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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. and Jain system of education. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. Jainism and their educational implication. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. 9 . During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. The need. In. Lesson 4. Lesson 5. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. Lesson 2. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. discusses the regional educational development in India. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government.
6.4.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 220.127.116.11.1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 18.104.22.168 Features of Buddhist system of Education 22.214.171.124 Educational implications of Buddhist education 126.96.36.199.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.6 Education during British Era 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 188.8.131.52.5.1 1.5.5 Jain system of education 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .LESSON 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 184.108.40.206 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 220.127.116.11.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124.1.
but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Muslim and British periods. in opinion.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. both present and future.1.1. has a long past history starting in vedic education.1. “a class of persons. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. That 12 .1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. British system of education presented the modern western model.8 1. in morals and in the intellect”.1.6. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. 1. but English in taste.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.1.6. Education in India.1. Indian in blood and colour. 1.1. you will be able to: 1. The history of education passed through Buddhist.1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.3.7 1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. 1. describe the Jain system of Education 4. elucidate the education during British Era.1.9 1. India. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.
Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. It was not merely intellectual. individually. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. managed entirely by Brahmans. from eternal to immorality 2. 4. Individual Teaching. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Curriculum. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Education was a private affair of the people. Residential Schools. 13 . to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. The immediate aim of education. with grants of land or money. Free and Accessible. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. There was. Where pupils were many. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. however. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. from darkness. if they thought fit to do so. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. 16. Pupils were taught. Role of Travel in Education. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. No State Control on Education. questioning by the pupil. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Method of Instruction. the monitorial plan was followed. 8. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Teacher as Parents. 13. 3. 9. 6. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 12.knowledge was real. generally. as it is generally considered to be at present. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Immediate Aim Vocational. 11. religious and spiritual. 5. to light. High Status of Teachers. and to agriculture and trade. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Education of Moral. followed by explanation by the teacher. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. 14. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Religious and Spiritual. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. 10. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Forests as Centres of Education. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Method of Study. not en masse by the class method. It was also moral.
Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values.3. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. studied Vedas. lived a life of celebacy. It was freely available to all those who wanted. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. They were very cordial and intimate. 2. It was suited to the needs of the society. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? .17. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony.1. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Wide-Spread Education in Women. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. 1. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today.
Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Right endeavour 7. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. disease and death of the human beings.4. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. the most significant of which were the following 1. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. every class in society. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. 15 . impure conduct.C. had the right to receive education. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms.1. medium of Pali. dressed himself in yellow clothes. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. etc. Right memory 8. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. the student remained in a state of Shramana. the handicapped. Right knowledge 2. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. Right activity 5. Consequently. After attaining the age of 20. partaking of food at prohibited times. I take Refuge to Sangh. the student had his head shaved of all hair. he was qualified to become a monk. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. Right thought 3. except the Chandals. Right speech 4.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Right contemplation 1. killing of any living being. Right means of livelihood 6. It was denied only to the ill. taking things without being offered. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. use of intoxicating things. Education was imparted through the. 1. I take Refuge to Dharma. in which. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. watching dances or listening to music. 2. which included abstaining from theft. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. use of cosmetics.
almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. Even at this stage. aspirations and. depth and range. These are called later Buddhist schools. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. women occupied a position inferior to men. however. so long as it successfully does so. 1. a change is not only total but also perpetual.3. the science of taming and training animals. Later on. geology. agriculture. Whatever its nature and extent. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. changing the goals. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. archery. a continuous change creating 16 . etc. etc. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. 3. 8. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. Life is in a flux. 4. commerce. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. 5. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. eat food thrice a day. Initially. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. nature. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. nothing is of any permanent consequence. education was impart in art. bodily gestures. therefore. be considered the aim of education It. It comprehended education in writing. After this ritual. On this occasion.4. Hence. 7. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. the presence of the monks was essential. military science. arithmetic and religious discussion. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. 6. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. animal husbandry. beg for alms. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. medicine. archery. assumptions. and. along with education in script writing. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. approach. it is regarded as true”. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. knowledge of reviving the dead. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. As reality is becoming. etc. magic.. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. control over sensuous activities. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. wear three items. has no metaphysical value for life. of clothes. objectives of human life. elephant lore. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. 2. cottage industries. meaning. handicrafts.
Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6.1. Jainism insists 17 . twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. goes to Vardhaman. whatever works are true and good. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. Validity is effective and consequences. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. its pessimistic outlook on life. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. 1. however. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. 5. and to give it a shape that it has today. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder.. Write Eight fold path . and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. Education must. therefore. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. it is much older than the latter.5. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas.e. such as. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism.new and peculiar situations. In fact. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. i. Its chief feature. However.
3. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. b) Right knowledge. thought and deed. but on both. Hence. 5. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. and is to be redeemed and liberated. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect.1. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. 1. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. c) Not to steal. 2. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. 10. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. 9. more stress on individual aims. 1.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. 3. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. d) To lead a celibate life. 18 . Development of personality as an individual. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. and believe in happiness to all. 7. 4.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 6. 2. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. b) Not utter falsehood.5. They are: a) Not to injure. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. 8. c) Right conduct. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. it has a foot in both the words. rather than the interpretation of the universe. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. e) To renounce the world. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. As such. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith.
Teaching must develop these faculties. 3. practised and not only aspired for. that would be socially desirable. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.5. 4. Hence. 2. and should bring happiness to all. Jiva is essentially karmic. Knowledge is through senses and meditation.5. 8. 5. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Belief in transmigration of soul. 3. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. What are Triratnas ? . education must be action based and ideally oriented. here and now. education should develop sense of discrimination. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 19 . therefore. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 2. 1. Teaching should be social and tolerant.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . success and love. the precious principles of life that bring happiness.
However. 1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.6. primary 20 . Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. 1. 1. Bombay. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. philosophy and literature of Europe. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1.1.6. 1953).4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. To set up separate departments of.6.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. 2.1. science. 1.6. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. Madras. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. North West Province and Punjab. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. and not for life. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. with rally and rout.
The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. secondary education became a step towards university. 1. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. • Universal free primary education. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. In 1882. • Secondary education.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission).K. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. 1. at the primary level. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. To ensure qualitative improvement. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature.6. 1. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. At that time M. Later on.6. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. they named these schools as polytechnic schools.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. namely. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937).6. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. self-respecting and competent. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams.education was neglected. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. The universities dominated the secondary education.
all children are to have a common curriculum. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9.1. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The objective of education was to provide 22 . 10. After this stage. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
education was impart in art. 2. 4.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. arithmetic and religious discussion. 23 . Right knowledge. 3. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. geology. 4. 3. Right endeavour. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. 1.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. Right thought.1. Right memory. followed by explanation by the teacher. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. the science of taming and training animals. military science. establishment of universities. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Right means of livelihood. along with education in script writing. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 5. handicrafts. Right speech. archery. etc. a. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. The immediate aim of education. It was suited to the needs of the society. 2. The system of education was well-organised. science and English language. During the Buddhist period. questioning by the pupil. Right activity. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. Right contemplation. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India.education of European literature. 6. b..
Sargent report 12. Right conduct. R. c. Improvement of Literature. and Nath.K. 24 . Hence. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Right knowledge. Right faith. 8. more stress on individual aims. a.7. (2009). 9. b. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). 1937 1. (2007).1.C. J. Ltd.K. Development of Educational System in India. Y. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. 11.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. History of Indian Education System. 10. b. 1882. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. a. (1984). Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Y. Ltd. Development of personality as an individual. J. Aggarwal. Singh.C. Sharma.
8 1.5 1.9 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2. The 25 .2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 126.96.36.199.LESSON 188.8.131.52.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.6 1.7 184.108.40.206.1 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.4 National Policy on Education 1.3.2 1.3.3 Kothari Commission 1.4 1.2.1 University Education Commission 220.127.116.11. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.
secondary and higher education. technological engineering. There had been vast institutional expansion. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. examination system. 1. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. medical and legal education. 1. New Educational Policy. National Board of Teacher Education 10. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. you will be able to: 1. Post-graduate 26 . diversification of courses of studies. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. girls and women education besides primary. standard of teaching.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr.2.2. 1986 1. explosion of enrolment. 2. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. National Council for Women’s Education 5. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India.conditions of the teachers. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. technical. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4.3.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. Kothari (1964-66) 8. curriculum. expansion of vocational. vocational education. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. S. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. analyse the progress of education in free India.
