education. 6. Publications Pvt. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. (2004). T. b. acid rain. New Delhi : Sharma. Rapid population growth. Awareness. a.5. reasons. effects. Udaiveer. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. air pollutants from industries. sources. Education for values. sources of pollution. 3. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. explosion deforestation. greenhouse effect. a. Environmental Education. Y. Knowledge. Environment and Human Rights. (2007). S. ozone layer deplet ion. population. Social responsibilit y (common good. relat ion between population and pollution. New Delhi : Authors Press. (2007). (1997). group discussions and seminars. 8. water scarcity. Providing.K. Ltd. 5. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. b. b. Anmol Publications Pvt. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Environmental Education.\ 4. over exploitation of ground water.2. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. (ii) Air pollution. 4. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . S. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising conferences. Ltd. Nanda. b. To provide materials needed for practical work.K.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. inviolable and hence holy life” In short.” 5. It is self-realisation. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. Education according to idealism.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. The universe is regarded as a thought process. man is essentially a moral being. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure.1. Therefore. the emancipation of spirit. should be universal in nature. moral." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. According to Rusk'. Education must contribute to development of culture. Universal Education. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. enrichment and transmission of culture. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted.our life. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. in fact. Spiritual Development.3.

the school is a garden.” 5. and collation (striving) should find due place. The plant can grow. For this no particular method has been suggested. Science. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. It considers teacher as. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. should be there.1.3. friend and guide.” He is thus. He sets the environment in which education takes place. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. According to Frobel. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . 3. Learning through discussion. History. 5. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. So health. According to idealism. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. Learning through questioning. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. so subjects like Religion. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. subjects like Languages. 4. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. Philosophy. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. He carries the child from darkness to light. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. 2. For intellectual development. Ethics. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. an indispensable necessity.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. However. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. So he should embody. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. a spiritual guide for the child. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. hygiene. So cognition (knowing).4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. no doubt. Learning through lecturing. 5. Learning through reading.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Mathematics etc. Herbert advocated instruction method.the spiritual qualities of mankind.3. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection.1. Learning through imitation. affecting (feeling).

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. text books. 5. 5. "Education should make 263 • .1.preservation. time tables.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. In the words of Ross. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.1.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. Perfection of Human Machine.perfection and beauty. Ross explains.4. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. curricula. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. 2. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. formal lessons or examinations.

4. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. education should develop the child into Joyous. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Botany etc Language. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. is based on the nature of the child. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Zoology. There is no place for religious and moral education.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. useful and mature child. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Therefore. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Literature. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. Chemistry. In all. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. “Education finds its purpose.1. therefore. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. 264 . subjects like history.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Arithmetic.4. It is based on the psychology of the child. Naturalistic curriculum. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. • 5. Education should. Biology. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Education also aims at helping the individual t. rational harmoniously balanced.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. It stresses basic sciences.

the stage.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Heuristic method. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It discards all rigid.1. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. 2.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. 3. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. a supplier of materials and opportunities. Learning through observation. Rousseau says. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. he should be taught by experience alone.4.1. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .5. Dalton Plan.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. In the . a provider of an ideal environment. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Learning by doing.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. 4. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.1. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Learning through experience.4.

5. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Continuous Growth. Agriculture. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Sciences.absolutism of idealism. 5.1. Physical training. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. All Round Development of an Individual. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency.5. Geography. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. is true. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Vocational and 266 . immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience.1. social and moral aspects. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. intellectual. The aim of educational development. Social Science. Social Efficiency. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. The individual has not only to adjust himself.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Subjects. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. diversified and flexible. 5. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. History. Personal Social Adjustment.

