BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Lesson 4. 9 . of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Lesson 2. Lesson 5. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. discusses the regional educational development in India. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. In. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. The need.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Jainism and their educational implication. and Jain system of education.

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5.1.5 Jain system of education 1.1.1.2 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.6.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1.1.5.5.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.1 1.6.3.1.6 Education during British Era 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.1.1.6.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.LESSON 1.6.1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1.1.4.1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.1.1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.4.5.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.6.1.3.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.

education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. both present and future. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. “a class of persons.6.7 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.1.1. 1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. Muslim and British periods. India. Indian in blood and colour.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.6.8 1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. That 12 . The history of education passed through Buddhist. you will be able to: 1. British system of education presented the modern western model. but English in taste.3.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 1. has a long past history starting in vedic education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1.1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. elucidate the education during British Era.1.9 1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. describe the Jain system of Education 4.1. 1.1. in opinion.1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. Education in India.1. in morals and in the intellect”.

corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Curriculum. 13. 6. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. 12. 11. Pupils were taught. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Individual Teaching. if they thought fit to do so. followed by explanation by the teacher. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. 9. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. 5. The immediate aim of education. Where pupils were many. managed entirely by Brahmans. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. 10. Method of Study. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. No State Control on Education. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. religious and spiritual. the monitorial plan was followed. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. individually. 16. Teacher as Parents. Education was a private affair of the people. as it is generally considered to be at present. 4. Religious and Spiritual. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. 8. Free and Accessible. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. There was. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. however. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. High Status of Teachers. with grants of land or money. to light. 14. It was also moral. questioning by the pupil. Education of Moral. Method of Instruction. 13 . and to agriculture and trade. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. from darkness. Forests as Centres of Education. 3. Immediate Aim Vocational. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. It was not merely intellectual. not en masse by the class method. Role of Travel in Education. Residential Schools. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas.knowledge was real. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. from eternal to immorality 2. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. generally.

Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. 1. It was freely available to all those who wanted. It was suited to the needs of the society. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.17. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. 2. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. They were very cordial and intimate. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . Wide-Spread Education in Women. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. lived a life of celebacy.3.1. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. studied Vedas. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times.

the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. 2. use of cosmetics. Right contemplation 1. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. I take Refuge to Sangh. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles.4. 15 . Right speech 4. impure conduct.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. use of intoxicating things. It was denied only to the ill. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. every class in society. the student remained in a state of Shramana. 1. Right knowledge 2. disease and death of the human beings. the student had his head shaved of all hair. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education.1. had the right to receive education. dressed himself in yellow clothes. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. I take Refuge to Dharma. except the Chandals. taking things without being offered. the handicapped. Education was imparted through the. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. which included abstaining from theft. Right endeavour 7. Right memory 8. Right thought 3. killing of any living being. Right activity 5. medium of Pali. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. he was qualified to become a monk. etc. Consequently. partaking of food at prohibited times. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. the most significant of which were the following 1. After attaining the age of 20. in which. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. watching dances or listening to music. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. Right means of livelihood 6.C.

Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. On this occasion. Life is in a flux. agriculture. objectives of human life. 2. wear three items. Hence. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. 7. a change is not only total but also perpetual. aspirations and. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. Later on. nature. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. of clothes. etc. a continuous change creating 16 . giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. Initially. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. cottage industries. it is regarded as true”. changing the goals. women occupied a position inferior to men. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls.4. handicrafts. These are called later Buddhist schools. knowledge of reviving the dead. so long as it successfully does so. etc. Whatever its nature and extent. depth and range. military science. commerce.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. It comprehended education in writing. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. geology. and. assumptions. archery. magic. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. 1. As reality is becoming. After this ritual. education was impart in art.3.. be considered the aim of education It. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. however. 6. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. therefore. 8. nothing is of any permanent consequence. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. control over sensuous activities. elephant lore. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. along with education in script writing. beg for alms. Even at this stage. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. 3. bodily gestures. medicine. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. 4. the science of taming and training animals. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. archery. arithmetic and religious discussion. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. approach. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. animal husbandry. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. the presence of the monks was essential. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. 5. meaning. has no metaphysical value for life. etc. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. eat food thrice a day.

its pessimistic outlook on life. Validity is effective and consequences. however. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Its chief feature. Education must. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. therefore. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. such as. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. 1. i. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself.e.5.new and peculiar situations. In fact. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. However. Write Eight fold path . is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Jainism insists 17 . What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. and to give it a shape that it has today.. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. goes to Vardhaman. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. whatever works are true and good. it is much older than the latter.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects.

c) Right conduct. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. 2. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. e) To renounce the world. 3. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. 2. but on both. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. 7. 8. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. Hence. c) Not to steal. more stress on individual aims. and is to be redeemed and liberated. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. d) To lead a celibate life. 4. rather than the interpretation of the universe. 9. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. As such. 3. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. b) Right knowledge. thought and deed. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Development of personality as an individual. and believe in happiness to all. 6. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul.5.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. 10. it has a foot in both the words. b) Not utter falsehood. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. They are: a) Not to injure. 5. 1.1.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 18 . Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. 1.

8. What are Triratnas ? . here and now. that would be socially desirable. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Jiva is essentially karmic. practised and not only aspired for. the precious principles of life that bring happiness.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Teaching must develop these faculties. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 1. 4.5. Hence.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.4. 5. education must be action based and ideally oriented. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. and should bring happiness to all. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. education should develop sense of discrimination. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 19 . 1. Belief in transmigration of soul. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . 3. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. 2. therefore. success and love. Teaching should be social and tolerant. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue.5.

1. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). 1. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. 1. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. Madras. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. To set up separate departments of. Bombay. science. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. and not for life. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.6.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.6. 1. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools.6. primary 20 . a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. However. with rally and rout.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. North West Province and Punjab. philosophy and literature of Europe. 2. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute.1. 1953). they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. 1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854.6. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal.

secondary education became a step towards university. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . Then the prevalent education was anti-national. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. 1. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. 1. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education.K. • Universal free primary education. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. The universities dominated the secondary education. 1. at the primary level.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools.education was neglected. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. In 1882.6. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). At that time M. • Secondary education. self-respecting and competent. namely. they named these schools as polytechnic schools.6. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. Later on. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. To ensure qualitative improvement. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies.6.

Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry.At the primary stage (6-11 years).1. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. all children are to have a common curriculum. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . After this stage. The objective of education was to provide 22 . 10.

teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Right endeavour. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. followed by explanation by the teacher. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. The immediate aim of education. 2. The system of education was well-organised. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India.1. the science of taming and training animals. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. During the Buddhist period. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. 4. along with education in script writing. archery. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 1. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. establishment of universities. geology. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. education was impart in art. questioning by the pupil.education of European literature. 3. 3. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. etc. Right memory. b. military science. a. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. arithmetic and religious discussion.. 23 . Right activity. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. 2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 5. Right speech. Right knowledge. 6. Right means of livelihood. science and English language. Right contemplation. It was suited to the needs of the society. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. handicrafts. 4. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. 1. Right thought.1.

1937 1. J. Aggarwal. Right faith. Right conduct. and Nath. a. Y. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Sargent report 12. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. History of Indian Education System. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education.C. (1984). c. 9. b.1. Right knowledge.C. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. 24 . (2007). Y. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 8. J. b. 1882. Improvement of Literature. Development of Educational System in India. a. Development of personality as an individual. 11. Ltd.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. R. more stress on individual aims.K. 10. Hence. Sharma.7. (2009). (2005). Singh.

2.2.2.3 Kothari Commission 1.2 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.6 1.9 1.2.2.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.1 1.3.7 1.1 University Education Commission 1.4 1.2.5 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.3.2.LESSON 1.8 1.3.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2.2.2.2.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt. The 25 .2.

technological engineering. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. you will be able to: 1. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. diversification of courses of studies.2. 1986 1. 2. explosion of enrolment. Kothari (1964-66) 8. 1. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. analyse the progress of education in free India.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. New Educational Policy.2. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. expansion of vocational. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4.conditions of the teachers. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. Post-graduate 26 . All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. 1. secondary and higher education. examination system. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. girls and women education besides primary. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. curriculum. medical and legal education. standard of teaching. National Council for Women’s Education 5. vocational education.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. technical. National Board of Teacher Education 10.3. There had been vast institutional expansion. S. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India.

Education for Equality.3. utility and financial outlay.2. in January 1985.3. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. A meaningfully Partnership. the New National Policy on Education. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country.2. 1986. research et.teaching. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. D. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. 1.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. 1952. 1966. 1. accumulated over the years. 1. the chairman of University Grants commission.3. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. 4. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. 2. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.S. quantity. The Essence and Role of Education. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Government of India.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. Kothari. National System of Education. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. Therefore. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . Finally.2. A. material and spiritual. 3. Education is the key to our allround development. Problems of access. quality.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. However. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education.

attitudes.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. the concepts of work experience. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Thus. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. It can train practical aptitudes. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs.2. the minorities and the handicapped. By working with hands. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. The UNESCO Report. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” Thus. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. 28 . Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

” the Kothari Commission mentioned. if he wishes. it will conduce self. According to. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions.” The Mudaliar Commission. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. co-ordinations." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. As such. In 1955. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. The Education Commission. “It may be described. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. the Commission. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. “The aim of these colleges.employment and promote economic independence of the youth.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. Besides. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. The Radhakrishnan Commission. With adequate planning.

The Central Advisory Board of Education. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. the semester and credit system. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. admission requirements to vocational courses. Therefore. With a view to relating education to the life. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. the. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). raising the special facilities. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. the rigid streaming of courses. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . Subsequently. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future.. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education.ot her. etc. for quality of life in the rural areas.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. In addition. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work.

its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. According to committee. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. The Father of Nation. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. 1. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. In short. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. meaningful. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. which are useful to the community. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. manual work resulting in either goods or services.defined S UP W as “purposive. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. aimed at this goal. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. technological courses including Agriculture. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained.. which swept the country for over two decades. which offer scientific. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. 31 . The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. etc. who conceived the System of Basic Education. felt that education should be centred around a craft. giving importance to productivity in the national development. Commerce. The wave of Basic Education. preferably spinning and weaving. meaningful.2. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level.and the world of work.

in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. tools and techniques and 3. 32 . Some Hints to Teachers 1. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Educative and 3. Community work and social service.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. so that it is educational in essence. 2. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. as far as possible. Productive 2. 3. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Culture and recreation 6. Shelter 4. be that the work involved is: 1. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. 4. locally available materials and tools. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Health and Hygiene 2. Food 3. Experimentation with materials. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. Clothing 5. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. The teachers should make use of. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Work practice. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage.

functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. Education through work The SUPW should. improve discipline. Merits of the Programme 1. etc. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. 1. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. as far as possible. To make education more realistic. Community Service In-1972. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. the concept of Community Service has been visualised.2. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. slum clearance. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Productive Work 33 . Such activities may include projects of village uplift. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject.5. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. 6. It can become an instrument to build character. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Check on educated unemployed 4. inculcate a faith. removal of illiteracy. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. the local community should be actively associated. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood.

and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. offering first aid. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. traffic control. skills and better future for the children. if not productive. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. etc. should involve itself in the educational effort. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. AICTE was set up in year 4. in turn. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. helping the adults-in productive work.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. Define SUPW 34 . The community. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood.

8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. b. 1952 3. Dr. f. e. c.2. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. d. Radhakrishnan 2. 1.2. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 6. Write short note on SUPW. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 35 . manual work resulting in either goods or services. 3. meaningful. 2. which are useful to the community.1. a.2. 1. 1955 4.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.

History and Problems of Indian Education. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Y. and Nath. V. B.C. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. A. Singh. : Sharma.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.D. Y. (2007). Amala. History of Indian Education System. (2009). Ltd. (2005).2.K.1. Anupama. History of Education.P. Development of Educational System in India. New Delhi: A. P. Publishing Corporation.K. (2007). and Rao.(2005). New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.P.. R. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Rao.H. J.K. 36 .

1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.3. establishing the structure.6 1.3.3.4 1.3.1 Significance of DPSP 1.3.3. directive principles and duties of citizens. for a total of 117. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.3. procedures. assuring its citizens of justice. and liberty. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.3.3. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.3. equality. democratic republic.5 1. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. 1949.3.7 1. 37 . It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. Besides the English version. 1950. there is an official Hindi translation.1 1. it came into effect on January 26.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.3. Being the supreme law of the country. containing 395 articles. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.8 1.369 words in the English language version.9 1. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.2 1.3.

the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 2.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. After many deliberations and some modifications. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Dr. learn the role of central and state government on education. Through them. 38 . administrative. The Assembly met. spread over a period of 2 years. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. social. for 166 days. economic.In the August 14. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. with Dr. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. 1950. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved.3. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”.3. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. legal and environmental. in sessions open to public. you will be able to: 1. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. political.3.3. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. 1947. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. On August 29. 1. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. understand our Indian constitution. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. 1. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1947. 4. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. Two days later. According to the constitution. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. the Drafting Committee was appointed. 3.