Education for Equality. 3. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. Finally.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. accumulated over the years. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. Government of India. Education is the key to our allround development. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. material and spiritual. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. 1952.2. in January 1985. 1. quality. 1. the New National Policy on Education.2. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. National System of Education. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3. quantity. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.S. Kothari. utility and financial outlay. The Essence and Role of Education. A meaningfully Partnership. 1986. 1. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. research et. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. 2. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. Therefore. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29.2. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. Problems of access. D. However. A. 4.teaching. 1966.3. the chairman of University Grants commission. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar.3. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country.
Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. the concepts of work experience. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. By working with hands. It can train practical aptitudes.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. 28 . The UNESCO Report. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs.2. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world.” Thus. attitudes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Thus. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. the minorities and the handicapped. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work.
“as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. The Radhakrishnan Commission. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. As such. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. The Education Commission. Besides. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. With adequate planning. if he wishes. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. it will conduce self. “It may be described. In 1955.” The Mudaliar Commission. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. the Commission. co-ordinations.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. “The aim of these colleges. According to. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position.
In addition. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. Therefore. the. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. Subsequently. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. With a view to relating education to the life. The Central Advisory Board of Education. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. etc. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. for quality of life in the rural areas.ot her. raising the special facilities. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. admission requirements to vocational courses. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. the semester and credit system. the rigid streaming of courses. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W).. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation.
giving importance to productivity in the national development. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. The Father of Nation. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. Commerce. technological courses including Agriculture. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. meaningful. felt that education should be centred around a craft. who conceived the System of Basic Education. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. etc.2. aimed at this goal. meaningful.. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. which offer scientific. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. which are useful to the community.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. According to committee. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. In short. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken.and the world of work. 31 . 1. preferably spinning and weaving. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. which swept the country for over two decades.defined S UP W as “purposive. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. manual work resulting in either goods or services. The wave of Basic Education.
Community work and social service. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Experimentation with materials.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Clothing 5. 2. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Work practice. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. be that the work involved is: 1. tools and techniques and 3. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. so that it is educational in essence. Health and Hygiene 2. as far as possible. Some Hints to Teachers 1. 32 . Productive 2. Educative and 3. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. Culture and recreation 6. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Food 3. 4. Shelter 4. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. 3. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. locally available materials and tools. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. The teachers should make use of.
in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. etc. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. 1. It can become an instrument to build character. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. Merits of the Programme 1. as far as possible. the local community should be actively associated. Check on educated unemployed 4. removal of illiteracy. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school.5. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Community Service In-1972. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Education through work The SUPW should.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. 6. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Productive Work 33 . improve discipline. To make education more realistic. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. inculcate a faith. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. slum clearance. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory.2.
the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. AICTE was set up in year 4. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. in turn.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. should involve itself in the educational effort. Define SUPW 34 . offering first aid. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. traffic control. helping the adults-in productive work. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. skills and better future for the children.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. if not productive. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. etc. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. The community. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme.
1955 4.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 35 .9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. f. a. b. meaningful.2.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.2. 1. 6. e. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5.2. Dr. 1952 3. c. Write short note on SUPW. Radhakrishnan 2. 2. d. manual work resulting in either goods or services. 3. 1. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.1. which are useful to the community. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India.
and Rao. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. : Sharma. (2007).. Singh. (2005). J. V.P. P. Y.K.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.1. (2009). New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007).K.K. 36 . B. History of Indian Education System. New Delhi: A. Publishing Corporation. and Nath. Y. Rao. Anupama.C.2. R. Ltd. History and Problems of Indian Education. A. History of Education.D. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.(2005). Development of Educational System in India. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Amala.H.P.
directive principles and duties of citizens.3. establishing the structure. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. assuring its citizens of justice.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. democratic republic. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.3. equality. containing 395 articles. 1949.3. procedures. Besides the English version. 1950. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.369 words in the English language version.3.6 1.3.8 1.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.3. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.9 1.3. 37 .7 1. for a total of 117.2 1.4 1.3. Being the supreme law of the country. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.5 1. it came into effect on January 26.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 Significance of DPSP 1.3.3. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.3.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.1 1. and liberty. there is an official Hindi translation.3.
you will be able to: 1. legal and environmental. describe the important constitutional articles related to education.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”.3. The Assembly met. 1950. 1. spread over a period of 2 years.3. economic. 1. On August 29. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. learn the role of central and state government on education. administrative.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. for 166 days. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. 4. understand our Indian constitution. the Drafting Committee was appointed. Through them. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. with Dr. 2. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. political. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. 1947. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. According to the constitution.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution.3. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. Two days later. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. in sessions open to public. 38 . 3. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4.3. social. 1947. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights.In the August 14. After many deliberations and some modifications. 1. Dr.