” 5. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. The subjects. 5. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .5. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher.5. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. alert and resourceful. should find proper place. He has to be active.Technical Education.1. He must be trained. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Learning by Doing. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. a teacher occupies an important position. a senior partner and a sincere guide. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences.

specific. 5. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. 3. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Sex Education. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Population Education. Education is preparation for a complete living. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind.1. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 3. Astrology.6. practical. Education must cultivate scientific outlook.5. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Literature. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Art. It favours child-centered. 5. History. Crafts. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Chemistry. Biography Philosophy. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. 2.1.1. 4.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Psychology. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. rich and happy. Biology. scientific and psychological education. 4. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. literary or humanistic education. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. intellectual. 5. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Satisfaction of individual and social needs.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. liberal. Mathematics.6. Geography are unnecessary 268 .1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. 2. Music and Dance. Study of Subjects like Language.

4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. easily and pleasantly.6.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.1.6. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . certainly and clearly.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

naturalism. Learning through reading. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. a. 5. Demonstration and Observation 270 . a. Experimentation d. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. d. Tours / Excursion e. & curriculum. 5. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. History. Education according to pragmatism. a. Learning through questioning. 5. 3. Sciences. has no end other than growth. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Rousseau 5. Self preservation & Self expression 4.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Languages. Self Realisation b. Social Science.1. b. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization.1. Vocational and Technical Education. in this lesson. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. pragmatism and realism. c. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Universal Education 2. Learning through discussion.1. Learning through experience b. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. e. Learning through lecturing.5. Geography. Physical training. Agriculture. 6. Child centered c. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Learning through imitation.

K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.5. P.P. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. 271 . K. N.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. (2004). New Delhi : A.H. R. Pahuja. O. P. of Pathak. Ltd. Narang C.1.P. Theory and Principles of Education. (2007). (2003). Anmol Publications Pvt. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Bhatia. Publishing corporation. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. (2007). L.

5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2.5.3.4.2.3 Methods of teaching 272 .3 Methods of Teaching 5.2.2 Curriculum 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.3.5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.2.4.1 5.3.2.3.4 Views about teacher 5.3.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2.2 5.4 Views about teacher 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2 Curriculum 5.2.2.2.3.1 Aims of Education 5.1 Aims of Education 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.4.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2.2.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.4.LESSON 5.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.5.2.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.4.2.2.2.3 Methods of teaching 5.

content and methods.2.2. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2. mind and spirit. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. economic and political reconstruction in our country. you will able to: 1.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. 3. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. Tagore was a poet. an artist. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.5. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. 2.2. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.2.6 5. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. 273 .9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. 5.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Gandhiji was primarily a social.8 5.2. 5.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.4 Role of the teacher 5.2.5.7 5.

Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. 274 .” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. mind and soul of children He further observed. through life and for life." Dignity of Labour. righteousness. In the words of Gandhiji. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education.2. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. self-restraint and service of humanity. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim.3. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. 5. It really provides opportunity for character building. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. His scheme of education is life centred. it is education of life. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. nor the gross animals body. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. 'Man is neither mere intellect.supporting.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. "I attach more. strength of mind.

That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. General Sciences. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. leather work have been suggested. metal work. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Only good individual forms a better society.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Music. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . gardening. 5.Training for Leadership. Individual and Social Aims. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 .2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. According to Gandhi. wood work. "Development of the moral character.3. the realization of the ultimate reality. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.2. Mother-tongue. Drawing and Hindustani. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Art.

What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. men of 276 . It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.3. Basic education is other wise known as 4. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. proficient.2. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.trained.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.3. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.2.

Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji.knowledge. 3. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist.2. Education must be child centered. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. He also advocates freedom for the child. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. That is why. 5.3.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.

He believed in the oneness of humanity. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. Gandhi in 1937. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.3. He was deadly against untouchability.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.2. he was a true Vedantist 5.” Like all other ideals. 5. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. • Cult of non-violence.2.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. He was a true patriot. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. 5. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.4.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.2. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.K. • Ideal of citizenship. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. • Education should involve manual work. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Civics. wider in range. deeper in. sentiment. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. It should help. International understanding. Tagore said. 279 . The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. could help in forging unity among all. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Zoology. the more dedicated and devoted. International Understanding. That way only. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. he said. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. stronger in power than ever before." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Chemistry.Mother tongue and other Indian languages.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study .2. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. etc. them solve problems of day to day life. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Religion and Psychology.Language and Literature . Purposeful and Meaningful Education. It should help the learner have good physique. Dance. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Music. "Mankind must realise a unity. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Therefore.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. (vi) Philosophy. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Geography.4. complete manhood could be attained. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Botany. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts.

