BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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Lesson 2. Jainism and their educational implication. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. 9 . regional imbalances and variations in different environment. Lesson 5. discusses the regional educational development in India.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. The need. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. and Jain system of education. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. In. Lesson 4. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism.

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1.6.6.1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.LESSON 1.1.4.1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1.4.1.1.6 Education during British Era 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.2 1.6.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.6.1 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.1.1.5 Jain system of education 1.5.1.5.3.1.5.1.6.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1.3.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.5.1.

1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.6. but English in taste.1.1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. British system of education presented the modern western model.1. has a long past history starting in vedic education.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. in opinion. 1. “a class of persons. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. 1.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. Education in India. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. describe the Jain system of Education 4. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. Muslim and British periods. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. Indian in blood and colour. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.7 1.1.6.1.8 1. in morals and in the intellect”.1. That 12 . The history of education passed through Buddhist. India. 1.3.1. elucidate the education during British Era.9 1. both present and future.

to light. managed entirely by Brahmans. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Immediate Aim Vocational. not en masse by the class method. 4. Where pupils were many. 10. Method of Study. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Education was a private affair of the people. 13 . and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 12. No State Control on Education. from eternal to immorality 2. however.knowledge was real. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Teacher as Parents. 8. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. 3. There was. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. if they thought fit to do so. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. individually. Method of Instruction. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. generally. 5. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Individual Teaching. questioning by the pupil. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. from darkness. 16. The immediate aim of education. It was not merely intellectual. as it is generally considered to be at present. Residential Schools. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. It was also moral. 14. Free and Accessible. and to agriculture and trade. Role of Travel in Education. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. 13. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 11. religious and spiritual. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Curriculum. followed by explanation by the teacher. Forests as Centres of Education. 9. Pupils were taught. High Status of Teachers. Religious and Spiritual. 6. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. Education of Moral. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. with grants of land or money. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. the monitorial plan was followed.

besides preparing for worldly pursuits. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. It was freely available to all those who wanted.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? .1. 2. lived a life of celebacy. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. studied Vedas. It was suited to the needs of the society. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Wide-Spread Education in Women. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. 1.17. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. They were very cordial and intimate.

Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. dressed himself in yellow clothes. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. Education was imparted through the. Right knowledge 2. medium of Pali. the most significant of which were the following 1. Consequently. Right means of livelihood 6. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. use of intoxicating things. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Right thought 3.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. I take Refuge to Dharma. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. impure conduct.4. partaking of food at prohibited times. which included abstaining from theft. I take Refuge to Sangh. Right activity 5. It was denied only to the ill. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. had the right to receive education. the handicapped. the student remained in a state of Shramana.C. Right contemplation 1. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. disease and death of the human beings. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. Right endeavour 7. Right speech 4. 1. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. etc.1. killing of any living being. watching dances or listening to music. except the Chandals. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. in which. the student had his head shaved of all hair. 2. taking things without being offered. Right memory 8. use of cosmetics. 15 . every class in society. he was qualified to become a monk. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. After attaining the age of 20.

the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. etc. education was impart in art. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. nature. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. a continuous change creating 16 . 6. depth and range. beg for alms. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. be considered the aim of education It. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. military science. magic. however. 3. animal husbandry. As reality is becoming. medicine. assumptions. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. control over sensuous activities. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. After this ritual. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. approach. agriculture. 8. 4. wear three items. so long as it successfully does so. a change is not only total but also perpetual. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. cottage industries. geology. changing the goals. Initially. 7. the science of taming and training animals. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni.4. archery. bodily gestures. nothing is of any permanent consequence.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. etc. 2. Life is in a flux. 5. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. handicrafts. Whatever its nature and extent. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. of clothes. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. aspirations and. These are called later Buddhist schools. objectives of human life. 1. commerce. eat food thrice a day. It comprehended education in writing. archery. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. Later on. and. meaning. arithmetic and religious discussion. knowledge of reviving the dead. has no metaphysical value for life. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. it is regarded as true”. etc. along with education in script writing. Hence. Even at this stage. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life.3. women occupied a position inferior to men.. elephant lore. On this occasion. therefore. the presence of the monks was essential.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. such as.5. therefore. however.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. Education must. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.e. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. i. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6.. Its chief feature. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. Write Eight fold path . In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism.1. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. its pessimistic outlook on life. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success.new and peculiar situations. In fact. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. whatever works are true and good. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. 1.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. However. Jainism insists 17 . in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. Validity is effective and consequences. it is much older than the latter. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. goes to Vardhaman. 5. and to give it a shape that it has today. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’.

2. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. c) Not to steal. 2. Hence. 6. b) Not utter falsehood. 3. 8. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. e) To renounce the world. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. 1. 3. 9. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. 10. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. c) Right conduct. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect.1.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. As such.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. b) Right knowledge. but on both. 7.5. thought and deed. and believe in happiness to all. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. 1. more stress on individual aims. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. and is to be redeemed and liberated. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Development of personality as an individual. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. it has a foot in both the words. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. d) To lead a celibate life. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. They are: a) Not to injure. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. 4. 5. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. 18 .

What are Triratnas ? . Teaching must develop these faculties. Jiva is essentially karmic. 1. 5. Teaching should be social and tolerant.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.5. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. 3. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . and should bring happiness to all.5. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. education must be action based and ideally oriented. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 2. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. that would be socially desirable. Hence. 1. here and now.4. practised and not only aspired for. success and love. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 3. Belief in transmigration of soul.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 8. 19 . 2. education should develop sense of discrimination. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. therefore. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter.

science. and not for life. primary 20 . However. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. philosophy and literature of Europe. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. 1953). 2. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. with rally and rout. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler.6.1. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. To set up separate departments of. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854).1. 1. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. Bombay. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own.6. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. Madras.6.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report.6. 1. 1. 1. North West Province and Punjab.

namely.6. • Universal free primary education.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. self-respecting and competent. • Secondary education. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. secondary education became a step towards university. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. 1. 1.6.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. At that time M. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. The universities dominated the secondary education. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission).6. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested.K. at the primary level.education was neglected. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. 1. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. In 1882. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. To ensure qualitative improvement. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. Later on.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 .

7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. The objective of education was to provide 22 .1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. 10. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. After this stage.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. all children are to have a common curriculum. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry.

2.education of European literature. Right endeavour. 3. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. Right activity. Right thought. military science. Right contemplation. questioning by the pupil. 4.. 3. the science of taming and training animals. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. Right speech.1. archery.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5. b. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 23 . During the Buddhist period. handicrafts. 1.1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. science and English language. arithmetic and religious discussion. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. 6. geology. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. 4. Right means of livelihood. along with education in script writing. followed by explanation by the teacher. It was suited to the needs of the society. a. Right memory. education was impart in art. The immediate aim of education. etc. The system of education was well-organised. 2. 1. Right knowledge. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. establishment of universities.

1. c. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Right faith. Aggarwal. J.7. History of Indian Education System. J. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Sharma. (2007). a. Development of personality as an individual. 8.K. b. Development of Educational System in India. Singh. (2005). Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Hence. (2009).C. R. Right conduct. 11. Right knowledge.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.K. Ltd. a. 1882. 10. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 1937 1. Improvement of Literature. 9. 24 . New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. b. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Sargent report 12. and Nath. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C. Y. more stress on individual aims. Y. (1984).

2.2.2 1.8 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.2.9 1.2.2.4 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.3.2.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.2.2.2.2.3.6 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.7 1. The 25 .1 University Education Commission 1.LESSON 1.2.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.3.3.2.1 1.5 1.

Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. standard of teaching. curriculum. expansion of vocational. 1. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. New Educational Policy.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. girls and women education besides primary.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. National Council for Women’s Education 5. 1. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. medical and legal education. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. examination system. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. S. There had been vast institutional expansion.2. Post-graduate 26 . diversification of courses of studies. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service.conditions of the teachers. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7.2.2. 1986 1.3. Kothari (1964-66) 8. National Board of Teacher Education 10.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. analyse the progress of education in free India. technological engineering. 2. you will be able to: 1. vocational education. explosion of enrolment. secondary and higher education. technical.

A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. Kothari.teaching. Therefore. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. the New National Policy on Education.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels.3. research et. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. D. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. 1. the chairman of University Grants commission. 1. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. 1966. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. utility and financial outlay.2. The Essence and Role of Education. Education is the key to our allround development.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. accumulated over the years. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986.3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 .2. 3. quantity. 1. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. 4. quality. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. Problems of access. Government of India. 2.3. Education for Equality. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States.2. 1952. Finally. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. 1986. A. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. in January 1985. material and spiritual. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. National System of Education.S. A meaningfully Partnership. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. However.

4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. the concepts of work experience. attitudes. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage.” Thus. Thus. It can train practical aptitudes. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. The UNESCO Report.2. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. By working with hands. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the minorities and the handicapped. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. 28 . Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work.

co-ordinations. it will conduce self. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling.” The Mudaliar Commission. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. Besides. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. co-operation and implementation of the scheme.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. With adequate planning. The Education Commission.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. “It may be described. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. According to. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . In 1955. “The aim of these colleges. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. As such. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X.” the Kothari Commission mentioned.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. The Radhakrishnan Commission. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. the Commission. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. if he wishes. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage.

du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. In addition.ot her. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. raising the special facilities. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. for quality of life in the rural areas. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. The Central Advisory Board of Education. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. the rigid streaming of courses. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. Subsequently. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education.. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 .” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. With a view to relating education to the life. admission requirements to vocational courses. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. etc. Therefore. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. the. the semester and credit system.

Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. giving importance to productivity in the national development. 1. which offer scientific.. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. technological courses including Agriculture. The Father of Nation. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. which are useful to the community. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. In short. According to committee. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. 31 . felt that education should be centred around a craft. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf.2. preferably spinning and weaving. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. The wave of Basic Education. manual work resulting in either goods or services. who conceived the System of Basic Education. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. etc. Commerce.and the world of work. meaningful. which swept the country for over two decades. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken.defined S UP W as “purposive. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. meaningful. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. aimed at this goal.

The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Community work and social service.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. tools and techniques and 3. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Shelter 4. Health and Hygiene 2. Clothing 5. as far as possible. 2. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Some Hints to Teachers 1. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. be that the work involved is: 1. 3. The teachers should make use of. 32 . Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. Work practice. Experimentation with materials. 4. locally available materials and tools. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Productive 2. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Culture and recreation 6. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. so that it is educational in essence. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Educative and 3. Food 3.

6. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. improve discipline. adoption of a a locality for its improvement.2.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. Community Service In-1972. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. etc. the local community should be actively associated. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. the concept of Community Service has been visualised.5. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. slum clearance. Check on educated unemployed 4. as far as possible. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Education through work The SUPW should. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Merits of the Programme 1. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. It can become an instrument to build character. inculcate a faith. To make education more realistic. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. removal of illiteracy. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. 1. Productive Work 33 .

traffic control. Define SUPW 34 . Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. AICTE was set up in year 4. in turn.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. skills and better future for the children. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. if not productive. etc. The community. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. offering first aid.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. should involve itself in the educational effort. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. helping the adults-in productive work.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme.

e. f. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. manual work resulting in either goods or services.2. 1. 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 1955 4. b. a.2. Write short note on SUPW. which are useful to the community. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. d. c. 1952 3. 6.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Radhakrishnan 2. meaningful. 1.1. Dr. 2.2. 35 . Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.

J.K. History of Education. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. V. Development of Educational System in India.1. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Publishing Corporation. History and Problems of Indian Education. Ltd. Anupama. (2005). (2009).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Y.. Y. Singh. Amala. 36 . P.P. A.K.C. New Delhi: A. Rao. History of Indian Education System.(2005). : Sharma.P. (2007).H. and Nath.D. R.2. and Rao.K. B. (2007).

4 1.3. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. directive principles and duties of citizens. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.6 1.9 1.3. establishing the structure. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. 1949.1 Significance of DPSP 1. assuring its citizens of justice.3.3.3. 37 .3.3. procedures. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.3.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.8 1.3. Being the supreme law of the country. and liberty.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. there is an official Hindi translation. 1950. containing 395 articles.3.2 1.3. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.369 words in the English language version.5 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. democratic republic.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.7 1.1 1.3. for a total of 117. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. Besides the English version.3. it came into effect on January 26. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. equality.

