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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. The need. Lesson 2. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Jainism and their educational implication. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. 9 . Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. In. and Jain system of education. Lesson 4. Lesson 5. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. discusses the regional educational development in India.
1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 18.104.22.168 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.LESSON 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 22.214.171.124.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 126.96.36.199.5 Jain system of education 188.8.131.52 Hunter Commission (1882) 184.108.40.206.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Buddhist system of Education 1.1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 188.8.131.52 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.6 Education during British Era 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.6.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.
both present and future. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. 1.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. describe the Jain system of Education 4.1. Indian in blood and colour.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. in opinion.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. you will be able to: 1.8 1.3. elucidate the education during British Era. Education in India. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. India. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.7 1. That 12 .6. The history of education passed through Buddhist. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 184.108.40.206. “a class of persons. in morals and in the intellect”.1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. but English in taste. has a long past history starting in vedic education.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. 1.6. British system of education presented the modern western model.9 1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. 1.1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. Muslim and British periods.
and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. No State Control on Education. individually. 8. Religious and Spiritual.knowledge was real. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. It was not merely intellectual. however. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. 16. questioning by the pupil. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. 14. 10. Role of Travel in Education. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Education was a private affair of the people. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. 4. It was also moral. 12. Pupils were taught. Education of Moral. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. 11. 13. generally. 9. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. 5. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. and to agriculture and trade. not en masse by the class method. Residential Schools. The immediate aim of education. as it is generally considered to be at present. Method of Instruction. if they thought fit to do so. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Individual Teaching. from eternal to immorality 2. Curriculum. 3. followed by explanation by the teacher. religious and spiritual. Method of Study. High Status of Teachers. Where pupils were many. managed entirely by Brahmans. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Immediate Aim Vocational. to light. Forests as Centres of Education. 13 . 6. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. There was. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. with grants of land or money. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. the monitorial plan was followed. from darkness. Free and Accessible. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Teacher as Parents.
It was freely available to all those who wanted. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. Wide-Spread Education in Women. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. It was suited to the needs of the society. lived a life of celebacy. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony.1. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. They were very cordial and intimate.17. studied Vedas. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. 2. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? .3. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1.
Consequently.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. use of cosmetics. Right activity 5. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’.C. every class in society. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Right speech 4.1. partaking of food at prohibited times. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. 15 . It was denied only to the ill. killing of any living being. Right thought 3. etc. Right memory 8. Right means of livelihood 6. in which. except the Chandals. disease and death of the human beings. Right knowledge 2. use of intoxicating things. Education was imparted through the. 1. Right contemplation 1. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. the student remained in a state of Shramana. he was qualified to become a monk. Right endeavour 7. I take Refuge to Sangh. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. After attaining the age of 20. taking things without being offered. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. I take Refuge to Dharma. dressed himself in yellow clothes. which included abstaining from theft. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. the student had his head shaved of all hair. medium of Pali. 2. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. had the right to receive education. watching dances or listening to music. the handicapped. He was then ordained to obey ten rules.4. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. the most significant of which were the following 1. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. impure conduct. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms.
and. Initially. cottage industries. the science of taming and training animals. magic. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. approach. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. objectives of human life. 4. commerce. military science. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. Later on. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. nature. Whatever its nature and extent. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. meaning. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. changing the goals. It comprehended education in writing. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. the presence of the monks was essential. 7. nothing is of any permanent consequence. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. medicine. etc. After this ritual. etc. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. however. geology. 2. wear three items. 1. women occupied a position inferior to men. 5. Even at this stage.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. On this occasion. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. archery. depth and range. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. it is regarded as true”. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. 3. bodily gestures. 6. aspirations and. education was impart in art. Hence. animal husbandry. control over sensuous activities. Life is in a flux. be considered the aim of education It. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. 8. so long as it successfully does so. agriculture. arithmetic and religious discussion. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. elephant lore.4. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin.. archery. etc. knowledge of reviving the dead. These are called later Buddhist schools. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. has no metaphysical value for life. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine.3. handicrafts. As reality is becoming. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. beg for alms. a change is not only total but also perpetual. of clothes. along with education in script writing. a continuous change creating 16 . therefore. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. eat food thrice a day. assumptions.
Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed.5. its pessimistic outlook on life. 1. i. Its chief feature. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. and to give it a shape that it has today.new and peculiar situations. it is much older than the latter. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. 5. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. In fact. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.1. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. Validity is effective and consequences. however. therefore. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. However. goes to Vardhaman. such as. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. Education must..e.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write Eight fold path .1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. whatever works are true and good. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. Jainism insists 17 . Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism.
As such. 9. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. 2. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. but on both. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. c) Right conduct. 1. restoring the ideal character of the jiva.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 4. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. 2. 18 . and believe in happiness to all. 3. They are: a) Not to injure. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. Development of personality as an individual. d) To lead a celibate life. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. 6. 8. rather than the interpretation of the universe. e) To renounce the world. it has a foot in both the words.1. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith.5. b) Right knowledge. b) Not utter falsehood.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. 7. 5. Hence. more stress on individual aims. and is to be redeemed and liberated. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. 10. 1. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. thought and deed. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. c) Not to steal. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 3.
19 . ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. success and love. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? .5. Belief in transmigration of soul. 8. Hence. education must be action based and ideally oriented. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. and should bring happiness to all. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Teaching must develop these faculties. 4. education should develop sense of discrimination. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. here and now. 3. 3. What are Triratnas ? . 5. 1.5. therefore. that would be socially desirable. Teaching should be social and tolerant. 2. practised and not only aspired for. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1. 2. Jiva is essentially karmic. the precious principles of life that bring happiness.
The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.6. 2.1. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854).4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. 1. 1. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. To set up separate departments of. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. primary 20 . they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. Bombay. science. 1953).3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. However. 1. philosophy and literature of Europe. and not for life.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. North West Province and Punjab. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. 1. with rally and rout. Madras. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods.1. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.6.6.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.6.
To ensure qualitative improvement. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. they named these schools as polytechnic schools.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944.K. 1.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . self-respecting and competent. Later on. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education.6. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). Instead of being a self-sufficient course. In 1882.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. namely. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners.education was neglected. • Secondary education. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools.6. at the primary level. The universities dominated the secondary education. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men.6. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). 1. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. 1. • Universal free primary education. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. At that time M. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. secondary education became a step towards university. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature.
During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. all children are to have a common curriculum. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. After this stage. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12.1. 10. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. The objective of education was to provide 22 .
3. Right means of livelihood. 2. establishment of universities. handicrafts.1. b.education of European literature. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. Right activity. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. followed by explanation by the teacher. 2. The system of education was well-organised. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. arithmetic and religious discussion. 5. questioning by the pupil. geology. Right thought. 4. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. The immediate aim of education. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. a. science and English language. Right knowledge. During the Buddhist period. 6. 1. along with education in script writing. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. the science of taming and training animals. It was suited to the needs of the society.. Right endeavour. Right speech. etc. education was impart in art.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. archery. Right contemplation. 4. 3. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. 23 . Right memory. military science.
Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Ltd. Development of personality as an individual. more stress on individual aims. 9. 10. Y. (2007). Ltd.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Right faith. Right conduct. R. a. J.C. 1937 1. Right knowledge. History of Indian Education System. 24 . b. b. (2009). 11. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. 8.1. Singh. J. Development of Educational System in India. (1984). Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education.K.K. and Nath.7. Y. Hence. Improvement of Literature. (2005). Sargent report 12. a. Sharma. 1882. Aggarwal.C. c.
2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.LESSON 220.127.116.11. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.2.5 1.6 1.4 18.104.22.168 1.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.2.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.3 Kothari Commission 22.214.171.124.2 1.9 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.1 University Education Commission 1.8 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.7 1. The 25 .1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2 Secondary Education Commission 126.96.36.199.2.
The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. National Board of Teacher Education 10. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. explosion of enrolment. There had been vast institutional expansion. standard of teaching. 1. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education.conditions of the teachers. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. expansion of vocational.2.2. medical and legal education.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. curriculum. 1. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. secondary and higher education. 1986 1. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. analyse the progress of education in free India.3. Post-graduate 26 . technical. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. you will be able to: 1. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. girls and women education besides primary. technological engineering. National Council for Women’s Education 5. New Educational Policy. diversification of courses of studies. S. Kothari (1964-66) 8. 2. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. examination system. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. vocational education.
the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.S. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. Problems of access. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. Kothari. 4. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. National System of Education. 3. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education.3. accumulated over the years. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. D. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . Therefore. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. 1966. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. quality. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Education for Equality. Education is the key to our allround development. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. material and spiritual. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency.teaching.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23.3.2. the chairman of University Grants commission. utility and financial outlay. Government of India. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. the New National Policy on Education. 1. Finally.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels.2. 1986. However.2.3. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. research et. in January 1985. A meaningfully Partnership. 1. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. The Essence and Role of Education. quantity. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. 1. A. 2. 1952.
Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage.2. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Thus. 28 . Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. the minorities and the handicapped. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. By working with hands. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. The UNESCO Report.” Thus. the concepts of work experience. attitudes. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. It can train practical aptitudes. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs.
The Education Commission.employment and promote economic independence of the youth.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. As such. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. With adequate planning. if he wishes. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop.” The Mudaliar Commission. it will conduce self. co-ordinations. The Radhakrishnan Commission. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. “The aim of these colleges. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . the Commission. According to. In 1955. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. “It may be described. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. co-operation and implementation of the scheme.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. Besides.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started.
it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. for quality of life in the rural areas. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. The Central Advisory Board of Education. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. Therefore. raising the special facilities. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. In addition. etc. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . the semester and credit system. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages.ot her. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. With a view to relating education to the life. the. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. the rigid streaming of courses. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. admission requirements to vocational courses. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality.. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. Subsequently. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs.
The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. Commerce. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions.2. etc. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. giving importance to productivity in the national development. meaningful. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. aimed at this goal. 31 .and the world of work. preferably spinning and weaving. which offer scientific.. In short. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. The wave of Basic Education. technological courses including Agriculture. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. which swept the country for over two decades. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. According to committee. which are useful to the community. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. felt that education should be centred around a craft. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. who conceived the System of Basic Education. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. The Father of Nation. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. 1. manual work resulting in either goods or services.defined S UP W as “purposive. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. meaningful.
Food 3. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. as far as possible. tools and techniques and 3.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Clothing 5. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Educative and 3. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. 32 . Experimentation with materials. be that the work involved is: 1. locally available materials and tools. Some Hints to Teachers 1. 3. Work practice. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. so that it is educational in essence. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. The teachers should make use of. 4. Community work and social service. Culture and recreation 6. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Productive 2. Shelter 4. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Health and Hygiene 2. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. 2.
5. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. 6.2. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. improve discipline. 1. Education through work The SUPW should. removal of illiteracy. It can become an instrument to build character. as far as possible. Check on educated unemployed 4. Community Service In-1972. etc. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. the local community should be actively associated. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. slum clearance.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. To make education more realistic. inculcate a faith. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. Productive Work 33 . It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Merits of the Programme 1. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages.
should involve itself in the educational effort. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. AICTE was set up in year 4. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . etc. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. traffic control. The community. if not productive.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. helping the adults-in productive work. Define SUPW 34 . skills and better future for the children. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. in turn. offering first aid. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses.
c.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. f. Radhakrishnan 2. 1. 2. e. 6. b. manual work resulting in either goods or services.1. 1. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. d.2. 35 . which are useful to the community. Write short note on SUPW. 3.2. a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. 1955 4. meaningful. 1952 3. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.2. Dr. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India.
A.. Development of Educational System in India.C. Amala. and Rao. Rao. R.K. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. V. Publishing Corporation.P. (2007). Singh. Y. J.H.1. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. 36 . Y.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.K. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt.D. : Sharma. History of Indian Education System. (2005). New Delhi: A. History of Education. B. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.K. P.2. and Nath. (2007).P. History and Problems of Indian Education. Anupama.(2005). (2009).
it came into effect on January 26. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. containing 395 articles.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.8 1. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.1 Significance of DPSP 1.3. 1949. directive principles and duties of citizens.3. assuring its citizens of justice. democratic republic.188.8.131.52.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.1 1.4 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.5 1. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. Besides the English version.9 1.3.6 1.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. 37 . establishing the structure. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. equality. procedures.7 1.3. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. there is an official Hindi translation. 1950.3. for a total of 117. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.3.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.2 1. and liberty.3.3.369 words in the English language version. Being the supreme law of the country.3.
3. in sessions open to public. for 166 days. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. Through them. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution.3. social. The Assembly met. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.3. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. Two days later. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. 2.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 4. 1947. On August 29. legal and environmental. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. 1. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. 1. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. embodied in Part IV of the constitution.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented.3. Dr. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. administrative.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1947. learn the role of central and state government on education. 38 . 1.3. spread over a period of 2 years. economic. describe the important constitutional articles related to education.In the August 14. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. understand our Indian constitution. According to the constitution. with Dr. 1950. After many deliberations and some modifications. political. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. you will be able to: 1. the Drafting Committee was appointed. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved.