His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. 280 .” He further says.2.2.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.4. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. 5. In 1921. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. Activity Method Heuristic Method. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.4. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”.2. 5. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. Tagore rightly says." 5. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.4.

g. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. 281 . It is open to all irrespective of country. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. race. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. 10. 9. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9.

rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education.5.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. Freedom. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Education for Self-reliance. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Purity of thought. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge.2. Concept of Education.5. 2. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 .” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. 3. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. 4. work and deeds come out of it. Education for Self-realization. Education for strong Moral Character. man making.” 5." He was against the theoretical type of education. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. Education should make a person self-reliant.2. character forming and assimilation of ideas.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Book learning. According to him. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only.

2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Only a selfless person can be good teacher.2. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth.2. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Discussion Method. That will serve the purpose of education fully. 283 . 5. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. engineering and technical subjects.5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. The teacher should be the facilitator. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Thirdly he wished that games. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Education for Physical Development. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. Religion. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. And above all. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Swami. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. 5. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. 5. Philosophy and Theology.the learners on different students in the discussion. philosopher and guide to the students He.5. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other.5.5. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Every individual should be trained for concentration. 6. Secondly he wanted Science. Of course. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.2. A physically strong person is the need of the society.

In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. of course. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. and pragmatist .Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. Their educational ideas. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. naturalist. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. We have seen that Tagore. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. 3. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. legs. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. ears and eyes. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. 2. 5. 12. 5.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. in this lesson.2. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man.Substantiate your answer.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. Write short notes on Basic education. 284 .6 LET US SUM UP We have. Gandhiji as a Idealist. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life.

c. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Explain Vishwabharathi.4. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Activity Method d. metal work. Self realization. Cult of non-violence. Teaching while Walking b. Activity Method b. f. Self-Study b. 8. d. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. e. Heuristic Method. Technique of Correlation 6. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. a. 1937 7. 9. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Meditation and concentration c. 5. 2. Nai Talim 4. a. wood work. Education should involve manual work. Basic education. 5. a. Learning by Doing c. 3. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. 5. Debate and Discussion Method. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. leather work have been suggested. a. Discussion Method 285 . productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. c. 10. 11. b.2. Ideal of citizenship. gardening.

New Delhi : Aggarwal. K.H. Pahuja. (2007).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash.P. on Bhatia. P. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. C. Dhiman. (2002). J. Foundations of Education. Publishing Corporation. K and Narang C. Theory and Principles of Education. O. (2007). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. B. New Delhi : A. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. 286 . Ltd.5. Anmol Publications Pvt. N. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education.2. (2004). L. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. P. (2003). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.

1 5.2 5.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .4 5.LESSON 5.3.3.3 5.3.8 5.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.10 5.7 5.3.3.5 5.3.3.6 5.3.3. In this lesson. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.11 5.9 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.

“It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. In the former sense. From the latter point of view. Then in a big country like India. While education is learning.3. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. In the words of Kerney and Cook. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India.3. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.under the direction of the school. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. in the form of new experience. the desert area. In it. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. present behaviour may be modified.A. in Russia or in Japan. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture.. curriculum signifies situations for learning. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. there is a large number of communities. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion.3. in fact .4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. living in the hilly area. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. you will be able to: 1. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s .3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. curriculum. 5. new behaviour may be acquired. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. state the meaning of curriculum 2. the plateau area and 288 . 5. A g o o d curricu lu m. the plain area. maintained or eliminated. Curriculum is intimately related to education. it is identical wit h socializat ion. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. in the U. While education is a process. Since the demands. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. is a means to the process. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. Both the processes are integrated.S.

the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. differs from individual to individual. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. and 289 . it is. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. From a slave-country we became secular. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. environment. therefore. studying therein. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. customs and needs. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. It must differ from locality and from society to society. However. 5.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. In fact . physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. democratic and socialistic country. Besides craft. irrespective of their needs and environment. the learning capacity of children. Again. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. according to modern trends in the educational process. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. too.3. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule.