On August 29. Two days later. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 38 . you will be able to: 1.3. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. administrative.In the August 14. 2. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. After many deliberations and some modifications. 1. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. the Drafting Committee was appointed. legal and environmental. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. 1.3. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. According to the constitution. social. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. 1947. 3. 1. in sessions open to public. understand our Indian constitution. political. spread over a period of 2 years. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society.3. Dr. learn the role of central and state government on education. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. for 166 days. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. with Dr. The Assembly met. 1950. 1947. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. Through them. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. economic. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24.3. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.

on the basis of equal opportunity. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. in particular. Organisation of village panchayat. provide free legal aid. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. That the health and strength of workers. Minimising inequalities in status. Article 39A. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Appropriate concentration of wealth. No abuse of children. make effective provision for securing the right to work. and in other cases of undeserved want. The State shall endeavour to secure. Article 42. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. 39 . The State shall. Article 40.government. Condition for dignity of children. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Liking wage etc. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. within the limits of its economic capacity and development.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. for workers. men and women. Article 43. Right to work. Protecting health of the workers. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. Equal pay for both sex. and shall. Article 41. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. Protecting children from exploitation. Equal justice and free legal aid. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. old age. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. sickness and disablement.

the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Article 45. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. See also Article 21A). wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. in particular. Article 47. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. The State shall take steps. a living wage. 2002 for “45. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. work. and. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Article 43A. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. (Original Article 45.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. by suitable legislation or in any other way. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Note: Subs. Article 48. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. The State shall endeavour to provide. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Article 48A. in particular. agricultural. Participation of workers in management of industries. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 44. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. in particular. [declared by or under law made by 40 . The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Article 46. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. to all workers. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Article 49. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. industrial or otherwise.

disfigurement. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. destruction.3.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Promotion of international peace and security. Article 50. Separation of judiciary from executive. 1. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Article 45 . “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. as the case may be. from spoliation. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Article 51. 2002. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. removal. disposal or export. may be law determine”. 2. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1.Parliament] to be of national importance. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. Article-21A Right to Education.

and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. ii. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 4. from justice and all forms of exploitations. in particular. and. iii. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. his guardian has given his consent thereto. 8. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. race. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. 3. caste. 2002. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion.” 42 . language or any of them”. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. 5. and shall protect them. 7. 6. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. if such person is a minor.

wherever necessary or desirable. and by drawing. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. & 1. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Educational Reforms From time to time. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. for its vocabulary. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . 43 . style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. The central government determines targets and promotes education.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. the forms.9. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. 2.

Intensive educational development in some selected areas b.3. 6. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. 8. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Local bodies and private enterprise. etc. The following pilot projects. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. 7. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. By starting these projects. All India Council of Medical Science. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. So as to encourage education on right lines. So that they may work well. Production of suitable for children and adults f. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. 4. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. 5. the state governments. to achieve the desired ends. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. private agencies etc. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc.. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states.

11. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature.3. 4. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. are published by it. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. research. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. 10. handicapped. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. The 45 . 3. education for women. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. reports etc. 1.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. is the state responsibility. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. 9. etc. 12. books. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. training and statistics. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. 1.

Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 46 . Article 21A c. Article 45 b. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. articles in the Directive principles.3. 5. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. 1. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Article 46 4. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Explain Directive principles 2. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government.3.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. 1. Write short notes on a.

Development of Hindi Language 6. a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. a. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Clearing House function 9. may be law determine”. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 1. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 2002. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. a.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Article 46 5. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.5. Dr. 4. Article 29 and 30 7. 3. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 45 . Ambedkar 2. 47 . The Directive Principles of State Policy. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. 2002. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Describe the educational role of State Government. b.3. b. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Article-21A Right to Education.

(2004). S. 48 . L. B. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. (2007). S. K. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.1. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. K and Narang C. Bhatia. Dash. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Education in Emerging Indian Society. N. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.3. (2009). Education in Emerging Indian Society. Ghosh.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. (2008). New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd.

The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1. Islam.4.4.2 1.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.8 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4. Jainism. Christianity.1 1.4.4.3.4.6 1.4. Students should be 49 .3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.4.4.4. religious education should be broad based.4.3.3.1 Why Moral Education 1.7 1.4 Moral education 1.4.4. Buddhism etc.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4.4.5 1.

integrity. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. India' can produce men of character. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. beauty and goodness so that 50 . duty-consciousness. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66).D. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. state meaning and need for moral education 1. Thus. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication.” Education broadens human outlook..encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. you will be able to: 1.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. As result of which. know the position of religious education in our country 3. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. "In A multireligious society like ours.4. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. According to E.4. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. In the complicated and complex society of today. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth.and dedication. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. religious education and the concept of secularism. 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.

In short. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August.” From the above.4. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. if not regularly. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. realizes God in himself. No religious tax can be imposed on them. Hence.4. 1947 we achieved our freedom. 1.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. Viewing the defects of religious education. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. As our country is a country of diverse religions. Thus. through religious practices and 51 . The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. According to Article 19. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. 1. it is clear that the State has no religion. Children attend these organizations. According to Article 22. rancour. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. castes and creeds. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. at least occasionally.3. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. religion and democracy are same.3. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. They thought that any kind of narrow. all citizens are free to follow any creed. As a matter of fact. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values.

From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . one fully developed. what is done and what is not done etc. He also learns about social. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise.. Good education.teachings. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. moral and spiritual values. which can mould. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. It helps to modify habits attitudes. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. when he becomes an adult. which help him for the development of his character. temperament etc. aggressive.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. for the development of the individual and the society. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. intellectual and physical faculties of children. If unreleased. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. It is religious education. As a result of which. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. and what is evil.

Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. Therefore. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”.3. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. 53 . No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. which is the basic need of a democratic life. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. 1. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. 2. towards the society. 3. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. This should not be allowed to happen. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man.4. If we open the pages of history. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds.

fellow-feeling. examples of patriotism. they should be discussed in the right earnest. 9. Life histories of great persons of the world. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. 10. stories of moral greatness. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. 11. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.4. Since all religions have virtues.5. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. For this. Write Article 22 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Gurudwara as. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. churches and mosques 7. therefore. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

is that which develops moral values. 5. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. 7. 4. Without moral values. Swadeshi (Patriotism). 5. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. 3. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1.acquisitiveness). Cultivation of emotions.4. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Purity. therefore. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 2.4. the methods of teaching. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Moral education. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 8. 7. Non-injury. Self sacrifice. They will play their role effectively. 8. let men see well of one another. Fearlessness. “Let all be happy and free from disease. 55 . students. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 1. 4. 6. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Patriotism. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Service to others. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 1. 3. 2. Satyam (truth). Asvada (Control of palate). The content of the curriculum.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 6. Aparigarha (Non. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. in the home.

National unity and Spiritual values. 4. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . 1. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. 10. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. 3. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. 56 . Love for humanity and Self-discipline. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Secondary Stage 1. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Discipline. Unity of mankind. 11. Efficiency. Asatyam (Non-thieving). religions may be included in the syllabus. discipline. In the school programme. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Integrity. minutes in the morning for group singing.9. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Good temper. loyalty and self-sacrifice. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. 3. Good manners. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Sharivashram (Physical work).4. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. 2. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography.

should form a normal part of school programme. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. 5. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. University Stage 1. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme.4. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. love of humanity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. In other words. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . 4. In this connection. 5. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. patriotism and self-discipline. 3. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 57 . Silent meditation should be encouraged. 2. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6.

a. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. b.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. 58 . 2. Sri Prakasa 6 . 1. 1959 5. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. For this. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. Discuss the aims of Religious education. The School Assembly should be held for a few.4.4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. the. Training of Character 3. a. a. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. In short. minutes in the morning for group singing. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 4. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. 1. 2. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.1.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. b.

Publishing Corporation. Bhatia. Dash.1.C. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. L. N. N. Anmol Publications Pvt. Pahuja.H. M.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.H. J. Theory and Principles of Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2004). (2003). P. (2007). K and Narang C.4. (2008). K. New Delhi : Siddiqui. New Delhi: A. (2008).P. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. B. 59 . New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.

.5.5.4 1.5.5.9 1.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5 1.2 1.5. 60 .13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.6 1.12 1.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan. i. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5. disparities between provinces/States.3 1.5. Although.5.5.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.1 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.5.8 1.5.10 1.11 1.e.7 1.

5. 7. This leads to separatist movements. 3.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. work hard towards this end. 1. for example. roads. you will be able to: 1. they take appropriate measures.5.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 1. 61 . The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. know the education suited to different environments. Accordingly. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. 6. 1. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. They therefore.5.1. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. etc. 8.5. understand the regional educational development in India 3. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. 5. 2. 4. waters. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. energy. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.

which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. 4. Therefore. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. Secularism. • Separate States (of course viable States). 3. some average. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. while others remained educationally backward. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. on the basis of regional development may be formed. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. 2.5.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. some States became educationally far advanced. Tight security arrangements should be made. 62 . There are many reasons for this during the British rule. and. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1.

392.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.After the Planning Process has originated. Itanagar. NIT. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Nagaland and NEHU. books. Funds amounting to Rs.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. Central Universities of Assam. academic buildings. etc. However. while some States like Bihar. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. NERIST. Jammu and Kashmir. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development.14. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice.84 crore was released in 2005-06. Guwahati. scholarships. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. the Union Government. etc. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. library buildings. In the Central sector.480. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Rs. 1. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. Regional Centres of IGNOU. Tezpur. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. since its inception in 1998-99. These projects are in various stages of implementation. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities.5. Silchar. Out of this. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. approved proposals worth Rs.g. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. 63 .came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. remained under developed. Mizoram. After the attainment of independence. Even in each State. and provision of informal education to enable those. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments.. the State Governments.

A provision of Rs. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.501. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.57 crore and Rs. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. Out of this an amount of Rs. 64 .In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.40.5. Moreover. too.8 per cent in 05). is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.05 crore and Rs.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.500. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.261. During 2003-04. Government expenditure on education.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.187. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. Tezpur University.

and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. engineering and R&D. Karnataka. for which 16 sites. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Kerala and Gujarat. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. Andhra Pradesh.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . for instance. pharma. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. too. Medical education. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. Tamil Nadu. too. telecom. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. too. notes the study. The Chandigarh Administration. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. To add to the woes. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. English. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). Karnataka. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. health services and welfare of the citizen population.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South.5. 1. Listing the positives. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Moreover. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states.

and so on. Then education become realistic and idealistic. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. Hence it is called as need-based. the working days: an academic . Of course. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. 66 . which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. the teaching methods. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. In the same manner. when he will not be sure of time. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. the vocations. the needs. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. life-oriented and environment slanted. the socio-physical conditions. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. in which the learners live. taking the average in the middle. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. the interests. the curricular subjects. which a non-tribal person cannot do.year. The living conditions.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. The working hours of educational institutions. even actually looking at the watch. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. while the former does not. For a learner living in a rural area. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed.

2. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.5. to suit education to different environments? 1.5. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.5. 67 . 1. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

2. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society.5. remained undeveloped 3. Dubey. (2001).13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.N. Giridhar.G. R. Educational Development in India.K. some of areas which were under the native rulers. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. a. S. (2008). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. (2002). New Delhi: Anmol Publications. S. 68 . 60% 1.H. and Nair. Salim. A. some States have become more developed than others b. New Delhi: Authors press. during the British rule. C. Education Scenario in India. Education in Developmental Arena.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. school community and mass media. National Integration. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. secularism and democracy through Indian education. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. 71 . International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. community development.

4 2.5.6 Education for Secularism 2.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.LESSON 2.1.3 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1.1.1.1.1.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.7 2.1 2.8 2.1.6.1.1.2 2.5.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.9 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .6.1.6. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.

1. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 2. you will be able to: 1. Abraham Lincoln. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. socialism and secularism 2. Democracy thus means power of the people. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. 5) Encouragement to Group Work.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. In the matter of admitting students in schools. socialistic and secular state. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.1. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. The students may be associated with the management of the school. 2. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group.2.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. 3) Provision of Manual Work. This is the political aspect of democracy. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. there should be made no distinction of caste. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. understand the concept of democracy.1. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow.1. colour or wealth. 73 . for the people by the people”. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. creed. socialism and secularism 2. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy.

Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. 74 . 12) Visits to Legislatures. may be planned. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. debates. 11) Student Parliament. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. There are different brands of socialism.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. Democracy means 2. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible.. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. 2. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. declamation contest etc. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it soon spread all over the world. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together.

7) Special facilities for girls. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. but on the path of non-violence.5. oppression and disparity. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.1. Under it. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 2. 2.5. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. none high”. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. the prince and the peasant. free from exploitation.1. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 75 . “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. service and cooperation. the wealthy and the poor.

2. Everyone says.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. Write any two main features of socialism. "which seeks the development of physical. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary.1. secularism is being propagated. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.” In every political and educational corner. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 11) State schools. According to Holydake. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. 76 . “India is a secular-country.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system.

should be independent of religion. There is need of making the people open minded. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. A large number of people is uneducated. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. liberty. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. 6) It has faith in rational thinking.6. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values.1. the belief that the state morals. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. education etc. people started believing in regionalism. 77 . fraternity. During the recent past. people have narrow mindedness. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. 2. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. In this type of prevailing situations.6. 9) It stress free inquiry. Moral values have to be imbibed. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. 5) It implies tolerance.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing.1. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.opposed to religious education. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. That is why.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. 8) It believes in co-existence. 3) It permits freedom of worship.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. 2) It permits freedom of religion. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. Equality. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. “Webster further says. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2.

Corruption and disbelief are rampant. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. education. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. students belonging to different religions should be associated. No doubt. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. tours and trips may be organized. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. 2. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. In the celebration of each such function. While doing so. Religious Education. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. The very sight of the building. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. In the hands of such teachers. Patiala. that the central string of all religions is one. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children.1.6. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions.presented by the students in the gathering. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. 1) Moral Education. There should be some internal checking of the material being.

Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. The word “Seculum” means 7. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10.1. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. No doubt.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The term secularism was first used by 8. Define Secularism 9. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students.