No abuse of children. The State shall. Protecting health of the workers. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. sickness and disablement. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Liking wage etc. Equal pay for both sex. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. provide free legal aid. in particular. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. and shall. Article 41. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.government. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Article 40. Article 42. for workers. on the basis of equal opportunity. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. men and women. Protecting children from exploitation. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. That the health and strength of workers. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. Appropriate concentration of wealth. 39 . Minimising inequalities in status. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. Article 43. Equal justice and free legal aid. Article 39A. Organisation of village panchayat. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. make effective provision for securing the right to work.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. and in other cases of undeserved want. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. Condition for dignity of children. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. old age. The State shall endeavour to secure. Right to work.
Article 43A. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. and. Note: Subs. Article 47. in particular. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Article 44. Participation of workers in management of industries. Article 49. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. [declared by or under law made by 40 . Article 48. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. work. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. The State shall endeavour to provide. See also Article 21A). The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Article 45. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. to all workers. (Original Article 45. Article 48A. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. The State shall take steps. industrial or otherwise. agricultural. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. in particular. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. in particular. a living wage. 2002 for “45. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Article 46. by suitable legislation or in any other way. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Uniform civil code for the citizens.
2. Article-21A Right to Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 50. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. Separation of judiciary from executive. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. may be law determine”. 2002. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus.3. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Promotion of international peace and security. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 51. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. 1. as the case may be. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. removal. disposal or export. from spoliation. Article 45 . disfigurement. destruction. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article.Parliament] to be of national importance. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another.
and.” 42 . No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. ii. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. race. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. in particular. if such person is a minor. 5. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. 4. 6. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. from justice and all forms of exploitations. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. and shall protect them. 8. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. language or any of them”. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. 2002. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. caste. iii. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. his guardian has given his consent thereto. 3. 7. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”.
Provision for Education for minorities is given in . Educational Reforms From time to time. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. for its vocabulary. 2. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. and by drawing.3. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. 43 .5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9. the forms. wherever necessary or desirable. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. The central government determines targets and promotes education. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. & 1. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule.
were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. 8. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. 6. 4. So that they may work well. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Merit scholarships in the public schools c.. private agencies etc.3. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. All India Council of Medical Science. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. The following pilot projects. to achieve the desired ends. So as to encourage education on right lines. Local bodies and private enterprise. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Production of suitable for children and adults f. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. 5. By starting these projects. the state governments. 7. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. etc.
Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. 11. 3. etc. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. handicapped. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. 9. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. 1. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. is the state responsibility. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. education for women. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. research. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. 4. reports etc. The 45 . Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. are published by it. books. training and statistics.3. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. 1.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. 12. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. 10.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. 1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. articles in the Directive principles. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Article 46 4. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Article 45 b. Explain Directive principles 2.3.3. 1. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . 46 . 5. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Article 21A c. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Write short notes on a.
(This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. b.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”.5. a. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 4.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Article 45 . The Directive Principles of State Policy. Article 46 5. Article 29 and 30 7. Development of Hindi Language 6. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Clearing House function 9. a. a. Dr. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Article-21A Right to Education. 2002. Ambedkar 2. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 1. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. b. Describe the educational role of State Government. may be law determine”. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 2002.3. 47 . 3.
N. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. L. Dash. 48 . (2008). K and Narang C. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Bhatia. B. (2004).3. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Education in Emerging Indian Society. K.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta.1. (2009). (2007). S. Ghosh. S. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in Emerging Indian Society.
9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4. Christianity.4.4. Jainism.4.4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4 Moral education 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4.7 1.4.4. Students should be 49 .4.3 Precautions while introducing 18.104.22.168 1.6 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.2 1. Buddhism etc.1 Why Moral Education 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India. Islam. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.4.4. religious education should be broad based.4.8 1.
India' can produce men of character. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. integrity.. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. 1. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. duty-consciousness.” Education broadens human outlook. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. According to E. state meaning and need for moral education 1. beauty and goodness so that 50 . Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. you will be able to: 1.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. religious education and the concept of secularism.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.and dedication.4. As result of which. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. know the position of religious education in our country 3. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. "In A multireligious society like ours.4. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. In the complicated and complex society of today. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline.D. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Thus. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher.
” From the above. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. Children attend these organizations. No religious tax can be imposed on them. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. castes and creeds. In short. Thus. if not regularly. As a matter of fact. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. Viewing the defects of religious education.3.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. at least occasionally. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. According to Article 19. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose.4. 1. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. Hence. According to Article 22. realizes God in himself.3. it is clear that the State has no religion. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. 1947 we achieved our freedom. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. all citizens are free to follow any creed. They thought that any kind of narrow. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. religion and democracy are same. 1.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately.4. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. through religious practices and 51 . As our country is a country of diverse religions. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. rancour.
temperament etc. which can mould. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. when he becomes an adult.. As a result of which. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. He also learns about social. intellectual and physical faculties of children. Good education. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. moral and spiritual values. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. It helps to modify habits attitudes. one fully developed. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. aggressive. If unreleased.teachings. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). and other impulses are often denied direct expression. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. which help him for the development of his character. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. what is done and what is not done etc. for the development of the individual and the society. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. It is religious education. and what is evil. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society.
Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. 1. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly.4. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4.3. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. towards the society. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. which is the basic need of a democratic life. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. If we open the pages of history. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Therefore. 53 . To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. This should not be allowed to happen. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. 2. 3. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided.
fellow-feeling. examples of patriotism. Write Article 22 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. churches and mosques 7. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. stories of moral greatness.4. For this. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Gurudwara as. 9. therefore. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Life histories of great persons of the world. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Since all religions have virtues. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 10. 11. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5.
7.4. Aparigarha (Non. 4. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Cultivation of emotions. Service to others.acquisitiveness). Self sacrifice. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Without moral values. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Moral education. Fearlessness. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 5. is that which develops moral values. the methods of teaching. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Swadeshi (Patriotism). The content of the curriculum. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. 2. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Purity.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Patriotism. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. 1. therefore. 6. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 5.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Asvada (Control of palate). 55 .4. Non-injury. 1. students. let men see well of one another. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Satyam (truth). 7.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. in the home. “Let all be happy and free from disease. 8. 8. 2. 6. They will play their role effectively. Ahimsa (Non-violence). 4. 3. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. 3.
Secondary Stage 1. Unity of mankind. 3. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. religions may be included in the syllabus. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Good manners. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Asatyam (Non-thieving). Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Efficiency. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. 4. In the school programme. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. 1. Discipline. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Simple texts and stories concerning different. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. 10. National unity and Spiritual values. 11.9. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. 3. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Good temper. Sharivashram (Physical work). 56 .4.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Integrity. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. minutes in the morning for group singing. 2. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. loyalty and self-sacrifice. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. discipline.
A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. 2. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. 57 . 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 4. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. patriotism and self-discipline. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. love of humanity. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. should form a normal part of school programme. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . University Stage 1. In other words.4. 5. In this connection. Silent meditation should be encouraged.
the. 1.4. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. 2. b.4. 1959 5. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. The School Assembly should be held for a few.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 1. Training of Character 3. 4. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. In short. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. b. For this.4. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. 2.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. a. a. Discuss the aims of Religious education. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education.1. Sri Prakasa 6 . minutes in the morning for group singing. a. 58 . saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.
C. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2003). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. K and Narang C. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.H. K. P. B.P. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Pahuja.H. Publishing Corporation. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2004). New Delhi : Siddiqui. (2008). J. Bhatia. (2007). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. 59 . N. Theory and Principles of Education. (2008).1. Ltd.4. L.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi: A. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Dash. M.
5.5.12 1.2 1.4 1. 60 .5.e.22.214.171.124.10 1.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.9 126.96.36.199 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.3 1.5.11 1. disparities between provinces/States..1 1.6 1.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5. Although.5.7 1.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. i. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.8 1.
waters. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. Accordingly. you will be able to: 1. 6. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. energy. 1. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.5. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.5. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. for example. This leads to separatist movements. etc. 1. they take appropriate measures. 4. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. 2. 7. They therefore. work hard towards this end.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1.5. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. understand the regional educational development in India 3.1. know the education suited to different environments. 3. 1. 61 .5. roads.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 8. 5.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.
4.5. • Separate States (of course viable States). and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only .Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. Tight security arrangements should be made. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. some average. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. Secularism. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. and. 2. while others remained educationally backward. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. on the basis of regional development may be formed. 62 . Therefore. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. some States became educationally far advanced.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. 3.
the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. remained under developed. Tezpur. Jammu and Kashmir. etc. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. 63 . and provision of informal education to enable those. Even in each State. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. NERIST. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. the Union Government. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. scholarships. books.. Regional Centres of IGNOU.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.392.480.5. Mizoram. Silchar. library buildings. Central Universities of Assam. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. since its inception in 1998-99.g.84 crore was released in 2005-06. 1. Nagaland and NEHU. Itanagar. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. approved proposals worth Rs. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments.14. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. After the attainment of independence. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. while some States like Bihar.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. Rs. Funds amounting to Rs. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. In the Central sector. Out of this. the State Governments. However. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. academic buildings. Guwahati. etc.After the Planning Process has originated. NIT. These projects are in various stages of implementation. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development.
57 crore and Rs. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. During 2003-04.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. Moreover. too. Out of this an amount of Rs. A provision of Rs. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.5.187. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.05 crore and Rs.261. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.501.40.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. Tezpur University. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).500. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Government expenditure on education.8 per cent in 05). Source: National Portal Content Management Team. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. 64 . it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.
Tamil Nadu. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. To add to the woes. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. Moreover. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. pharma. for which 16 sites. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Andhra Pradesh. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). Kerala and Gujarat. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. Medical education. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. 1. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. The Chandigarh Administration. too. English. telecom. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. notes the study. engineering and R&D. Listing the positives. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. too. health services and welfare of the citizen population. too. Karnataka. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. for instance. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states.5. Karnataka. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region.
which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. The living conditions. Then education become realistic and idealistic. and so on. Of course. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. life-oriented and environment slanted. the vocations. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. while the former does not. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. The working hours of educational institutions. Hence it is called as need-based. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. 66 . For a learner living in a rural area. the curricular subjects. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. the teaching methods. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs.year. the interests. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. the working days: an academic . etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. even actually looking at the watch. the socio-physical conditions. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. when he will not be sure of time. the needs. which a non-tribal person cannot do. in which the learners live. In the same manner. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. taking the average in the middle.
12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. 2. to suit education to different environments? 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.5. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 67 . 1.
13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. remained undeveloped 3. (2001).N. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. S. Educational Development in India.5. A. Dubey. some States have become more developed than others b. R. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.K. Education in Developmental Arena. during the British rule. (2008). Education Scenario in India. S. C. and Nair. 60% 1. (2002).H. a. some of areas which were under the native rulers.2. Giridhar. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. (2001).G. 68 . New Delhi: Authors press. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. Salim.
UNIT – II 69 .
Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. National Integration. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. school community and mass media. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. community development. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. 71 . semi literate and illiterates. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university.
1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.188.8.131.52.1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.3 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.5.8 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1.1.4 184.108.40.206.2 2.1.6 Education for Secularism 2.9 2.7 2.1.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.1 2.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 220.127.116.11 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.LESSON 2.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.
socialism and secularism 2.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. In the matter of admitting students in schools.1. socialistic and secular state. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. you will be able to: 1. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. colour or wealth. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission.1. 73 . 2. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. Democracy thus means power of the people. 2. This is the political aspect of democracy. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. 3) Provision of Manual Work.2.1. understand the concept of democracy. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. Abraham Lincoln.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. The students may be associated with the management of the school. creed.1. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. for the people by the people”.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. there should be made no distinction of caste. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. socialism and secularism 2. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.
‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. declamation contest etc.. There are different brands of socialism. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. Democracy means 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. may be planned. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. 74 . Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression.1. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. 11) Student Parliament. 12) Visits to Legislatures. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. it soon spread all over the world. debates. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work.
7) Special facilities for girls. the prince and the peasant. oppression and disparity.5. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 75 .Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. none high”. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society.5. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 2. free from exploitation. the wealthy and the poor. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 2. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. Under it.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. service and cooperation.1. but on the path of non-violence.1. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. stationary and uniforms to the needy students.
According to Holydake. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. "which seeks the development of physical. 2. “India is a secular-country. secularism is being propagated. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Everyone says. 5. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.” In every political and educational corner. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. 11) State schools. 76 . The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Write any two main features of socialism. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students.1. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders.
the belief that the state morals. In this type of prevailing situations. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. 5) It implies tolerance. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. 2. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. 77 . 9) It stress free inquiry. There is need of making the people open minded.1. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values.1. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights.opposed to religious education. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. should be independent of religion.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. liberty. 3) It permits freedom of worship. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. people have narrow mindedness. education etc. During the recent past. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. fraternity. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. A large number of people is uneducated.6. people started believing in regionalism. Moral values have to be imbibed. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. 8) It believes in co-existence.6.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. Equality. That is why. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. “Webster further says. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity.
Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. The very sight of the building. tours and trips may be organized. There should be some internal checking of the material being. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers.1. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. In the celebration of each such function. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. education. Patiala. While doing so. In the hands of such teachers. 1) Moral Education. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based.6. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. students belonging to different religions should be associated. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. No doubt. Religious Education. The students may be taken to different centers of religions.presented by the students in the gathering. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. 2. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. that the central string of all religions is one. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape.
Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The word “Seculum” means 7.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. Define Secularism 9. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. The term secularism was first used by 8.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. No doubt. 2. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.