Article 39A. Liking wage etc. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. That the health and strength of workers. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. sickness and disablement. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. No abuse of children. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Right to work. provide free legal aid. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. and shall. for workers. The State shall endeavour to secure. and in other cases of undeserved want. on the basis of equal opportunity. men and women. Article 40. The State shall. Protecting health of the workers. Article 42. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. 39 . Equal pay for both sex. Minimising inequalities in status. Protecting children from exploitation. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Condition for dignity of children. Equal justice and free legal aid. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Article 43. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. old age. Organisation of village panchayat.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Article 41. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment.government. in particular.

of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Article 44. Article 43A. Article 45. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Participation of workers in management of industries. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. (Original Article 45. The State shall take steps. in particular. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Article 48. Uniform civil code for the citizens. See also Article 21A). Provision for free and compulsory education for children. by suitable legislation or in any other way. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Note: Subs. work. Article 47. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. [declared by or under law made by 40 . Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. agricultural. in particular. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Article 48A. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. industrial or otherwise. Article 49. The State shall endeavour to provide. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. and. Article 46. 2002 for “45. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. to all workers. in particular. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. a living wage.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest.

Article 50. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Separation of judiciary from executive. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. destruction. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 45 . as the case may be. disfigurement. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Article-21A Right to Education. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. may be law determine”.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Article 51. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. disposal or export. Promotion of international peace and security. 2.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . removal. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. 1. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. from spoliation. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. 2002.3. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002.Parliament] to be of national importance. maintain just and honourable relations between nations.

shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. and shall protect them. 8. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. in particular. 2002. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. from justice and all forms of exploitations. caste. his guardian has given his consent thereto. 7. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. 6. if such person is a minor.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. language or any of them”. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. 3. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. iii. race. ii. 5. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. 4. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. and. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds.” 42 . No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or.

primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language.9. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and by drawing. Educational Reforms From time to time. the forms.3. for its vocabulary. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. 2. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. 43 . Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. & 1. The central government determines targets and promotes education. wherever necessary or desirable.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions.

It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. etc. the state governments.3. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. So as to encourage education on right lines. 7. 8. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. The following pilot projects. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. private agencies etc. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Production of suitable for children and adults f. to achieve the desired ends. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. By starting these projects. Local bodies and private enterprise. 5. 4. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. 6.. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. All India Council of Medical Science. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. So that they may work well.

Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. training and statistics. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 1. 3. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. books. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. handicapped. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. 11. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. The 45 . It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country.3. 10.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. 1. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. 9. 4. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. is the state responsibility. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. education for women. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. research. reports etc. 12. are published by it. Material concerning nation-wide interests. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. etc.

1. 1.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Article 45 b. Article 21A c. Article 46 4. Write short notes on a. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Explain Directive principles 2.3. 46 . Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.3. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. articles in the Directive principles. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . 5. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles.

Describe the educational role of State Government. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. 3.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b.3.5. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. 1. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Article 45 . may be law determine”. Ambedkar 2. Article-21A Right to Education. 4. Article 29 and 30 7. Clearing House function 9. 47 . The Directive Principles of State Policy. a. 2002. b. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. a. Article 46 5. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. a. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. b. 2002. Development of Hindi Language 6. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Dr.

N. L. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Dash.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. S. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. (2009). Education in Emerging Indian Society. Bhatia. (2008). (2007). K.1. Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2004). S. B. Ghosh. 48 . Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K and Narang C.3.

Students should be 49 .4.4.4. Jainism. Buddhism etc.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4.4.3.1 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.7 1.4. Christianity.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4. Islam.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.2 1.5 1.4.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.4.6 1. religious education should be broad based.4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.1 Why Moral Education 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.4.4.8 1.4 Moral education 1.3.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.4.3.

and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. Thus. "In A multireligious society like ours.4. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. state meaning and need for moral education 1. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. In the complicated and complex society of today.. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. duty-consciousness.” Education broadens human outlook. As result of which. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. you will be able to: 1. integrity. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions.4. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. India' can produce men of character. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. According to E.and dedication. 1. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. know the position of religious education in our country 3.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. beauty and goodness so that 50 . Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. religious education and the concept of secularism.D.

religion and democracy are same. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. realizes God in himself. 1947 we achieved our freedom. Viewing the defects of religious education.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. if not regularly. through religious practices and 51 .3. at least occasionally. No religious tax can be imposed on them. In short. According to Article 19. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. all citizens are free to follow any creed. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. According to Article 22. Hence. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. As our country is a country of diverse religions. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. castes and creeds. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education.4. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. They thought that any kind of narrow. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. 1. Children attend these organizations. As a matter of fact.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. 1. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. rancour. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world.4. it is clear that the State has no religion.” From the above.3. Thus.

teachings. moral and spiritual values. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. Good education. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. intellectual and physical faculties of children. As a result of which. It is religious education. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. which can mould. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. what is done and what is not done etc. temperament etc. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. when he becomes an adult.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. one fully developed. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. If unreleased.. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. He also learns about social. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. It helps to modify habits attitudes. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. which help him for the development of his character. for the development of the individual and the society. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. and what is evil. aggressive. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna).

But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Therefore. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. This should not be allowed to happen. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. 53 . Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel.4. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. which is the basic need of a democratic life. 3. towards the society. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. 1. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. 2. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way.3. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. If we open the pages of history. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1.

they should be discussed in the right earnest.4. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Since all religions have virtues. 11. therefore. examples of patriotism. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. 10. 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Gurudwara as. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.5. For this. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Write Article 22 2. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. fellow-feeling. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. stories of moral greatness. churches and mosques 7. Life histories of great persons of the world. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

acquisitiveness). students.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Without moral values. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Self sacrifice. 4. 55 . Moral education. Service to others. Satyam (truth). in the home. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 3. 1. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. 1.4. 3. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Fearlessness. Non-injury. Swadeshi (Patriotism). 2. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. Purity. 8. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Brahmacharya (celebacy). 6. Cultivation of emotions. 4. 7.4. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 6. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. The content of the curriculum. 7. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. 5. therefore. They will play their role effectively. is that which develops moral values. let men see well of one another. Ahimsa (Non-violence). It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Patriotism. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). “Let all be happy and free from disease. Asvada (Control of palate). 8. Aparigarha (Non. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. the methods of teaching. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 2. 5.

The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Good manners. 56 . Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. 1. Asatyam (Non-thieving). 2. Unity of mankind. minutes in the morning for group singing. 11. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. In the school programme. Simple texts and stories concerning different. religions may be included in the syllabus. The School Assembly should be held for a few. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. 3. Good temper. Integrity.4. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Sharivashram (Physical work). loyalty and self-sacrifice.9. 10. discipline. National unity and Spiritual values.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Discipline. Secondary Stage 1. 4. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Efficiency. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. 3. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5.

3. love of humanity. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 5. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. 4. University Stage 1. patriotism and self-discipline. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. should form a normal part of school programme. In this connection.4. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. In other words. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. 5. Silent meditation should be encouraged. 57 . 2.

Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. b. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. 1. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. 2. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.1. 1. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. 1959 5. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. 2.4. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. The School Assembly should be held for a few. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. a. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Training of Character 3. Discuss the aims of Religious education. For this.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. a.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. a. b. minutes in the morning for group singing. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. 58 . aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other.4. 4.4. Sri Prakasa 6 . In short.

Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Theory and Principles of Education. M. Dash.P. (2008).C.H.1. (2004). N. (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ltd. N. Bhatia. P. L.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2008). Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Siddiqui.H. New Delhi: A. B. Publishing Corporation.4. K. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Pahuja. (2003). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. K and Narang C. 59 . Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.

e. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.7 1.8 1.5.5. disparities between provinces/States.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5. Although.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5.3 1.5. 60 .LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.9 1. i. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.4 1.11 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5.5.5 1.5.5.5.10 1.5.2 1.1 1..6 1.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.12 1.

3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 3. work hard towards this end. 4.5. 61 . 1. 1.1.5. they take appropriate measures. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. waters. roads. etc. 5. energy. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication.5. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. This leads to separatist movements. you will be able to: 1. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. for example. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 1.5. 7. Accordingly.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. 2. They therefore. 6. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. understand the regional educational development in India 3. Selfishness of the regional political leaders.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. 8. know the education suited to different environments.

Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. Secularism. Therefore.5. • Separate States (of course viable States). which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . while others remained educationally backward. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. 3. Tight security arrangements should be made. and. 62 . some average. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. 2. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. some States became educationally far advanced. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. on the basis of regional development may be formed.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. 4. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided.

came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. NIT. Central Universities of Assam. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. 1. remained under developed. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted.14.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. These projects are in various stages of implementation. 63 . freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. However. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. etc. scholarships. In the Central sector. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. approved proposals worth Rs. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. etc. academic buildings. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT.g. NERIST. Nagaland and NEHU. Funds amounting to Rs. Itanagar.480. Tezpur.After the Planning Process has originated. books. Even in each State. while some States like Bihar. the Union Government. the State Governments. Regional Centres of IGNOU. Silchar. Mizoram. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. and provision of informal education to enable those.84 crore was released in 2005-06. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has.392.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. Guwahati. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. library buildings.5. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Out of this. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. After the attainment of independence. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools.. Jammu and Kashmir. Rs. since its inception in 1998-99. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity.

187.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Tezpur University.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.05 crore and Rs. 64 .8 per cent in 05). Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. A provision of Rs.57 crore and Rs.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.501.5. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.40. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. During 2003-04. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Moreover.500. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. too.261. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. Government expenditure on education. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Out of this an amount of Rs.

And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. health services and welfare of the citizen population. telecom. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . engineering and R&D. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. To add to the woes. Medical education. The Chandigarh Administration. for instance. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). Listing the positives. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). English.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Tamil Nadu. too. too.5. Kerala and Gujarat. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. 1. Moreover. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. Andhra Pradesh. Karnataka. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Karnataka. notes the study. pharma. too. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. for which 16 sites.

which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. In the same manner. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. The living conditions.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. the socio-physical conditions. The working hours of educational institutions. when he will not be sure of time. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. the teaching methods. while the former does not. 66 . Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. the curricular subjects. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such.year. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. taking the average in the middle. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. the working days: an academic . Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. the interests. life-oriented and environment slanted. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. and so on. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. even actually looking at the watch. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. the needs. Hence it is called as need-based. which a non-tribal person cannot do. Then education become realistic and idealistic. For a learner living in a rural area. the vocations. in which the learners live. Of course.

12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. to suit education to different environments? 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1.5.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.5.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. 2. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. 67 . What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.

G. New Delhi: Authors press.5. and Nair. (2008). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2001). (2001). Education Scenario in India.H.K. a. C. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. S.N. S. some States have become more developed than others b.2. (2002). A. R. remained undeveloped 3. Educational Development in India. during the British rule. Giridhar. 60% 1. some of areas which were under the native rulers.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Education in Developmental Arena. Dubey. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. Salim. 68 .

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. National Integration. secularism and democracy through Indian education. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. school community and mass media. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. community development. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. semi literate and illiterates. 71 .

1.2 2.5.1.1.4 2.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.1.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.9 2.3 2.LESSON 2.6.1.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.7 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.1.1.5.1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.6.1.1.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .6 Education for Secularism 2.1.8 2.6.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1 2.

1. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. creed. colour or wealth. socialistic and secular state.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 73 . Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. This is the political aspect of democracy. for the people by the people”. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. socialism and secularism 2.1. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. understand the concept of democracy. The students may be associated with the management of the school.1. 2. 3) Provision of Manual Work. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. you will be able to: 1.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. Democracy thus means power of the people. socialism and secularism 2. 2.1. Abraham Lincoln. In the matter of admitting students in schools. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. there should be made no distinction of caste. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically.

‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. debates. Democracy means 2.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it soon spread all over the world. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. may be planned. 74 . 2. declamation contest etc. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia.1. 12) Visits to Legislatures. There are different brands of socialism. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life.. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 11) Student Parliament. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible.

8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. the wealthy and the poor. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 7) Special facilities for girls. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. service and cooperation. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society.1. free from exploitation. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses.1.5. the prince and the peasant. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. oppression and disparity. 2.5. the employer and the employee are all on the same level.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. but on the path of non-violence. 2. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. none high”. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 75 .1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. Under it.

The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. “India is a secular-country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. 76 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth.1. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary.” In every political and educational corner. 5. Write any two main features of socialism. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. "which seeks the development of physical. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. secularism is being propagated.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. Everyone says. 2. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. According to Holydake. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. 11) State schools. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.

Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations.1. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. In this type of prevailing situations.opposed to religious education. 9) It stress free inquiry. should be independent of religion.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. 6) It has faith in rational thinking.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. fraternity. people have narrow mindedness. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. During the recent past. “Webster further says. 2) It permits freedom of religion. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. 3) It permits freedom of worship. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation.1. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. 2. There is need of making the people open minded. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. liberty. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. people started believing in regionalism. the belief that the state morals. 5) It implies tolerance. 77 . the word secularism shows our broad mindedness.6. 8) It believes in co-existence. education etc. That is why.6. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. Moral values have to be imbibed.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. Equality. A large number of people is uneducated. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.

Religious Education. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. education. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. There should be some internal checking of the material being. In the hands of such teachers. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. In the celebration of each such function.6. No doubt. that the central string of all religions is one. While doing so. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. 1) Moral Education. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain.1. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. students belonging to different religions should be associated. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. The very sight of the building. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.presented by the students in the gathering. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. 2. tours and trips may be organized. Patiala.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers.