4. Equal Opportunities for Admission. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. creed. Socialism aims at equality. 6. In the matter of admitting students in schools. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. c. 3. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 4. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. d. there should be made no distinction of caste. What are the implications of socialism on education 2.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. for the people and the people”. Abraham Lincoln. Socialism aims at social justice.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Since socialism stands for equality. George Jacob Holydake 80 . colour or wealth. Tuition free education b. Provision of Manual Work. Respect of Individual Personality. a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. This present age 7. 5. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. The students may be associated with the management of the school. 5. 3. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. b. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 2. a. The two can move only in the consonance with each other.1. Power of the people 2.1. a. b. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.

New Delhi : Shipra Publications. It permits freedom of religion. N. Bhatia. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. the belief that the state morals. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2.C. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.1. Anmol Publications Pvt. P. Ltd. should be independent of religion. It treats all religions on an equal footing. N. L. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Ltd. K. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 81 . (2003). Modern Trends in Indian Education. Theory and Principles of Education. (2007). B. J. (2008). J. b. 10.8. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. b. Mohanty.” 9. a. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. education etc. (2005). (2004). According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. New Delhi : Pahuja. Dash. K and Narang C. a.

6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.2.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.2.10 2.3 2.2 2.2.9 2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2.8 2.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .1 2.LESSON 2.5.2.2.6.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.5.2.7 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.4 2.2.2.6.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2.

The developmental roles of children. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms.generation to another.2.2. skills. 83 . explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. 3. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. application. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. you will be able to: 1. emotional. 2. aims and objectives of the school. therefore. as it is t he aim o f modern education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.an instructor of school children. understandings. development.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. who are placed in his custody. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. as citizens. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. and 4. social and moral aspects. as persons. as learners. 2. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. moral. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. social. A teacher is first and foremost. 2. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. It involves physical. mental. as workers. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. a r e 1.

a part of their day in 84 . He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. mental. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. The students live. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. social and emotional health. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. morally. culturally confident. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. mentally. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. He is to become an active member. 3. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. 1. physically fit for socially efficient. Teacher as a Citizen Next. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. and aesthetically to become. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. emotionally.All education should lead to better behavioural development. economically effective.2. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. 2. member of his community at the outset. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. The following are some of such roles described in brief. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. morally.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. socially. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. intellectually. He has to look after their physical. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. 2. experiences and acceptance. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. inquisitive. motivated.

Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. faiths. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them.the school being under the custody of teachers. India is a land of many castes.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. photographic clubs. It 85 . Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. 4. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. fine art associations. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. Dr. science club. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. languages and religions.2. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. Unless. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They will be spending with their parents. 2. creeds. and most of hours. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. activities of the society into which he is born. List out the role of teachers towards community development . solve them.

maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. ‘We should not become parochial. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. should be emphasised. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality.5.2. with straight backs and look up at the skies. It should broaden the outlook. 1. national anthem and other national songs. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. poems. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. Sampurnanand remarked. the citizens of the Republic of India. stand up straight. Nehruji has explained this as. Let us. c. this integration of the Indian people.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. folklore and teaching of social studies. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. social studies. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. The only process is the process of education. Re-orientation of the Curriculum.is. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities.” Regarding the role of education. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. and make into one strong national unit. b. the study of language and literature. At the primary stage the importance of stories. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. a. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961.” 2. Radhakrishnan. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. therefore.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. narrow-minded provincial.

Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Textbooks. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. Co-Curricular Activities. 3. Singing of National Anthem. t he st udent s and t he community. tours. Celebrations of National Days. Reverence of National Flag. 9. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. sports. National Days—January 26. debates. ACC. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. militar y training like the NCC. 6. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students.different social sciences. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. educational excursions. 7. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. symposia. Taking Pledge. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Uniform for School Children. 8. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. dramatics and youth festivals. Scouts and Guides. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. Student Camps. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. 4. 10. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. languages and literature. 87 . Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. 5. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. 2. and picnics.

15. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. region or religion. 88 . The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. School Projects. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. Admissions to schools.11. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. 13. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. Open-Air Dramas. flora and fauna. 12. ways of thinking and doing things. Educational and Travel Documentaries. 14. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. colour. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. 16. ii. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. iii. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . iv. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. language. 2. v. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Recognition of Institutions. Students Exchange and Tours.2. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Admissions.5.

It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. vii. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Community dinners. cultures and races on equal bases. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’.vi. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. viii. ix. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.2. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. 2. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Define National Integration 3. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. irrespective of national boundaries. camps. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students.

than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. Strong has observed. 2.2.. 6. therefore. the international level.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. Therefore. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. often in connection with anniversaries.friendships between children of different countries.6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . 2. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. In a very real sense. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.as important as that of a national citizenship.2. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. 5. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. 4.F. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. Dr.6. that war. of his body and mind.” 2. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. if it happens. This. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. 3. Teachers 90 . Radhakrishnan states. and the healthy development. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. (c) fairly tales. C. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged.e. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. patriotism is not enough. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. Organising of debates and. (b) stories of children of other lands. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.

Impartial in their Treatment. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. They should not be propagandists.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Indian and American. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. an Englishman. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Russian. a German. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” Well Informed About World Situations.

2.2. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. understand and indiscipline: 1. Wide Spread Frustration . These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. 5. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . majority of people are. leading to.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. If this is done. Chronic Poverty . they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. which results in agitation and aggression language. As the school is but a miniature society. Defects of the educational System . 3.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. It does not prepare students for life. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. and help the students to over .Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. the education function can be carried.Another major.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. Devaluation of Values . It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . there is wide spread frustration among all people. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. 2. 4.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly.

9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. love.2. sympathy and good will among the nations. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 4. fellow feeling. 3. 2. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. 93 . 2. 5. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.democratic nature. etc.2. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. co-operation. community development. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. During the course of time. Moreover. Museums. 2. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 .” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Emphasising this thing. He taught his students orally. are increasingly used in education. Now internet is being used. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. periodicals. books. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. “All the citizens of the community. art galleries. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Define community.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. led to the printing of books. In fact. Then came newspapers. Hence. Crow and Crow write.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. To make them achieve their aim. the invention of the printing press. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.V.

A lot of work by way of pre. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. Thus. the teacher still occupies. 2. It is also an important source of entertainment. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. In collaboration with the experts.telecast. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. In the emphasis is on sound. rather than on picture. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. social studies.classroom teachers. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures.G. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. Reynolds. Students listen various talks. Effective means of presenting music. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. for the teacher through school broadcasts. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Various talks. It enlightens public opinion. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Important happening inventions. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. art.3. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Thus.6. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. 101 . the place of importance. music. dram appreciation. 2. “Listening participation” in current history. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. current affairs and other areas. languages. It stimulates curiosity and interests. politics.

Educational radio excels through dramatisation. School concerts. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. Team-teaching demonstrations. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. at play. style. At present. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. travel talks. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. at recreational centers. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. 4. projects or creative activities. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. development of lessons. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. at any place. fol classical music. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. at drawing room. Before presenting the programme. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. mathematics. 3. speech. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. plays. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. 102 . 5. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. Participation of local teachers and pupils. audibility and presentability. informal and non-formal education. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. Making learning an open system. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

1 2.4.4.4.4.LESSON 2.6 2.3.4.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.4.4.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.4.4.4.2 2.7 2.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.4.5 2.4.3.8 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.3 Advantages of formal education 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.3.3.

understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. In ancient time in India. 6. compare formal and non formal system of education. 8. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. say the Government or the private enterprise. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. the community. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education.4. 4. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.4. open school. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. his mental alertness. the family. To realize this objective of education. open university. the learner are acquainted. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 2. 7..2. 3.4. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. 2. you will be able to: 1. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. 2. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. starting and ending at -a particular age.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. School is.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 9. the temple. the mass media et. it was mostly. the most important agency of formal education. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. Education associated with a degree or certificate.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. 5. 2.4. 110 . 2. imparted at the residence of the teacher. 4. 3. Education organised by some agency. Education.

also called tertiary. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world.a secondary education. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal.4. the elements of language are first learned. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Concepts of proportion.4. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Through early formal education. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Higher Education: Higher education. Some education systems have separate middle schools. diplomas. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. 2.2. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. or post secondary education.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. structured education. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. or academic degrees. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. capacity. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society.3. In general. as well as vocational education and training. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence.3. depending on the jurisdiction. third stage. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. such as a high school or secondary school. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection.

It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. What are levels of formal educational system? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. Agencies can be classified as 2. is an important agency of formal education. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . children with disabilities. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. late beginners etc. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.3. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs.4. and remote dwellers. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. 3.which will help for nation's development. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 .4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system.4.

” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. Adiseshiah. It is functional.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. it is a more effective tool for rural development. It is much more responsive to needs and change. systematic. etc.. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. curriculum. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. place of instruction.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. It unlocks the doors of development plans. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Therefore. open learning. Open university.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. i. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. until 1970 it had not been defined.e.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system.formal education. According to Malcolm A. continuing education and on the job oriented education.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. financially supported life formal education. one could say that non-formal education is an active. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. admissions. to help themselves. planned. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. systematic. It is deliberate. Non-formal education includes adult education. However. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. adults as well as children. it has its own valid claim to reality. “Non-formal education should 113 . staffed. adding up to a true learning society. Thus. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.learning client take some learning objectives.

"Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. 2. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. To help industrial workers to better their skills. 4. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. Lawrence. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.renewal. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. 3.e.4. To develop in the student. Part-time education.4. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. 5. curriculum. self.S. 114 . 7. i. Flexibility in various aspects of education. age.learning pattern. 2. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. Process of sharing. national integration. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. admissions.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. evaluation etc.” 2. Preparation for future needs. co-curricular activities.4. the Ideas of citizenship.be marketable and vocationalised. place of education. 6. socialism. It should lay emphasis on the self. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them.” According to H. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. international understanding. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. exploring. Covering life span of an individual.S. modes of teaching.4. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs.

school dropouts. 8. 3. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 10.4. 5. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up.4.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. working adults. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. 9.4. in villages and those who live in towns. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 3. 7. 115 . Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 2. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. 4. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. 5. 4. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. Universalisation of primary education. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To offer Secondary. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. publication and information dissemination. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. • 2. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 2. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. Meeting the omissions of formal education. 6. Technical. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. Eradication of adult literacy.4. Senior Secondary.

Institutions for formal education. open space. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. Therefore. effective in modern societal context. if organised in isolation. To better qualifications. factory. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. centres of correspondence education. All-round development i. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. training centres in factories. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. 4. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. public libraries. 2. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. library. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs.full time to learners – can be home. 3.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute.. self-employment iii.4. Again. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . etc. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.4. farm. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras.4. others are formal and informal. Radio and television. To make if. To increase knowledge and 2.2. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. etc. 2.

Face Contact programmes. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. 6. 7.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.V. radio. institution. List out any two aims of non formal education. . . very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Define non formal education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Correspondence lesson. Lecturing T. Teaching to face teaching. Written tests. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. 117 . Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Give examples of non formal education? .

Formal and Non Formal 2. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.4. 4. a. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. b. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. Open University.4. Primary level. a. The school.” 6. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. 3.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.2. Higher Secondary level and University level. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Open School. 4.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the college and the university come under this category. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. systematic. 118 . b. adults as well as children. Pre-school level. 5. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. 2. 2. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. 7. Secondary level. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Open learning and Correspondence Courses.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. School 3.4. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. 2.

(2008). Theory and Principles of Education. K and Narang C. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Gupta. J. Anmol Publications Pvt. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2007). (2005).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2008). Pahuja. N. (2003).2.4. Dash.C. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. L. Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. K. Ltd. (2004). N. P. Mohanty. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. S. New Delhi : 119 . Bhatia. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. B. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Education in Emerging India. J.

5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.5.5.3.7 2.5.4 Open University 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.4 Need for Open University 2.3.3 Objectives of Open University 2.5.4.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.4.1 2.5.5.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.5.5.5.6 2.4.5.5.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.4.2 2.5.5.5 2.3.LESSON 2.5.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5.3.4.

labourers and half educated individuals.3. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education.5.2. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Any person. 2. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. However. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. industries. Under these circumstances. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. understand the meaning of continuing education 2.5. characteristics of open university 4.5. give the meaning. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. Thus. continuing education is a boon. 2. For them. It is a lifelong process. know the need and objectives of open university. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . This knowledge may be in political field. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. It is a continuous process. economic field or such other fields. farmers. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. 2. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. Education is for refinement and enlightenment.5. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. you will be able to: 1.

Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Radio. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. Radio and T.V. After the achievement of independence. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. On the other hand. T. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. On the other hand.directly related to his job. are also contributing their might for the purpose. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Persons engaged in health services. Block Development Officers. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Cinema. cultured and progressive. For them too continuing education is essential. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures.5. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons.3.literate person. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. deteriorating to his character and personality. Thus. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. if he gets opportunity to develop them.V. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Throughout the country. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Doctors. 2.