8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. there should be made no distinction of caste. Abraham Lincoln. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. 5. d. In the matter of admitting students in schools. b. 6. Tuition free education b. creed. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 3. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. b. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Equal Opportunities for Admission. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. colour or wealth. 5.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 4. 3.1. Since socialism stands for equality. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. a. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. Provision of Manual Work. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. for the people and the people”. 2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Power of the people 2. Socialism aims at equality. Socialism aims at social justice. a. Respect of Individual Personality. This present age 7. a. George Jacob Holydake 80 .1. 4. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. c.
a. education etc. 10. N. New Delhi : Pahuja. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. It permits freedom of religion. (2007). Dash. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.C.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. the belief that the state morals. B. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. b. a. It treats all religions on an equal footing. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions.8.1. Ltd. L. J. N. (2008). Ltd. P. Bhatia. Anmol Publications Pvt. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. (2003). b. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. (2005). Mohanty.” 9. (2004). should be independent of religion. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K and Narang C. 81 . K. Theory and Principles of Education.
18.104.22.168 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.4 22.214.171.124.6.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .9 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2.8 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2.2.3 2.LESSON 2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2.1 2.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2.2 126.96.36.199 2.2.7 2.
application.2. It involves physical. who are placed in his custody.generation to another. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. as workers. 2. 3. moral. 2. A teacher is first and foremost. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. social. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. development.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. skills.an instructor of school children. a r e 1. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. and 4. social and moral aspects. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. 2. mental. 83 . They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. as learners. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. you will be able to: 1. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. aims and objectives of the school. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. as it is t he aim o f modern education.2. The developmental roles of children. emotional. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. as citizens. therefore. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. as persons. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. understandings.
Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. The students live. mental. 2.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. socially.All education should lead to better behavioural development. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. social and emotional health. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. culturally confident. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. member of his community at the outset. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. physically fit for socially efficient. emotionally. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. morally. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. morally.2. intellectually. 2. experiences and acceptance. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. motivated. mentally. He has to look after their physical. a part of their day in 84 . The following are some of such roles described in brief. and aesthetically to become. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. He is to become an active member. inquisitive. 1. Teacher as a Citizen Next. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. 3. economically effective.
creeds. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2. photographic clubs. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs.the school being under the custody of teachers. 4. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. India is a land of many castes. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. fine art associations. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward.2. It 85 . and most of hours. They will be spending with their parents. Unless. faiths.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. solve them. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. science club. List out the role of teachers towards community development . helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. activities of the society into which he is born. Dr. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. languages and religions. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties.
At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961.2. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. the citizens of the Republic of India. social studies. and make into one strong national unit. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis.” Regarding the role of education. should be emphasised.5. national anthem and other national songs.is. with straight backs and look up at the skies. narrow-minded provincial.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one.” 2. Sampurnanand remarked. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. stand up straight. a. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. folklore and teaching of social studies. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. ‘We should not become parochial. this integration of the Indian people. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. poems. Nehruji has explained this as. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. the study of language and literature. Let us. therefore. Radhakrishnan. The only process is the process of education. b. It should broaden the outlook. 1. At the primary stage the importance of stories. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. c.
Student Camps. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. 8. debates. ACC. symposia. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. 4. Taking Pledge. Co-Curricular Activities. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Reverence of National Flag. 87 . The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. tours. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen.different social sciences. and picnics. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. 5. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. languages and literature. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Scouts and Guides. National Days—January 26. sports. 2. 10. 6. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. 7. dramatics and youth festivals. Singing of National Anthem. educational excursions. Celebrations of National Days. 9. t he st udent s and t he community. 3. Textbooks. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. Uniform for School Children. militar y training like the NCC.
2.5. region or religion. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. language. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. 15. 16. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. 12. Educational and Travel Documentaries. 88 . flora and fauna. 14. ways of thinking and doing things. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. Admissions to schools. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. Admissions. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. 13. colour.11. Students Exchange and Tours. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. iv. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. Open-Air Dramas.2. ii. v. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. School Projects. iii. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Recognition of Institutions. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students.
Students should be involved in organising various school programmes.2. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Define National Integration 3. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. viii.vi. cultures and races on equal bases. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. irrespective of national boundaries. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. ix. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. 2. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Community dinners. camps. vii. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. Strong has observed. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it.6. 3.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. (c) fairly tales. patriotism is not enough. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.” 2. 4. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. C. that war. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. Organising of debates and. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. if it happens.. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. the international level. 2.F. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.6.2. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen.friendships between children of different countries. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. This. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. therefore. Therefore. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. Teachers 90 . and the healthy development. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. Radhakrishnan states. Dr.2. In a very real sense. (b) stories of children of other lands. 6. often in connection with anniversaries. of his body and mind. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”.e. 2. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. 5.as important as that of a national citizenship.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . a German.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. an Englishman. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Indian and American. They should not be propagandists. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Impartial in their Treatment. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Russian. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race.
Devaluation of Values .For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. there is wide spread frustration among all people. the education function can be carried. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. 5. majority of people are. 3. Defects of the educational System .come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. understand and indiscipline: 1. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom.2. Chronic Poverty . It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. 2. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. which results in agitation and aggression language. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. If this is done. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . Wide Spread Frustration .Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . and help the students to over . out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. 4. leading to. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.Another major.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. As the school is but a miniature society. It does not prepare students for life.2.
He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding.2. sympathy and good will among the nations. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. 3.democratic nature. 4. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. love.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. community development. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students.2. 93 . 2. 2. 2. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. co-operation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. fellow feeling. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 188.8.131.52 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 184.108.40.206 Functions and role of schools in the society 220.127.116.11 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 18.104.22.168 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 22.214.171.124 Radio as an agency of education 126.96.36.199 Television as an agency of education 188.8.131.52 Press as a medium of education 184.108.40.206 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
220.127.116.11 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 18.104.22.168 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
22.214.171.124 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
126.96.36.199 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. are increasingly used in education. During the course of time. He taught his students orally. “All the citizens of the community. Museums. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. 2. Crow and Crow write. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. led to the printing of books.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. To make them achieve their aim. Moreover. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children.V. art galleries. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. books. Now internet is being used. Hence. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. In fact. the invention of the printing press. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. Then came newspapers. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. periodicals. Define community. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 .3. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Emphasising this thing.
6. “Listening participation” in current history. It enlightens public opinion. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. the teacher still occupies. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. rather than on picture. Various talks. Students listen various talks. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force.G. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. In collaboration with the experts. It stimulates curiosity and interests. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. politics.3. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. for the teacher through school broadcasts. 2.telecast. Effective means of presenting music. Thus. Reynolds. 101 . languages. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. current affairs and other areas. 2. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. music. Many gaps are to be filled up by them.classroom teachers. art. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. In the emphasis is on sound. social studies. A lot of work by way of pre. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. dram appreciation. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. Important happening inventions. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Thus. the place of importance. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. It is also an important source of entertainment.
Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. School concerts. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. 3. at drawing room. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. mathematics. Making learning an open system. 5. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. Before presenting the programme. At present. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. speech. at recreational centers. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. at any place. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. development of lessons. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. travel talks. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. plays. style.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Team-teaching demonstrations. informal and non-formal education. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. projects or creative activities. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. audibility and presentability. 102 . Participation of local teachers and pupils. 4. at play. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. fol classical music.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 188.8.131.52 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
184.108.40.206 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 220.127.116.11 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
4.4.2 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124.4.3.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.4.1 2.4.8 126.96.36.199.3.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 188.8.131.52.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4 Limitations of formal education 184.108.40.206 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.5 220.127.116.11 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.LESSON 2.6 2.4 Non formal educational system 2.4.
9. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. 4. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.4. open university. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. 8. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. In ancient time in India. the mass media et. it was mostly. To realize this objective of education. 2.4. Education associated with a degree or certificate.3. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. you will be able to: 1. Education organised by some agency. 4. the temple.4. the community. 3. open school. starting and ending at -a particular age. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 2. 7. 2. the learner are acquainted. the family.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. say the Government or the private enterprise. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 2. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. 3. 110 . 6. compare formal and non formal system of education. Education..2. 5. the most important agency of formal education. 2. his mental alertness. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. School is. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. imparted at the residence of the teacher.
diplomas. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. 2. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Through early formal education. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Concepts of proportion.3. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six.a secondary education. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Higher Education: Higher education.3. or post secondary education.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. In general. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing .2. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality.4. such as a high school or secondary school. or academic degrees. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. also called tertiary.4. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Some education systems have separate middle schools. the elements of language are first learned. depending on the jurisdiction. structured education. capacity. as well as vocational education and training. third stage.
The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. late beginners etc. children with disabilities.4. and remote dwellers. 4. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.3.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. 3.4.which will help for nation's development. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. 2. is an important agency of formal education. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. What are levels of formal educational system? . Agencies can be classified as 2. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
systematic. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. It unlocks the doors of development plans. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. Thus.. etc. Non-formal education includes adult education. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. planned. to help themselves. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. until 1970 it had not been defined. adding up to a true learning society. Open university.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. However. Adiseshiah. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. it is a more effective tool for rural development. It is much more responsive to needs and change. It is functional. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. systematic. i. it has its own valid claim to reality. curriculum. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. place of instruction.e. According to Malcolm A. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. adults as well as children. admissions.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. open learning.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. “Non-formal education should 113 . staffed. financially supported life formal education. one could say that non-formal education is an active.formal education. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. Therefore. It is deliberate. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. continuing education and on the job oriented education.learning client take some learning objectives. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school.
• • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. the Ideas of citizenship. socialism. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. Lawrence. 114 . To develop in the student.e. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. Flexibility in various aspects of education.4. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. admissions. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. 6.4. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.renewal. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. 2. 7. 3. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. Preparation for future needs.4.S.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Part-time education. To help industrial workers to better their skills. i. curriculum. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth.4. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. evaluation etc. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.learning pattern.S. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. age. 5.” 2. exploring. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Covering life span of an individual. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. Process of sharing. international understanding. co-curricular activities. It should lay emphasis on the self.” According to H. place of education. 2. modes of teaching.be marketable and vocationalised.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. 4. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. self. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. national integration.
3. 2. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 4.4. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 6. working adults. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 9. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. school dropouts. 8.4. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. in villages and those who live in towns. To offer Secondary. • 2. 2. 10. 5.4. Eradication of adult literacy. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. Meeting the omissions of formal education. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. Technical.4. 3. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. 7. publication and information dissemination. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 115 . Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. Senior Secondary. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. 4. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. Universalisation of primary education. 5.
To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii.4. if organised in isolation. others are formal and informal. public libraries. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. training centres in factories. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. To increase knowledge and 2. To make if. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. factory. 4. farm. self-employment iii. centres of correspondence education. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. Radio and television.4. Again. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . Non-formal education is one of the modes of education.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1.4. 3. All-round development i. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. effective in modern societal context. library. To better qualifications. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. Institutions for formal education. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies.. open space. etc. Therefore. etc. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.full time to learners – can be home. 2.2. 2. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute.
Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give examples of non formal education? . Define non formal education. Lecturing T. 6. Correspondence lesson. Face Contact programmes.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. radio. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. institution. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. 7. 117 . Teaching to face teaching. List out any two aims of non formal education. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Written tests. .V. .
The school. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. systematic. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 3. 2. School 3. Pre-school level. 4.” 6.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Primary level. Higher Secondary level and University level. a.4. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 4. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Secondary level. Formal and Non Formal 2. the college and the university come under this category. 5. 7. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Open School. Open learning and Correspondence Courses.4. 2. b. adults as well as children. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution.4. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. a. b. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. 118 .2.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Open University.
Gupta. Ltd.C. J. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Bhatia. Pahuja. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. L. Modern Trends in Indian Education.2. (2007). K and Narang C. Ltd. (2008). (2005). B. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. K. (2004).4. (2008). S. J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : 119 . Dash. Mohanty. (2003). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. P. N. N. Education in Emerging India. Theory and Principles of Education.
2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.5 2.4 Open University 2.4.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5.3 Objectives of Open University 2.7 2.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 18.104.22.168.5.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 22.214.171.124 Continuing education for literate adults 126.96.36.199 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 188.8.131.52 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.2 2.4.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .4 Need for Open University 2.5.1 2.LESSON 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.3.6 2.5.
2. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. It is a continuous process. industries.5. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. characteristics of open university 4.5. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. Any person. 2. farmers. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. give the meaning. labourers and half educated individuals.5. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. know the need and objectives of open university. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. Thus.2. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 .5. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. understand the meaning of continuing education 2.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. It is a lifelong process. This knowledge may be in political field. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. 2.3. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. you will be able to: 1. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. economic field or such other fields. continuing education is a boon. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. However. For them. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. Under these circumstances.
1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. deteriorating to his character and personality. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education.literate person. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Throughout the country. Block Development Officers. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society.5.3. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. After the achievement of independence. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. 2. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. On the other hand. Persons engaged in health services. cultured and progressive. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Radio. T.directly related to his job. On the other hand. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Radio and T. Cinema. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. are also contributing their might for the purpose. For them too continuing education is essential. Doctors. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. if he gets opportunity to develop them. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner.V. Thus. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge.V.