No doubt. The word “Seculum” means 7. The term secularism was first used by 8.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. 2.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. Define Secularism 9. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions.1.

Respect of Individual Personality. The students may be associated with the management of the school. b.1. Socialism aims at equality. creed. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Equal Opportunities for Admission. 4. 2. d. Provision of Manual Work. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. 4. a. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Power of the people 2. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Socialism aims at social justice. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. c. Abraham Lincoln. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. colour or wealth. 5.1. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. for the people and the people”. 3. George Jacob Holydake 80 . In the matter of admitting students in schools. b. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. Tuition free education b. a. Since socialism stands for equality. This present age 7. 3. 6. there should be made no distinction of caste.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Explain the concept of Democracy in education.

(2005).1. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. b. P. N. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. J. New Delhi : Pahuja. It treats all religions on an equal footing. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2008). Modern Trends in Indian Education. a.” 9. a. Mohanty. Dash. It permits freedom of religion.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. should be independent of religion. Theory and Principles of Education. B. the belief that the state morals. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004). b.8. Ltd. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 10. Ltd. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Bhatia. 81 . L. education etc. (2003). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. (2007). N. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions.C. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. K and Narang C. J.

2.2.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2.2.9 2.2.6.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2.LESSON 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.5.8 2.6.2.2.1 2.2.4 2.2.2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.5.3 2.2.2.2 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .1 International understanding in the school 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.10 2.2.7 2.

The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower.2. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. It involves physical. 83 . know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. The developmental roles of children. 2. aims and objectives of the school. and 4. 2. development. as workers. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. social and moral aspects.2. mental. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. as persons. as citizens. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. 3. moral. 2. as learners. skills. a r e 1. therefore.an instructor of school children. application.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understandings. social. emotional.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge.generation to another. you will be able to: 1. who are placed in his custody. A teacher is first and foremost. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. as it is t he aim o f modern education.

Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. member of his community at the outset. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society.2. experiences and acceptance. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. a part of their day in 84 . Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. socially. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. He has to look after their physical. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. social and emotional health. morally.All education should lead to better behavioural development. The following are some of such roles described in brief. He is to become an active member. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. mental. morally. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. motivated. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. Teacher as a Citizen Next. and aesthetically to become. emotionally. 1. 2. The students live. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. mentally. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. intellectually. inquisitive. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. culturally confident. 2. 3. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. physically fit for socially efficient. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. economically effective.

objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. India is a land of many castes. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. and most of hours. activities of the society into which he is born. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. solve them. 4. photographic clubs. It 85 . 2. science club.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened.2.the school being under the custody of teachers. Dr. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. languages and religions. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. List out the role of teachers towards community development . faiths. They will be spending with their parents. Unless. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. creeds. fine art associations. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them.

social studies. poems. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. national anthem and other national songs. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. Radhakrishnan.” Regarding the role of education. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. folklore and teaching of social studies. with straight backs and look up at the skies. b. ‘We should not become parochial. 1. this integration of the Indian people. c. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. Sampurnanand remarked. At the primary stage the importance of stories. Let us. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. It should broaden the outlook. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. should be emphasised. the study of language and literature. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. The only process is the process of education. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961.2. therefore.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one.is. Re-orientation of the Curriculum.5. and make into one strong national unit. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. Nehruji has explained this as. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . stand up straight. a. narrow-minded provincial. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that .” 2. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. the citizens of the Republic of India. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer.

6.different social sciences. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. symposia. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. militar y training like the NCC. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. and picnics. languages and literature. t he st udent s and t he community. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Textbooks. Singing of National Anthem. 7. Student Camps. Taking Pledge. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. National Days—January 26. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. debates. sports. ACC. Scouts and Guides. dramatics and youth festivals. tours. 2. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. 4. 87 . Reverence of National Flag. Celebrations of National Days. Co-Curricular Activities. 9. Uniform for School Children. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. educational excursions. 8. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. 3. 10. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. 5. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country.

iii. 16. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Open-Air Dramas. Educational and Travel Documentaries. 13. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools.5. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. Admissions to schools. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. 12. language. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Admissions. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. ii. colour. 88 . A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Recognition of Institutions. ways of thinking and doing things. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. iv.11. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. 2. flora and fauna. region or religion. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. v. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. 14. 15.2. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. Students Exchange and Tours. School Projects. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. ix. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students.vi. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. viii. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. camps. Define National Integration 3. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. cultures and races on equal bases. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Community dinners. 2. vii.2. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. irrespective of national boundaries. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Students should be involved in organising various school programmes.

that war. and the healthy development. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism.e. of his body and mind. the international level. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen.F. 6. Radhakrishnan states. Therefore. Teachers 90 .2. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”.. Organising of debates and.friendships between children of different countries.6.6. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. C. (b) stories of children of other lands. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. often in connection with anniversaries. Strong has observed. (c) fairly tales. Dr. 5.as important as that of a national citizenship. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.” 2. patriotism is not enough.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. 3. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. 4. In a very real sense.2.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. if it happens. 2. 2. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. This. therefore.

While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. an Englishman. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students.” Well Informed About World Situations. Indian and American. Impartial in their Treatment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. a German. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . Russian. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. They should not be propagandists. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew.

the education function can be carried. 2. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. If this is done. Chronic Poverty . leading to. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. majority of people are.2. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. Wide Spread Frustration . As the school is but a miniature society. Defects of the educational System . and help the students to over . 4.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom.Another major. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. there is wide spread frustration among all people. Devaluation of Values . which results in agitation and aggression language. understand and indiscipline: 1. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. 3.2. It does not prepare students for life.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. 5. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals.

List out the factors causing social tension in schools . Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. co-operation. 5. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. love. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. 2. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination.democratic nature. 4. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. community development. 2. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. 2. fellow feeling.2.2.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. sympathy and good will among the nations. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. 93 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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Museums. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. periodicals. “All the citizens of the community. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. In fact. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . books. Moreover.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. Define community. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Then came newspapers. Now internet is being used. the invention of the printing press. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. are increasingly used in education. 2. To make them achieve their aim. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. Emphasising this thing. led to the printing of books. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. art galleries.3. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Crow and Crow write. During the course of time. He taught his students orally. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Hence.V.

Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. 101 . discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. A lot of work by way of pre. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning.G. Thus. Thus. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. In collaboration with the experts. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. 2. In the emphasis is on sound. social studies. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Students listen various talks. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. It is also an important source of entertainment. the teacher still occupies. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. the place of importance. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. art. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. current affairs and other areas. Reynolds. languages. dram appreciation. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. music. politics. 2. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Important happening inventions. Effective means of presenting music. Various talks. “Listening participation” in current history. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. rather than on picture. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world.telecast.6. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded.classroom teachers. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. for the teacher through school broadcasts.3. It enlightens public opinion.

at recreational centers. at any place. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. development of lessons.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. informal and non-formal education. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. 4. 5. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. style. travel talks. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. at drawing room. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. projects or creative activities. Participation of local teachers and pupils. speech. audibility and presentability. plays. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. at play. Before presenting the programme. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. 3. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Making learning an open system. mathematics. Team-teaching demonstrations. 102 . Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. School concerts. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. fol classical music. At present. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

3.4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.4.4.4.4.7 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.3.3 Advantages of formal education 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.4.3.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.2 2.4.1 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.6 2.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.4.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.LESSON 2.4.4.5 2.4.8 2.4.4.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.4.3.4.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.

3. open university. 8. the learner are acquainted.4. the family. 4. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. starting and ending at -a particular age. 4. 3. 5. 2.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan.. To realize this objective of education.2. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. 6. compare formal and non formal system of education. Education organised by some agency. his mental alertness.4. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. you will be able to: 1. School is. 9. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. In ancient time in India. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. Education. the most important agency of formal education. open school.3. 110 . Education associated with a degree or certificate.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. say the Government or the private enterprise. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 2. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught.4. the mass media et.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. imparted at the residence of the teacher. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. the temple. 2. 2. the community. 7. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. 2.4. it was mostly.

and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. Through early formal education. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. the elements of language are first learned.a secondary education. such as a high school or secondary school. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. or post secondary education. usually between the ages of zero or three and five.4. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education.3. as well as vocational education and training. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Some education systems have separate middle schools. depending on the jurisdiction. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. Higher Education: Higher education. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. 2. third stage. capacity. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Concepts of proportion. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. In general. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. structured education. diplomas. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 .3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. or academic degrees. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education.4. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality.2. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen.3. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. also called tertiary.

2. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. 3. 2. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. What are levels of formal educational system? . children with disabilities.which will help for nation's development. Agencies can be classified as 2.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. and remote dwellers. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . late beginners etc. 4.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. is an important agency of formal education. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.4.3.

Adiseshiah. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. curriculum. etc. it is a more effective tool for rural development. Open university. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. systematic. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. place of instruction. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. It unlocks the doors of development plans. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. planned.. one could say that non-formal education is an active. However. adults as well as children. Thus. According to Malcolm A. It is deliberate. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.e. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. “Non-formal education should 113 .learning client take some learning objectives.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. financially supported life formal education. adding up to a true learning society. systematic. open learning.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. It is much more responsive to needs and change.formal education. staffed. admissions. i.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. Non-formal education includes adult education. It is functional. it has its own valid claim to reality. until 1970 it had not been defined. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. work and the opportunity to put learning to use.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. to help themselves. continuing education and on the job oriented education. Therefore. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education.

” 2. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. international understanding. 2. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. To develop in the student. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.renewal.” According to H. socialism.e.learning pattern. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge.be marketable and vocationalised. the Ideas of citizenship. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. 3. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. It should lay emphasis on the self. Flexibility in various aspects of education. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them.4. modes of teaching. exploring.S. co-curricular activities.S. evaluation etc. Lawrence. self.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 5. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs.4. 7.4. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. 2. Preparation for future needs. 4. i. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. national integration. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. 114 . Covering life span of an individual. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. admissions. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. 6. curriculum. Part-time education. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. To help industrial workers to better their skills. age.4. place of education. Process of sharing.

publication and information dissemination. Senior Secondary.4. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 6. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 2. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. To offer Secondary. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 9.4. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 5. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. 115 . • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 4.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. school dropouts.4. Universalisation of primary education. 3. 3. Meeting the omissions of formal education. 8. 5. 7. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. Technical. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. in villages and those who live in towns. 2. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. • 2. Eradication of adult literacy.4. 10. 4. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. working adults. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up.

It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. others are formal and informal. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. public libraries. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. factory. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. open space. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. Institutions for formal education.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. library.4. centres of correspondence education. Again. etc. 2.4. To make if.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. etc. 2. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.2. effective in modern societal context.full time to learners – can be home. farm. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . All-round development i. if organised in isolation.. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. Radio and television. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. self-employment iii. To better qualifications. 4.4. training centres in factories. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. To increase knowledge and 2. 3. Therefore. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs.

V. 7. Teaching to face teaching. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. 117 . Essay Assignments and short answer questions. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. . Give examples of non formal education? . Face Contact programmes. Lecturing T. Correspondence lesson. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Written tests. Define non formal education. List out any two aims of non formal education. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. radio. . 6. institution. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Open School. 5. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 7.” 6. Higher Secondary level and University level.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal.2. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. The school. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. 2. adults as well as children. 3. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Pre-school level. 4. a.4. Open University. systematic. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. 4. Primary level. 118 . The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned.4. 2. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. b. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. School 3.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. Formal and Non Formal 2.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. the college and the university come under this category. a. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Secondary level.4. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. b.

(2004). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Anmol Publications Pvt. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. J. Mohanty. K. Bhatia. N. (2008).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. K and Narang C. (2008). Ltd. J. (2005).C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. P. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Pahuja. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2007). S. Gupta. Dash. Ltd.2. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education in Emerging India. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. L. New Delhi : 119 . (2003).4. B.

1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.3.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.1 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.5.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5.5.4.4.4.3.LESSON 2.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.3.5.5.5.5.7 2.5 2.4.5.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.4.6 2.5.4 Open University 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.2 2.4 Need for Open University 2.3.5.3 Objectives of Open University 2.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.5.5.

But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. understand the meaning of continuing education 2.5. It is a lifelong process. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. know the need and objectives of open university. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. continuing education is a boon. you will be able to: 1. However. For them. 2.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. industries. economic field or such other fields. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. characteristics of open university 4. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. Thus. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. Any person.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. give the meaning. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. 2.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. labourers and half educated individuals. Under these circumstances.5.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture.5. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other.5.3. It is a continuous process. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. farmers. This knowledge may be in political field. 2.2.

cultured and progressive. Throughout the country. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Block Development Officers. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. For them too continuing education is essential. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Thus.V. After the achievement of independence.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. Radio. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. Doctors. 2. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. On the other hand. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . Persons engaged in health services. if he gets opportunity to develop them. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education.3. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans.literate person. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. are also contributing their might for the purpose.5. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Radio and T. Cinema. deteriorating to his character and personality. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further.directly related to his job. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. On the other hand.V. T. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner.