(4) the fundamentals of economics. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. habits of people of other lands. (13) psychology of child behaviour. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. 7. and Radio. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. Inspite of the great efforts. (8) psychology of adults. especially women. (1) ancient history. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 2. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (17) modern international and national events.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 4. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. we have not been able to achieve our targets. (6) folk stories. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities.3. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. 2. 123 . 6. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. 3.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation.V.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements.5.. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (14) information about bringing up young children. Of course. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons.5. (2) basic religious matters. 5. (16) liking. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (15) music.3. (7) folk songs. 2. (10) first aid. These books are not very useful.

restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 .1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. NLM was launched in the year 2.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. attendance restrict ion.5. lack of time etc. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. of educational opportunities.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.4. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y.

The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. IGNOU was established in the year 6.unobserved. and in teaching. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. the higher the degree of openness. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. 4. Which was the first open university in India? . 3. it makes use of educational techno logy. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. 2. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . but 125 . 2. No one is too old or too late to learn. b.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. d.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. e. Education is not a once for-all process. c. its education is not class room based but home based. 5.4.

supplementing the existing provision.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. 5. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 3. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. cho ice o f co ur ses. 2. 4. 2. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. it a ims at wider and hig her. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. 6. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people.4.4. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. 2. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. or who realised too late that they need it.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n.5. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 3. Mo re o ver. 126 .who did not get it. who were deprived of t he same earlier. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 4. 2.5. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all.

Every day. 7. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. 8. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. Self instructional materials. Laboratory works. Correspondence tuition. 2. 1. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. Tutor Comments.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. 8. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. semi – literates.4. school drop outs. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 127 . a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. a society. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Teaching in Personal contact Programmes.5. a state or nation. Therefore.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? .2. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. In the present day world. you have learnt the concept.5. 2. 6. 5. List out any four methods of Open University? .

To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals.5. cho ic e o f co u r ses. youth. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. d. 9. a. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.5. 1985. 8. need and characteristics of Open University. aspirants for continuing education. 128 . 2. agricultural and industrial workers. Broad casting lectures c. b. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 7. 6. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. its education is not class room based but home based.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. (1) ancient history. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. 7. 3. a. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. Explain the objectives. a. which may include house wives. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 2.ambitious learners.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. 8. Television Lessons. P r int med ia b. 4. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. (2) basic religious matters. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. unskilled workers and other professionals. 1988.

R. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 129 . Udaiveer. (2007).K. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2004). Recent trends in Non Formal Education.2. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. L. (2001). Modern Problems of Education. Teacher and Education in Indian Society..S. (2004). K. Reddy.5. K and Narang C. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. S. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

which may claim the attention of those concerned. examination. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. the education of women. All which is the need of the hour. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. wastage and stagnation. In Lesson 2. its causes and remedial measures. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. Training teachers for all levels of education. Examination reform. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. and teacher education. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. 133 .

134 .

1.2 EFA – How? 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1 3.1.1.1.3 New initiatives.8 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1.1.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.2 3.3.1.1.LESSON 3.3.3.7 3.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. 135 .5 3.6 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1.4 3.

high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. “The State shall 136 . When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL).1. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. may be political. understands the country. directed that. Continuing Education (CE) 1. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. social. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. economic or cultural. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). 3. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. 2.1. Therefore. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. On the other hand. Eradication of Illiteracy. you will be able to: 1.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures.3. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. (EOI) 2. education received added importance and significance. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. therefore.

It enables the parents to send their children to School. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties.endeavour to provide. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. the national Government under. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. After the attainment of independence. Universalization of Enrolment. Due to the adoption of democratic system. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. rights and responsibilities. Continuing Education (CE). This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Therefore. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. 3. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Three Stages for Universalization. Universalization of Retention. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. 137 .

What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. educational enterprise. 1995 (for upper primary stage). We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. present and future. later to 1988. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing.1. Therefore.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. This target had to be revised to 1970. 1990. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. Write Article 45. 138 . It is safe to assure. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind.3. then to 1976. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. UNESCO Bulletin states.

The Social Education. their enrolment and retention. 10.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. Education of the Impaired. In order to make the programme of education for all community. etc. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. 5. Education of Girls. 11. problem of literacy. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. the art of preparing fruit-juice. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. NAEP. their social economic status and occupations. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. 3. rural areas. 139 . 3. 8. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Early childhood education should be streamlined. sex. Jams and Jellies. creed. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). nutrition education and sports and games. slum areas. and Women’s education programme should be improved. adolescent and adult. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). By undertaking survey.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Apart from primary education. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 6. FELF. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. Emphasis must be given on health education.1. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. 12. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. 9.3. Disabled. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them.

Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.3. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. 4. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. 3.1. Expand MLL and SSA . Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.e. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.1. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.3 NEW INITIATIVES. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Wastage and Stagnation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3.

The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.first stage of education. it is considered as wastage.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . School Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . Familial Factors . Personal Factors . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. Social Factors .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.

can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. 142 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. 7. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Wastage. .occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . Family Factors . Societal Factors . School Factors . in his home. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.3.The following factors. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. They are described hereunder :1.1. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. rural or urban 3. relating to home. Personal Factors . school or society.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.

mid-day meals. etc. stationary.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 144 . uniforms. Define Stagnation? 9.

8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Universalization of Enrolment c. Universalization of Retention 2. 4. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. directed that. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. “The State shall endeavour to provide. 4. 3. 3.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation.3. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. 145 . 3.” 3. b. Universalization of Provision b. a. Hartog Committee. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.1. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all.. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. a. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. 2.1. improvement of curriculum.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA.1. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Minimum Levels of Learning b. therefore. a. 6.

S. 3. improve examination system. (2001). a. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Personal Factor b. (2007).K. Social Factors 8. Problems of Elementary Education. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Familial Factors c.7. b. (2008). 9. a. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. S. Hemchand.K. School Factors d. Crescent Publishing Corporation. introduce graded curriculum. New Delhi: 146 .9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.N.1. T. Sharma. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations.

3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.5.2 3.5.2.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.5.4.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.5.2.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.3.2.5.5.2.4.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.5.2.1 Problems of examination 3.6.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.7 Open book examination 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2.LESSON 3.2.2.2.2.2.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.5 New evaluation procedures 3.2.2.1 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .2 Grade System 3.2.2.2.2.2.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.4 Question banks 3.4.2.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.

analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. 3. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.2.2. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. 3.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.8 3. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.2.2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2.3.2. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. suggest the new evaluation procedures. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.9 3.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. 4. you will be able to: 1.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Besides. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . 3. 3. but on the other.2.3.

2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. etc. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. If the students are in sufficient number.3.2. etc. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. 3. hostel facilities. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. waiting rooms for girl students. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. schools for them wherever necessary. The following steps should be taken up. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. which the educational authorities have to face. roadside Romeoism. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. etc.. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. They may cause problems relating to discipline. They develop secondary sex characteristics. 149 . other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner.

2.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. assessment and Finance. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils.2. public administrators and statesmen. Instruction. teachers. It is considered as a major sub-system. 150 . This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. 3. the examination system has an important role to play. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. appointment of paper-setters. public interested in education. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. conduct of internal examinations.

maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. etc. etc.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. etc. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. 3. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. etc. establishing reliability. reducing the domination of knowledge objective.4. tabulators. validity and practicability. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. values. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. announcement of results. introducing objective-based testing. invigilators. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. scrutinizers. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness.printing and distribution of question papers. examiners. etc. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. training of examiners.2.

Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. halo-effect. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. do not appeal to the students and parents. 3. Vagaries in making. 3) With respect to method of teaching. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Subjects. lack of objectivity etc. 2) From the angle of content of education. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education.4. which they are expected to study. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. it can be said that they become examination-oriented.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education.2. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. stereotyped questions. 152 . it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education.. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed.. 7) In connection with the question papers. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. takes the place of comprehensive learning. Rote memorisation. may also discredit them.. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. it s a common experience that subjectivity. 6) With reference to scoring procedure.

List any two merits of examination. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. revaluation. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Spot valuation.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations.. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. etc. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. . 153 . may be introduced. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t.develop true love for education. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . re-numbering of answer scripts. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers.a part of internal assessment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4.

Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. 3. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. It is complicated. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. In actual practice. In this system. attitudes. Every paper is treated equal. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.2.2.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. Their interests. he is given extra credit points.5. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.3. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .2. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society.5. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . When a person chooses to work extra. The new scheme of assessment. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. skills are given importance. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. The students can take any course offered in any department.

Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. While designing syllabus. Groupism is encouraged. only the total credits to be earned is specified. In the new system. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v.good.discipline.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. These weightages are called credits. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. courses can have weightages defined. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. An example is a seminar.5. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. v. poor.poor. 3. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. This system reduces comparison of marks. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 .2. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. or as a 4 credit course.

and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. 156 .5. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. 3. 3. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment.2. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. 3. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.2. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. However.5. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students.5. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.2. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.

However. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2.2. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Therefore.5. . In the hierarchy. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.3. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. There are no proper procedures for selection. recruitment. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. 3. 6. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . List any four new evaluation procedures. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately.

• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. library books. finding out whether the prescribed text.. laboratory equipment. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. 158 . playgrounds. etc.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. etc. When they are fully realised. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. Academic inspection. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. in a sense. interpersonal relationships and so on. finding out the adequacy of. qualifications. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. staff. Separation of Inspection and Supervision.2. 3. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. whether the syllabus has been covered. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. of late. taking up the follow-up programmes. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. books are followed. being realised as two different functions. wherever necessary. inspecting the class-room teaching. They are. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. 1. complaints and compliments. disciplinary problems.6.qualified personnel. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools.. in contrast. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. submitting of the inspection reports. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. school buildings. requirements.

There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection.Ed.2. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. Being a special category of educational administrative officers.. their professional knowledge. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. M. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. course in either educational. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. In the light of these conceptualisation.. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. at least.Ed. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. In the case of departmental candidates. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. Insistence on specialisation in the B. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. modern. courses. once in five years. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. 3. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. or. aptitude. 159 . Similarly.

3. Grade System. 160 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.2. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2.2. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. d. Administration. b. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. assessment and Finance. b.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. 3. c. a. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 3. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. b. 5. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. examination reforms and supervision and inspection.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. 3. a. a. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Instruction.

Vaidya.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. (2002). Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. a.2. b. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. New 161 . K. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. R and Sharma. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. K. History and Problems of Education in India. S. Multiple sets of question paper. 5. b. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . 7. (2004). c. (2005). New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. b. Problems of Education in India. 3.a part of internal assessment. a. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.4. Question banks. Educational Reforms. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. a. Open book examinations.

3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4 3.3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. 5.3 3.10 3.3.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra. 2.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.8 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education. 4. 162 . you will be able to: 1.3.1 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3. 3.9 3.LESSON 3.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.6 3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities. 3. identify the needs of rural India and social.3.2 3.5 3.3.3.3.7 3.3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.

e. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Consequent on the recommendations.. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. 10 years of general Secondary Education.3. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. 8 years of general education. i.3.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission.specialisation programmes 3. in Andhra Pradesh.. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. e. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages.e. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. The. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. 2. and 3 years of First Degree Course. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. the Banaras Sanskrit College. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre.g. The Calcutta Madras.. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. Similar is the case with some other States.. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. University Education. Commission emphasised to continue. etc.

5. and.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. 10. 6.a sense of dignity of labour. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. is also a plus point . The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. 5) to help for the social. social. to prepare.3. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. b. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. cultural and economic development of the country. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. to imbibe. educational channels. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . habits of hard work and develop .4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. However. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. who desire to change from one stream to another. 3. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities .confidence in students. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. Provision for transfer of credits to students. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. economical and political. historical. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . 8. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. 7.

This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities.. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . international understanding. 3.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. cultural and' religious tolerance. on one hand. at the other. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. The General Educational Spectrum. Philosophically it is not the conception. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X.3. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. to develop national character. Sociologically it is undesirable. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. social justice. and that required to enter the tertiary level. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. 1.national integration. democratic living. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Psychologically. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. and.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. cooperativeness. etc. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission.

Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. and vocations based on dairy-farming. Agriculture is the main occupation.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. professional. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. fish culture. such as Agriculture. India is a land of villages. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. commerce. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. rural health. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. Commerce and other disciplines. industrial agricultural production is growing. All these need for an. the rural areas have suffered very much. Biology. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. medical plants. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Science. 166 . horticulture. technological. 2. commerce. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. In the matter of language. physics or mathematics. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels.3. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. technical.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. 3. chemistry. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. or other machinery. educational and cultural services. In the vocational spectrum. vegetable growing. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them.— tube-wells. In our country.

3. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. In this it may be concluded. In this way. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. social justice. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . the local resources available.. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. interests and aptitudes of the students.. 3. In time. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and the needs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. can be ensured. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. etc. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 4. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. There had been favourable reaction from the students. and 5.etc.

Calcutta University Commission 2. b. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. J. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.a sense of dignity of labour. (2007).9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. J. N.3. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. (2008). objectives. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. 3. General Educational Spectrum and b.3.3. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. a. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : 168 . to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. a. b.K.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Vocational Sepctrum. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Dash. to imbibe.C. 2. Mohanty. a. habits of hard work and develop . S.3. 3. 3. B. 3. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. (2005). we studied the history.3.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2001).

5 3.4. Education contributes to human development.4.4.4.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3. social and 169 .4.11 3.4.1 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4.12 3.4.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal. but the lighting of a fire”.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.9 3.7 3.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.10 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.8 3.4.6 3.2 3.3 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.LESSON 3.4.13 3.4.4.4.4.

4. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far.higher education in particular. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. These courses were. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. Dr. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. community and nation is universally acknowledged.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. Education . family. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. 3. In the post —independence period.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. For the first time in the history of India. cultural and political development of the individual. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century.4. Home Economics. During the year 1937. Teaching and Fine Arts. While women constituted only 9.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. analyze the women and distance education. particularly 170 . the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. There is a close connection between education and development. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. Nursing. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. higher education of girls developed immensely. 3. you will be able to: 1. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. economic. The relevance of women’s education to social. although we have miles to go.

0 43. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.0 32. we have more than 1200 institutions. In 1950-51. 3. Yet.65 lakhs in 1994-95. in our country.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. levels and professions.women. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . The idea of women’s education for equality.2 29.1 31.2 22.0 Today. Kodaikanal. Coimbatore.4.0 16. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.T Women University.D.9 27. Even today. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.4. Mother Teresa Women University. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.4. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.N.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. Mumbai. out of 9200 and odd colleges. 3. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.1 24. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). In the rest of the country.9 14.

34 33. 3.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.36 3.44 35. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.4%) prefer Arts subjects.53 34.66 66.1 respectively. 2.4. 3. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.that of boys.63 Female % 34. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .47 65.17 52.73 10.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .27 89.4. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .1 and 14.56 64.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.46 82. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .83 47. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.54 12.

curriculum not suited to their requirements. They gave up their studies to enter home life. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters.hinders the girls from getting higher education. distance of the college or university from home. she will only learn fashion. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. particularly. 3. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. etc. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. In every third family. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. Thus. According to a survey. and coeducation may spoil her character. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. 173 . If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. The major hurdles.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. In college. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education.4. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. what is the need for higher education for her. financial difficulty of the parents. Book banks should be established. marriage is a very common I factor. irrelevance of the content of education. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. promoted and increased. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. Also.

resources and socio . It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Full-time employment. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Education. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. and the limitations of the conventional education system. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. which is the most dynamic factor of development. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. Empowerment in a nutshell. 3. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life.economic disabilities faced by women. It is a productive investment. 3. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Geographic distance of educational institutions. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. space.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. There are constraints of time. is the only tool for realising empowerment. It enables to study.4. Distance education is a boon to women.4. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. It also brings about 174 . Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests.

The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. Empowerment is an active.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. empowerment means being assertive. 3. on their own. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . This can be achieved through reflection. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations.4. for full development of our human resources. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. education of women is of paramount importance. The major objectives of women's higher education.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. Women are partners in development. legal awareness and economic independence. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. higher learning. education of women must be given priority in national plans. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity.

who are eager to take up courses. which had been the sole domain of men. will encourage them to venture new grounds. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Scholarships and concessions for women. 176 .GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. 3. But their number is small. Reservation for women. The local administration. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. has to be implemented at the earliest.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. The educational institutions. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. especially so in the developing countries. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. Better opportunities. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . which is pending for a long time. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries.4. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops.

Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. 3. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. engineering and related technologies (16. Australia.3 percent. According to Lindy Hyam. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. especially in developing countries like African countries. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. Also. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. IDP Education.4. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations..9%). Chief Executive. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. talents. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent.000 women in the country.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.1%) and architecture and building (38.8%). capacities etc. But. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 .

“Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. 4. 178 . Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. R. 43% 6. Rajasthan 5.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.4. 3. Kodaikanal. Pattanaikj. community and the nation. (2005). Coimbatore. Coimbatore. 4. Mishra. a. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Women and Education. Mumbai. Mumbai. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. A. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.4. R. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. S. 2. Annakodi.K.to the family. A. Rao. SNDT Women’s University. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. 3. individuals and society b. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.4. and Swain. Centre for Women’s Studies. R.R. Women Education. (2007). 3. create the right attitude towards life. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication.C. (2008). and Suryalatha. Mother Teresa Women University. SNDT Women’s University. Women Education. S. (2000).

whole.5 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5.5.5.1 3.personality of children in and out of school. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. They should be trained. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.8 3.6 3.5.5.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.LESSON 3.11 3. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5.5.7 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.10 3.5.3 3.9 3.5.4 3.5. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.2 3.

equality and justice. 3.5. national consciousness. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. international. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Dearth of new technology of teaching.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. understanding and strong desire for international peace. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. 180 . It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. Lack of physical facilities.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. understand the training teachers for Primary. 5. know the pre service and in service training facilities. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. 4.5. social and emotional integration. Shorter working hours. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. and national character.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country.

levels. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. 3. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them.5. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. Lop-sided curriculum. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. a Diploma course and a Degree course.Less qualified teacher educators. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years .. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. etc. the centre. it is called the In-service teacher education. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. (NCERT) New Delhi. the secondary teacher education. and the collegiate teacher education. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B.Ed. who have not been trained earlier. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. and M. At the diploma level. it is called the Extension teacher Education. Depending on the levels. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. students.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. the primary teacher education. If the student teachers are working teachers.5. inservice and extension education programmes. higher secondary teacher education. Inadequate training in practical skills. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course..Ed. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. 3. the state Government.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . Science Education units. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Expand NCERT 2. collegiate cells. are established. Educational teehnology cells. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. state Institutes of Educat ion. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs .Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Evaluation unit. extensio n service. etc. non-formal. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Education cells. Also Guidance Bureaux. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 .5.. depart ments etc. 3.

and so on. schools and sister institutions.Ed. to prescribe conditions for recognition. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . audio visual aids. material conditions relating to libraries. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . which help breaking isolation from one another . through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B.. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. laboratories. despite its vast expansion.Ed. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. to offer consultative services.. and 183 . to ensure teacher competence. to improve curricular programmes. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. which should include experience in the primary schools too. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. degree. should be improved on a top priority basis. primary and secondary school teachers..

(C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education.secondary education. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. Workshops.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. though no pre-service training. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Hence. etc.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Modern Techniques of Teaching. The problem. Induction Courses. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. Psychology of Students. Modern Methods of Evaluation. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. not came up once again. Meanwhile. 184 . no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. etc. To meet this exigency. whether they should have professional education or. Organisation of Content Courses. Agriculture. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. methodology and evaluation. and XII. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education.

Post-Graduates also undergo B. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.Ed. (Education) and M.A.S. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates..Ed. Ajmer. All B Ed. in Education. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions..Ed. Courses leading to B.Ed. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. Degree and M. State Institutes of Education.. courses and M. (Education) are organized by 185 . These facilities are available for regular students. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. M.D. Point out two defects in primary teacher training .’s are elig ible for M. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. For re-orienting the teachers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a..Ed. Pre-service training is for those. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented..7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.’s for Ph.Ed.A.5. training. 3. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Degree. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.

2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. Hence the employability of M.. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. (Ed). of conduct—written or unwritten. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively.. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. .A. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. established by tradition and teachers of the past. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession.List any two code of conduct for teachers? .A. 186 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .some Faculties of Education of some Universities. However. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned.). 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 6. and B. 4. they should be conscientious .5. What is the role of ERIC? . this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. (Ed. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession.

Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. a. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. b.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 2. 3. they should be conscientious.5. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. 4. 3. a. Explain code of conduct for teachers. Dearth of new technology of teaching. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 4. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Shorter working hours. Discuss the problems of teacher education. However.5. Bhopal. 187 . and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 3. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 3. 5. b. National Council of Educational Research and Training. Ajmer. The necessity is however this.3. 6. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. 2.5. a.

Teacher Education. (2003).D. (2010).3. P. Ltd Aggarwal. B. Corporation. Tewari. Teacher Education. Publication Pvt.5.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. and Teacher Education. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . (2009). Mohanty. J. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House.N. A.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

objectives. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. the focus is on the school health programmes. In lesson 4. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. preservation of nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important. communicable diseases and their prevention. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. In lesson 1. The person’s environment is equally important. 191 . Since food is the source of nutrients. objectives. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. If the diet is poor. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. objectives and role of the physical education. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. nutritional deficiency diseases. common ailments of children. economic and educational developments. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual.

192 .

1.4 4. 193 .1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. mental.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.8 4.1.1.5 4.11 4.e. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.10 4. emotional and social. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. It is a miniature society.6 4.3 4.1. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.7 4.1. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1.1.LESSON 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1 4.1. physical. for giving health education to the children under its custody.1.2 4. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.1.9 4.

To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself.. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. 8. 7. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 6. list the common ailments of children 3. cleanliness and healthful living.g. 5. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. Instruction. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 4. 9. To develop certain skills concerning health. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. know the need for sex education. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 194 . you will be able to: 1.1. To develop healthy health habits among children. to his family and to the community at large. 2. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. 4. content of health education. 3. To give information regarding health rules. 11. 4.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community.1. e. training in first aid and etc.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. explain the importance of First aid 5. training of teachers and evaluation. understand school health programmes 2. 10. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases.

The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. First aid facilities should be made readily available. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. B. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. inoculation against cholera. (vi) nutrition education. 2.coming or absence. The surroundings of schools should be clean. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings.4.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. excusing late. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 .C. 5. Arranging better transportation facilities. play festivals. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body.1. Vaccination for small pox. The flooring should not be damp. There should be regular water supply. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided.G. (xii) smoking education etc. direct lighting. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. organisation of school health days. ( iii) sanit at io n. (xl) mental health. 3. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. vaccination. etc. Triple Antigen Vaccination. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. The school buildings should be spacious. as described below 1. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. minimizing the travelling distance. “Play-for-all” programmes. 2. (viii) first aid. 4. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. is imperative. (ii) communit y healt h. B. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. suitable furniture. (v) safety education. typhoid.. proper doors and windows. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp.. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. There should be good drainage facilities. cleanliness weeks.

scalds. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. and other accidents. cuts. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Close the schools. sports and games in the interest of their health.. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. bleeding. drowning. • Find out the cases. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. if epidemic is wide-spread. burns. • When sleeping in groups. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. D. • Keep all rooms clean. poisons. isolate and notify. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. 196 . • Take nutritious food. dislocations. C. fainting (epileptic fit). insect stings. etc.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. fractures. wounds. • Have adequate rest and sleep. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. asthma. backache.1. which are – cold. 4. These diseases are called communicable diseases.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. fever. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye.. tuberculosis. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. They are: i) The incubation stage. water or bodily contact. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. cough. They have less resistence to diseases than adults.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. chicken pox.1. 4. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. List out the Health curriculum 3. measles etc. headache. Once these germs get into the body. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. polio. So they easily get illnesses. 2.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . There are three stages in any communicable disease. pain in the joints. Mention the school health programmes.

unhygienic bottle feeding. This is caused by cold virus.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. unhygienic living conditions. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. sugar and water. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Hence liquid diet is recommended. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Mumps . Others make the children very weak. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Throat is affected. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Important salts and water are lost in this process. head-ache and cough. 198 . After three or four days of fever. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Measles . etc. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus.It is caused by measles virus. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. cough and fever. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Diarrhoea . There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. The child may have fever.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. eating food which is not clean. Hence it is called a killer disease. Common Cold . Children catch cold from persons having cold. The symptoms include cold. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. The following are the common communicable diseases. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Tonsilitis . The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Scabies . Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Ear Infections .When a child suffers from scabies.This disease is caused by bacteria.

Typhoid . raised pink spots appear on head. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. By scratching he causes secondary infections. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. Diphtheria . Shortly. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. What are communicable diseases? 6.• • • • Chicken Pox . They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. separate. Enlist the common ailments of children. face and waist. If proper treatment is not given. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. As the disease progresses.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. The child may also have diarrhoea. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It begins with fever. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. 5. the child is not able to breathe.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the child may die. 199 . Expand DPT . The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable.

The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. fainting. bruises. It has its rightful place in education too.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. 200 . Drowning . sprains. swelling.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. films and jokes.1. It is both biological and psychological. 2. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. exciting and body-oriented. fiction. 4. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. In such cases. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. 3.1.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. and Community Work and Social Service. 4. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. Sprains . it is a subject of art. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. man-woman behaviours. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. Cuts and Bruises . Sex is popular.g.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. simple fractures. and films.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. 5. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. drowning. scorpion stings. head injury.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. wounds. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. sprains. etc. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. dislocation.4. snakebites. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. bleeding.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. so-called sex books and periodicals. eye injury. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. cuts. Wounds .

Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. Hence. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. in their ignorance. The home. In secondary schools. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. 3. the school. the religious organisations. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. they would be treading the path of sure doom.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world.old values. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. 2. sex education is being recommended in schools. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. celibacy are age. but preserve them from disaster and disease. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. B. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. In today's liberal and interactive society. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. try experimenting with their bodies. Should the boys and girls. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 .. The values of life. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. health.

3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. common ailments of children. the school health programmes. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. communicable diseases and their prevention. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. hence. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education.1. C. there will no crisis in its implementation. first aid and sex education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Teacher education institutions are. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. when the courses are already overloaded. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. 4. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. What are the major components of Sex Education. 202 .

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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Mention the food nutrients 2. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 209 .

Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . Let us talk about each of these aspects. 210 . A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .2. If you look at the definition carefully.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned.4. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. minerals. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s.2. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet.