This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. 7.. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (8) psychology of adults. Inspite of the great efforts. we have not been able to achieve our targets.5. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (1) ancient history. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (10) first aid. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1.3. 2. (6) folk stories.3. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (14) information about bringing up young children. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. habits of people of other lands.V. 2. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. 6. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. 5. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. These books are not very useful. 4. (2) basic religious matters. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. 123 . and Radio.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (4) the fundamentals of economics. Of course. (17) modern international and national events. (16) liking. 3. especially women.5. (7) folk songs. (13) psychology of child behaviour. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. 2. (15) music. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy.
5.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . What is the objectives of NLM? 3. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . of educational opportunities.4. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. lack of time etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. attendance restrict ion.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns.5. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. NLM was launched in the year 2. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. 2.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. e. 2. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. No one is too old or too late to learn. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. but 125 . Education is not a once for-all process.4. c. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. IGNOU was established in the year 6. 4. d. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. its education is not class room based but home based.unobserved. and in teaching. the higher the degree of openness. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which was the first open university in India? . The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. 5. b. it makes use of educational techno logy. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. 3. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. 2. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements.
126 . T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n.5. 2. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. or who realised too late that they need it. Mo re o ver. 2. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. 4. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. 3. 3. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. 4. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 2. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. 6. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n .5. it a ims at wider and hig her. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced.4. supplementing the existing provision. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 5. who were deprived of t he same earlier. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1.4. cho ice o f co ur ses. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment.who did not get it. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. 2.
Self instructional materials. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. a state or nation. Therefore.4. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . 6. 8. In the present day world.5.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Every day. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. 4.2. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. 8.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. 2. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. 2. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. a society. Correspondence tuition. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Laboratory works. 3. school drop outs. Tutor Comments. semi – literates. List out any four methods of Open University? . The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. 7. 127 . Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. 5. you have learnt the concept.
5. d. 7. a. its education is not class room based but home based. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. unskilled workers and other professionals. agricultural and industrial workers. a. P r int med ia b. b. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 2. 6. b. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 1985. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 4. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. Television Lessons. 9. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. 2. 1988. 7. Broad casting lectures c. cho ic e o f co u r ses. 128 . Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 8. aspirants for continuing education. youth. 8. (1) ancient history.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification.ambitious learners. 3. need and characteristics of Open University. (2) basic religious matters. a.5. which may include house wives. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. Explain the objectives.
Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. K and Narang C. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.5.2. Reddy.. R. 129 . New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. S. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Udaiveer. Modern Problems of Education. K. (2001). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.K.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2004).S. (2004). (2007). L.
UNIT – III 131 .
and teacher education. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Training teachers for all levels of education. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. wastage and stagnation.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. its causes and remedial measures. examination. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. All which is the need of the hour. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. the education of women. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. 133 . In Lesson 2. Examination reform. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. which may claim the attention of those concerned.
6 18.104.22.168 New initiatives. 135 .1.3.7 3.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.LESSON 3.1.5 3.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 22.214.171.124 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 126.96.36.199 Introduction Objectives Education for all 188.8.131.52. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.8 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1 EFA – For whom? 3.1.4 3.2 3.2 EFA – How? 3.3.
3. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL).2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). Eradication of Illiteracy. may be political.1.3. directed that. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. you will be able to: 1. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. Therefore. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. therefore. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. understands the country. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. “The State shall 136 . (EOI) 2. education received added importance and significance. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. Continuing Education (CE) 1. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. economic or cultural.1. social. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. On the other hand. 2.
This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . Therefore. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Even then we have not yet achieved the target.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. Continuing Education (CE). for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. 137 . The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. Due to the adoption of democratic system. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. the national Government under. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society.endeavour to provide. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. After the attainment of independence. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. 3. It enables the parents to send their children to School. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. Three Stages for Universalization. Universalization of Retention. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Universalization of Enrolment. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. rights and responsibilities.
1990. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. present and future. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools.1. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. Therefore. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. educational enterprise.3. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. 1995 (for upper primary stage). all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. Write Article 45. then to 1976. later to 1988. It is safe to assure.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. 138 . We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. UNESCO Bulletin states. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. This target had to be revised to 1970.
Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. 8. etc. the art of preparing fruit-juice. slum areas. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Jams and Jellies. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. problem of literacy. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. creed. 6. their social economic status and occupations. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Early childhood education should be streamlined. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). rural areas. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. their enrolment and retention. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. sex. 3. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education.3. Apart from primary education. Emphasis must be given on health education. By undertaking survey. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. NAEP. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. 139 . were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. 11. 10. Education of Girls. nutrition education and sports and games.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. and Women’s education programme should be improved. adolescent and adult. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. 3. 9. FELF. 12. Education of the Impaired. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Disabled. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). 5. The Social Education.1.
According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Wastage and Stagnation. 3. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.3 NEW INITIATIVES.1. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Expand MLL and SSA .3. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 .3.e. 4. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.
Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. Social Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. it is considered as wastage.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Familial Factors . Personal Factors .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. School Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .first stage of education.
Enumerate the causes of Wastage. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. . Define Wastage. 142 . Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . 7.
The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. relating to home. Personal Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. Societal Factors .1.3. school or society.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. rural or urban 3. They are described hereunder :1. Family Factors . in his home.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. School Factors .The following factors. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.
discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . 144 . etc. mid-day meals. Define Stagnation? 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. uniforms. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. stationary.
Universalization of Enrolment c. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. improvement of curriculum. a.3. Universalization of Retention 2. a.. directed that. Hartog Committee. b. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. 3.” 3. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. 4. Universalization of Provision b. 2. Minimum Levels of Learning b. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 3. therefore. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. a.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community.1. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.1.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. “The State shall endeavour to provide. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. 3.1. 6. 145 . Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. 4.
Crescent Publishing Corporation. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. introduce graded curriculum.7. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. improve examination system. 9. a. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations.K. Familial Factors c. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Social Factors 8. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. b.N. Sharma. School Factors d.1. (2007).K.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Problems of Elementary Education. Personal Factor b. 3. T. Hemchand. S. New Delhi: 146 . a. S. (2008).
4 The problem of reform of Examination 184.108.40.206.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.5.5 New evaluation procedures 3.3.1 3.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.4 Question banks 3.3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 220.127.116.11.2.1 Problems of examination 18.104.22.168.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 22.214.171.124.2.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.5.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2.7 Let us sum up 147 .7 Open book examination 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2.LESSON 126.96.36.199 Advantages of Co-education 188.8.131.52 Grade System 184.108.40.206.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 220.127.116.11.
4. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.2. Besides.2. 3. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.2.2.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . you will be able to: 1.3. 3.9 3.2. 3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. suggest the new evaluation procedures. 3. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.8 3. but on the other. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3.2.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.
The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. waiting rooms for girl students. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. which the educational authorities have to face. If the students are in sufficient number. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education.2. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. hostel facilities. The following steps should be taken up. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. etc.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.. etc. roadside Romeoism.3. 3. etc. schools for them wherever necessary. 149 . thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. They develop secondary sex characteristics.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. They may cause problems relating to discipline. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage.
Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. appointment of paper-setters.4. teachers. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. public interested in education. public administrators and statesmen. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. 3.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Instruction. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. the examination system has an important role to play. conduct of internal examinations. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents.2. It is considered as a major sub-system.2. assessment and Finance. 150 .
3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. establishing reliability. scrutinizers. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. etc. training of examiners. tabulators.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. 3. etc. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. announcement of results. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. etc.2. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. examiners.4.printing and distribution of question papers. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. invigilators. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. etc. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. etc. validity and practicability. values. introducing objective-based testing. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters.
not meant to be assessed in the examinations.. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education.4. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. takes the place of comprehensive learning. Subjects. stereotyped questions. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. do not appeal to the students and parents.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. it s a common experience that subjectivity. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. 3) With respect to method of teaching. may also discredit them. 152 . as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Rote memorisation. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. which they are expected to study.. 7) In connection with the question papers. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. Vagaries in making. 2) From the angle of content of education.2. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public.. 3. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. halo-effect. lack of objectivity etc. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation.
re-numbering of answer scripts. List any two merits of examination. Spot valuation.a part of internal assessment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. etc. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers.develop true love for education. Question Books may be developed in all schools. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. . Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. may be introduced. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 153 . 4. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. revaluation. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students.
3. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. skills are given importance. In this system.2.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. he is given extra credit points. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. Every paper is treated equal. In actual practice.5. The new scheme of assessment.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success.2. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. Their interests. The students can take any course offered in any department. When a person chooses to work extra.5. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. 3.2. It is complicated. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. attitudes. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.
Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. While designing syllabus. This system reduces comparison of marks. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. Groupism is encouraged. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. These weightages are called credits. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. In the new system. 3. only the total credits to be earned is specified. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. An example is a seminar. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. or as a 4 credit course.5.2. courses can have weightages defined. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. v.poor.discipline. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents.good. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. poor.
However. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. 3. 3. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. 156 .5.2.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. 3.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.5. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.2. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. the need for re-evaluation should not arise.5. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.2. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. Therefore. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. In the hierarchy. There are no proper procedures for selection. 3. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.3. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . List any four new evaluation procedures.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. . and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. However. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. What is the reason for introducing grade system? .2.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. recruitment. 6.
laboratory equipment. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. of late.qualified personnel.2. staff. 1. requirements. interpersonal relationships and so on. being realised as two different functions. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. books are followed. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. complaints and compliments. in a sense. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. etc. When they are fully realised. library books. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. They are. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. school buildings. inspecting the class-room teaching.. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. taking up the follow-up programmes. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. in contrast.6. qualifications. disciplinary problems. playgrounds. whether the syllabus has been covered. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. etc. wherever necessary. 3. finding out the adequacy of. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now.. finding out whether the prescribed text.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. Academic inspection. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. submitting of the inspection reports. 158 .
aptitude. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. 3.Ed. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors.. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. In the light of these conceptualisation. Insistence on specialisation in the B. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. or. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. once in five years. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. In the case of departmental candidates. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. 159 . Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. courses. at least. course in either educational. their professional knowledge. modern..2. Similarly.Ed. M.
our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Administration. c. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. 3. assessment and Finance. 3. Instruction.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. 5.2. 160 . a.2. Grade System. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 3. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. d. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. b. b. 3. 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. 4. b.2. a.
R and Sharma. c. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. History and Problems of Education in India. Educational Reforms.2. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. K. (2002). Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. a.4.a part of internal assessment. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. 3. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Open book examinations. b. (2004). Question banks. a. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Multiple sets of question paper. Vaidya. b. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. 5. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. (2005). S. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. 7. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. a. K. b.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Problems of Education in India. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. New 161 .
3.6 3.3.4 3.3.3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. 2.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. 162 .8 3.9 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities. you will be able to: 1.3.1 3. 3.3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 3.3.5 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. 3.7 3.3.LESSON 3. identify the needs of rural India and social. 18.104.22.168.10 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. analyze the general and vocational spectra. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3.3. 5.3 3.
10 years of general Secondary Education. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage.e.. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education.. in Andhra Pradesh. Consequent on the recommendations. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. University Education..specialisation programmes 3. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. and 3 years of First Degree Course. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. The. Similar is the case with some other States. 2.3. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. i. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. the Banaras Sanskrit College. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines.g. etc. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. The Calcutta Madras. 8 years of general education.e. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. e. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. Commission emphasised to continue. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i.3. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta..
The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . and. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. 8. to imbibe. to prepare. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a.a sense of dignity of labour. However. historical.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. social. is also a plus point .3. 3. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. 10. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Provision for transfer of credits to students. economical and political. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . who desire to change from one stream to another. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. cultural and economic development of the country. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. 6. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. 5. 5) to help for the social. b. habits of hard work and develop . educational channels. 7.confidence in students. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities.
Psychologically. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. international understanding. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. democratic living. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. to develop national character. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. 3. social justice. Philosophically it is not the conception. at the other.national integration. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. etc. Sociologically it is undesirable. and. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum.. on one hand.3. The General Educational Spectrum.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. cultural and' religious tolerance. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. cooperativeness. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. and that required to enter the tertiary level. 1.
physics or mathematics. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. horticulture. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. commerce. In the matter of language. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. rural health. the rural areas have suffered very much. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. vegetable growing. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. such as Agriculture.— tube-wells. In the vocational spectrum. fish culture. All these need for an. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. professional. technical. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. 3. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. Biology. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. India is a land of villages. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Science. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. In our country.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. technological. or other machinery. Commerce and other disciplines. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. educational and cultural services. chemistry. commerce. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. and vocations based on dairy-farming. 166 . The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. medical plants.3. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. Agriculture is the main occupation. industrial agricultural production is growing. 2. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities.
etc. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. 4. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3.etc. In this way.. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . the local resources available. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. and the needs. In this it may be concluded. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. and 5. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3.3. There had been favourable reaction from the students. can be ensured. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. In time. interests and aptitudes of the students. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States.. social justice.
2. Ltd. General Educational Spectrum and b. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.K. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Dash. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. Calcutta University Commission 2. Vocational Sepctrum.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. N. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. 3. B.3. we studied the history. a. New Delhi : 168 . to imbibe. (2007). J.3. 3.3. b. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. (2005). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal.3.C. (2008). to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. (2001).3. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Mohanty.a sense of dignity of labour. objectives. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. habits of hard work and develop . b. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. J. Anmol Publications Pvt. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. 3. a. a. S. 3.