That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Equal pay for both sex. make effective provision for securing the right to work. on the basis of equal opportunity. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. old age. sickness and disablement. men and women. Article 43. Protecting children from exploitation. Article 41. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. The State shall endeavour to secure. Organisation of village panchayat. Article 39A. Protecting health of the workers. 39 . The State shall. and in other cases of undeserved want. for workers. in particular. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes.government. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. provide free legal aid. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. Minimising inequalities in status. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Liking wage etc. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. No abuse of children. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. and shall. Appropriate concentration of wealth.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Article 40. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Equal justice and free legal aid. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Article 42. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Condition for dignity of children. That the health and strength of workers. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Right to work.
in particular. Article 44. work. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. The State shall take steps. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. in particular. a living wage. Uniform civil code for the citizens. in particular. 2002 for “45. Article 46. industrial or otherwise. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Article 49. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Article 47. [declared by or under law made by 40 . the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. See also Article 21A). Participation of workers in management of industries. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. by suitable legislation or in any other way. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. The State shall endeavour to provide. (Original Article 45. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. to all workers. agricultural. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Article 45. Article 48. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Note: Subs. Article 48A. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Article 43A. and. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections.
The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. disfigurement. from spoliation. may be law determine”. 2.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Article-21A Right to Education. removal. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Promotion of international peace and security.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. as the case may be. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. destruction. 2002. Article 51. 1. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. maintain just and honourable relations between nations.Parliament] to be of national importance. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. disposal or export. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Separation of judiciary from executive. Article 50. Article 45 .
Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. iii. 2002. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. ii. 8. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds.” 42 . Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. his guardian has given his consent thereto. language or any of them”. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. and shall protect them. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. 4. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. 5. race. 7. and. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. 3. from justice and all forms of exploitations. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. caste. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. in particular. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. if such person is a minor. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. 6.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the forms. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. & 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Provision for Education for minorities is given in .3. 2. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. 43 . “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Article 351 gives importance to 6. wherever necessary or desirable.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Educational Reforms From time to time. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. for its vocabulary. The central government determines targets and promotes education. and by drawing. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis.9.
government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Production of suitable for children and adults f. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. the state governments. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. private agencies etc.3. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. to achieve the desired ends. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. 5. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . All India Council of Medical Science. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. So as to encourage education on right lines. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. By starting these projects. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. 8. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. Local bodies and private enterprise. The following pilot projects. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. 4. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e.. 6. etc. So that they may work well. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. 7. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states.
handicapped. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. reports etc. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. is the state responsibility. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. 3. The 45 . books. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. etc. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized.3. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. training and statistics. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. 4. 12. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. 1. research. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. 11. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. 1. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. are published by it. 10. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. education for women. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. 9. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. articles in the Directive principles.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . 5. Article 45 b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 1. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Article 46 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write short notes on a. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.3. Article 21A c. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Explain Directive principles 2. 46 .3.
Clearing House function 9. 1. Describe the educational role of State Government. a. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. Development of Hindi Language 6. b.3. may be law determine”. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 4. Article 45 . a. Article 29 and 30 7. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 2002.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 47 . The Directive Principles of State Policy. b. Article 46 5. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. a. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. 3. Article-21A Right to Education. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. 2002. Dr. Ambedkar 2.
Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. K and Narang C. (2008). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Ghosh. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. 48 . Bhatia. S. B. Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2004). N. (2009).3. L. (2007).1.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. Dash. S.