A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. the social and religious practices of that region. These are: region where the person resides and income. In the case of adults. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. 4. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. activity level and physiological stress. sex. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. dosa are typical of the south. moderate or heavy work. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. Even within given States there is considerable variation.one in the morning and the other at night. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. Preferences/customs are also important. construction labourer). People in the east of our country prefer rice. A balanced diet is specific firstly. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. for example.6. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. There is no point. paratha and poori. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. In other words.2.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. it is also specific to a given activity level . Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness.g. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 .g.sedentary. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age.

enables a person to add more variety to the diet. as important for the rich as for the poor. for example. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese.planning the diet. nuts and dry fruits. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. fat and sugar tend to increase. If you think of your own religious group. however. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. Having more money. Among the social factors. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. income plays a vital role. customs. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Judicious selection of food is. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. As income increases. Including these 212 . Balanced diets should also be income-specific. however. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. One must. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. vegetables and fruits. Even among flesh foods. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. One person may be fond of milk products. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. However. As you read this discussion. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. however. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. These determine the acceptability of foods. In addition to these. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. while another may hate them. taboos related to food may play an important role.

but they should be thrown away. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. etc. List out any two healthy food habits. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. over-eating or under. For this. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. fruits. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. if the teachers have good food habits. 17. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables.eating is hazardous. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 7) One should eat what is needed to live .milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. green leaves. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 8. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. meat. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. Define balanced diet. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 213 . 8) Walk a while after eating. eggs . Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. mouth.

Vitamin D 5. preservation of nutrients. good nutrition is essential for good health. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. 4. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Discuss good food habits.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. d. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Corneal xerosis. 4.2. Explain food nutrients 4. Conjuctival xerosis. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. When the diet is inadequate. c. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Bitot’s spots. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . b. Beri Beri 4. e. In fact.4. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. a.2.2. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Night blindness. Keratomalacia 3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies.

New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. b. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Hands. R. Nutrition Science.M. Chopra. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.C.6. 4. (2008). U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . A Text Book of Foods. (2009). (2004). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. a . P. Food and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. mouth.2. 8. 7. minerals. Sri Lakshmi B.N. Food and Nutrition Education. (2005). Health and Nutrition Education. R. (2008). vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. Food should be consumed after eating well.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. S. a. Nutrition and Dietetics. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. b.

216 .3.3.3.13 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3.10 4.3.6.2 4.3 Impact on Education 4.3.1 4.3 4.6.6.3.3.3.11 4.4 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.12 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.9 4.3.3.LESSON 4.5 4.3.3.7 4.3.8 4.3.1 Impact on social development 4.

” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. Whenever we talk of sex education. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. 4. therefore. characteristics and changes for himself. There is some difference. state the meaning. economic and educational development 3. describe the impact of population growth on social. 4. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. family planning and sex education etc. It is a much wider co ncept. objectives and need for population education 2. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. Population Education. and the consequences of these processes.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. the causes of population change. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. his societ y and the world. It is not sex education. you will be able to: 1.3. understand the importance of small family norm 5.4.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. population characteristics. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 217 . with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. the stress is.3. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. community. aims at providing the younger generation. his family.3.

the society.4.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the family.3. 4. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.3. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. the nation and the world. List out any two objectives of Population Education. Define Population Education 2. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. Family is considered as a social unit. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. Every second two thousand children are being born. 4. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.3.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. health and happiness of its citizens. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. which will not be possible without population control. 4.3. 219 . social welfare schemes can be implemented well. economic and educational development of the country.6. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. With the larger families. the family programmes are also handicapped. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. When the family is small. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed.

and so on.. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. heavy intern I migration etc.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. in buses and trains. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. organization index and material index. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. 4. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.e. In developing countries. facility for drinking water. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. unemployment.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. lack of proper health care. The gulf between them is widening further. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. pollution of the environment. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. teacher index. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. toilets.6. in cinema halls and theatres. Many students herded in a small room. 4. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. 220 . in parks and other places of public gatherings. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.3. i. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. Swollen cities.6.3. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective.

Social Studies Statistics on population education. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages.. can be studied in science and health education. blank verses etc. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. family planning etc. There would be very few audiovisual aids. bar graphs etc. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. and laboratory equipments. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. can be taken up. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. There would be poor library facilities. less space facilities. essays. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 221 .3. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. reproduction.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. Regional Language. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. even text books would be in short supply. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. Hindi and English. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. thus. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. less budget for education.

8. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Children may compare two families. 12. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Canada. causes of deaths etc.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. deaths. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. 11. Children with the help of parents. 7. 2. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 5. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. China. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. 3. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Bihar. Uttar Pradesh. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 10. West Bengal. area and average density of population. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Brazil. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths.4. 14. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves.3. 4. 13. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 15. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. United States of America. 9.

we have no right to stop 223 . how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. 18.3. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. 16. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage.be opened in their schools. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The question. values and role children etc. preferences for sex. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Comparing life in various respects in two families.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. 17. age at marriage.

the total fertility rate decreased from 6. continued . The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. on an overall basis.were implemented 224 . which education can only do. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .. should be overcome at the intellectual levels.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. fertility levels have declined throughout the country.4-6.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. however. The Family Welfare Program. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. and the child survival components of the news: program. Since the program's inception. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.to emphasize family planning services. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. at varying places in different regions. More than 45 years ago. “He who is responsible for population growth. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).4 births per woman in mid-1990s.3.their entry into the world”. especially the expansion of child immunization services . 4. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.

These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. a focus on health promotion. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. Local programs vary in their approaches. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. In April 1996. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. the community appears willing to pay for services. and nominal fees for services. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . In October 1997. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. Moreover. reliance on local women as community health workers. men.earlier than the safe motherhood components. Therefore. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. and the World Conference on Women. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. At these meetings. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. expansion of services to unmarried women. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers.

What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. 3. involving the community.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1997). The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. nation and the world. Its main purposes are to create awareness. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. What are the goals of RCH? 4. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. community. Describe the impact of population growth on social.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. 226 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.emphasizing the needs of the client. 4. family.3. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. economic and educational development 4.

Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. 3. a. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. bar graphs. and the consequences of these processes. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. population characteristics. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. b. his society and the world. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. less space facilities. less budget for education. the causes of population change. area and average density of population. a. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 227 . The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. b. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. his family. 6.” 2. Brazil. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. a. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. China. Canada. characteristics and changes for himself. 4. 5. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. 7.3. United States of America.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union.4.

(2002). Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2004). (2005). Changing attitudes to Education in India. Principles of Population Studies. Centre for Women’s Studies. N. Modern Problems of Education. Jayapoorni. Reddy. Ltd. 228 . Coimbatore.4.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. A. V.3. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Bhende. J. (2005).K. Udaiveer. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. (1992). T. Kantikar.

8.8.8.6 4.2 Major games 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.11 19.1 4.3 Indigenous games 4.4.4.4.1 Minor games 4.4.2 4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .10 4.4 Lead up games 4.4.4.9 4.4.4.7 4.4.4.4.LESSON 4.8.4.4.

mental alertness. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. classify the different types of games. which forms its most valuable assets. moral fitness and emotional fitness. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. you will be able to: 1. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. perseverance. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5.4. social fitness.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. leadership and balance in defect. as it should 230 .4. full records of physical activities should be maintained.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education.4. the youth of the country. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. team spirit.4. 4. 4. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. The concept of physical education has been made broader.

obedience to rules. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. They go hand in hand. The educational efforts at home. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Every individual is a part of society. team spirit. leadership. Therefore. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. To be more precise. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. They are inseparably united together. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality.

physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. 4. Physical exercises. Rousseau states. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. Just like Education. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. pleasing manners.” Montaigue writes. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. C. nor body but the whole man.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. a sound health. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. Regarding the significance of physical education. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.” The Secondary Education Commission. mo ral. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind.4. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. ment al. H. Buck has observed that 232 . game and sports. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India.

physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Froebel says. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent.a properly directed physical education should result in health.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. happiness. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments.4.” 4. 233 .” In brief. endurance. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. resourcefulness and smartness. elegance. speed. “If we wish to develop the whole being. strength. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. etc. we must exercise the whole human being. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. flexibility and power. initiative. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. efficiency and character. coordinative abilities.

Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Tournaments foster this sentiment. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Every age has its artists. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. its adherents and its enemies. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. they may form gangs. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. in greater or lesser degree. If no opportunity is provided to the students. poetry and painting. systems of government. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. these fundamental things have always been present. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. 234 (i) (ii) . including all racial groups and historical ages. While wars. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. plagues and famines. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. should help in the spiritual development of the student. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music.

(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. self. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. obedience. 235 . Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. respect for rules. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. B. 2. etc.sacrifice. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems.\ to develop perseverance. Write any two importance of Physical Education. 3. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. to develop tolerance. bravery and interest in games and sports.

Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed.4. Inform health principles. 9. 7. and readmission after they have recovered. 3. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students.H. 13. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. students. Be well-prepared. injuries among pupils should be made. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Be sportive. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Be self-confident. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 10. 6. 236 1.4. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Usually parents. Always keep the whistle ready. Keep the field ready for the activities. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 8. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. 4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. is essential. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Haag. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. . and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 2. 12. 11. and.4. Act as a leader. Be punctual. 15. defects. 5. Posture screening should be done. 16. Be in the uniform. 14. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 4. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases.

their development is handicapped. Such inst incts as imitation. 2. 3. Indigenous games.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls.4. 4. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. 1. frolic and jo y. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. chasing. Lead up games. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. less equipment and less expense. the play. Moreover.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. 237 . They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. 4.8. 4. As such they are well enjoyed by children.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun.

Tennis. pitching. Tennikoit. muffling. They are played for a shorter duration. Basket Ball. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. the play equipment. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. women take part most of the games. 238 . Volley Ball. Hopping.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. They are rules approved by the International Associations. benefit in playing minor games. Jumping. under ball pass Relay. some of them are played indoors. Hockey. catching. Throwing. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest.With a very few rules. with implements or without implements. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Jump the stick clay and so on. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Ball Badminton. finding the partner. zig zag relay. hitting. boosting. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. snatching the kerchief. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. spiking. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. the number of players and substitutes. On lawns. skipping. The dimension of the posts and nets. heading. dribbling. trapping. on hard courts. Except a few games. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. over ball pass Relay. the games can be modified according to convenience. stopping.. While many of them are played in the open playfields. on mountain tops and on river beds. wherever the kids assemble.8. Soft Ball. driving. bowling etc. Cricket. Kabaddy etc. Khokho. couple tag. Dodging. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. 4. Shuttle Badminton.4. These games require varied skills such as running. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. For each game the rules are many. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. on sea-shore.

the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. All the fundamental tactics.8.4.8.4. they are in existence. On occasions like marriage. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. List out some major games.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. For example. birth. Games may be classified as 6. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. Kho-kho. 4. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . festivals connected with religion and public functions. An example for indigenous game is 8. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. death. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. 7. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. these games being popular. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.4. They have an abundant social value. and . While observing the players in action. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one.

Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. 3. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4. 5. a. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. physically and emotionally fit and alert. to secure physical health b. a. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. b. 4. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual.4. b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.4. Posture screening should be done. c. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. 3. a. 2. Briefly discuss the different types of games. aims and objectives and need of physical education. to develop physical stamina. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. Minor and Major 240 . Schools should help students to keep them mentally. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 4. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. 2. 4. a.4. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. d.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. b.

G. (2008). (2005). Ltd.K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Handbook of Physical Education.4. Tennis. Modern Trends in Indian Education.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Basket Ball. Krishna murthy. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Health. Cricket. Hockey. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Aggarwal. J. Shuttle Badminton. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Ball Badminton. Kabaddy 7. (2008). J. Khokho. J. Mohanty. 4. Khokho 8. Tennikoit. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Physical Education and Sports. 241 . Soft Ball. Volley Ball. Foot-ball.6. (2009).C.

8 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.5.9 4.5.5.6 4.LESSON 4.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5.2 4.7 4.5.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.1 Natural Environment 4.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.3 4.10 4.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.4 4.5.5.5.5.11 4.1 4.

3. population explosion and resource depletion could be. 4. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution.5. Participation. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. social. political. 5. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. aesthetic and educational factors. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. you will able to: 1. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. 3. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.educat ion for the environment. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Details are given below: I. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. economic. list out the types of environment 3. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Knowledge. Attitude. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. education about the environment and education through the environment.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4. 6. 2. it covers the following elements: 1. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. 2. role of teacher in environmental conservation. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. 4.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast.5. Awareness. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. Broadly. Essential knowledge about the Environment.5. 243 . Evaluation Ability. Skills. The best place to start such learning is school.

Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. 244 .B. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. a. • Biological magnification E. 2. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. D. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Oxidants Other pollutants. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. F.

Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. 3. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. III. The human ecosystem II. economic. Control of population growth a. B. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Persuasion: i. Intrauterine device iii. Use of medical science i. 2. Abortion iv. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. 2.3. c. 4. Birth control through education b. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Family planning ii. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Socio-economic measures. The pill ii. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Sterilisation. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 246 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 3. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. e) Recycling. 1983). Water pollution abatement. (UNESCO. Define Environmental Education. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. 2. 3. Air pollution abatement ii. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

5. Biological environment The biological environment. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. They interact with each. fax agricultural apparatus. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. He modifies according”.5. animals and other organisms (biotic). These are biotic components.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.5.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. A change in one brings about a change in the other. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism.4.other components of the environment.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . 4. way is called environmental or ecological factor. -other.5. b. Any constituent or condition of the environment. telex. includes the plants.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.5. to his needs. a.5. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .

role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. effects. balance of nature. role of trees in building economy.. change in climate may be added. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. of civilizations. etc. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. ozone depletion. sources. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. explosion deforestation. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . preventing siltation of dams. population. water scarcity. evolution. natural way of controlling pests. reasons. alternate sources of energy. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. etc. biogas plants. windmills. need for conservation. preserving the watersheds. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. effects o f CFC. sources of pollut ion. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. food chain and food-web. mineral survey. noise control. over exploitation of ground water. desertification 248 . maintaining the ecological diversity. supplying timber for various uses. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. noise pollution. acid rain. extinction of species. importance of nitrogen cycle. (ii) Air pollution. are the topics which may be taught in History. social studies. nuclear energy. use of pesticides. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. ozone layer deplet ion. greenhouse effect. trees reducing noise pollution. use of medicinal plants. nuclear warfare. t heir role in preventing pollution.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. solar cookers. industrial pollut io n. river systems. industrial survey. relation between population and pollution. excellent recreation sites. need for bio-diversity. wars and hazards of war. History The rise and fall. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. air pollutants from industries.

11. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 8. 4. group discussions and seminars. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’.may be inc ded in Geography. 5. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. 12. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant.5. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 249 . 14. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 9. animal and plants. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. 13. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 2. 10. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Providing. aims and scope. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Peepal and Tulsi. 6.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 4. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising conferences. 3. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. 7. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology.

used oils down the drain. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. especially plastics. or form a car pool for everyday travel. all these can cause serious pollution. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Don’t burn any waste. 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. it will cause pollution. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. World Environmental falls on 250 . old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Use public transport wherever it is possible. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Never put any left over chemicals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5.Send their waste oil. If it is done. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Reuse carrier bags.

5. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. To arrange for visiting speakers. orderliness and beauty). Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. depletion of ozone. deforestation.4. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. The groups may exchange. (cleanliness. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . nuclear wars.mat erials. developing desirable attitudes. diversity and stability. dest roying nat ural habitats. values and habits. Att itudes of balance towards nature. viz. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. Harmony with the nature . To provide materials needed for practical work.). CFCs. and 251 .. Social responsibilit y (common good. To arrange visits or expeditions. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. etc. etc. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. loss of bio-diversity. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Conservation of natural resources. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. potable water. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. Concern for species. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. rather than conquest and mastery. concern for others).

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 8. 4. 252 .9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills.5. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. 4. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.5. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.5. preserving natural cycles. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

K. Environmental Education. (2007). sources. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. ozone layer deplet ion. S. a. T.K. greenhouse effect. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. population. sources of pollution. Anmol Publications Pvt. Nanda.K. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . Knowledge. S. reasons. a. (2007). importance of trees in the production of oxygen. b. air pollutants from industries. Kuldeep. Ltd. Udaiveer. group discussions and seminars. over exploitation of ground water. concern for others). Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. effects.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Environment and Human Rights. New Delhi : Authors Press. 8. explosion deforestation.5. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. b. a. New Delhi : Sharma. water scarcity. Ltd. b. Organising conferences. b. Education for values. 6. Publications Pvt. Rapid population growth. 4.\ 4. Providing. relat ion between population and pollution. importance of nitrogen cycle. (2004).. new problems from science and technology.K. acid rain. (1997). Y. Awareness. Environmental Education. a. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Social responsibilit y (common good. June 5 7. To provide materials needed for practical work. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. 5.2. Modern Problems of Education. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. (ii) Air pollution. 3.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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It is self-realisation. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm.1. Therefore. The universe is regarded as a thought process. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. moral. the emancipation of spirit. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. enrichment and transmission of culture. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. should be universal in nature. Education according to idealism. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. promote and transmit it to rising generation. in fact. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. man is essentially a moral being. Universal Education. According to Rusk'. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. Education must contribute to development of culture. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation.our life.3. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. Spiritual Development.” 5.

Science. 3. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. According to idealism.1. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . should be there. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. 5. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. Philosophy. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. For this no particular method has been suggested. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. no doubt. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. 2. 5. Learning through reading. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Learning through discussion. Herbert advocated instruction method.” He is thus.the spiritual qualities of mankind. a spiritual guide for the child. The plant can grow. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. According to Frobel. It considers teacher as. History. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. However.1. subjects like Languages. affecting (feeling).3. So health.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. He sets the environment in which education takes place. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. So cognition (knowing). He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. hygiene. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. He carries the child from darkness to light. Learning through lecturing. 4.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. Learning through imitation. so subjects like Religion. Mathematics etc. So he should embody. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. Learning through questioning. For intellectual development. the school is a garden. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man.” 5. Ethics. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. and collation (striving) should find due place. An idealist teacher is a philosopher.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. friend and guide. an indispensable necessity.3.

text books. 5. In the words of Ross. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.perfection and beauty.1. formal lessons or examinations. Perfection of Human Machine.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. "Education should make 263 • . whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.preservation. curricula. 2.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5.1. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. time tables. Ross explains.

Biology. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. • 5. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Arithmetic. 4. Literature. It stresses basic sciences. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. In all.1. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. It is based on the psychology of the child. Zoology. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. 264 . Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3.4. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. There is no place for religious and moral education. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. education should develop the child into Joyous. rational harmoniously balanced. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. geography should also be included in the curriculum.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Education also aims at helping the individual t. therefore. useful and mature child.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Chemistry. subjects like history. Botany etc Language. Education should. “Education finds its purpose. Therefore. is based on the nature of the child. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Naturalistic curriculum.

5.1. Learning through observation.1. Learning by doing. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. In the . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. 4. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. a supplier of materials and opportunities. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. 3. he should be taught by experience alone. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. It discards all rigid. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. 5. a provider of an ideal environment. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. the stage.4. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Heuristic method. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place.1. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Dalton Plan.5. 2.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 .4. Learning through experience. Rousseau says. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism.

of human personality is in terms of his physical. The individual has not only to adjust himself.absolutism of idealism. Vocational and 266 . Continuous Growth. Social Efficiency. is true. Subjects.5. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. The aim of educational development. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Social Science. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. All Round Development of an Individual. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. diversified and flexible. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning.1. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses.1. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. intellectual. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. History.5. Physical training. social and moral aspects. Agriculture. Personal Social Adjustment. 5.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. 5. Geography. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Sciences. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems.

Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. He must be trained. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. 5.Technical Education. alert and resourceful. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity.5. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely.5.1. The subjects. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Learning by Doing. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. a teacher occupies an important position. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. activities and experience should be integrated properly.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. a senior partner and a sincere guide. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. should find proper place. He has to be active. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education.” 5.

liberal. 5. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. rich and happy. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects.1. History.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. scientific and psychological education. Satisfaction of individual and social needs.1. Sex Education. Study of Subjects like Language. 4. 3. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life.6. 2. Literature. Biography Philosophy. It favours child-centered. Music and Dance. practical. Education is preparation for a complete living.6. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. literary or humanistic education. Astrology. specific. Chemistry. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Art.1. Crafts.5. Biology. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Population Education.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Mathematics. 3. The basic tenets of realism are 1. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. 2.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. 5. 4. Geography are unnecessary 268 . intellectual. 5. Psychology.

1. easily and pleasantly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.6.6. certainly and clearly.5. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.

1. Child centered c. Learning through questioning. Self preservation & Self expression 4. a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Learning through lecturing. Education according to pragmatism.5. Learning through imitation. a. Experimentation d.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Self Realisation b. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Demonstration and Observation 270 . naturalism. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. a. Vocational and Technical Education. & curriculum. d. 5. Learning through reading. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.1. Social Science. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. e. b. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Tours / Excursion e. pragmatism and realism. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. 5. Universal Education 2. 3. Learning through discussion. Sciences. 5. c. Languages. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Geography. History. Agriculture.1. Learning through experience b. in this lesson. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. has no end other than growth. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Physical training. Rousseau 5. 6.

K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi : A. Foundations of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Pahuja.P. of Pathak. P. (2007). N. Anmol Publications Pvt.1. Ltd.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman.H. O. New Delhi : Bhatia. (2007).P. (2004). R. Narang C.5. Publishing corporation. Theory and Principles of Education. L. K. 271 . (2003). Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. P.

3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2.2.LESSON 5.3. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.4.2.3.2.5.2 Curriculum 5.5.2.4.3 Methods of Teaching 5.2.4.2 5.5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.4 Views about teacher 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.3.2.2.2.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.4 Views about teacher 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.2.4.2.3.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.1 Aims of Education 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.4.2.3 Methods of teaching 5.3.3.1 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2.2 Curriculum 5.2.2.3 Methods of teaching 272 .2.2.1 Aims of Education 5.

2. content and methods. 2. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. you will able to: 1. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.2.2. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.7 5.8 5. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.2. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.2. mind and spirit. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. 3. Gandhiji was primarily a social. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.4 Role of the teacher 5. 5.5. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.2. Tagore was a poet. 273 .2. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.5.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. an artist.6 5. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. economic and political reconstruction in our country. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.2.

274 . He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect.3. His scheme of education is life centred. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. nor the gross animals body. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim." Dignity of Labour. mind and soul of children He further observed. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.supporting. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. It really provides opportunity for character building. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. it is education of life. strength of mind. righteousness. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. In the words of Gandhiji. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. 'Man is neither mere intellect.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. "I attach more.2. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. self-restraint and service of humanity. through life and for life. 5. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side.

5. metal work. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Individual and Social Aims. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . leather work have been suggested. "Development of the moral character. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Art. the realization of the ultimate reality. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . development of the whole all were directed: towards.Training for Leadership.3. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. wood work. Drawing and Hindustani. Mother-tongue. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. gardening. General Sciences. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Music. Only good individual forms a better society. According to Gandhi.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered.2.

What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.2. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.3. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.trained.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. proficient. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Basic education is other wise known as 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. men of 276 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.3.2. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.

The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. He also advocates freedom for the child. 5. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. 3.knowledge.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 .2. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Education must be child centered. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji.3. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. That is why. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.” Like all other ideals. He believed in the oneness of humanity. • Education should involve manual work.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. • Ideal of citizenship. He was deadly against untouchability. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5.2. He was a true patriot.3. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. he was a true Vedantist 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. Gandhi in 1937. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. • Cult of non-violence.2. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.K. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.2. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. 5. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.

stronger in power than ever before. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Geography. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. wider in range. Dance.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. International Understanding. Chemistry. Religion and Psychology. he said." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. International understanding.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Tagore said. complete manhood could be attained. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Therefore. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. the more dedicated and devoted. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Zoology.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. Civics. Botany. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. It should help. sentiment. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. "Mankind must realise a unity. That way only. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. 279 . deeper in. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. etc. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality.2. Music. (vi) Philosophy. could help in forging unity among all.Language and Literature . them solve problems of day to day life. It should help the learner have good physique.4. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality.

A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.2. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. 280 . Tagore rightly says. Activity Method Heuristic Method. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.4. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. 5.” He further says. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.4.2." 5. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.4. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. In 1921. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.2. 5.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.

281 . religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. It is open to all irrespective of country. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. race. 10.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6.g. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2.

Purity of thought. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Education should make a person self-reliant. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace.5. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. 4. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. Book learning. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. He believed in to learning or selflearning. work and deeds come out of it. character forming and assimilation of ideas. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only." He was against the theoretical type of education.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. 2. Education for strong Moral Character. 3. Freedom. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life.2. Education for Self-realization. man making. Education for Self-reliance. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues.2. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 .5.” 5. Concept of Education. According to him. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual.

he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Philosophy and Theology. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. 5.2. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth.2.the learners on different students in the discussion. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. And above all. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. Education for Physical Development. Secondly he wanted Science. The teacher should be the facilitator. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. 283 . Every individual should be trained for concentration. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Discussion Method. Thirdly he wished that games.5. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Education should help in the physical development of an individual.5. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Only a selfless person can be good teacher.2. Of course. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Swami. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. 5. A physically strong person is the need of the society.5. 6.5. 5. Religion. That will serve the purpose of education fully. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. engineering and technical subjects. philosopher and guide to the students He.

begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. in this lesson. 5.Substantiate your answer. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 LET US SUM UP We have. 2.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. Gandhiji as a Idealist. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. 284 .2. We have seen that Tagore. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. legs. of course. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. 5. 12. Write short notes on Basic education. naturalist. ears and eyes. Their educational ideas. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and pragmatist . 3. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people.

a. Discussion Method 285 . f. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Activity Method d. 5. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. leather work have been suggested. b. Teaching while Walking b. c.4. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. a. 3. 5. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Basic education. gardening. 5. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. 9. Heuristic Method. metal work. e. Cult of non-violence. Technique of Correlation 6. d. Learning by Doing c.2. Nai Talim 4. Self realization. 11. Self-Study b. c. Education should involve manual work. 10. 8. a. Explain Vishwabharathi. 2. wood work. 1937 7. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. a. Meditation and concentration c. Debate and Discussion Method. Ideal of citizenship. Activity Method b. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.