4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.9 3.4.4.LESSON 3.4.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.6 3.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.11 3.8 3. social and 169 .4.4.3 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.10 3.1 3. but the lighting of a fire”.2 Faculty wise enrolment 22.214.171.124.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.12 126.96.36.199.13 188.8.131.52 3.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.2 3.4.4. Education contributes to human development.7 3.
INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. particularly 170 .economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. analyze the women and distance education. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. community and nation is universally acknowledged. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. Dr. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. During the year 1937. While women constituted only 9. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. you will be able to: 1. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women.4. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way.4. although we have miles to go. 3. family. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. 3. These courses were. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. There is a close connection between education and development. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University.higher education in particular. higher education of girls developed immensely. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. Education . For the first time in the history of India. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. In the post —independence period. Nursing. cultural and political development of the individual. Home Economics. The relevance of women’s education to social.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. economic. Teaching and Fine Arts. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2.
out of 9200 and odd colleges. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.0 32. Yet. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Coimbatore. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. In the rest of the country. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.women. 3.9 27.1 24. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.2 29. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Mumbai. Kodaikanal. Even today.T Women University. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.D. The idea of women’s education for equality.9 14.2 22. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .0 16.0 Today. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. Mother Teresa Women University. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. we have more than 1200 institutions. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.4.0 43. In 1950-51. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.4.N. in our country.4. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. levels and professions.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. 3. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.1 31.65 lakhs in 1994-95.
2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. 3.4.47 65.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.1 respectively. 3.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .53 34.63 Female % 34. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.27 89.56 64.17 52. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .34 33.36 3. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.66 66.44 35. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 184.108.40.206 10.83 47.54 12.that of boys. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.46 82.1 and 14. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .4%) prefer Arts subjects.
Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. she will only learn fashion. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. 173 . what is the need for higher education for her. and coeducation may spoil her character. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. distance of the college or university from home. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. etc. irrelevance of the content of education. Thus. 3. marriage is a very common I factor. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Book banks should be established.hinders the girls from getting higher education. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. curriculum not suited to their requirements. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. The major hurdles. financial difficulty of the parents. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. In every third family. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. Also. According to a survey. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. promoted and increased.4. particularly. In college. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. They gave up their studies to enter home life.
4. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. 3. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Distance education is a boon to women. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face.4. which is the most dynamic factor of development. It is a productive investment. is the only tool for realising empowerment. There are constraints of time. Empowerment in a nutshell. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. 3.economic disabilities faced by women. Geographic distance of educational institutions. It enables to study.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Education. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. space. It also brings about 174 . resources and socio . Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. and the limitations of the conventional education system. Full-time employment.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses.
education of women is of paramount importance. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them.4. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. legal awareness and economic independence. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. 3. Women are partners in development. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . education of women must be given priority in national plans. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. The major objectives of women's higher education. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. for full development of our human resources. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. on their own.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. This can be achieved through reflection.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. higher learning. Empowerment is an active. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. empowerment means being assertive. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years.
Better opportunities. which is pending for a long time. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. will encourage them to venture new grounds. who are eager to take up courses. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. especially so in the developing countries.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. But their number is small. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. The educational institutions. which had been the sole domain of men. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. has to be implemented at the earliest. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. Scholarships and concessions for women. The local administration. 3.4. 176 . Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Reservation for women.
1%) and architecture and building (38. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. talents.8%). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. According to Lindy Hyam. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. engineering and related technologies (16.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. 3.. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent.000 women in the country. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests.4. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. capacities etc. But.3 percent. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. Australia.9%). IDP Education.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. especially in developing countries like African countries. Chief Executive. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. Also.
Mishra. 3. R. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. 4.4. Centre for Women’s Studies. SNDT Women’s University. individuals and society b. Coimbatore. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. A. R.to the family.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Annakodi. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. (2008). (2007). Explain the global perspective of women in higher education.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.4. 43% 6. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication.R. Mother Teresa Women University. (2000). Pattanaikj. (2005). Kodaikanal.C. 178 . Rajasthan 5. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. community and the nation. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. a. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. R. 3. S. Mumbai. Women and Education. create the right attitude towards life. Women Education. 3.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.K. and Suryalatha. 4. A. Coimbatore. Rao. Women Education. S.4. 2. SNDT Women’s University. Mumbai. and Swain.
4 3. They should be trained.5. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.personality of children in and out of school. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5.5 3.6 3.11 3.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.7 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5.5.1 3.2 3.10 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5.5.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. whole.3 3.5.9 3.8 3.5.LESSON 3.5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.
national consciousness. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. understanding and strong desire for international peace. know the pre service and in service training facilities. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. 4. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Lack of physical facilities. you will be able to: 1. Shorter working hours. social and emotional integration.5. 180 . equality and justice. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. and national character. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels.5. 3. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. understand the training teachers for Primary.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. international.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5.
Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. At the diploma level. a Diploma course and a Degree course. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . students.Ed. If the student teachers are working teachers. 3..4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Inadequate training in practical skills. (NCERT) New Delhi. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. the centre.Less qualified teacher educators. higher secondary teacher education. the secondary teacher education. etc. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. Lop-sided curriculum. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years.5.5. and M. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. it is called the Extension teacher Education. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. the primary teacher education. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels.. it is called the In-service teacher education. Depending on the levels. inservice and extension education programmes. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. levels. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. and the collegiate teacher education. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service.Ed. who have not been trained earlier. the state Government. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. 3.
. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . collegiate cells. depart ments etc. Expand NCERT 2. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Evaluation unit. 3. extensio n service. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational teehnology cells. state Institutes of Educat ion. non-formal. Also Guidance Bureaux. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Science Education units. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . are established. Education cells.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education.5. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . etc.
the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre.. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary.Ed. which should include experience in the primary schools too. material conditions relating to libraries. schools and sister institutions. to prescribe conditions for recognition.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. and 183 .. despite its vast expansion.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . to improve curricular programmes. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. which help breaking isolation from one another . All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. laboratories. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. to offer consultative services. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . primary and secondary school teachers.. degree.Ed. audio visual aids. and so on. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . to ensure teacher competence. should be improved on a top priority basis.
To meet this exigency. not came up once again. Organisation of Content Courses. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . and XII. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. Hence. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. though no pre-service training. 184 . Psychology of Students. etc. Modern Methods of Evaluation. The problem. Workshops.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission.secondary education. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Modern Techniques of Teaching. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. Meanwhile. etc. methodology and evaluation. whether they should have professional education or.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Induction Courses. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Agriculture. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen.
Courses leading to B. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions..Ed. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.A. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.D. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.’s are elig ible for M. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. All B Ed.5. in Education. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.’s for Ph. 3. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.Ed. (Education) are organized by 185 . Degree. These facilities are available for regular students. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar..CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.. State Institutes of Education. Pre-service training is for those.Ed.S. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . Post-Graduates also undergo B..Ed. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. training... (Education) and M. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.Ed. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. courses and M. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.. Ajmer.Ed. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. Degree and M. M. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. For re-orienting the teachers.. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.A.
5. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. (Ed. . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . established by tradition and teachers of the past. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.).some Faculties of Education of some Universities.. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . 6..List any two code of conduct for teachers? . Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. 186 . Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. 3.A. Hence the employability of M. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.A.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. and B. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. of conduct—written or unwritten. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. (Ed). 5. What is the role of ERIC? . they should be conscientious . However.
they should be conscientious.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Bhopal.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. However. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training.5. 6. 2. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. b.5. 3.3. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.5. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 4. 187 . a. b. 3. The necessity is however this. Shorter working hours. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. a. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. Explain code of conduct for teachers. 3. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. 5. Ajmer. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. National Council of Educational Research and Training. Discuss the problems of teacher education.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 3. 4. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. 2.
J.3. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . and Teacher Education. Teacher Education. (2010). (2009). Tewari. P. Mohanty. A. Ltd Aggarwal.5. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. B. Publication Pvt. Teacher Education.D. (2003).N. Corporation.
UNIT – IV 189 .
objectives. objectives. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. economic and educational developments. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. the focus is on the school health programmes. communicable diseases and their prevention.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. nutritional deficiency diseases. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. objectives and role of the physical education. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. In lesson 1. consuming the right amounts becomes important. In lesson 4. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. preservation of nutrients. If the diet is poor. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. The person’s environment is equally important. 191 . common ailments of children. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. Since food is the source of nutrients.
for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1.1.1. physical.4 4.1 4.1.3 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.8 220.127.116.11. emotional and social.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.2 4. mental.e. for giving health education to the children under its custody. It is a miniature society.7 4.1. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.LESSON 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.10 4.5 4.9 4.1.11 4.6 4. 193 .
training of teachers and evaluation. 4. 10. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. list the common ailments of children 3. 4.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student.1. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 9. 11. 7. To develop certain skills concerning health. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. 5. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. 3. know the need for sex education. To develop healthy health habits among children. 6. training in first aid and etc. you will be able to: 1. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 8. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. to his family and to the community at large. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health.. e. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. Instruction.1.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. understand school health programmes 2. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. To give information regarding health rules.g. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. explain the importance of First aid 5. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. content of health education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 2. 194 . cleanliness and healthful living. 4.
The flooring should not be damp. inoculation against cholera. 2. (xl) mental health. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. (v) safety education. ( iii) sanit at io n. organisation of school health days. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. is imperative. The surroundings of schools should be clean. The school buildings should be spacious. minimizing the travelling distance. Vaccination for small pox. 5.. There should be good drainage facilities. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases.C.coming or absence. B. (xii) smoking education etc. as described below 1. (vi) nutrition education. vaccination. cleanliness weeks. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students.. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. play festivals. (viii) first aid. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided.G. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. Triple Antigen Vaccination.1. typhoid. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided.4. 3. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. There should be regular water supply. First aid facilities should be made readily available. (ii) communit y healt h. etc. excusing late.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. proper doors and windows. Arranging better transportation facilities. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. direct lighting. B. “Play-for-all” programmes. 4. suitable furniture. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. 2. arranging class rooms in the ground floors.
The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. scalds.. sports and games in the interest of their health. if epidemic is wide-spread. isolate and notify. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. C. fractures. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. burns. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. D. 196 . wounds. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. • Close the schools. poisons. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. • Keep all rooms clean. dislocations. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. and other accidents. bleeding. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. insect stings. drowning. cuts. • When sleeping in groups. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. • Take nutritious food. • Have adequate rest and sleep. • Find out the cases. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. fainting (epileptic fit). etc.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out the Health curriculum 3. headache. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. So they easily get illnesses. fever. asthma. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. backache. pain in the joints. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. water or bodily contact. which are – cold. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. measles etc. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye.. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. 2. cough. These diseases are called communicable diseases. Once these germs get into the body. There are three stages in any communicable disease. 4. tuberculosis. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases.1. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. Mention the school health programmes. polio.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. chicken pox. They are: i) The incubation stage.1. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses.
Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Tonsilitis . After three or four days of fever. There may also be fever accompanied by cough.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. The child may have fever. Others make the children very weak.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Scabies . head-ache and cough. unhygienic bottle feeding. Diarrhoea . There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. The following are the common communicable diseases.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Throat is affected. sugar and water. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Hence it is called a killer disease. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Children catch cold from persons having cold.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. The symptoms include cold.This disease is caused by bacteria. unhygienic living conditions. This is caused by cold virus. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. etc. Mumps . Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Measles . The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light.When a child suffers from scabies. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. cough and fever. Important salts and water are lost in this process. eating food which is not clean. 198 . Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Ear Infections .It is caused by measles virus. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Common Cold .
separate. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily.• • • • Chicken Pox . A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. Diphtheria . face and waist. Expand DPT . Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. 5. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Enlist the common ailments of children. 199 . The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. the child may die. As the disease progresses. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. The child may also have diarrhoea. It begins with fever. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. By scratching he causes secondary infections. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. What are communicable diseases? 6. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. the child is not able to breathe. If proper treatment is not given. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. raised pink spots appear on head. Shortly. Typhoid . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. 5. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. drowning. dislocation. and films. 2.g. Sprains . bruises. so-called sex books and periodicals. sprains. Sex is popular. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. wounds. 200 . Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. 3. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. eye injury. snakebites. 4. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. bleeding. head injury.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. scorpion stings.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. etc. films and jokes. man-woman behaviours. Cuts and Bruises . Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. simple fractures. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. Sex is but an integral part of human personality.4. fiction.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. It has its rightful place in education too.1. 4. exciting and body-oriented. fainting. cuts. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. sprains.1. Wounds . In such cases. it is a subject of art.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. It is both biological and psychological. and Community Work and Social Service. Drowning . swelling. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future.
try experimenting with their bodies. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. they would be treading the path of sure doom.. in their ignorance. health. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. In today's liberal and interactive society. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. B. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. 3. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . Should the boys and girls. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. but preserve them from disaster and disease.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. celibacy are age. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. 2. the religious organisations. The values of life. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common.old values. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. sex education is being recommended in schools. The home. the school. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. Hence. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. In secondary schools.
communicable diseases and their prevention. first aid and sex education. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. offering sex education as a part of their curricula.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. hence. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. 202 . Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. C. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. there will no crisis in its implementation.1. common ailments of children. the school health programmes. What are the major components of Sex Education. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. Teacher education institutions are. 4. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. when the courses are already overloaded.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 18.104.22.168 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
209 . Mention the food nutrients 2. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6.