(4) the fundamentals of economics. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life.3.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. 2. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (14) information about bringing up young children. 2. habits of people of other lands. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (7) folk songs. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. These books are not very useful.V. 5. (10) first aid. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (15) music. Inspite of the great efforts.5. 7.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. (16) liking. Of course. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (2) basic religious matters. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. 3. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. we have not been able to achieve our targets. 6. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. 123 . 4. (1) ancient history. and Radio.3.. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (6) folk stories. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (17) modern international and national events. 2. (8) psychology of adults. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (13) psychology of child behaviour. especially women.5.

attendance restrict ion. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . lack of time etc. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. NLM was launched in the year 2. of educational opportunities. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. 2. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University.4. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 .

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 2. e. 3. the higher the degree of openness. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? .” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. and in teaching. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world.unobserved. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which was the first open university in India? .4. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. 4.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. Education is not a once for-all process. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. 5. d. No one is too old or too late to learn. but 125 . its education is not class room based but home based. it makes use of educational techno logy. c. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. b. IGNOU was established in the year 6. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning.5. 2. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system.

Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies.5. cho ice o f co ur ses. Mo re o ver. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals.5. 4. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. supplementing the existing provision. or who realised too late that they need it.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 4. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 2. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. 2. 5.who did not get it. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 6.4. who were deprived of t he same earlier.4. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. 126 . b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. 2. 3. 2. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 3. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. it a ims at wider and hig her.

3.5. 6. 2. a state or nation.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. 2. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 4.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Correspondence tuition. 8. In the present day world. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. 8. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Tutor Comments.4. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . 5. Every day. school drop outs. a society. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. 127 . semi – literates. Self instructional materials. List out any four methods of Open University? .5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University.2. you have learnt the concept. Therefore. 1. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Laboratory works. 7.

a. 2. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. Broad casting lectures c. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. 4. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 7. aspirants for continuing education. d. 2. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. unskilled workers and other professionals. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. P r int med ia b. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. a. Television Lessons. 128 . its education is not class room based but home based. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. 8.ambitious learners. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates.5. 8. Explain the objectives. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. b. 1988. 6. 9. 7. agricultural and industrial workers. (4) the fundamentals of economics. which may include house wives. youth. 3. cho ic e o f co u r ses. a. (1) ancient history. b. (2) basic religious matters.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening.5. need and characteristics of Open University. 1985.

Ltd. L. Reddy..K. R. S. 129 . K and Narang C.5. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. (2007). (2001). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Modern Problems of Education. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.S.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2004). Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. (2004). Udaiveer. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.2. K.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. its causes and remedial measures. 133 . which may claim the attention of those concerned. All which is the need of the hour. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. In Lesson 2. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Training teachers for all levels of education. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. Examination reform. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. wastage and stagnation. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. the education of women. and teacher education. examination.

134 .

1.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.5 3.1.2 3.7 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1.8 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.6 3.1. 135 .2 EFA – How? 3.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.3 New initiatives.LESSON 3.1.3.3.4 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1 3.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.3.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1.

The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. directed that. (EOI) 2. economic or cultural. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Eradication of Illiteracy. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. social. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. “The State shall 136 . “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. education received added importance and significance.3. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. understands the country. you will be able to: 1. 3. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. Therefore.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. On the other hand. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. may be political. Continuing Education (CE) 1. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation.1. therefore. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. 2.1. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3.

it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. 3. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. the national Government under. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Universalization of Enrolment. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. After the attainment of independence. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. Universalization of Retention. It enables the parents to send their children to School. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Therefore. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Continuing Education (CE). This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . Three Stages for Universalization. 137 . As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. rights and responsibilities. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas.endeavour to provide. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world.

for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. Write Article 45. UNESCO Bulletin states.3. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. educational enterprise. It is safe to assure.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. 138 . inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal.1. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. then to 1976.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. later to 1988. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. present and future. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. This target had to be revised to 1970. 1990. 1995 (for upper primary stage). and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Therefore.

By undertaking survey. Disabled. In order to make the programme of education for all community. adolescent and adult. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. 139 . problem of literacy. Early childhood education should be streamlined. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE).2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. Jams and Jellies. sex. 11. Emphasis must be given on health education. 8. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. rural areas. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. 10. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. 12. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. 5.1. The Social Education. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. slum areas. Education of Girls.3. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. Education of the Impaired. creed. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. their enrolment and retention. 3. 6. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. FELF. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. nutrition education and sports and games. 3. 9. Apart from primary education. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. NAEP. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. the art of preparing fruit-juice. etc. their social economic status and occupations. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. and Women’s education programme should be improved.

3.3 NEW INITIATIVES.1. Expand MLL and SSA . SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.1. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.3.e. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. 4. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Wastage and Stagnation.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.

Familial Factors .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Personal Factors .first stage of education. School Factors . Social Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . it is considered as wastage.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 142 .occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. . Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. 7. Define Wastage.

It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. School Factors . Societal Factors . are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.3.1. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. Personal Factors . Family Factors . relating to home.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. They are described hereunder :1. rural or urban 3.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.The following factors. school or society. in his home.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.

uniforms.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. stationary. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . mid-day meals. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. 144 . Define Stagnation? 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. etc.

developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. 3. b. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. a. Universalization of Provision b. Universalization of Retention 2.1. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. therefore. Minimum Levels of Learning b. a. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. 2. Hartog Committee.. 3. 145 . you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.1. 4. 3.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3. 4. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. “The State shall endeavour to provide. Universalization of Enrolment c.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all.1. improvement of curriculum. directed that. 6. a.” 3.

Sharma. improve examination system. T.7.1. b. S. School Factors d. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. introduce graded curriculum. 3.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. a. New Delhi: 146 .K. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Hemchand. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. (2008). a. Familial Factors c. (2001). Problems of Elementary Education. Social Factors 8. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. (2007). 9. Crescent Publishing Corporation.K. Personal Factor b.N. S. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.

6 Inspection and Supervision 3.3.2.1 Problems of examination 3.2.2.2 3.7 Open book examination 3.2 Grade System 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.2.2.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2.7 Let us sum up 147 .6.2.2.5.LESSON 3.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.4.4 Question banks 3.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.3.5.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.5.5 New evaluation procedures 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2.2.2.2.2.1 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.4.2.5.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2.5.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.4.2.5.2.5.

1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.2. Besides. 3.9 3.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. suggest the new evaluation procedures. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.8 3. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. 3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.2. you will be able to: 1.3. 4.2.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. but on the other. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. 3.3. 3. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .2.2. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.2.

also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. waiting rooms for girl students.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. schools for them wherever necessary. etc. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. roadside Romeoism. which the educational authorities have to face. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances.. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. If the students are in sufficient number. hostel facilities. They may cause problems relating to discipline. 149 .2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. 3. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. The following steps should be taken up. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. etc. etc. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. They develop secondary sex characteristics. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing.3.2. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage.

2. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. Instruction. public administrators and statesmen. appointment of paper-setters. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. teachers.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. It is considered as a major sub-system. 150 . This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. conduct of internal examinations. the net-work of examination system has also become vast.2. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. 3. the examination system has an important role to play. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. public interested in education. assessment and Finance.

Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. etc. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. 3. validity and practicability. etc. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. training of examiners. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. invigilators. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . reducing the domination of knowledge objective.4. etc. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. announcement of results. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. examiners. values. etc. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. etc. establishing reliability. scrutinizers.printing and distribution of question papers. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. introducing objective-based testing. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members.2. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. tabulators. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively.

.. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Vagaries in making. which they are expected to study. 152 . lack of objectivity etc. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made.4. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. 3) With respect to method of teaching. do not appeal to the students and parents. stereotyped questions. may also discredit them. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. 2) From the angle of content of education. 7) In connection with the question papers. halo-effect.. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. not meant to be assessed in the examinations.2. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. Rote memorisation. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. it s a common experience that subjectivity. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. Subjects. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. 3. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. takes the place of comprehensive learning.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. re-numbering of answer scripts. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3.develop true love for education. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. 153 . (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.a part of internal assessment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. revaluation. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Spot valuation. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. 4. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Question Books may be developed in all schools. may be introduced.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. List any two merits of examination..

5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. he is given extra credit points.2. When a person chooses to work extra. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. The students can take any course offered in any department. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. Advantages More autonomy is given to students.2. skills are given importance. In this system. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . Which has 2 credits is like a half paper.3.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. In actual practice. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . It is complicated. The new scheme of assessment. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination.2.5. 3. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.5. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. attitudes. Their interests. Every paper is treated equal.

The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . or as a 4 credit course.poor. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. v. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. poor. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. 3. This system reduces comparison of marks. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course.good. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. Groupism is encouraged.5.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. While designing syllabus. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v.discipline. only the total credits to be earned is specified. courses can have weightages defined. These weightages are called credits. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. An example is a seminar.2. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. In the new system. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4.

2.2.2. However.5. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. 3. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. 3. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. 3. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. 156 . most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.5.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.5.

In the hierarchy. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. recruitment. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. List any four new evaluation procedures. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . Therefore.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions.3.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. . There are no proper procedures for selection. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . However.2. 6. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard.2.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships.

disciplinary problems. library books. 3. They are. 1. qualifications.qualified personnel. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. playgrounds.2. laboratory equipment. staff. finding out the adequacy of. submitting of the inspection reports. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. interpersonal relationships and so on. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. inspecting the class-room teaching. whether the syllabus has been covered. 158 . It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. requirements. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. being realised as two different functions. Academic inspection. taking up the follow-up programmes. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. etc. complaints and compliments. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. etc. school buildings. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. of late. finding out whether the prescribed text. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision... books are followed. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures.6. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. When they are fully realised. in contrast. in a sense. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. wherever necessary.

2. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. 159 . modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection.. In the case of departmental candidates. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors.. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. aptitude. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. In the light of these conceptualisation. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively.Ed. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. course in either educational. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. their professional knowledge. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. courses. Similarly. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties.Ed. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. at least. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. M. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. modern. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. 3. once in five years. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. Insistence on specialisation in the B. or. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors.

2. 160 . examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Administration. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. 3.2. c. 3. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. 2. 3. 4. b. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. b.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a. d. 3. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. Instruction. a. 3. Grade System. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. a.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. assessment and Finance. b. 5.

Oral and practical tests may be taken as . New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Vaidya. b. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Educational Reforms.a part of internal assessment. a. History and Problems of Education in India. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. a.4. c. 7.2. 5. Problems of Education in India. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. K. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. (2002). (2005). a. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. K.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. S. Open book examinations. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. (2004). 3. Question banks. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. R and Sharma. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. New 161 . Multiple sets of question paper. b. b.

analyze the general and vocational spectra. 5.3.1 3. 162 . examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.10 3.5 3.3. identify the needs of rural India and social.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3. you will be able to: 1.7 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3.3. 3.4 3.3.3.3.3.2 3.8 3.3.3 3.9 3. 4.6 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. 2.3. 3.LESSON 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.

which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. i.3.. the Banaras Sanskrit College. The. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education..3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission.3.specialisation programmes 3. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education.. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. etc. Consequent on the recommendations. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. University Education.g.e. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates.. 10 years of general Secondary Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. e.e. The Calcutta Madras. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. Similar is the case with some other States. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. 2. Commission emphasised to continue. 8 years of general education. in Andhra Pradesh. and 3 years of First Degree Course.

3. is also a plus point . It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. 7.confidence in students. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. habits of hard work and develop . and.3. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. Provision for transfer of credits to students. 10. 8. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. b. economical and political. However. social. to imbibe. educational channels.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a.a sense of dignity of labour. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. who desire to change from one stream to another.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. to prepare. 5. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . 5) to help for the social. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. cultural and economic development of the country. 6. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. historical.

for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. and that required to enter the tertiary level. to develop national character. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. democratic living. The General Educational Spectrum. social justice. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. cultural and' religious tolerance. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. Philosophically it is not the conception. 3. Psychologically. 1. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. on one hand. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. international understanding. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions.. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. Sociologically it is undesirable. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities.national integration. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. cooperativeness. and. at the other.3. etc. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone.

Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. commerce. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. commerce. technical. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. industrial agricultural production is growing. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Commerce and other disciplines. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. In the vocational spectrum.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. India is a land of villages. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. In the matter of language. fish culture. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. 166 . chemistry. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. medical plants. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. 2. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Biology. and vocations based on dairy-farming. Science. Agriculture is the main occupation. In our country. 3. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced.3. or other machinery. physics or mathematics. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. vegetable growing. technological. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. rural health. such as Agriculture. horticulture. All these need for an. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-.— tube-wells. professional. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. educational and cultural services. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. the rural areas have suffered very much. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. 3. social justice. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging.etc. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. can be ensured.. etc. the local resources available. and 5. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream..3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 4.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. In time. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . In this way. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. interests and aptitudes of the students. and the needs. In this it may be concluded. There had been favourable reaction from the students.

Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal.3. 3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage.C. a.3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. b. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2005).a sense of dignity of labour. Calcutta University Commission 2. (2007). habits of hard work and develop . Teacher and Education in Indian Society. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. General Educational Spectrum and b. objectives. Ltd. 2. N. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. Dash. a.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. b. to imbibe. 3. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Anmol Publications Pvt. J.3. New Delhi : 168 . to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. B. (2001). Vocational Sepctrum.K. we studied the history. S. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. J. (2008).3. 3. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education.3. Mohanty. 3.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. a.