P. (2007). B.2. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : A. Dhiman. New Delhi : Aggarwal. Anmol Publications Pvt. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. K and Narang C. J. K. L. (2002). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. on Bhatia. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2003).H. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ltd. (2004). Publishing Corporation. 286 . P. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. N.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. C. P. O. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2007).5. Pahuja.

The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3.3.LESSON 5.8 5.5 5. In this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.6 5.3.7 5.3.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.11 5.4 5.3.3.3.9 5.3.1 5. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.3 5.2 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.10 5.

it is identical wit h socializat ion. Since the demands. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. in Russia or in Japan. new behaviour may be acquired. there is a large number of communities.S..3. the plain area. in the U. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. While education is a process. Then in a big country like India. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. A g o o d curricu lu m. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. curriculum. Curriculum is intimately related to education. the desert area. you will be able to: 1. In it. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. present behaviour may be modified. In the former sense.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. In the words of Kerney and Cook. While education is learning. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. living in the hilly area.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. curriculum signifies situations for learning. 5. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. curriculum also offers a wide contrast.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. in the form of new experience. state the meaning of curriculum 2. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. From the latter point of view. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. in fact .3. the plateau area and 288 . Both the processes are integrated. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. maintained or eliminated. 5.3. is a means to the process.under the direction of the school. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5.A. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India.

aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. However. customs and needs. the learning capacity of children. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. It must differ from locality and from society to society. environment. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. and 289 . So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. therefore. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. democratic and socialistic country. it is.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. Besides craft. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. From a slave-country we became secular. studying therein. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. Again. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. In fact . We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. differs from individual to individual. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. irrespective of their needs and environment.3. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. too.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. 5. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. according to modern trends in the educational process.

moral. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. Goals of Primary Education. aesthetic and spiritual development. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students.g. unsatisfactory. Vocational Efficiency. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes.. 1. etc. of classroom. e. Application Objective. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Understanding Objective. social. So it is inadequate. 290 . e. remote or immediate. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. individual or Social and so on. They speak of perfect goals. The word “Curere” means 2. general or specific. in instructional objectives. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. Knowledge Objective. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. 3.. emotional. which may or may not be attained. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. etc. Self Realisation.. aims. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. They may be ultimate or proximate. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. Goals of Secondary Education. They speak of immediate purposes of education. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. specific. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. 5. National Integration. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. 4. social. eg. they depend on the political. uninspiring and unscientific.. tangible. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . They are achievable.3. They are visionary goals e.g. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. 2.g. unambiguous and functional.

abilities. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization.” 291 . heavy fire. in the class rooms. but it includes the totality of experiences.5. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. finding them very interesting and captivating. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. The interests. Raymont rightly says. According to Crow and Crow. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. educationists. Crow and Crow remarks. capacities.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. needs. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.3. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. on the playing fields. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.

the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . moral. They often waste it or rather kill it. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. urges. time in a useful manner. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. capacities and abilities.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. tendencies. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. aptitudes. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. Due to these variations and differences. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. mental. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials.

In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility.curricular. To ensure success of the process. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. organized. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. 293 . analysis and concretise the curricular elements. Similarly. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. 2. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. phased preparation. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. development of professional capability at all levels. 3. administrative programme need be planned. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic.

Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. 17. 5. laboratory. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 1937 19.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. workshop. principles of curriculum construction.3. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. Child Centred Education b. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9.3. 18. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. 10. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. Relation with Life c. library. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. 11.3. 5. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. in the class room. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . Run. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. a. 12.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum.

12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Curriculum and Instruction. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. (2001). and Sarita Kumari. Curriculum Development.3. D. (2007).5. Bhalla. 295 . S.K. S. New Delhi : Authorspress. N. Innovations in Education. P. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. (2007). (2007). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Lakshmi.S. New Delhi : Isha Books.

4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.4.4.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.7.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .3 5.4.8 5.7.9 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.7.2 5.4.7.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.4 5.4.6.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.6.4.4.1 5.LESSON 5.4.4.10 5.4.4.4.5 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.

4. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. newer and newer industries started growing. 5. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. 5. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. tolerance for the opinions of others.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees.during the second half of this century. explain the concept of scientific attitude. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. 3.4. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. superstition or emotion. 4. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. honesty. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. Gradually.5. 297 .side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. open-mindedness. know the importance of science education. in the economic reconstruction of society.4. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. you will be able to: 1. We mean curiosity.

they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. 6. 5. After such experience and training. 2. Through examinations. Selection for science education.4. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Organisation of science fairs. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. 3. 5. 6. 7. Thinking and memory develops. seminars and symposiums. Schemes of teaching science. Love for truth enhances.4. 5. Principles are formulated.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Promotion of science clubs. 4. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Central science workshop. 3. 2. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Through newspapers. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. 4. as well as of the society. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Devotion towards nature increases. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children.So that. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 5. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases.

After presenting the problem. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. which is essential for developing scientific outlook.6. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . Enquiry teaching is. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They encounter many social events as they grow. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. sex or religion. 5. In the inquiry approach. It is. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. For laboratory and workshop techniques. Training of science teachers. essential that teachers. They ask many questions about the objects they see. 7. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.4. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look.needs and conditions. Write any two advantages of Science Education. 5. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. therefore. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions.4. should provide opportunities to. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. objectivity. They experience natural phenomenon. each child to “enquiry skill building”. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations.

Giving less directions.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? .6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. 3. 6. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Evidence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. 2.4. Adopting creative models of teaching. commands or orders. test.books. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook.4. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. to ask questions and experience things. 5. . 4. 3. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. 5. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. 5. 300 . stern pursuit of accurate data. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. It requires consistent thinking. if they like. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Social sciences.Herma Wouk. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. Appreciating pupils ideas.

4. These include open mindedness. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. of vast resources running waste. it must be encouraged. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . therefore should be unbiased and objective. critical thinking and suspended judgments. To achieve this we should understand what it means. to develop among the learners. keen observation. (Vaidya 2007). It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. school and society at large.7. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. The students observation. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. neighbourhood. practiced. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. For instance. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. friends. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. 5. and emphasized during the learning process . There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.(Smith 2008). Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way.

An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country.4. (Das. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. The intention to respect another’s point of view. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. or superstitions. 5. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. understanding and logic. think and work it”. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. He is patient and reserved in his judgement.7. rumor. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. intuition or wishful thinking”. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. 2007). Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. In considering a situation or a problem. he studies all aspects of it. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. 302 . understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions.

They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.7.4. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.7. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. but to begin only after careful planning.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.4. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. • 5. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. 5. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.

8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. 5. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. 5. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. it must be encourages. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 304 .• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

b. b. (2008). A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Proper example of the teacher c. a. Adopting creative models of teaching. 2. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. Vaidya. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. (2006). New Delhi : Anmol Publications.4. (2000).9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13.B (2008).4. Love for truth enhances. N. a. D. b. Yadav. a. 305 . Self-confidence and self-reliance develop.5. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. 3. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Study of superstitions d. a. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs.4. 5. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15.S. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Discuss the importance of science education 14. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Wide reading b. M. 4. S. 16.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Rao. Reflections on Scientific attitude. objectivity. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Planning of activities 5. 5. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.

state the concept.5. 5.5.5 5.5.3 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.11 5. 2.2 5.5.LESSON 5.5.5.5.5.5.9 5.6 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. areas of institutional planning. 306 .5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.10 5. you will be able to: 1.1 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5.5.7 5.5. objectives and characteristics.4 5.8 5. actively.5.

By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. 5.3.5. • To make institutional planning more successful. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. 5. State and national levels from below. and every student in the process of educational planning. every teacher. • to involve teachers and school administrators. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. and. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. and each student are regarded as separate entities. in the task of educational planning. each teacher. executive as well as public. teachers and students is not lost sight of. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. every parent. • to make planning development-oriented. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. which become the bases for further planning at the district. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. and supplement planning from above. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Institution should be regarded as the unit.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning.5.

council and. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. Classwork. (2) Co.• implemented. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. approved after making necessary modifications.curricular Activities. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. Co-curricular activities.5. which will be discussed in the general. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. etc. it becomes the basis for school inspection. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members.5. Syllabus. 308 .6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. Examinations. and Personnel services. 5. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers.

Running science clubs. Equipping of laboratory and library.No. Preparation of audio-visual aids. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. etc. etc. etc. Editing the school magazine. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Organisation of Pupils. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. etc. Preparation of models.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Conducting of educational. Improving the subject competence of teachers. 2. Organising play-for-all programmes. Improving the internal assessment. hobby-centres. 1. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Courts. Organisation of Self-Government Days. 3. Organisation of Students’ Association. Fair distribution of syllabi. Preparation of instructional material. scientific and historical excursions. Organisation of class-room libraries. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. charts and apparatus.

and —pupil-pupil. pupil310 . teacher-State. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. teacher-managing body. teachers. etc. parent-teacher associations. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also.5. parents. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. involving mainly human materials. headmasters associations. administrator-administrator. administrator-supervisor. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. which are divided as the in. teacher-pupil. pupils. co-operation. administrator-pupil. teacherinspector. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. teacher-teacher. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. understanding. science teachers’ associations.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. and solidarity.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system.” The human relationships in. Administrator-State. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. ii. students’ associations.5.

now-a-days. administrator. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. to attend. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. It is also being modernized to become a technique. teacher-community leader. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. superintendence. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. pupil-inspector. teacher-parent. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. pupil-community leader. control. V. pupil-parent. 311 . School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. organisation and management. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. It relates to administration of a single educational institution." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration.5. supervision and superintendence. to carry out. social sciences and other disciplines. supervision. organisation. To administer means to manage. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. According to C.State. to accomplish. pupil-non-official functionaries. It covers personnel and material management. Good. and to serve. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. If it is more. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. Leadership . 6. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. Motiviation .The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 11. 4. low.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. 3. Liasion with the Public .Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. Better Human Relationships . 7. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. 8. He should be an artist in human relationships.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic.Management should be efficient and economical 312 .This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. Socio-Scientific Approach . 12.Any good management will always have good public relations. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. Communication . 2.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. 13.The manager should have leadership traits. it is not worth-while. 10. Cost-Benefit Analysis . Democratic Management .He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. Rapport between the Management and Employees . This is the latest democratic trend in management. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.Of all the approaches. The relationship should change from master. who occupy the managerial positions.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . Worker Participation . Those. Economic Management . 5. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. 9. Decision Making . Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . If the cost benefit ratio is less. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions.

The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. 5. improvement of teaching methods.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. 18. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc.g. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. to improve the quality of education it provides.These two are. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. objective. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions.5. 19. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. enrichment of curricula. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions.too. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . 5. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 313 . and cooperative performance should be ensured. 14.

f. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 4. a. Communication 5. 314 . it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. c. Examinations. 2. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Classwork. H.5. Educational Administration. APH Publishing Corporation. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. Motiviation d.M.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. e. Decision Making b. In group and Out group 5. Fundamental of Educational Management. b. a. NUEPA. a. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Leadership c. Singh. Syllabus. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. b.5. (1995). and Personnel services. R.K. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Co-curricular activities. S.5. d. (2003). (2001). b. Tarachand and Prakash. Instruction.

5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.1 Inculcation of Socialism. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.1 School Health Programme. Economic 315 . UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.3 Directive Principles . Inspection and Supervision 3.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Code of conduct for teachers.I.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Common ailments of Children.teachers should have : 1. wastage and Stagnation 3.Preventive measures. 2.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. Buddhist and Jain system of education. population education. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. nutritional requirement.1 Gurukula system of education.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . women education and teacher education in India. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.Article 45 . physical education and environmental education 5.Pre-service and In-services facilities. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Preservation of nutrients. School. Sex-education 4. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.2 Nutritional deficiencies.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. 4. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. 1. Examination reforms.CORE PAPER .4 India's Secular Policy . Realized the problems of school education. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.1 Primary Education : Education for all. New evaluation procedures.3 Educational Influences of Home.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Community and Mass Media 2.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.5 Regional Educational Development in India . Communicable diseases . (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. First Aid. higher education. Balanced diet.Religious and Modern Education 1. social Impact 3.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Healthy Food Habit 4.

5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9.R.1 Idealism. (2005) Foundations of Education. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Ghanta R. Taneja V. Saraswathi T. Naturalism and Pragmatism . Socialization. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. Pandy V. Sharma. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.N.4. Ram S. Kalan Paper Packs 10.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5.N. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.S.K. Delhi : University Publications 2. (2004) Problems of Education in India. Prof. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. (1999) Culture. Mishra. 7.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5.K. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.K.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. R. Hemchand. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. B. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. Curriculum and national goals . New Delhi: NCERT 3. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.Aim.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. and Mohanty R. and Sharma R. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. and Human Development.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. REFERENCE 1. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. curriculum and teacher's role 5. 316 . and Dash B. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.K. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Tagore 5. Mahatma Gandhi.C.4 4. Realism. 5. T.

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