4. If you look at the definition carefully.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied.2. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. minerals. Let us talk about each of these aspects. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. 210 . Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s .5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day.2.
In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals .sedentary.g. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). the social and religious practices of that region. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. A balanced diet is specific firstly. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first.2. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. Preferences/customs are also important.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. In other words. dosa are typical of the south. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables.g. moderate or heavy work. construction labourer). People in the east of our country prefer rice. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. paratha and poori. In the case of adults. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. Even within given States there is considerable variation. sex. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. it is also specific to a given activity level . 4.6. for example. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet.one in the morning and the other at night. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. activity level and physiological stress. These are: region where the person resides and income. There is no point. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex.
While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. Even among flesh foods. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. If you think of your own religious group. customs. In addition to these. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Including these 212 . Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. however. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. income plays a vital role. vegetables and fruits. taboos related to food may play an important role. for example. Having more money. however. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements.planning the diet. As income increases. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. Judicious selection of food is. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. Among the social factors. while another may hate them. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. however. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. However. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. as important for the rich as for the poor. One must. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. One person may be fond of milk products. As you read this discussion. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. fat and sugar tend to increase. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. These determine the acceptability of foods. nuts and dry fruits.
over-eating or under. if the teachers have good food habits.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. meat.eating is hazardous. For this. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. Define balanced diet. eggs . green leaves. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. 8) Walk a while after eating. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. mouth. 213 . Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. 8. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed .7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. but they should be thrown away. fruits. List out any two healthy food habits. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. 17. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.
e. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. b. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. In fact. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. d. Explain food nutrients 4. Keratomalacia 3.4. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. 4. a. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Vitamin D 5. Conjuctival xerosis. Bitot’s spots. c. Discuss good food habits. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2.2. good nutrition is essential for good health. When the diet is inadequate. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Night blindness.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies.2. preservation of nutrients. Beri Beri 4. Corneal xerosis.2. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits.
Food should be consumed after eating well. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. b. Chopra.2. Food and Nutrition Education. (2008). Nutrition Science. A Text Book of Foods. R. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Health and Nutrition Education. Hands. Nutrition and Dietetics. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. Food and Nutrition Education. a . C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. mouth. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 .6. S. b. P. 4. (2008). plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Sri Lakshmi B.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . 8. 7. a. (2005). (2004).C.M. minerals. (2009).N. R.
3.13 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.22.214.171.124.3 Impact on Education 4.4 4. 216 .126.96.36.199 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3.9 188.8.131.52 4.3.3.LESSON 4.3.2 Impact on economic development 4.5 4.3.7 4.1 4.8 184.108.40.206 4.12 4.1 Impact on social development 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 220.127.116.11 4.3.2 4.
objectives and need for population education 2. population characteristics.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. community. his family.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control.4.3. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. There is some difference.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. It is not sex education. Whenever we talk of sex education. characteristics and changes for himself.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. the causes of population change. understand the importance of small family norm 5. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. Population Education.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. 4. economic and educational development 3. and the consequences of these processes. his societ y and the world. family planning and sex education etc. 217 . 4.3. therefore. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India.3. describe the impact of population growth on social. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. state the meaning. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. the stress is. you will be able to: 1. aims at providing the younger generation. It is a much wider co ncept.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. 4. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Define Population Education 2.3. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.4. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. the family. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. the society. the nation and the world. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .
Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. With the larger families. 4.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. When the family is small. economic and educational development of the country. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population.6. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. which will not be possible without population control.3. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. health and happiness of its citizens. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. 4. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. 219 . the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. Family is considered as a social unit.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. Every second two thousand children are being born. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. the family programmes are also handicapped.3. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race.
there is an inverse relationship between population and development. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. pollution of the environment.3. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt.6. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. 4. lack of proper health care. Swollen cities. are the results of demographic pressures on social life.e. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. in cinema halls and theatres.. Many students herded in a small room.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. heavy intern I migration etc. facility for drinking water. in parks and other places of public gatherings. toilets. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. The gulf between them is widening further. i.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. and so on. unemployment. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. 4.6.3. teacher index. in buses and trains. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. In developing countries.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. organization index and material index. 220 .
essays. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. There would be poor library facilities. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue.3. reproduction. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. even text books would be in short supply. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. family planning etc. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. blank verses etc. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Hindi and English. Regional Language. can be taken up. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. 221 .3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. thus. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. There would be very few audiovisual aids. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. bar graphs etc. and laboratory equipments. less space facilities.. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. can be studied in science and health education. there will be lacuna in many other spheres.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. less budget for education. Social Studies Statistics on population education.
Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 12. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. 4. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times.4. Brazil. 13. Children with the help of parents. 11. 14. 7. deaths. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Bihar. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 9. causes of deaths etc. Uttar Pradesh. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 15. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. West Bengal. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Canada. 5. Children may compare two families. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. China. 10. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. 8. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living.3. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. 2. United States of America. 3. area and average density of population. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. preferences for sex. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. Comparing life in various respects in two families. 18. 16. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. we have no right to stop 223 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. values and role children etc.be opened in their schools. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. The question. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. age at marriage. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. 17. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife.
4-6. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.to emphasize family planning services. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). “He who is responsible for population growth. however.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. which education can only do.were implemented 224 . is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. at varying places in different regions. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. More than 45 years ago. 4.their entry into the world”. The Family Welfare Program. and the child survival components of the news: program. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. continued . For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. Since the program's inception. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. on an overall basis. especially the expansion of child immunization services . should be overcome at the intellectual levels.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.3.
expansion of services to unmarried women.earlier than the safe motherhood components. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. In April 1996. and nominal fees for services. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. Moreover. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. a focus on health promotion. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. the community appears willing to pay for services. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. Therefore. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. Local programs vary in their approaches. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. In October 1997. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. At these meetings. and the World Conference on Women. men. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. reliance on local women as community health workers. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men.
community. economic and educational development 4. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. What are the goals of RCH? 4. Describe the impact of population growth on social. family. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. involving the community. 3. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank.emphasizing the needs of the client. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 226 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. 4. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. nation and the world. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Its main purposes are to create awareness.3.3.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. 1997).
4. b. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. 6. his family. 4. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Canada.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. population characteristics. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. a. a. less budget for education. characteristics and changes for himself. bar graphs. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. b. 3. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. 227 . Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. the causes of population change. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. 7. a.” 2. and the consequences of these processes. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. 5. area and average density of population. United States of America. less space facilities. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. his society and the world. China.3. Brazil. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.
Udaiveer. T. (2005). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Bhende. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.K.4. Ltd. Jayapoorni. Reddy.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Principles of Population Studies. 228 . A. (2002). (2004). V. Kantikar. Centre for Women’s Studies. Modern Problems of Education. N.3. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Coimbatore. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. J. (1992). (2005).
18.104.22.168.4.4.10 4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 22.214.171.124.7 126.96.36.199 19.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .9 4.LESSON 4.2 Major games 4.4.4 4.3 188.8.131.52 Minor games 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4 Lead up games 184.108.40.206 Indigenous games 4.4.2 4.1 4.5 4.6 4.4.
4. 4. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. leadership and balance in defect. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.4. The concept of physical education has been made broader.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body.4. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. classify the different types of games. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. mental alertness.4. the youth of the country. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. team spirit.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. moral fitness and emotional fitness. you will be able to: 1. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. which forms its most valuable assets. as it should 230 . perseverance. social fitness.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. full records of physical activities should be maintained.
Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. They are inseparably united together. team spirit. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. leadership. Therefore.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. The educational efforts at home. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. To be more precise. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. obedience to rules. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. They go hand in hand. Every individual is a part of society.
pleasing manners. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. Regarding the significance of physical education.” Montaigue writes. C.” The Secondary Education Commission. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. Rousseau states. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind.4. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. game and sports.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. Buck has observed that 232 . “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. a sound health.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. ment al. Just like Education. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. nor body but the whole man. H. 4. mo ral. Physical exercises.
coordinative abilities. flexibility and power. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. etc. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. resourcefulness and smartness. strength. endurance. “If we wish to develop the whole being.” 4. elegance. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.a properly directed physical education should result in health. initiative. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. efficiency and character. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life.4. speed.” In brief.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. Froebel says. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. we must exercise the whole human being. happiness. 233 . It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.
Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Every age has its artists. its adherents and its enemies. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. poetry and painting. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. 234 (i) (ii) . Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Tournaments foster this sentiment. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. systems of government. in greater or lesser degree.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. While wars. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. plagues and famines. If no opportunity is provided to the students. including all racial groups and historical ages. these fundamental things have always been present. they may form gangs. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. should help in the spiritual development of the student.
3. B.\ to develop perseverance. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. bravery and interest in games and sports. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. obedience. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. Write any two importance of Physical Education. self. etc. to develop tolerance. 2. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. respect for rules.sacrifice. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 235 . to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly.
Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. 3. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Haag. students. Inform health principles. 2. Always keep the whistle ready. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. 4. 15. 13. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. 6. and. is essential. Be self-confident. 12. Be in the uniform.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students.H. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Keep the field ready for the activities. 9. 236 1. Be well-prepared. Usually parents. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Be sportive. injuries among pupils should be made.4. 16. and readmission after they have recovered. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. 4. 11. Act as a leader. Be punctual. defects.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. . Emergency care procedures should be followed. 8. 7. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 5.4. Posture screening should be done. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 10. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.4. 14. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of.
Moreover. Such inst incts as imitation. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. the play. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. 4. 1. chasing. 237 . Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3.8. Lead up games. Indigenous games. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten.4. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. their development is handicapped. frolic and jo y.4. 4.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. As such they are well enjoyed by children. 2. less equipment and less expense.
While many of them are played in the open playfields. the play equipment.8. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. benefit in playing minor games. women take part most of the games. on sea-shore. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Dodging. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Kabaddy etc. on mountain tops and on river beds. Khokho. some of them are played indoors. For each game the rules are many. driving.4. These games require varied skills such as running. the games can be modified according to convenience. wherever the kids assemble. On lawns. The dimension of the posts and nets. Jumping.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Ball Badminton. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. snatching the kerchief. 4. under ball pass Relay. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles.. Basket Ball. Throwing. Hockey. They are played for a shorter duration. hitting. Soft Ball. dribbling. stopping. muffling. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Tennikoit. with implements or without implements. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging.With a very few rules. couple tag. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. spiking. 238 . finding the partner. Hopping. Volley Ball. Except a few games. skipping. zig zag relay. bowling etc. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. catching. over ball pass Relay. Shuttle Badminton. heading. Cricket. pitching. Tennis. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. boosting. the number of players and substitutes. on hard courts. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Jump the stick clay and so on. trapping. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications.
They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. On occasions like marriage. All the fundamental tactics.8. 4. Games may be classified as 6. For example. festivals connected with religion and public functions. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. and .4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. these games being popular. List out some major games. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes.4. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. 7.4. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. they are in existence. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. While observing the players in action.8. birth. An example for indigenous game is 8. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. They have an abundant social value. Kho-kho. death.4.
5. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. 4. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. Posture screening should be done. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 4. b. to develop physical stamina. Briefly discuss the different types of games. d. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. to secure physical health b. a. 2. physically and emotionally fit and alert. 4. 3.4. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.4.4. a. b. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. 3. 2. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. 4. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. aims and objectives and need of physical education. b. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. a. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. c.4. Minor and Major 240 . a.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J. Ltd. Soft Ball. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2005). Aggarwal. Shuttle Badminton. Health. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Basket Ball.6. 241 . Ball Badminton. J. J. Handbook of Physical Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Cricket.C. (2008). Khokho. Volley Ball. 4. Kabaddy 7. G. Khokho 8. (2009). Physical Education and Sports.K. Foot-ball. (2008). New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Modern Trends in Indian Education.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Tennis. Mohanty. Krishna murthy. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.4. Hockey. Tennikoit.
5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.LESSON 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.11 4.9 4.1 4.5.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .7 4.2 Manmade Environment 220.127.116.11.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.8 4.3 18.104.22.168.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.6 4.2 4.1 Natural Environment 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.5.10 4.4 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .
To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Skills. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. social. Essential knowledge about the Environment. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Broadly.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. political. list out the types of environment 3. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. Awareness. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Attitude. 5. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. 3. Evaluation Ability. 243 . population explosion and resource depletion could be. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. 4. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 6. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. 4. education about the environment and education through the environment. 2.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Knowledge.5.5.5. it covers the following elements: 1. 4. aesthetic and educational factors.educat ion for the environment. economic. 2. Participation. 3. you will able to: 1. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The best place to start such learning is school. Details are given below: I. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A.
its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Oxidants Other pollutants. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. 244 . Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. • Biological magnification E. D. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. F. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population.B. a. 2.
3. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. 4. Family planning ii. 2. Abortion iv. c.3. B. III. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Control of population growth a. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . The human ecosystem II. Intrauterine device iii. 2. Socio-economic measures. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. economic. Birth control through education b. The pill ii. Sterilisation. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Persuasion: i. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Use of medical science i.