12 3.13 3.1 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”.8 3.10 3.4.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.11 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4.9 3. Education contributes to human development.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.4.4.5 3.3 3.2 3.4.4.4.LESSON 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.7 3.4.4.4.4.6 3. social and 169 .4.4.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.

Dr.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. Teaching and Fine Arts. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. cultural and political development of the individual. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. analyze the women and distance education. Home Economics. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. family. In the post —independence period. Education . effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. While women constituted only 9. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. During the year 1937. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. although we have miles to go. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. Nursing. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. There is a close connection between education and development. particularly 170 . 3. you will be able to: 1.higher education in particular. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3.4. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. These courses were. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. For the first time in the history of India. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. community and nation is universally acknowledged. The relevance of women’s education to social.4. higher education of girls developed immensely. 3. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. economic. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development.

participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. Mother Teresa Women University.9 14. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. Yet.4. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). out of 9200 and odd colleges. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.T Women University. in our country.4. we have more than 1200 institutions. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. In 1950-51. In the rest of the country. Coimbatore. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.65 lakhs in 1994-95.9 27. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. Even today. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.0 43. Kodaikanal.D.women.1 31.4. 3. Mumbai.1 24.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.2 22.N. The idea of women’s education for equality. levels and professions.0 16.2 29.0 32. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.0 Today.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. 3.

4%) prefer Arts subjects. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .44 35. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .1 and 14.56 64.34 33.47 65. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. 2.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. 3. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.1 respectively.4.36 3.27 89.that of boys.54 12. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.63 Female % 34. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.83 47.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .17 52.66 66.53 34. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. 3.46 82.73 10.

etc. marriage is a very common I factor. Book banks should be established. According to a survey. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. and coeducation may spoil her character. 173 . Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. particularly. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters.4. distance of the college or university from home.hinders the girls from getting higher education. she will only learn fashion. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. They gave up their studies to enter home life. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. irrelevance of the content of education.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. The major hurdles. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. financial difficulty of the parents. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. Thus. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. 3. promoted and increased. Also. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. curriculum not suited to their requirements. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. In every third family. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. what is the need for higher education for her. In college.

Distance education is a boon to women. 3. Empowerment in a nutshell. space. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. and the limitations of the conventional education system. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. It also brings about 174 . It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. There are constraints of time. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. 3. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. is the only tool for realising empowerment. resources and socio .Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Geographic distance of educational institutions. It is a productive investment. Full-time employment. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.economic disabilities faced by women. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace.4. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Education.4. It enables to study. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face.

education of women is of paramount importance. legal awareness and economic independence. higher learning. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. 3. Women are partners in development. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. on their own. The major objectives of women's higher education. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. empowerment means being assertive. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. Empowerment is an active. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers.4. for full development of our human resources. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. This can be achieved through reflection. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. education of women must be given priority in national plans. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex.

who are eager to take up courses. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. Better opportunities. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. But their number is small. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. especially so in the developing countries.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. which is pending for a long time. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. The educational institutions. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. 176 . Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. which had been the sole domain of men. will encourage them to venture new grounds.4. Scholarships and concessions for women. 3. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. Reservation for women. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. has to be implemented at the earliest.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . The local administration.

women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Also. According to Lindy Hyam. engineering and related technologies (16.3 percent.8%). But. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities.1%) and architecture and building (38. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Chief Executive. 3. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. talents.9%). they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. IDP Education. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Australia. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 .11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. especially in developing countries like African countries. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. capacities etc. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.4. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100.000 women in the country.

4.4. 4. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. (2008). Rajasthan 5. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. (2007). impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. a. Women and Education. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Coimbatore. individuals and society b.K.C. Rao. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women.4.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Mishra. A. Kodaikanal. S.R. R. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.to the family. and Suryalatha. 4. 3. S. SNDT Women’s University. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Mother Teresa Women University. 2. Pattanaikj. Women Education. 3. Mumbai. R. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Coimbatore. community and the nation. and Swain. SNDT Women’s University. Centre for Women’s Studies. (2000).12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. A. R. 178 . 43% 6. Women Education. create the right attitude towards life. (2005). Mumbai. Annakodi. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women.

personality of children in and out of school.5. whole. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.4 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .6 3.7 3.9 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.1 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5.5 3.8 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.11 3.5.5.5. They should be trained. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5.5.5.3 3.5.10 3.2 3.5.LESSON 3.5.

Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. you will be able to: 1. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. 5. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. national consciousness. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. understand the training teachers for Primary. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2.5. equality and justice. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. 3. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. and national character. know the pre service and in service training facilities. international. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner.5. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Lack of physical facilities. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. social and emotional integration. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 4. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 180 . understanding and strong desire for international peace. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Shorter working hours.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education.

.5.5. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . who have not been trained earlier. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. 3. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. it is called the Extension teacher Education. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years .Ed. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. (NCERT) New Delhi. At the diploma level.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. inservice and extension education programmes. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. and M. it is called the In-service teacher education.Less qualified teacher educators. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. the centre. etc. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. If the student teachers are working teachers. and the collegiate teacher education. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. higher secondary teacher education. Depending on the levels. levels. students. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. the primary teacher education.. Lop-sided curriculum.Ed. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. 3. a Diploma course and a Degree course. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. Inadequate training in practical skills. the secondary teacher education. the state Government. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities.

extensio n service. are established. 3. state Institutes of Educat ion. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . collegiate cells. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . depart ments etc.. non-formal. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Also Guidance Bureaux.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . etc. Science Education units. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs .5. Evaluation unit. Educational teehnology cells. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. Education cells. Expand NCERT 2.

degree.Ed. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B.. and so on. should be improved on a top priority basis.. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. schools and sister institutions. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. to improve curricular programmes. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. laboratories. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . to ensure teacher competence. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. which should include experience in the primary schools too. audio visual aids. material conditions relating to libraries.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . to offer consultative services.Ed. primary and secondary school teachers.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre.. which help breaking isolation from one another . • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . and 183 . to prescribe conditions for recognition. despite its vast expansion.

methodology and evaluation. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications.secondary education.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. whether they should have professional education or. Hence. not came up once again. To meet this exigency.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Agriculture. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. and XII. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Organisation of Content Courses. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. Psychology of Students. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . though no pre-service training.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. 184 . Meanwhile. Modern Techniques of Teaching. Workshops. etc. etc. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. Induction Courses. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. The problem. Modern Methods of Evaluation. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education.

There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. M.Ed. Post-Graduates also undergo B.A. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates..’s are elig ible for M.A.. For re-orienting the teachers. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.Ed. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.Ed. State Institutes of Education.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. (Education) and M. courses and M. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.5. 3. All B Ed. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. Degree. Pre-service training is for those. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training... The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Degree and M. (Education) are organized by 185 .’s for Ph. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. training. in Education. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.Ed.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. These facilities are available for regular students. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.D..Ed.. Courses leading to B. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.S.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.Ed. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. Ajmer. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.

and B. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. established by tradition and teachers of the past. . (Ed).8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. 186 . So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics.List any two code of conduct for teachers? .5.some Faculties of Education of some Universities.A.. of conduct—written or unwritten. 5.A. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. (Ed. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the role of ERIC? .). 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. However. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . Hence the employability of M. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. they should be conscientious . Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. 6. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.

3. a. 5. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. However. a.5. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. they should be conscientious.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities.5. 2. Explain code of conduct for teachers. b. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. 3. Bhopal. a. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Ajmer. 6. 2. 3. 3. Discuss the problems of teacher education. 187 .3. Dearth of new technology of teaching.5. The necessity is however this. National Council of Educational Research and Training.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 4. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. Shorter working hours.

Teacher Education.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda.3. Tewari. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . (2009). New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House.5. (2003).N. Publication Pvt. J. and Teacher Education. Ltd Aggarwal. A. Teacher Education. Mohanty. Corporation. (2010).D. P. B.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important. 191 . the focus is on the school health programmes.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. Since food is the source of nutrients. economic and educational developments. The person’s environment is equally important. nutritional deficiency diseases. communicable diseases and their prevention. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. common ailments of children. objectives. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. objectives. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. If the diet is poor. objectives and role of the physical education. In lesson 4. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. preservation of nutrients. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. In lesson 1.

192 .

for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.1.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.8 4.6 4.1. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1.2 4. physical.3 4.1.1. 193 .12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.11 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.10 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody.1.LESSON 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.e. emotional and social.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.4 4.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises. mental.1 4.1.1.9 4.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1. It is a miniature society.7 4.5 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.

4. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. explain the importance of First aid 5. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. To give information regarding health rules. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 5. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. understand school health programmes 2. cleanliness and healthful living. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. 2. you will be able to: 1.g. e. training of teachers and evaluation. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. 3. content of health education. Instruction. To develop healthy health habits among children. 6. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. To develop certain skills concerning health. 10. 11. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 4.1. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases..School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. 9. 8.1. know the need for sex education.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. list the common ailments of children 3. 4. 7. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. to his family and to the community at large. training in first aid and etc. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. 194 .

Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. cleanliness weeks. organisation of school health days. is imperative. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided.4. (vi) nutrition education. 2. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. (iv) co mmunicable diseases.C. Triple Antigen Vaccination. B. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. 2. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. (xii) smoking education etc. (viii) first aid.G. as described below 1. First aid facilities should be made readily available. Arranging better transportation facilities. 5. 4. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. (ii) communit y healt h. excusing late. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. Vaccination for small pox. inoculation against cholera. The surroundings of schools should be clean. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs.1. ( iii) sanit at io n. vaccination. “Play-for-all” programmes. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students.. (xl) mental health. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. suitable furniture. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings.coming or absence. There should be good drainage facilities. The school buildings should be spacious. minimizing the travelling distance. play festivals.. (v) safety education.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. There should be regular water supply. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. 3. typhoid. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. B. direct lighting. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. etc. proper doors and windows. The flooring should not be damp. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body.

poisons. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. 196 . Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. and other accidents. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. • Have adequate rest and sleep. fainting (epileptic fit). etc. C. • Keep all rooms clean. sports and games in the interest of their health. bleeding. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. • Close the schools. isolate and notify. • Take nutritious food. fractures. if epidemic is wide-spread.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. • When sleeping in groups. burns. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • Find out the cases. scalds. insect stings. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. D.. dislocations. drowning. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. cuts. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. wounds.

The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. 4. cough.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. measles etc. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. Mention the school health programmes. List out the Health curriculum 3. So they easily get illnesses. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. polio.1. These diseases are called communicable diseases. fever. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. chicken pox. They are: i) The incubation stage. There are three stages in any communicable disease. pain in the joints. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. which are – cold. water or bodily contact.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. headache. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people.1. backache. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. 4. asthma. Once these germs get into the body. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . They have less resistence to diseases than adults. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. 2.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. tuberculosis. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air.

Diarrhoea . head-ache and cough. The following are the common communicable diseases. 198 .is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. unhygienic living conditions. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Hence liquid diet is recommended. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Important salts and water are lost in this process. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. This is caused by cold virus. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief.This disease is caused by bacteria. Measles . Others make the children very weak.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Tonsilitis . unhygienic bottle feeding. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Some suffer cold due to allergy. sugar and water. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. cough and fever. The symptoms include cold. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Mumps . rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. The child may have fever. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage.It is caused by measles virus. After three or four days of fever. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops.When a child suffers from scabies.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. etc. Hence it is called a killer disease. Scabies . Throat is affected. Common Cold .It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. eating food which is not clean.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Ear Infections . Children catch cold from persons having cold. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7.• • • • Chicken Pox . 5. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. 199 . It begins with fever. If proper treatment is not given. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. the child may die. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Shortly. the child is not able to breathe. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. separate. As the disease progresses. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. By scratching he causes secondary infections. What are communicable diseases? 6. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Enlist the common ailments of children. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. face and waist. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. raised pink spots appear on head. Diphtheria . The child may also have diarrhoea. Expand DPT . These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. Typhoid .

Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Sex is popular. 4.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. and Community Work and Social Service. 200 . In such cases. it is a subject of art. snakebites.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. 5. simple fractures. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. Sex is but an integral part of human personality.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. scorpion stings. eye injury.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. fainting. head injury. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. It is both biological and psychological.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. wounds.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. Drowning . sprains. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. and films.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. swelling. fiction. 4. man-woman behaviours. etc.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. 2. exciting and body-oriented. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. so-called sex books and periodicals. drowning. cuts. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. Wounds .1.1. bleeding. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. films and jokes. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. dislocation. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. sprains.4. 3. It has its rightful place in education too. bruises.g. Cuts and Bruises . Sprains .

The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. the school. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. In secondary schools. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. In today's liberal and interactive society.. The home. 2. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. try experimenting with their bodies. Should the boys and girls. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. The values of life. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. 3. in their ignorance. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. the religious organisations. sex education is being recommended in schools. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. celibacy are age. but preserve them from disaster and disease.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. B. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. they would be treading the path of sure doom. Hence. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease.old values. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. health. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community.

common ailments of children. when the courses are already overloaded. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. C. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. first aid and sex education. communicable diseases and their prevention. 202 .1. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. hence.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. the school health programmes. Teacher education institutions are. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. What are the major components of Sex Education. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. there will no crisis in its implementation. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. 4.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

208

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 209 . Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Mention the food nutrients 2. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4.

you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients.4. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. 210 . U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Let us talk about each of these aspects. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a.2. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. If you look at the definition carefully.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.2. minerals. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . But how do we select these foods? The major aim. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied.