. etc. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. Knowledge Objective. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. National Integration. social. Understanding Objective. So it is inadequate. They speak of immediate purposes of education. e.. Vocational Efficiency. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . of classroom. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. unambiguous and functional. they depend on the political. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. 290 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. moral. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. general or specific. They may be ultimate or proximate.. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. individual or Social and so on.g. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. remote or immediate.3. etc. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. Application Objective. 3. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes.. in instructional objectives. 5. Goals of Secondary Education. emotional. etc. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. 2.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. The word “Curere” means 2. 4. social. uninspiring and unscientific.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. Goals of Primary Education. 1. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. tangible. They are achievable. specific. Self Realisation. aesthetic and spiritual development.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. eg. They speak of perfect goals.g. aims. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. which may or may not be attained. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical.g. unsatisfactory. e. They are visionary goals e.

The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. on the playing fields. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. heavy fire. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. finding them very interesting and captivating.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. capacities. but it includes the totality of experiences. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus.3. abilities. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” 291 . Crow and Crow remarks. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects.5. Raymont rightly says. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. The interests. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. educationists. According to Crow and Crow. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. needs. in the class rooms.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other.

Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. tendencies. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. mental. Due to these variations and differences. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. aptitudes. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. They often waste it or rather kill it. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. moral. capacities and abilities. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. time in a useful manner. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. urges.

According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. To ensure success of the process.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. 3. 2.curricular. organized. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. phased preparation. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. Similarly. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. administrative programme need be planned. 293 . infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. development of professional capability at all levels. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations.

Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. workshop.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. 17. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation.3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. Child Centred Education b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. laboratory.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . 5. 10. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. principles of curriculum construction. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. 12. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 11. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning.3. 5. in the class room.3. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. library. Relation with Life c. 1937 19. 18. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Run. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. a. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

3. (2007). Bhalla. Curriculum Development. (2001). (2007). New Delhi : Authorspress. and Sarita Kumari. New Delhi : Isha Books. P. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. Innovations in Education. D.5.S. Curriculum and Instruction.K. N.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S. Lakshmi. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2007). 295 . New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited.

4.7.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4.3 5.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.8 5.7.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.5 5.4.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.LESSON 5.4.6.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.7.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.10 5.4.4.4 5.4.1 5.2 5.7.9 5.4.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.4.4.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.6.4.4.

Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. honesty. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. explain the concept of scientific attitude. We mean curiosity. in the economic reconstruction of society. Gradually. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . which we sometimes call scientific attitudes.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. 5.4.during the second half of this century.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4. 3. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. 297 .4. newer and newer industries started growing. 2. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth .1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. 5. know the importance of science education. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. open-mindedness. 4. tolerance for the opinions of others. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition.5. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. superstition or emotion. you will be able to: 1.

After such experience and training. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 .4. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 5. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 2.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Selection for science education. Schemes of teaching science. 4. 6. Through examinations. Thinking and memory develops. stipends and appreciations in various ways. 2. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 5. 5. 3. 6.So that. 7. Central science workshop. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. seminars and symposiums.4. Devotion towards nature increases. 4. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. 3. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Through newspapers. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Love for truth enhances. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Promotion of science clubs. Principles are formulated. 5. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. as well as of the society. Organisation of science fairs.

7. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. They encounter many social events as they grow. Training of science teachers. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. 5. essential that teachers.4. therefore. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. Write any two advantages of Science Education. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In the inquiry approach. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enquiry teaching is. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. 5. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. sex or religion.4.6.needs and conditions. They ask many questions about the objects they see. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. should provide opportunities to. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. For laboratory and workshop techniques. objectivity. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. each child to “enquiry skill building”. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . They experience natural phenomenon. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It is. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. After presenting the problem. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions.

if they like.books.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. It requires consistent thinking. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. to ask questions and experience things.6. 2. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. stern pursuit of accurate data.4. test. 5. . Giving less directions. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. .Herma Wouk. Social sciences. 300 .4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 4. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Evidence. 3. Adopting creative models of teaching. 6. 5. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 5. commands or orders. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. Appreciating pupils ideas.

A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. school and society at large. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. To achieve this we should understand what it means. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. to develop among the learners. see and feel the need of developing this attitude.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. practiced.4. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. (Vaidya 2007). The students observation. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. and emphasized during the learning process . of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. critical thinking and suspended judgments. neighbourhood. keen observation. it must be encouraged. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. of vast resources running waste. therefore should be unbiased and objective. These include open mindedness. 5.(Smith 2008). The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. friends. For instance. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation.7. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience.

Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge.4. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. think and work it”. In considering a situation or a problem. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. rumor. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.7. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. intuition or wishful thinking”. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. 5. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. 2007). The intention to respect another’s point of view. (Das. or superstitions. understanding and logic. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. he studies all aspects of it. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. 302 .pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. He is patient and reserved in his judgement.

Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. but to begin only after careful planning. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. • 5.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.7.7.4. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. 5.4. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.

The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. 304 .4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. it must be encourages. 5. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.

4. a. objectivity. Love for truth enhances. N. (2006). a. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.4. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. 5. 5. 305 . Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. 16.4. S.5. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. b. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. a. 3. (2000).10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Adopting creative models of teaching. (2008). b. Study of superstitions d. D. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Reflections on Scientific attitude. Yadav. b. Planning of activities 5. M. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Rao. Wide reading b.S.4. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Proper example of the teacher c. Vaidya. a. 2. Discuss the importance of science education 14.B (2008). New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. The intention to respect another’s point of view.

you will be able to: 1.8 5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.11 5.5.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5.5. 2.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.2 5.1 5.LESSON 5.5.5.5.3 5.5.5 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.6 5.5. areas of institutional planning.4 5. actively.5.9 5. state the concept.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5. objectives and characteristics. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.10 5. 306 .7 5.5.5.

every parent. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. 5.5. executive as well as public. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. and supplement planning from above. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. and each student are regarded as separate entities. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. in the task of educational planning. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. • to involve teachers and school administrators. • To make institutional planning more successful.5. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. • to make planning development-oriented. Institution should be regarded as the unit. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. which become the bases for further planning at the district. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans.3. and. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. every teacher. State and national levels from below. teachers and students is not lost sight of.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. each teacher. and every student in the process of educational planning.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. 5.

it becomes the basis for school inspection.• implemented.curricular Activities. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. council and. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. 308 . Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. etc. Syllabus. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. Classwork.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. which will be discussed in the general. and Personnel services. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion.5. approved after making necessary modifications. Examinations. 5. Co-curricular activities. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers.5. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. (2) Co.

Organisation of Pupils. hobby-centres. Preparation of models. etc. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Running science clubs. scientific and historical excursions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Undertaking remedial instruction services. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Courts. etc. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. 2. Organisation of Self-Government Days. charts and apparatus. Organising play-for-all programmes. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. etc. Editing the school magazine.No. Organisation of Students’ Association. Preparation of instructional material. 1. 3. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Equipping of laboratory and library. Fair distribution of syllabi. Preparation of audio-visual aids. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Organisation of class-room libraries. Improving the internal assessment. Celebrating of national and international festivals.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Conducting of educational. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

involving mainly human materials. administrator-pupil. administrator-administrator. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved.” The human relationships in. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. etc. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. teacher-teacher.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. and solidarity.5. and —pupil-pupil. Administrator-State. teacher-managing body. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. parent-teacher associations. administrator-supervisor. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. pupils. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. headmasters associations. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. parents.group and out-group relationships are as given below i.5. teachers. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. co-operation. teacher-pupil. students’ associations. pupil310 . teacher-State. science teachers’ associations. which are divided as the in. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. ii. teacherinspector. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. understanding.

educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. now-a-days. It covers personnel and material management. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management.5. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. administrator. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. Good. supervision and superintendence." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. to accomplish. teacher-community leader. pupil-non-official functionaries. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. control. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies.State. social sciences and other disciplines. to carry out. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. pupil-parent. It is also being modernized to become a technique. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. organisation and management. pupil-inspector. 311 . To administer means to manage. V. pupil-community leader.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. organisation. to attend. etc. superintendence. and to serve. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. According to C. teacher-parent. supervision. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

Democratic Management . Communication . 4.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. Motiviation . This is the latest democratic trend in management. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. Socio-Scientific Approach . 2. Leadership . 5. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. Rapport between the Management and Employees . He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. Economic Management . He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. Liasion with the Public . He should be an artist in human relationships.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . 11.The manager should have leadership traits.Any good management will always have good public relations.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. 13. 10. Better Human Relationships . 12.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship .This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. who occupy the managerial positions. If it is more. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. Those.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. 8.Of all the approaches. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Worker Participation . it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. Decision Making . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. 3. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. 9.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. The relationship should change from master. 7.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. 6.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. Cost-Benefit Analysis . it is not worth-while. low. If the cost benefit ratio is less.

Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions.g.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. 19.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. 5. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. characteristics and areas of institutional planning.too. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.These two are.5. improvement of teaching methods. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. enrichment of curricula. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. 313 . The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning.5. objective. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. to improve the quality of education it provides. 14. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. and cooperative performance should be ensured. 18. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . 5. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.

it becomes the basis for school inspection. b. Leadership c. a. c. 314 .K. b. Instruction. Examinations. Singh. Communication 5. 2. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. e. Fundamental of Educational Management.M. Classwork. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. and Personnel services. NUEPA. S. (1995). Teacher and Education in Indian Society.5. a. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. f. a. In group and Out group 5. Decision Making b. Tarachand and Prakash. Educational Administration. Co-curricular activities. (2003).11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. Syllabus.5. Motiviation d.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.5. (2001). Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. APH Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. H. R. d. a. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. b.

1 Gurukula system of education. higher education.I. Common ailments of Children. Sex-education 4.Religious and Modern Education 1.Preventive measures. social Impact 3. 4.Pre-service and In-services facilities. nutritional requirement.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. First Aid. School. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.1 Inculcation of Socialism. Healthy Food Habit 4. Realized the problems of school education.CORE PAPER .2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.3 Directive Principles .3 Educational Influences of Home. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . women education and teacher education in India. Inspection and Supervision 3. Communicable diseases . population education.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. 1.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. Examination reforms. Code of conduct for teachers. Community and Mass Media 2.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. physical education and environmental education 5.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.4 India's Secular Policy .2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .5 Regional Educational Development in India .1 School Health Programme. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. wastage and Stagnation 3.1 Primary Education : Education for all. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. Preservation of nutrients. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.2 Nutritional deficiencies. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Economic 315 . Buddhist and Jain system of education.Article 45 . New evaluation procedures.teachers should have : 1.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Balanced diet. 2.

and Sharma R.K. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Ghanta R. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.S. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Taneja V. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.K. Curriculum and national goals .R. and Dash B. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.N. Naturalism and Pragmatism . (2004) Problems of Education in India.Aim. 7. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. 316 . and Human Development. 5. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.K.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Delhi : University Publications 2.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Prof. Tagore 5. Saraswathi T. Realism.4. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.K. R. B. and Mohanty R.N. T. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.4 4. Ram S.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. (1999) Culture. Pandy V. Mishra.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . New Delhi: NCERT 3. REFERENCE 1. Mahatma Gandhi. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.1 Idealism. Sharma. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5.C.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Socialization. Hemchand. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. (2005) Foundations of Education. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.

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