246 . 3. 1983). Air pollution abatement ii. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Define Environmental Education. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. 3. Water pollution abatement. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. e) Recycling. (UNESCO. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
These are biotic components. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. A change in one brings about a change in the other. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. Biological environment The biological environment. a. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. They interact with each. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. 4. Any constituent or condition of the environment. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. fax agricultural apparatus. way is called environmental or ecological factor.5. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. He modifies according”. -other.5.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . to his needs.5. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. animals and other organisms (biotic). telex.4.5. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. b.5.5.other components of the environment.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. includes the plants.
need for bio-diversity. change in climate may be added. relation between population and pollution. biogas plants.. alternate sources of energy. noise control. windmills. supplying timber for various uses. natural way of controlling pests. use of medicinal plants. extinction of species. importance of nitrogen cycle. sources of pollut ion. reasons. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. ozone layer deplet ion. evolution. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. of civilizations. ozone depletion. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. desertification 248 . balance of nature. History The rise and fall. trees reducing noise pollution. nuclear energy. sources. are the topics which may be taught in History. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. wars and hazards of war. effects o f CFC. explosion deforestation. noise pollution. population. t heir role in preventing pollution. food chain and food-web. water scarcity. effects. need for conservation. etc. etc. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . preserving the watersheds. use of pesticides. maintaining the ecological diversity. industrial survey. greenhouse effect. mineral survey. river systems. (ii) Air pollution. over exploitation of ground water. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. nuclear warfare. preventing siltation of dams. excellent recreation sites. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. social studies. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. acid rain.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. air pollutants from industries. solar cookers. industrial pollut io n. role of trees in building economy.
5. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Peepal and Tulsi. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Providing. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 14. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 6. 7. 12. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 13. 3. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 2. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 4. 4. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. aims and scope. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. animal and plants. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 249 .may be inc ded in Geography. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. 11. Organising conferences. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 8. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 5. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 9. group discussions and seminars. 10. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man.
Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products.Send their waste oil. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Never put any left over chemicals. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Reuse carrier bags. 5. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. all these can cause serious pollution. used oils down the drain. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Use public transport wherever it is possible. it will cause pollution. If it is done. World Environmental falls on 250 . Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. especially plastics. Don’t burn any waste. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. 6. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.
dest roying nat ural habitats.5. CFCs. values and habits. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. and 251 . concern for others). The groups may exchange. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. To provide materials needed for practical work. nuclear wars. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. developing desirable attitudes. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. To initiate and develop discussion and debate.4. orderliness and beauty). To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. Harmony with the nature . To provide reference materials for children’s use. Concern for species. potable water. diversity and stability. viz. To arrange visits or expeditions. rather than conquest and mastery. etc. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. Conservation of natural resources. Att itudes of balance towards nature.mat erials.. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . loss of bio-diversity. Social responsibilit y (common good.). Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. etc. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. deforestation. To arrange for visiting speakers. (cleanliness. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. depletion of ozone.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information.
9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills.5. 252 .5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. 4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. preserving natural cycles. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. 8.5. 4. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.
2. Modern Problems of Education. Rapid population growth. b.K. Environmental Education. greenhouse effect. T. reasons. concern for others). sources. 6. S. Knowledge. group discussions and seminars.\ 4. New Delhi : Anmol 253 .K. New Delhi : Authors Press. S. 8. Publications Pvt. air pollutants from industries. 3. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. b. ozone layer deplet ion. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. importance of trees in the production of oxygen.5. Education for values. To provide materials needed for practical work. sources of pollution. 5.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. (1997). a. Kuldeep. a. relat ion between population and pollution. Providing. Social responsibilit y (common good.K. New Delhi : Sharma. a. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion.. water scarcity. importance of nitrogen cycle. (2004). (ii) Air pollution. Environment and Human Rights. acid rain. June 5 7. Y. Environmental Education. explosion deforestation. over exploitation of ground water. Awareness. To provide reference materials for children’s use. effects. Nanda. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.K. b. 4. b. Ltd. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. new problems from science and technology. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. (2007). a. population. Udaiveer. (2007). Organising conferences.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 188.8.131.52 Idealism and aims of Education 184.108.40.206 Idealism and Curriculum 220.127.116.11 Idealism and methods of teaching 18.104.22.168 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 22.214.171.124 Naturalism and aims of Education 126.96.36.199 Naturalism and Curriculum 188.8.131.52 Naturalism and methods of teaching 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 220.127.116.11 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
18.104.22.168 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 22.214.171.124 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
According to Rusk'. Education must contribute to development of culture.1. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. in fact. Education according to idealism. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. It is self-realisation.3. should be universal in nature.our life. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage.” 5. Spiritual Development. Therefore. The universe is regarded as a thought process. the emancipation of spirit. Universal Education. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. promote and transmit it to rising generation. man is essentially a moral being. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. moral. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. enrichment and transmission of culture.
the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Learning through lecturing. Ethics. However. So he should embody.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. Philosophy. History.” He is thus. subjects like Languages. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. so subjects like Religion.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Mathematics etc.1. affecting (feeling). 4. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. the school is a garden. For intellectual development. 5. 3. Learning through discussion. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. Learning through imitation. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. According to Frobel. hygiene. should be there. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. no doubt.” 5. For this no particular method has been suggested.3.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. 5.the spiritual qualities of mankind. It considers teacher as. Learning through questioning. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. Science. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. The plant can grow. a spiritual guide for the child. So health.1. He sets the environment in which education takes place. According to idealism. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. He carries the child from darkness to light. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. Learning through reading. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. So cognition (knowing). and collation (striving) should find due place. an indispensable necessity. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. Herbert advocated instruction method. 2. friend and guide. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education.3. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1.
“The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. "Education should make 263 • . text books. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.preservation. time tables. Ross explains. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4.perfection and beauty. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. In the words of Ross. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. 5. 2. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Perfection of Human Machine. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. curricula. formal lessons or examinations. 5.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.1.
rational harmoniously balanced. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. There is no place for religious and moral education. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Literature.4.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Zoology. In all. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. 4.1. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. is based on the nature of the child. subjects like history. Therefore. Botany etc Language. “Education finds its purpose. 264 . Naturalistic curriculum. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Biology. Education should. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. education should develop the child into Joyous. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. It emphasises physical and health education 5.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. It stresses basic sciences. Education also aims at helping the individual t. It is based on the psychology of the child. Chemistry.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Arithmetic. useful and mature child. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. • 5. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. therefore.
Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Rousseau says. Learning through experience. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism.4. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Heuristic method. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. 3. 4. It discards all rigid. Learning by doing. Dalton Plan.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. he should be taught by experience alone. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . 5. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. the stage. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. In the . “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. a supplier of materials and opportunities. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. 2. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. a provider of an ideal environment.5. Learning through observation. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1.” Naturalism lays stress on: 126.96.36.199.
but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems.5. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Social Science.1.5. Personal Social Adjustment. History. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. of human personality is in terms of his physical.absolutism of idealism. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. diversified and flexible. Social Efficiency. The individual has not only to adjust himself.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Continuous Growth. All Round Development of an Individual. social and moral aspects. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Agriculture. The aim of educational development. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Geography. Physical training. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. 5. intellectual. Subjects. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. 5. is true. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life.1. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Sciences. Vocational and 266 .
Learning by Doing.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. 5.” 5. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. should find proper place. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. a teacher occupies an important position.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .1. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The subjects. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child.5.5. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity.1. He must be trained. activities and experience should be integrated properly. alert and resourceful. a senior partner and a sincere guide.Technical Education. He has to be active.
6. 5. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Biology. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 2. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. 2. Mathematics. Psychology.1. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic.6. Biography Philosophy. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. liberal. 4. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. intellectual. Astrology. 5. History.5. 4. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Music and Dance. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Crafts. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Education is preparation for a complete living. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. The basic tenets of realism are 1. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Sex Education. It favours child-centered. Chemistry. scientific and psychological education.1. Art. 3. Study of Subjects like Language.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. 3. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. 5.1.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Population Education. rich and happy. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. specific. Literature. practical. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Geography are unnecessary 268 . literary or humanistic education.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . certainly and clearly.6.1.6. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. easily and pleasantly.5.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
Learning through questioning. a. d.1. pragmatism and realism. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. naturalism. a. Vocational and Technical Education. 5. Universal Education 2. Learning through lecturing. Rousseau 5. Learning through reading. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Experimentation d. Agriculture. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. & curriculum. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. 5. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. History. Sciences. has no end other than growth. 5. Self preservation & Self expression 4. 6. Social Science. 3. a. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Learning through imitation. Learning through experience b. in this lesson. Tours / Excursion e.7 LET US SUM UP We have.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.1.1. Self Realisation b. e. Physical training. Languages. Geography. Child centered c. b. c. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Education according to pragmatism. Learning through discussion. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Demonstration and Observation 270 .5.
Pahuja. (2007). K. N. of Pathak. Narang C.5. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. Publishing corporation. New Delhi : A. P.P. Foundations of Education. L.H. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. (2004).P. P. 271 . (2003). Ltd. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. R. Theory and Principles of Education.1. Anmol Publications Pvt. O. (2007).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. New Delhi : Bhatia.
4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2 Curriculum 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.5.3.2 Curriculum 5.4 Views about teacher 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.3 Methods of teaching 272 .3.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124 Aims of Education 126.96.36.199 Methods of teaching 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 188.8.131.52.2.2.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2 5.4.1 5.4 Views about teacher 184.108.40.206 Aims of Education 5.2.LESSON 5.5.
examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.4 Role of the teacher 5.6 5.2.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.2. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.5. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. Gandhiji was primarily a social. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.2.2. an artist. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.2. 2.5. you will able to: 1. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. 5.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.8 5. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. economic and political reconstruction in our country. 273 . He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. 5. 3. Tagore was a poet.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2.2. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.7 5. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. mind and spirit. content and methods.
Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. it is education of life. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. nor the gross animals body.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. It really provides opportunity for character building. strength of mind. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education." Dignity of Labour.2. righteousness. mind and soul of children He further observed.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. In the words of Gandhiji.supporting. through life and for life. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. self-restraint and service of humanity. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. His scheme of education is life centred. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality.3.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. "I attach more. 274 . the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. 5. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. 'Man is neither mere intellect.
Individual and Social Aims. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development .Training for Leadership. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. gardening. the realization of the ultimate reality. leather work have been suggested. metal work. According to Gandhi. "Development of the moral character. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Drawing and Hindustani. Mother-tongue. wood work. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. General Sciences. Only good individual forms a better society.3.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. development of the whole all were directed: towards. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Art. 5. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 .2. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. Music.
It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Basic education is other wise known as 4. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. men of 276 . all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. proficient.2.3.trained. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2.
He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He also advocates freedom for the child. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. 3. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist.knowledge. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. That is why.3. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. Education must be child centered. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. 5.2. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education.
6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.4.3.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.2. Gandhi in 1937. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.2.2. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. 5. • Education should involve manual work. He believed in the oneness of humanity.K. • Ideal of citizenship. 5. He was deadly against untouchability. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. he was a true Vedantist 5. He was a true patriot.” Like all other ideals. • Cult of non-violence. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.
a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. deeper in. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. could help in forging unity among all. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. etc.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. complete manhood could be attained. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Therefore. them solve problems of day to day life.Language and Literature . International understanding. Geography. wider in range. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Music. Civics.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. 279 . Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. It should help the learner have good physique. It should help. the more dedicated and devoted. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Dance. That way only. Tagore said. Religion and Psychology. Chemistry. he said.2.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in.4. "Mankind must realise a unity. International Understanding. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. (vi) Philosophy. Zoology. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Botany. stronger in power than ever before. sentiment.
The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.4. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there.2. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. 5. Tagore rightly says.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. 5. In 1921. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.2.4.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. Activity Method Heuristic Method.2." 5.” He further says. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. 280 .4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.4.
Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi.g.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. 10. 281 . Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. 9. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. race. It is open to all irrespective of country.
character forming and assimilation of ideas. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education.5.2. 2. 3. Purity of thought. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . work and deeds come out of it. Education for Self-reliance. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge.5.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. Education for strong Moral Character. Education should make a person self-reliant. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. 4. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. man making. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.2." He was against the theoretical type of education. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life.” 5. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. Freedom. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. According to him. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Book learning. Education for Self-realization.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. Concept of Education. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues.
Discussion Method. Education for Physical Development. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. And above all. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. A physically strong person is the need of the society. 5. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Religion.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study.5. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Swami. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.5. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. engineering and technical subjects. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. 5. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and .5. Every individual should be trained for concentration. philosopher and guide to the students He. That will serve the purpose of education fully.2. Secondly he wanted Science. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. 5. Thirdly he wished that games. The teacher should be the facilitator. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.5.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend.2.the learners on different students in the discussion. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Philosophy and Theology.2. Of course. 6. 283 .
List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. 5. Write short notes on Basic education. ears and eyes. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda.Substantiate your answer. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. in this lesson. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. 3.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. 5.6 LET US SUM UP We have. of course. 12. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. naturalist. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. Their educational ideas. Gandhiji as a Idealist. legs. We have seen that Tagore. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. 284 . and pragmatist .2.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. 2.2. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life.
Explain Vishwabharathi. f. leather work have been suggested. a. Education should involve manual work. Discussion Method 285 . 10. c. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. e. Activity Method d. Learning by Doing c. a. 2. 5. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Self-Study b. Meditation and concentration c. Ideal of citizenship. wood work. Debate and Discussion Method. d. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. c. a. Teaching while Walking b.4. Nai Talim 4. Cult of non-violence. 1937 7. 5. Self realization. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. a. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Activity Method b. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. 9. metal work. 5. Technique of Correlation 6. 8.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. Basic education.2. b. Heuristic Method. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. 11. gardening. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving.