A balanced diet is specific firstly.g. These are: region where the person resides and income. paratha and poori. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. 4. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. Even within given States there is considerable variation. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age.6.one in the morning and the other at night.2. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. dosa are typical of the south. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety.sedentary. the social and religious practices of that region. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). People in the east of our country prefer rice. activity level and physiological stress. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. for example. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. construction labourer). moderate or heavy work. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. sex. There is no point. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. it is also specific to a given activity level . Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days.g.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Preferences/customs are also important. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. In other words. In the case of adults.

for example. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. however. As income increases. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. as important for the rich as for the poor. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. Having more money. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. while another may hate them. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. however. In addition to these. income plays a vital role. However. taboos related to food may play an important role. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. Among the social factors. One must. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. customs. Including these 212 . nuts and dry fruits.planning the diet. vegetables and fruits. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. If you think of your own religious group. fat and sugar tend to increase. however. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. One person may be fond of milk products. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. Judicious selection of food is. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. As you read this discussion. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. These determine the acceptability of foods. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. Even among flesh foods. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal.

7) One should eat what is needed to live . 8) Walk a while after eating. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. 17. etc. fruits. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. if the teachers have good food habits. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 213 . 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. meat.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. green leaves. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. eggs . over-eating or under. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. mouth. 8.eating is hazardous. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. but they should be thrown away. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. List out any two healthy food habits. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. Define balanced diet. For this.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect.

e. When the diet is inadequate. Beri Beri 4. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Bitot’s spots. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Explain food nutrients 4. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer.4. 4. preservation of nutrients. Keratomalacia 3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Vitamin D 5. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.2. In fact. c. Conjuctival xerosis. 4. a. Night blindness. d. good nutrition is essential for good health. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . How will you plan a balanced diet? 3.2. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Corneal xerosis. Discuss good food habits.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. b. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2.

2. a. (2005). 4. Food and Nutrition Education. mouth. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. (2008). U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . Food should be consumed after eating well. a .C. R. b. S. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.6. Food and Nutrition Education. A Text Book of Foods. Health and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. 8. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Hands. minerals. Chopra. Nutrition and Dietetics.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum.M. P. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. (2004). Sri Lakshmi B. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . 7. Nutrition Science.N. (2009). R. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. b. (2008). C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra.

3.3.1 Impact on social development 4.3.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.8 4.3.3.6.3.3.3.3.12 4.3. 216 .3.3 Impact on Education 4.1 4.3.6.13 4.3.6.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.10 4.3.7 4.3.2 Impact on economic development 4.LESSON 4.5 4.3.3.3 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.2 4.9 4.11 4.4 4.

4. 4. Whenever we talk of sex education. therefore. describe the impact of population growth on social.3.4. his societ y and the world. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. and the consequences of these processes. the stress is. It is not sex education. There is some difference.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. his family. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.3. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. aims at providing the younger generation.3. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. 217 .1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. It is a much wider co ncept. you will be able to: 1. objectives and need for population education 2.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. state the meaning. family planning and sex education etc. Population Education. economic and educational development 3. understand the importance of small family norm 5. community. population characteristics. the causes of population change. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. characteristics and changes for himself.

5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. the society. the nation and the world. 4.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. List out any two objectives of Population Education. the family. Define Population Education 2.3.

economic and educational development of the country. social welfare schemes can be implemented well.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development.3. the family programmes are also handicapped. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population.6. Every second two thousand children are being born.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. which will not be possible without population control. When the family is small. health and happiness of its citizens. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. 4. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. 219 . Family is considered as a social unit. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. With the larger families.3. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. 4.

organization index and material index. teacher index. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio.3.6. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. Swollen cities. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. pollution of the environment. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production.. i.3.6. heavy intern I migration etc. lack of proper health care. 220 .3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. in cinema halls and theatres. and so on. The gulf between them is widening further. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching.e. toilets. 4. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. unemployment. 4. in buses and trains. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. Many students herded in a small room.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. facility for drinking water. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. in parks and other places of public gatherings. In developing countries.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious.

The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners.3. can be taken up. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. There would be very few audiovisual aids. can be studied in science and health education. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. bar graphs etc. It has got to be integrated with other subjects.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. 221 . Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. family planning etc. even text books would be in short supply. Regional Language.. There would be poor library facilities. essays. Hindi and English. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and laboratory equipments. reproduction. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Social Studies Statistics on population education. less budget for education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. thus. less space facilities. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. blank verses etc. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue.

deaths. Brazil. causes of deaths etc. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 15. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 7. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 4. 5. Children with the help of parents.3. Canada. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Bihar. They may arrange them as per average density of population. China. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 2. 9. 8. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 3. 14. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 11. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . 12. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 13.4. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Uttar Pradesh. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. West Bengal. Children may compare two families. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. United States of America. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. 10. area and average density of population. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents.

Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. The question. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Comparing life in various respects in two families. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. preferences for sex. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. 18. 17. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. we have no right to stop 223 . Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”.3. values and role children etc. 16. age at marriage.be opened in their schools. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised.

need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.their entry into the world”. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children.to emphasize family planning services.were implemented 224 . however. The Family Welfare Program.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . Since the program's inception. 4.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. and the child survival components of the news: program. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.4-6. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. which education can only do. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. More than 45 years ago. at varying places in different regions. “He who is responsible for population growth. continued .3.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage.. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). should be overcome at the intellectual levels. on an overall basis. especially the expansion of child immunization services .

Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. the community appears willing to pay for services. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. In October 1997. At these meetings. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. men. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding.earlier than the safe motherhood components. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. Moreover. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. Local programs vary in their approaches. expansion of services to unmarried women. and nominal fees for services. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. reliance on local women as community health workers. In April 1996. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. and the World Conference on Women. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. a focus on health promotion. Therefore.

community. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. Describe the impact of population growth on social. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. involving the community. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion.emphasizing the needs of the client. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. family. 226 . Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. Its main purposes are to create awareness. 1997). What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. 4.3. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3. nation and the world. What are the goals of RCH? 4. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. economic and educational development 4.

United States of America. 3. Canada. a. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. 227 . They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.3. his family. 7. bar graphs. b. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. area and average density of population. b.4. less budget for education. 4.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the causes of population change. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. less space facilities. and the consequences of these processes. a. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. China. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Brazil. 6. 5. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. population characteristics. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. characteristics and changes for himself. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. a. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. his society and the world.” 2.

Ltd. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Jayapoorni. (2005). New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.K. Coimbatore. 228 . (1992). Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.3.4. Ltd. (2004). Bhende. N. Centre for Women’s Studies. Principles of Population Studies. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J. (2002). Modern Problems of Education. A. Reddy.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. V. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Kantikar. Udaiveer. (2005). “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. T.

8.4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.8.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4 Lead up games 4.4.4.3 4.8.4.4.2 Major games 4.3 Indigenous games 4.4.4.11 19.4.4.4.9 4.8.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.2 4.1 Minor games 4.4 4.5 4.4.1 4.6 4.10 4.4.7 4.4.4.LESSON 4.

It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country.4. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. classify the different types of games. moral fitness and emotional fitness.4. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. which forms its most valuable assets. perseverance. social fitness. as it should 230 . full records of physical activities should be maintained.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. leadership and balance in defect. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. mental alertness. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. The concept of physical education has been made broader.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education.4. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. 4. you will be able to: 1.4. the youth of the country. team spirit. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. 4.

It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Every individual is a part of society. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. They are inseparably united together. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Therefore. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. They go hand in hand. team spirit. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. To be more precise. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. obedience to rules. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. leadership. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. The educational efforts at home. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual.

recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. C. H. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. 4.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. a sound health. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers.” Montaigue writes.4. Regarding the significance of physical education. ment al. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. nor body but the whole man. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. Physical exercises. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. Buck has observed that 232 . Just like Education. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. Rousseau states. game and sports. pleasing manners. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences.” The Secondary Education Commission. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. mo ral.

“Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. endurance. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. resourcefulness and smartness. etc. happiness. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. elegance.4. “If we wish to develop the whole being. initiative. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 233 . flexibility and power. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. efficiency and character.a properly directed physical education should result in health.” 4.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. coordinative abilities. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. strength.” In brief. speed. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. we must exercise the whole human being. Froebel says. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development.

should help in the spiritual development of the student. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. its adherents and its enemies. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. these fundamental things have always been present.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. they may form gangs. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. including all racial groups and historical ages. in greater or lesser degree. Every age has its artists. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. poetry and painting. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. While wars. Tournaments foster this sentiment. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. 234 (i) (ii) . systems of government. plagues and famines.

to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. respect for rules. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. self. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. B. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. to develop tolerance. 3. etc. bravery and interest in games and sports.sacrifice. 235 . List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. obedience.\ to develop perseverance. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two importance of Physical Education.

Keep the field ready for the activities. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Usually parents. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. students. Always keep the whistle ready. Posture screening should be done. Be punctual. 15. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 12. 4.4. Haag. 5. Be self-confident. Be in the uniform. 10. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. is essential. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 4. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential.H. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. . Be sportive. 2. Inform health principles. defects.4.4. 6. 16. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. 11. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 14. and. 236 1. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. 8. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. injuries among pupils should be made. 7. 3. Act as a leader. 13. Be well-prepared. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. and readmission after they have recovered. 9.

fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Moreover. Indigenous games.4. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. chasing.4. less equipment and less expense. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. 1.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8. frolic and jo y. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. Lead up games. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. 2. 4. 4. Such inst incts as imitation. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. the play. 4.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. their development is handicapped. 237 .

Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. hitting.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. wherever the kids assemble. on mountain tops and on river beds. couple tag. the number of players and substitutes. skipping. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. dribbling. Hockey. with implements or without implements. spiking. bowling etc. For each game the rules are many. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally.4. the games can be modified according to convenience. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles.With a very few rules. Ball Badminton. the play equipment. They are played for a shorter duration. on sea-shore. Tennikoit. Throwing. Khokho. Except a few games. Jump the stick clay and so on. on hard courts. muffling. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. They are rules approved by the International Associations. pitching. Basket Ball. Tennis. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging.. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. finding the partner. some of them are played indoors. benefit in playing minor games. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. 4.8. stopping. Dodging. women take part most of the games. under ball pass Relay. Cricket. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Volley Ball. Soft Ball. On lawns. These games require varied skills such as running. While many of them are played in the open playfields. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. Hopping. catching. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. trapping. boosting. The dimension of the posts and nets. heading. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Jumping. driving. Shuttle Badminton. zig zag relay. Kabaddy etc. 238 . snatching the kerchief. over ball pass Relay.

4. festivals connected with religion and public functions. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. An example for indigenous game is 8. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one.8. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial.4. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. 4.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. On occasions like marriage. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . in these games with zeal and enthusiasm.8. these games being popular.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. Games may be classified as 6. While observing the players in action. All the fundamental tactics. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. they are in existence. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out some major games. birth. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. For example. Kho-kho. They have an abundant social value. death. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 7. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. and . These games find their places in the high school activity programmes.

a. Minor and Major 240 . Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. a.4. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose.4. 4. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. d. 4. to develop physical stamina. Posture screening should be done. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. a. 4. 5. 3. 4. 2. to secure physical health b. 3. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. b. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities.4. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. b.4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. aims and objectives and need of physical education. b. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. 2. a. c. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.

C. Mohanty. Kabaddy 7. Volley Ball.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2009). (2005). Tennikoit. Health. Khokho 8. Foot-ball. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Khokho. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Hockey. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. G. J. Soft Ball. (2008).6. Aggarwal. Shuttle Badminton. Physical Education and Sports. Tennis. 241 .4. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. 4. Handbook of Physical Education. Basket Ball. J.K. (2008). Ltd. Cricket. Krishna murthy. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. J. Ball Badminton.

7 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.8 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .11 4.5.5.1 4.5.5.1 Natural Environment 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5.10 4.9 4.5.5.5.5.5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.5.5.5.3 4.5.6 4.2 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.5.4 4.LESSON 4.

list out the types of environment 3. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. economic. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The best place to start such learning is school. 4. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Participation. 6. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. population explosion and resource depletion could be. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. it covers the following elements: 1. Knowledge. Attitude. you will able to: 1. 5.5. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. education about the environment and education through the environment.5. 3. Skills. aesthetic and educational factors. political. social. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. 2. Details are given below: I. 243 . correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Evaluation Ability. 3. Essential knowledge about the Environment.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. Broadly. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological.educat ion for the environment.5. 2. Awareness. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 4. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. 4.

mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. 2. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. D. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C.B. a. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. 244 . • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. F. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. • Biological magnification E. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Oxidants Other pollutants. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle.

Persuasion: i. 2. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. B. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. 4. Birth control through education b. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . 3. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Family planning ii. Abortion iv. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. 2. Sterilisation. Use of medical science i. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Control of population growth a.3. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. The pill ii. The human ecosystem II. Socio-economic measures. c. III. economic. Intrauterine device iii. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses.