Students should be 49 .2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4.4 Moral education 1.7 18.104.22.168 1.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.4.4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.2 1. Jainism.4.4.4. Islam.4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.5 1.1 Why Moral Education 22.214.171.124 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 126.96.36.199. religious education should be broad based.4.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.1 1.4. Christianity. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.8 1. Buddhism etc.
and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. beauty and goodness so that 50 . enumerate the aims of religious education 4. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. India' can produce men of character. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world.D.” Education broadens human outlook. understand the relationship between religion and education 2.4. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment.. you will be able to: 1. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. know the position of religious education in our country 3. According to E.4. As result of which. duty-consciousness.and dedication. 1. Thus. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. religious education and the concept of secularism.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. "In A multireligious society like ours. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. state meaning and need for moral education 1. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. In the complicated and complex society of today. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. integrity.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong.
rancour. religion and democracy are same. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. realizes God in himself. Viewing the defects of religious education. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. According to Article 19.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. all citizens are free to follow any creed. No religious tax can be imposed on them. As a matter of fact. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education.” From the above. "In view of the provision in the Constitution.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. it is clear that the State has no religion. 1947 we achieved our freedom. Children attend these organizations. According to Article 22. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. Hence.3. Thus. castes and creeds. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. 1. 1. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. at least occasionally. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. through religious practices and 51 . our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose.3. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. They thought that any kind of narrow. if not regularly. In short.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education.4.4. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. As our country is a country of diverse religions.
It helps to modify habits attitudes. As a result of which. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. one fully developed. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. He also learns about social. and what is evil. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . moral and spiritual values. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion.. intellectual and physical faculties of children. what is done and what is not done etc. temperament etc. It is religious education. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. for the development of the individual and the society. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character.teachings. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. when he becomes an adult. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. which help him for the development of his character. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. which can mould. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. aggressive. If unreleased. Good education. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna).
3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. This should not be allowed to happen. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. towards the society. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. which is the basic need of a democratic life. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and.4. 53 . religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. 2. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. 1. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. 3. Therefore.3. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. If we open the pages of history.
5. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Life histories of great persons of the world.4. Gurudwara as. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Write Article 22 2. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. therefore. stories of moral greatness. examples of patriotism. 11. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. 10. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 9. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. For this. fellow-feeling. churches and mosques 7. Since all religions have virtues.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 .
6. the methods of teaching. Purity. Patriotism.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. The content of the curriculum. It they learn what morality is in their early years. 5.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Self sacrifice. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). “Let all be happy and free from disease. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. They will play their role effectively. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 6. in the home. Brahmacharya (celebacy). personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Moral education. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Satyam (truth). Non-injury. therefore. 4. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 2. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. is that which develops moral values. let men see well of one another.4. 55 . It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Asvada (Control of palate).acquisitiveness). 3. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 1.4. Aparigarha (Non. Cultivation of emotions. students. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. 7. Service to others. 8. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Fearlessness. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 7. 5. 3. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Without moral values. 4. Swadeshi (Patriotism). 2. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. 1.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 8.
Discipline. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. minutes in the morning for group singing. 56 . Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). 2. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. National unity and Spiritual values. Good temper. In the school programme. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Sharivashram (Physical work). 11.4. 3.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Efficiency. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. The School Assembly should be held for a few. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. 3. Good manners. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Secondary Stage 1. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . 1. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. loyalty and self-sacrifice.9. religions may be included in the syllabus. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Unity of mankind. Asatyam (Non-thieving). Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Integrity. discipline. 10. Simple texts and stories concerning different. 4.
List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . 3. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. University Stage 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 57 . 4. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. In other words. In this connection. Silent meditation should be encouraged. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school.4. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. love of humanity. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. 5. patriotism and self-discipline. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. should form a normal part of school programme. 5.
They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. a. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. 58 . aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. b. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. 4. 1. a. Sri Prakasa 6 . Training of Character 3. 2. 1959 5. 2. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education.4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.1. For this. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.4. Discuss the aims of Religious education. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.4. the. a. 1. minutes in the morning for group singing. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. b. In short.
4. (2007).11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2004). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2008). L. (2008).1. B. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi: A. K and Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N.H.P. J. Pahuja. M. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 59 . Bhatia. New Delhi : Siddiqui. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. N. Dash.C. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. P. (2003). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.H. K.
5.3 1.10 1.5.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.. i.1 1.6 1.8 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.4 1.9 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.7 1.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.188.8.131.52. disparities between provinces/States.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5 1.12 1.2 1.5. 60 .5.5.e.11 1.5. Although.
waters. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. 1. know the education suited to different environments. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. 5.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. work hard towards this end.5. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. 3. 7.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the regional educational development in India 3. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. 4.1. you will be able to: 1. Accordingly. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region.5. 1.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. roads. energy.5. 8.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. 2. They therefore. they take appropriate measures. 61 . for example. This leads to separatist movements. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies.5. etc. 1. 6. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.
which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only .Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. • Separate States (of course viable States). some average. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. Therefore. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. 3. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. some States became educationally far advanced. Tight security arrangements should be made. 62 . some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. on the basis of regional development may be formed. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. while others remained educationally backward. There are many reasons for this during the British rule.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. Secularism. 2. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. 4. and.5. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly.