Ltd. Dhiman. Anmol Publications Pvt.2. New Delhi : Aggarwal. P. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Publishing Corporation.5. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. C. (2007). L.P. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2002).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. (2004).H. N. on Bhatia. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Pahuja. (2007). O. New Delhi : A. P. B. J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. N. 286 . Theory and Principles of Education. Foundations of Education. (2003). K and Narang C. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. K.
3.3.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.4 5.9 5.8 220.127.116.11. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.3 5.3.10 5.3.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.3.6 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3.1 5.LESSON 5.2 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.5 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.3. In this lesson.11 5.7 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .
“It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. In the words of Kerney and Cook. in the U. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. in fact . maintained or eliminated. 5. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. Then in a big country like India. curriculum signifies situations for learning. it is identical wit h socializat ion. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. state the meaning of curriculum 2. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society.under the direction of the school. the plain area.3.3.A. is a means to the process. In the former sense. While education is a process. In it. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . A g o o d curricu lu m. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. new behaviour may be acquired. you will be able to: 1. curriculum. Curriculum is intimately related to education. Both the processes are integrated. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. in Russia or in Japan. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. 5. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. Since the demands. the plateau area and 288 . there is a large number of communities. living in the hilly area. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. From the latter point of view.S.3. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences.. in the form of new experience. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. While education is learning.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. present behaviour may be modified. the desert area.
therefore. studying therein. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. 5. environment. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. Besides craft. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. and 289 . We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. customs and needs.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. democratic and socialistic country. However. Again. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. it is. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. In fact . without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. From a slave-country we became secular. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. differs from individual to individual. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. according to modern trends in the educational process. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. It must differ from locality and from society to society.3. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. the learning capacity of children. too. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. irrespective of their needs and environment. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society.
they depend on the political.g. etc. etc. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. So it is inadequate.. Knowledge Objective.. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. in instructional objectives. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. uninspiring and unscientific. unambiguous and functional. social. The word “Curere” means 2. general or specific. tangible. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. 4. e.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. specific. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived.. individual or Social and so on. They are achievable. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. which may or may not be attained. 2. They may be ultimate or proximate. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . e. of classroom. Application Objective. moral. aesthetic and spiritual development.. aims.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture..3. unsatisfactory. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.g. remote or immediate. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. eg. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. 3. Vocational Efficiency. Goals of Primary Education. emotional. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. Understanding Objective. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. They are visionary goals e. 290 . Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. Goals of Secondary Education. They speak of perfect goals. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. Self Realisation. 5. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. etc. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. National Integration. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed.g. They speak of immediate purposes of education. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. social.
” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. educationists. heavy fire. needs. finding them very interesting and captivating.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus.3. According to Crow and Crow.” 291 . Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. on the playing fields. capacities. in the class rooms. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. Crow and Crow remarks. but it includes the totality of experiences. abilities. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. Raymont rightly says. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. The interests. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. The old and prevalent curriculum is under.5. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects.
tendencies. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. They often waste it or rather kill it. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. capacities and abilities.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. moral. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. time in a useful manner. aptitudes. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . mental. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. urges.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. Due to these variations and differences. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future.
infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. 3. development of professional capability at all levels. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. organized. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy.curricular. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. administrative programme need be planned. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. 2. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. 293 . According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. phased preparation. To ensure success of the process. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. Similarly. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support.
1937 19. Run. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 .3. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. a. laboratory. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 17. library.3. 18.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. in the class room. 5. workshop. principles of curriculum construction. Relation with Life c. 5. Child Centred Education b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. 12. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. 11.3.
Curriculum Development. S.S. D. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. Curriculum and Instruction. S. N. and Sarita Kumari. (2007). Bhalla. P. New Delhi : Authorspress. Innovations in Education. Lakshmi. (2001). 295 . New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. (2007). (2007). Teacher and Education in Indian Society.K.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.5. New Delhi : Isha Books.3.
LESSON 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.6.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 18.104.22.168 5.9 5.4.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 22.214.171.124.4.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4.1 126.96.36.199.4.7.1 Developing scientific outlook 188.8.131.52 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4.5 5.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 184.108.40.206 5.4.3 5.2 5.4 5.
It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . open-mindedness. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not.5. We mean curiosity. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. superstition or emotion.during the second half of this century. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. 5. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. 5. newer and newer industries started growing. honesty.4. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. 297 . 3.4. Gradually.4. in the economic reconstruction of society. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . know the importance of science education. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. you will be able to: 1. 4. 2. explain the concept of scientific attitude. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. tolerance for the opinions of others.
stipends and appreciations in various ways.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. seminars and symposiums. 4.So that.4. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Thinking and memory develops. Promotion of science clubs. 5.4. After such experience and training. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. 2. Schemes of teaching science. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Love for truth enhances. Through examinations. 7. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. as well as of the society. 6. Principles are formulated. 2. 5. Central science workshop. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Devotion towards nature increases. Selection for science education. 4. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 3. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 3. 5. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Through newspapers. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 5. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 6. Organisation of science fairs.
It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. essential that teachers. It is. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . 5. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. They experience natural phenomenon. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils.6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. therefore. After presenting the problem. In the inquiry approach. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon.4. They encounter many social events as they grow. For laboratory and workshop techniques.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. They ask many questions about the objects they see. Write any two advantages of Science Education. objectivity. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. 5. 7. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. each child to “enquiry skill building”.4. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. should provide opportunities to.needs and conditions. Enquiry teaching is. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. Training of science teachers. sex or religion.
Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. test. Evidence.6. . 5.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation.4. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Social sciences. 2. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. stern pursuit of accurate data.Herma Wouk. Appreciating pupils ideas.4. 4.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. . Giving less directions. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. 5. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . 300 . if they like. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. It requires consistent thinking. Adopting creative models of teaching. commands or orders.books. 6. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. to ask questions and experience things. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 5. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions.
The students observation. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. school and society at large. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. keen observation. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits.4. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. To achieve this we should understand what it means. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. These include open mindedness. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. of vast resources running waste. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . it must be encouraged.(Smith 2008).7. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. 5. For instance. (Vaidya 2007).Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. therefore should be unbiased and objective. and emphasized during the learning process . critical thinking and suspended judgments. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. to develop among the learners. neighbourhood. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. practiced. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. friends. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.
or superstitions. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. In considering a situation or a problem. intuition or wishful thinking”. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. 5.7. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. he studies all aspects of it. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live.4. think and work it”. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. understanding and logic. rumor. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. 2007). (Das. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. 302 . He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions.
• • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. • 5. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.7. but to begin only after careful planning. 5. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.4.4.7. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.
5. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. 304 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience.4.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. it must be encourages. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook.
Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. D. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Yadav. 5. Proper example of the teacher c. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude.5. a. Study of superstitions d.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Planning of activities 5. 3. N. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15.4. Reflections on Scientific attitude.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. (2006). Discuss the importance of science education 14.B (2008). 5. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. S. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. b. 4.4. b. a. (2008). b. M. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students.4. objectivity. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.S.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. (2000). Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Wide reading b. a. Love for truth enhances. 305 . It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Vaidya. 2. a. 16. Rao. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Adopting creative models of teaching.
9 5. 5.5.7 5.4 5.5.2 5. state the concept.5.5.8 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5.5.LESSON 5. objectives and characteristics.5.10 5. actively.3 5.5. 306 .220.127.116.11 5.1 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population. understand the human relationships in educational institutions. 2. areas of institutional planning.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.5. you will be able to: 1.11 5.5.
every parent.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. State and national levels from below.5. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. and supplement planning from above. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. each teacher. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.5. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy.3. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. teachers and students is not lost sight of. 5. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. • To make institutional planning more successful. and every student in the process of educational planning. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . 5. every teacher. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. in the task of educational planning. which become the bases for further planning at the district. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. • to make planning development-oriented. executive as well as public. and.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. and each student are regarded as separate entities. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. Institution should be regarded as the unit. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. • to involve teachers and school administrators.
etc. Syllabus. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers.5. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. which will be discussed in the general.5.curricular Activities. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. council and. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. and Personnel services. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. it becomes the basis for school inspection.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. (2) Co. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. 5. Co-curricular activities. 308 . having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. Examinations.• implemented. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. approved after making necessary modifications. Classwork.
List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Preparation of instructional material. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. 3. Editing the school magazine. Organisation of Pupils. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. hobby-centres. Improving the internal assessment.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. scientific and historical excursions. Undertaking remedial instruction services. etc. etc.No. Fair distribution of syllabi. etc. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. etc. Preparation of models. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . 2. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Running science clubs. Conducting of educational. Organising play-for-all programmes. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Organisation of class-room libraries. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Organisation of Students’ Association. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Courts. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. etc. Preparation of audio-visual aids. charts and apparatus. 1. Equipping of laboratory and library.
science teachers’ associations. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. teacherinspector. involving mainly human materials. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. understanding. teacher-managing body. pupils. headmasters associations. pupil310 . A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. ii.5. teacher-pupil. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships.” The human relationships in. teacher-State. etc. co-operation. which are divided as the in. and solidarity.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. parent-teacher associations. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. and —pupil-pupil. administrator-administrator. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. administrator-supervisor.5. Administrator-State. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. teachers. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. students’ associations. administrator-pupil. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. teacher-teacher. parents. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal.
It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. pupil-community leader.State. teacher-parent. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. social sciences and other disciplines. According to C. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. Good.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. to carry out. teacher-community leader. superintendence. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. control. pupil-parent. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. organisation. administrator. pupil-non-official functionaries.5." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. pupil-inspector. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. To administer means to manage. V. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It covers personnel and material management. organisation and management. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. It is also being modernized to become a technique. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. to attend. now-a-days. to accomplish. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. supervision. supervision and superintendence. etc. and to serve. 311 . The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5.
He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . Leadership .Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. 5. The relationship should change from master.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. Liasion with the Public .This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. who occupy the managerial positions. 12. This is the latest democratic trend in management. Socio-Scientific Approach .There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship .This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . Democratic Management . Better Human Relationships . He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 9. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. 4.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. 8. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. Rapport between the Management and Employees . He should be an artist in human relationships. 10. 6. 3. 11. Cost-Benefit Analysis . it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.The manager should have leadership traits. 7. 13. If the cost benefit ratio is less. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. Economic Management .Of all the approaches. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. 2.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees.Any good management will always have good public relations. Worker Participation . Decision Making . without this the efficacy will be handicapped. low. it is not worth-while. Communication . Those. Motiviation .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. If it is more. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.
too. enrichment of curricula.g.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . 5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. 5. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. 313 . improvement of teaching methods. 18. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. Wastage and duplication should be avoided.These two are. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. 14. to improve the quality of education it provides. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. 19. and cooperative performance should be ensured.5. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.5. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. objective.
NUEPA. Motiviation d. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. Fundamental of Educational Management.K. (1995). 314 . S. R. Classwork. a.5. Communication 5. d. H. b.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Decision Making b. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. Instruction. and Personnel services. (2003). b. it becomes the basis for school inspection. 2. (2001). Syllabus. APH Publishing Corporation. b. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. Examinations. e. a. Leadership c. 4. Tarachand and Prakash.5. a. Singh. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. f. Educational Administration.M. Co-curricular activities. a.5. c. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. In group and Out group 5. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. to introduce decentralization of educational planning.
Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. 1. Communicable diseases .1 Gurukula system of education.1 Primary Education : Education for all. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .Imbalances and Variations in different environment. First Aid. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. nutritional requirement. women education and teacher education in India. Inspection and Supervision 3. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.Pre-service and In-services facilities.I.Religious and Modern Education 1. 4.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. social Impact 3. Examination reforms. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.4 India's Secular Policy . Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Balanced diet.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Healthy Food Habit 4.2 Nutritional deficiencies. wastage and Stagnation 3.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Buddhist and Jain system of education. Preservation of nutrients.5 Regional Educational Development in India . Realized the problems of school education. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. 2.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.1 Inculcation of Socialism.1 School Health Programme. Sex-education 4. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.CORE PAPER .Article 45 . Code of conduct for teachers.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. physical education and environmental education 5. population education. Common ailments of Children.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Education by Christian Missionaries 1.Preventive measures. Community and Mass Media 2. higher education.teachers should have : 1.3 Educational Influences of Home.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. New evaluation procedures. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. School. Economic 315 .3 Directive Principles .
N. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Realism.4. Ghanta R. (2005) Foundations of Education. Delhi : University Publications 2. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. T. (2004) Problems of Education in India. and Sharma R. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. Mishra. Mahatma Gandhi. Curriculum and national goals . (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. 5. New Delhi: NCERT 3.K.Aim.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Tagore 5.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Saraswathi T. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Socialization. Taneja V. Ram S. and Human Development. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles .S. 316 . Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. 7. curriculum and teacher's role 5. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.R. Prof. Naturalism and Pragmatism . (1999) Culture.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9.C. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.K.K. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. and Dash B. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5.1 Idealism. B. Sharma. Kalan Paper Packs 10. R.K.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. and Mohanty R. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.4 4.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5.N. Hemchand.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. REFERENCE 1. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. Pandy V.
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