246 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. (UNESCO. 3. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Water pollution abatement. e) Recycling. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. Air pollution abatement ii. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. 1983). Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Define Environmental Education.

5. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . way is called environmental or ecological factor. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. A change in one brings about a change in the other. fax agricultural apparatus.5. telex. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. includes the plants. -other.5. These are biotic components. to his needs.5. animals and other organisms (biotic). 4.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 .4.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions.other components of the environment. Biological environment The biological environment. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. They interact with each.5. a.5. He modifies according”. Any constituent or condition of the environment. b. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.

extinction of species. river systems. food chain and food-web. natural way of controlling pests. windmills. air pollutants from industries. use of medicinal plants. need for conservation. solar cookers. population.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. balance of nature. etc. noise control. acid rain. supplying timber for various uses. role of trees in building economy. reasons. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. are the topics which may be taught in History. industrial survey. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. water scarcity. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. noise pollution. preserving the watersheds. excellent recreation sites. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. social studies. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. maintaining the ecological diversity.. explosion deforestation. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. relation between population and pollution. preventing siltation of dams. ozone depletion. greenhouse effect. sources. alternate sources of energy. effects o f CFC. nuclear warfare. sources of pollut ion. t heir role in preventing pollution. industrial pollut io n. importance of nitrogen cycle. etc. biogas plants. ozone layer deplet ion. change in climate may be added. need for bio-diversity. nuclear energy. of civilizations. use of pesticides. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. wars and hazards of war. trees reducing noise pollution. desertification 248 . At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. effects. mineral survey. evolution. History The rise and fall. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . over exploitation of ground water. (ii) Air pollution.

4. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Developing awareness about environmental issues. group discussions and seminars. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 249 . animal and plants. Organising conferences. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 8.5. 10. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. 5. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. 11. aims and scope.may be inc ded in Geography. 9. 2. 4. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. 7. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 3. Peepal and Tulsi. 12. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Providing. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. 14. 6. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 13. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment.

it will cause pollution. especially plastics. Never put any left over chemicals. used oils down the drain. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so.Send their waste oil. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Don’t burn any waste. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. all these can cause serious pollution. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Reuse carrier bags. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. World Environmental falls on 250 . If it is done. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure.

dest roying nat ural habitats. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. concern for others). Social responsibilit y (common good.mat erials. To arrange visits or expeditions. viz. and 251 . minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. diversity and stability. Att itudes of balance towards nature. developing desirable attitudes. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. Concern for species. etc. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. potable water. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. values and habits. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes.). Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. depletion of ozone. Harmony with the nature .4. To arrange for visiting speakers. (cleanliness. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio .5. To provide reference materials for children’s use. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. loss of bio-diversity. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. deforestation.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. orderliness and beauty). The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. To provide materials needed for practical work. rather than conquest and mastery. nuclear wars. Conservation of natural resources. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. etc.. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. The groups may exchange. CFCs.

11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. 252 . 4.5. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. 8. 4. preserving natural cycles.

Knowledge. acid rain. (2007). b. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population.\ 4. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. New Delhi : Authors Press. concern for others). Kuldeep. sources. T. (1997). Environmental Education. New Delhi : Sharma. 5. Modern Problems of Education. a. 6. relat ion between population and pollution. Anmol Publications Pvt. ozone layer deplet ion. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. air pollutants from industries. June 5 7. sources of pollution. (ii) Air pollution. To provide reference materials for children’s use.K. water scarcity. S. Education for values. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. b. over exploitation of ground water.. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Ltd.K. a.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. b. To provide materials needed for practical work. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. a. group discussions and seminars. new problems from science and technology. Environment and Human Rights. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Awareness. importance of nitrogen cycle. Organising conferences. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . 3. S.K. Rapid population growth. 8. Environmental Education.K. a. 4. Social responsibilit y (common good. Ltd. effects. greenhouse effect.5.2. Nanda. population. Publications Pvt. Providing. explosion deforestation. Udaiveer. b. Y. (2007). reasons. (2004).

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. The universe is regarded as a thought process. It is self-realisation. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. inviolable and hence holy life” In short.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. in fact. According to Rusk'. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. should be universal in nature. Spiritual Development. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe.” 5. man is essentially a moral being. enrichment and transmission of culture. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve.1. Therefore. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. Universal Education. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Education according to idealism. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. the emancipation of spirit. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. moral.our life.3. Education must contribute to development of culture. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm.

without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. should be there. It considers teacher as. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. 2.” 5. Learning through lecturing. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. Science. According to Frobel. friend and guide. Learning through questioning.3. Philosophy. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. Learning through discussion. affecting (feeling). while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all.1. For this no particular method has been suggested.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. So health.1. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. The plant can grow. an indispensable necessity. 5. According to idealism. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. An idealist teacher is a philosopher.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Mathematics etc. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. He sets the environment in which education takes place. 5. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. History. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. the school is a garden. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. Learning through imitation. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. For intellectual development. so subjects like Religion. 3. He carries the child from darkness to light. hygiene. So he should embody. 4. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. a spiritual guide for the child. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. However. no doubt. and collation (striving) should find due place.the spiritual qualities of mankind.” He is thus.3. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . Learning through reading. subjects like Languages. Herbert advocated instruction method. So cognition (knowing). Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Ethics.

preservation. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. text books. formal lessons or examinations.perfection and beauty. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. 5. "Education should make 263 • . “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. time tables. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In the words of Ross. 5. 2. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. Ross explains.4. curricula. Perfection of Human Machine.1. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self.

Education also aims at helping the individual t. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Punishment is given by nature in its own way.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. It is based on the psychology of the child. Literature. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Naturalistic curriculum. subjects like history. Zoology. 4. Arithmetic. useful and mature child. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. It stresses basic sciences. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Biology. education should develop the child into Joyous. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. In all. therefore. is based on the nature of the child. rational harmoniously balanced. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. geography should also be included in the curriculum.1. Therefore. “Education finds its purpose.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Botany etc Language.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. • 5. There is no place for religious and moral education. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. 264 . • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality.4. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Education should. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Chemistry.

Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . 5. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. he should be taught by experience alone. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Learning by doing. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. a supplier of materials and opportunities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. Learning through observation.4.5. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. In the . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.4. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . The main aim of Naturalism is & 4.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Learning through experience. the stage. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. 3. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. 2. a provider of an ideal environment. 4.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. It discards all rigid. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Heuristic method. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Rousseau says. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching.1.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.1. Dalton Plan.

Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Agriculture.1. Physical training. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. 5. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Social Science. The individual has not only to adjust himself.absolutism of idealism. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. intellectual. Personal Social Adjustment. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. of human personality is in terms of his physical. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. 5. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience.5. Social Efficiency. social and moral aspects. All Round Development of an Individual. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Continuous Growth. History. Sciences. is true. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. diversified and flexible. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning.5. Vocational and 266 . Subjects.1. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. The aim of educational development. Geography.

5. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Learning by Doing. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life.” 5.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. The subjects. 5. a teacher occupies an important position.1. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. should find proper place. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. a senior partner and a sincere guide.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education.1. He has to be active. He must be trained. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .Technical Education. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.5. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. alert and resourceful.

2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. 3. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. History. It favours child-centered.6.5. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. 2. Study of Subjects like Language. 5. Biology. Crafts. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. 4. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. specific. Art. literary or humanistic education.1.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Astrology. 5. practical.1. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind.6. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. 3. 2. intellectual. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Mathematics.1. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Chemistry. liberal. 4. scientific and psychological education.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Biography Philosophy. The basic tenets of realism are 1. rich and happy. Sex Education. Education is preparation for a complete living. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. 5. Music and Dance. Population Education. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Literature. Psychology.

3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. certainly and clearly.6.1.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.5.1. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. easily and pleasantly.6. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. b. a. 5. Experimentation d. Tours / Excursion e.1. History. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Self Realisation b. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Sciences. Child centered c. Social Science.7 LET US SUM UP We have. naturalism. Education according to pragmatism. c. 6. Learning through reading. d. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. 5. in this lesson.1. Learning through questioning.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. Learning through experience b.1. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. e. Languages. Learning through discussion. Agriculture. Vocational and Technical Education. Physical training. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. 3. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Universal Education 2. 5. & curriculum. Self preservation & Self expression 4. pragmatism and realism. a. Learning through imitation. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Learning through lecturing. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Geography. has no end other than growth. Rousseau 5.5.

Publishing corporation. Anmol Publications Pvt.H. O. Theory and Principles of Education. of Pathak. Foundations of Education. K. P.5. R. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. New Delhi : A. Pahuja. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Ltd. Narang C. New Delhi : Bhatia. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. P. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. L. (2004). (2007).1. (2003).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. 271 .P. (2007).P. N.

1 Aims of Education 5.5.2.4.3.2.2.2 Curriculum 5.5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.3.3.4.4. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.4 Views about teacher 5.2.4 Views about teacher 5.2.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.3.5.2 5.2.2.2.4.2.2.2.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.3 Methods of teaching 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2.3.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.3.1 Aims of Education 5.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.LESSON 5.2 Curriculum 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .2.4.2.1 5.

2. 3. 273 .2.2.2. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.8 5.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. you will able to: 1.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. economic and political reconstruction in our country. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. mind and spirit. 5.2. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.5. an artist.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.2. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. Gandhiji was primarily a social. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. Tagore was a poet. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.2.4 Role of the teacher 5. 2.6 5. content and methods.7 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.2. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. 5. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.

Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. self-restraint and service of humanity. 5.3.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. righteousness. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. 274 .1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. In the words of Gandhiji. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. it is education of life. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. nor the gross animals body. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. through life and for life. It really provides opportunity for character building.2. "I attach more. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. 'Man is neither mere intellect. His scheme of education is life centred. strength of mind. mind and soul of children He further observed. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education.supporting.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage." Dignity of Labour.

Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. Individual and Social Aims. development of the whole all were directed: towards. metal work. gardening. Music. General Sciences. wood work.3. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. Art.2. Mother-tongue. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. "Development of the moral character. According to Gandhi. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Only good individual forms a better society. Drawing and Hindustani.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. leather work have been suggested. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development .Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. 5. the realization of the ultimate reality.Training for Leadership.

men of 276 . The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.3.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Basic education is other wise known as 4. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3.trained. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.2. proficient. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.2. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist.knowledge. 5. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . He has an experimental approach towards life 2. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education.3. That is why. He also advocates freedom for the child. Education must be child centered.

The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.2. He believed in the oneness of humanity.2. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. • Education should involve manual work. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.3.K. 5. He was deadly against untouchability.2.4.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. Gandhi in 1937. he was a true Vedantist 5. • Ideal of citizenship. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” Like all other ideals. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. He was a true patriot. • Cult of non-violence.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.

Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. It should help the learner have good physique. Therefore. Tagore said. It should help. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual.4.2. sentiment. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. "Mankind must realise a unity. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. Botany. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. Religion and Psychology. complete manhood could be attained. Dance. Civics. 279 . deeper in. them solve problems of day to day life. the more dedicated and devoted. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. stronger in power than ever before. could help in forging unity among all. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. he said.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Chemistry. Zoology. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Music. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. International Understanding.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. (vi) Philosophy." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. wider in range. Geography.Language and Literature . Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. That way only. International understanding. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. etc. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination.

In 1921. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.2.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.4.” He further says.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. 5. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. 280 . Only a good learner can be a good teacher. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. 5. Activity Method Heuristic Method. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual." 5. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.2. Tagore rightly says. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.4.4.2.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.

9. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. race. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. 281 . Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11.g. 10. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. It is open to all irrespective of country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

2. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Education for Self-reliance. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. man making. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. work and deeds come out of it. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Freedom. character forming and assimilation of ideas.2. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking.” 5. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . 3. Book learning. Education should make a person self-reliant." He was against the theoretical type of education. Concept of Education. Education for strong Moral Character. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. Purity of thought.5.5. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. According to him.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. 4. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Education for Self-realization. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. 2. He believed in to learning or selflearning.

The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. A physically strong person is the need of the society. Of course.the learners on different students in the discussion.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. engineering and technical subjects. Education for Physical Development. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Every individual should be trained for concentration. The teacher should be the facilitator.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study.2. 5.5. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Philosophy and Theology. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. 5.5. Swami. That will serve the purpose of education fully. Secondly he wanted Science. philosopher and guide to the students He. Discussion Method. 283 . Religion.5. Thirdly he wished that games. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. 6. And above all.2.2. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and .5. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. 5.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.

broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. naturalist. We have seen that Tagore. Their educational ideas. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. 12. of course. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. Gandhiji as a Idealist. 284 . legs. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. and pragmatist . ears and eyes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature.2. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. in this lesson.Substantiate your answer. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. 5. 3. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. Write short notes on Basic education.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1.6 LET US SUM UP We have. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. 5. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. 2.2.

Basic education. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Ideal of citizenship. 9. f. Heuristic Method. 8. 5. Meditation and concentration c. Debate and Discussion Method. 2. wood work. c. 3. Learning by Doing c. Self-Study b. Cult of non-violence. b. Education should involve manual work. 1937 7. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Activity Method d. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. 5. 11. Activity Method b.4. a. a.2. Nai Talim 4. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Self realization. Technique of Correlation 6. a. Discussion Method 285 . d. leather work have been suggested. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. a. e. Explain Vishwabharathi. gardening. metal work. 5. c. Teaching while Walking b. 10.

Pahuja.2. Theory and Principles of Education. (2007). N. (2003). P. B.5.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. J. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K. Publishing Corporation. (2002). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2004). 286 . O. N.P.H. P. Anmol Publications Pvt. Dhiman. on Bhatia. Foundations of Education. L. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A. (2007). K and Narang C. Ltd. New Delhi : Aggarwal. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. C.

3.3. In this lesson. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.10 5.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.9 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .6 5.8 5.7 5.3.3.3.LESSON 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.4 5.3.1 5.3.3.5 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.3.3.2 5.3.11 5.

A. From the latter point of view. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. there is a large number of communities. in fact . In the words of Kerney and Cook.3. While education is learning. Since the demands. the desert area. in Russia or in Japan. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child.. in the U. in the form of new experience. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. new behaviour may be acquired. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. Both the processes are integrated. curriculum. you will be able to: 1. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s .3.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. the plateau area and 288 . maintained or eliminated. state the meaning of curriculum 2. Curriculum is intimately related to education. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. A g o o d curricu lu m.3. curriculum signifies situations for learning. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways.S. is a means to the process. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. the plain area. Then in a big country like India. 5. 5. living in the hilly area.under the direction of the school. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. it is identical wit h socializat ion. In it. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. In the former sense. present behaviour may be modified. While education is a process. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used.

without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. and 289 . It must differ from locality and from society to society. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained.3. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. therefore. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. 5. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. differs from individual to individual. too. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. From a slave-country we became secular. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. Besides craft. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. according to modern trends in the educational process. studying therein. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. democratic and socialistic country.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. customs and needs. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. Again. it is. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. environment. irrespective of their needs and environment.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. the learning capacity of children. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. In fact . However.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . aesthetic and spiritual development. 4. moral.. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. Knowledge Objective. They may be ultimate or proximate. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. etc. specific. which may or may not be attained. etc. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. etc. They are achievable. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. they depend on the political. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. 3. They speak of perfect goals. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. in instructional objectives. 290 . Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education.3.g.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. tangible. e. aims.g.. general or specific. Vocational Efficiency. uninspiring and unscientific. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. remote or immediate. The word “Curere” means 2. Self Realisation. So it is inadequate. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3.. social. 1. e.. Understanding Objective. 5. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation.. 2. emotional. Goals of Primary Education. eg. individual or Social and so on. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. unambiguous and functional. social. of classroom. National Integration. unsatisfactory. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. Application Objective. They are visionary goals e. Goals of Secondary Education. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. They speak of immediate purposes of education. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical.g. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals.

“In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. The interests. Crow and Crow remarks. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. needs. capacities.” 291 . Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. finding them very interesting and captivating.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. Raymont rightly says.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. heavy fire. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. According to Crow and Crow. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. in the class rooms. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. on the playing fields. educationists. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. abilities.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.3. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus.5. but it includes the totality of experiences.

the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. urges. time in a useful manner. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. tendencies. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. mental. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. Due to these variations and differences. They often waste it or rather kill it. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. capacities and abilities. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. moral. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . aptitudes. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.

: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. 3. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. Similarly. organized. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. To ensure success of the process. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. development of professional capability at all levels.curricular. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. 293 . administrative programme need be planned. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. 2. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. phased preparation. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials.

laboratory.3. workshop. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 17.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Run.3. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. a.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . in the class room. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. 10. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. 1937 19. Child Centred Education b. 5. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. 5. library.3. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. 12. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 11. principles of curriculum construction. 18. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. Relation with Life c.

5. New Delhi : Isha Books.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Curriculum and Instruction. New Delhi : Authorspress. Innovations in Education.K. P. D. (2007). (2007).S. S. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. 295 . N. (2001). (2007). Bhalla. S. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited.3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. and Sarita Kumari. Curriculum Development. Lakshmi.

4.4.4.6.6.4.4.1 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.LESSON 5.7.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.8 5.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.9 5.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.7.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.10 5.4.4.4.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4.7.3 5.5 5.4.4 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.2 5.4.4.4.7 Scientific Attitude 5.7.

4. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. know the importance of science education. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. explain the concept of scientific attitude. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. you will be able to: 1.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5. Gradually. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. 5. superstition or emotion.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. 2. in the economic reconstruction of society. We mean curiosity.4. newer and newer industries started growing.4. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. open-mindedness. 297 . They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science.4. honesty. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.during the second half of this century.5. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. 3. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . yet real advancement in this area was achieved . importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. tolerance for the opinions of others.

Central science workshop. 5. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. stipends and appreciations in various ways. After such experience and training. Selection for science education. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Principles are formulated. Promotion of science clubs. 3.So that. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. as well as of the society. 6. 4. Thinking and memory develops.4. 5. 2. seminars and symposiums. 5. Organisation of science fairs.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 5. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 7. Through newspapers. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Devotion towards nature increases. 6. 3. Schemes of teaching science. 4.4. Through examinations. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Love for truth enhances.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. 2. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work.

• • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.4. For laboratory and workshop techniques. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. They ask many questions about the objects they see. should provide opportunities to. therefore. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.needs and conditions. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. After presenting the problem. 5.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. essential that teachers. Training of science teachers. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. 7. Enquiry teaching is. objectivity. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. They experience natural phenomenon.6. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. each child to “enquiry skill building”. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . 5. It is. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Write any two advantages of Science Education. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. sex or religion. They encounter many social events as they grow. In the inquiry approach. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs.

commands or orders. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. . 5. . to ask questions and experience things. Giving less directions. stern pursuit of accurate data. 3. Adopting creative models of teaching. if they like. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook.books. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.4. test. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 300 . Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. 2.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1.Herma Wouk. 5. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Social sciences. Evidence. Appreciating pupils ideas. 6. 4. It requires consistent thinking.4. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe.6. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5.

keen observation. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. To achieve this we should understand what it means. of vast resources running waste. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. therefore should be unbiased and objective.7.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. 5. For instance. The students observation. These include open mindedness.4. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. critical thinking and suspended judgments. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. it must be encouraged. school and society at large. friends. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. and emphasized during the learning process .Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. neighbourhood. (Vaidya 2007). These characteristics of any scientific 301 . In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. practiced. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. to develop among the learners.(Smith 2008).

think and work it”. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. In considering a situation or a problem. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. He is patient and reserved in his judgement.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. rumor. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. The intention to respect another’s point of view. (Das. or superstitions. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. he studies all aspects of it. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. 2007).7. intuition or wishful thinking”. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. 5. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. 302 . they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. understanding and logic.4.

3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. but to begin only after careful planning. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.7.7. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. • 5. 5. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.4. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .4. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.

5. 304 . The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook.4. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. it must be encourages. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

D. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. b. 5.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. (2000). Reflections on Scientific attitude. a. 305 . M.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. Yadav. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. The intention to respect another’s point of view. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. 5. b. 2. 3. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 4. a.B (2008). objectivity. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. (2008). Proper example of the teacher c. a. Rao.4. Planning of activities 5.4. Discuss the importance of science education 14. (2006).5. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. b. Study of superstitions d. 16. Vaidya. Wide reading b. Love for truth enhances.S. N. New Delhi : Anmol Publications.4. Adopting creative models of teaching. a. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. S. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.

2 5. areas of institutional planning.5 5.5.5. actively.7 5. you will be able to: 1.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.5. state the concept.5. objectives and characteristics.5.1 5.9 5.5.5. 5.6 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5.11 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.10 5.4 5.5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 5.LESSON 5.5. 306 .5.8 5.5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions. 2.5.

to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. executive as well as public. and each student are regarded as separate entities. teachers and students is not lost sight of.3. Institution should be regarded as the unit.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. • to involve teachers and school administrators. and every student in the process of educational planning. and. 5. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators.5. 5.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. and supplement planning from above. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. every teacher. State and national levels from below. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. • to make planning development-oriented. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. in the task of educational planning.5. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. each teacher. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. • To make institutional planning more successful. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. every parent. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. which become the bases for further planning at the district.

5. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. Syllabus. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members.curricular Activities. which will be discussed in the general. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. Examinations. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. 5. and Personnel services. Co-curricular activities.5. etc. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. Classwork.• implemented. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. (2) Co. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. it becomes the basis for school inspection. council and. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. approved after making necessary modifications. 308 .

Organisation of cultural and literary activities. etc. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Organising play-for-all programmes. Preparation of instructional material. etc. Improving the internal assessment. Organisation of class-room libraries. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. scientific and historical excursions. hobby-centres. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Equipping of laboratory and library. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings.No. Undertaking remedial instruction services. etc. Improving the subject competence of teachers. etc. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Preparation of models. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Conducting of educational. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Organisation of Students’ Association. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. 3. etc. Fair distribution of syllabi. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Running science clubs. 2. Courts. Organisation of Pupils. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Editing the school magazine. Preparation of audio-visual aids. charts and apparatus. 1.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S.

” The human relationships in. teacher-pupil. pupils. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. teacher-State. teacher-managing body. ii. understanding. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved.5. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. administrator-administrator.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. parents. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. students’ associations.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. pupil310 . teachers. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also.5. teacher-teacher. involving mainly human materials. science teachers’ associations. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. and —pupil-pupil. headmasters associations. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. teacherinspector. co-operation. and solidarity. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. parent-teacher associations. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. administrator-supervisor. administrator-pupil. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. Administrator-State. etc. which are divided as the in.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Good. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. control.State. organisation. to attend. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. etc. pupil-non-official functionaries. pupil-inspector. organisation and management. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. teacher-community leader. To administer means to manage. now-a-days. supervision. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. teacher-parent. administrator. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. pupil-parent. social sciences and other disciplines.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. pupil-community leader. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. According to C. V. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 311 . and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. to accomplish. It is also being modernized to become a technique. supervision and superintendence. It covers personnel and material management." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. to carry out. superintendence.5. and to serve. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions.

Those.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. Rapport between the Management and Employees . 8. Communication .The manager should have leadership traits. 4. who occupy the managerial positions.Of all the approaches.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. Economic Management . This is the latest democratic trend in management. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 2. 9.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. Worker Participation . 10. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. He should be an artist in human relationships. Cost-Benefit Analysis . The relationship should change from master. 11. 6. If the cost benefit ratio is less. 13. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. Better Human Relationships . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. Leadership . 5. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. it is not worth-while. 7.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. 12. Motiviation . without this the efficacy will be handicapped.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. Democratic Management . 3. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.Any good management will always have good public relations. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . Socio-Scientific Approach . Liasion with the Public . low.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. Decision Making .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.Management should be efficient and economical 312 .There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. If it is more.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture.

313 . to improve the quality of education it provides. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and cooperative performance should be ensured. 14. enrichment of curricula.5. 5. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. 5. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. 19.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 18. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. improvement of teaching methods. objective. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work.These two are. Wastage and duplication should be avoided.g. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.too. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning.

APH Publishing Corporation.5. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. a. Fundamental of Educational Management. Singh. Communication 5.K. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. and Personnel services. Tarachand and Prakash. Examinations.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. d. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. b. R. 4. In group and Out group 5. Syllabus.5. a. (1995). a. Educational Administration. 2. S.M. Leadership c. Co-curricular activities. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. b. c. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. e.5. Classwork. Decision Making b. (2001). b. Instruction. 314 . NUEPA. Motiviation d. f. a. H. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2003).

2. Common ailments of Children.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .3 Directive Principles . Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.5 Regional Educational Development in India . UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.2 Nutritional deficiencies.1 School Health Programme. Healthy Food Habit 4.4 India's Secular Policy .Preventive measures.Pre-service and In-services facilities.CORE PAPER . (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. School. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.1 Gurukula system of education. nutritional requirement. women education and teacher education in India.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.1 Inculcation of Socialism.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. 1. population education.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.1 Primary Education : Education for all. 4. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Community and Mass Media 2.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.Religious and Modern Education 1. First Aid. wastage and Stagnation 3.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Examination reforms. Preservation of nutrients. Sex-education 4. Realized the problems of school education.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Communicable diseases . physical education and environmental education 5.Article 45 .I.3 Educational Influences of Home.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. Economic 315 . Balanced diet.teachers should have : 1. social Impact 3. New evaluation procedures. Code of conduct for teachers. Inspection and Supervision 3. higher education. Buddhist and Jain system of education.

Mishra. 5.R. Naturalism and Pragmatism .5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Taneja V. Kalan Paper Packs 10.4.N. Sharma.K. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. and Dash B. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.S. T. (1999) Culture. Delhi : University Publications 2. Ram S.N. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. curriculum and teacher's role 5. 7.K.Aim. Tagore 5. B. Saraswathi T. New Delhi: NCERT 3. (2004) Problems of Education in India. and Human Development. (2005) Foundations of Education.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. and Sharma R. Prof. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. 316 . Ghanta R. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.C.1 Idealism. Mahatma Gandhi.K.4 4. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. and Mohanty R. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Socialization.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. R. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.K. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Hemchand.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Realism. REFERENCE 1. Curriculum and national goals . and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Pandy V.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9.