In the Central sector. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. remained under developed. Even in each State. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education.392. etc. Itanagar. Rs.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. Silchar. and provision of informal education to enable those.. Mizoram. academic buildings. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools.After the Planning Process has originated. These projects are in various stages of implementation. the Union Government. Regional Centres of IGNOU. Tezpur. Central Universities of Assam. After the attainment of independence.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. scholarships. Guwahati. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums.14. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. etc. Nagaland and NEHU. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted.84 crore was released in 2005-06. approved proposals worth Rs. the State Governments. However. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. 1. Jammu and Kashmir.480. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. while some States like Bihar. Funds amounting to Rs. NERIST. library buildings. Out of this. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. 63 .g. since its inception in 1998-99. books.5.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. NIT.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.
5. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. Tezpur University. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.05 crore and Rs.57 crore and Rs. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. Moreover.187.261. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.8 per cent in 05). the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.500. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.40. too. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. During 2003-04. Government expenditure on education. 64 . is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. Out of this an amount of Rs.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.501. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. A provision of Rs.
health services and welfare of the citizen population. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. 1. notes the study. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. engineering and R&D. Kerala and Gujarat. Karnataka.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. English. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. Medical education. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). Andhra Pradesh. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). is very low compared to Southern and western parts. To add to the woes. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Karnataka. The Chandigarh Administration. Moreover. too. pharma. for instance. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. Listing the positives. too. Tamil Nadu. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. telecom. too. for which 16 sites. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur.5. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself.
the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. even actually looking at the watch. 66 . Of course. the socio-physical conditions. the curricular subjects. the interests. The living conditions. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. the working days: an academic . Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. the needs. while the former does not. life-oriented and environment slanted. For a learner living in a rural area. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. which a non-tribal person cannot do. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. when he will not be sure of time. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. In the same manner. taking the average in the middle. Hence it is called as need-based. in which the learners live. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. The working hours of educational institutions. the vocations. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers.year. the teaching methods. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. Then education become realistic and idealistic. and so on.
5. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. to suit education to different environments? 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .5. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. 1.5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. 2. 2. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 67 . Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.
some of areas which were under the native rulers. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. some States have become more developed than others b. 68 . and Nair.N.K. New Delhi: Authors press. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. (2001). S. Education in Developmental Arena. Education Scenario in India.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2001). (2002). A. Educational Development in India. Giridhar. (2008).2. R. during the British rule. remained undeveloped 3. 60% 1. C. S.G. Dubey.5. a. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.H. Salim.
UNIT – II 69 .
characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. school community and mass media. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. National Integration. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. community development. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. semi literate and illiterates. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. secularism and democracy through Indian education. 71 . The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system.
1.7 184.108.40.206.4 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .220.127.116.11 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.1.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.2 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.1 18.104.22.168 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.9 2.3 22.214.171.124 Education for Secularism 2.1.1.LESSON 2.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 126.96.36.199.8 2.
The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. socialism and secularism 2. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’.1. colour or wealth. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. creed. Abraham Lincoln. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. understand the concept of democracy. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. This is the political aspect of democracy.1.1. there should be made no distinction of caste. socialism and secularism 2. In the matter of admitting students in schools. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. 73 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. for the people by the people”. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. 2. you will be able to: 1. socialistic and secular state. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.2. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. 2.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. Democracy thus means power of the people. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. The students may be associated with the management of the school. 3) Provision of Manual Work. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow.
There are different brands of socialism. 74 . Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. declamation contest etc. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3.1. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. it soon spread all over the world. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. 12) Visits to Legislatures.. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. debates. may be planned. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 11) Student Parliament. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. Democracy means 2.
2. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work.1. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 2. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system.5. 7) Special facilities for girls. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 75 . none high”. service and cooperation. the wealthy and the poor.5. but on the path of non-violence. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. oppression and disparity.1. Under it. 2) Socialism aims at equality. free from exploitation. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. the prince and the peasant. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.
moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth.1. According to Holydake. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. 2. 11) State schools. Everyone says. Write any two main features of socialism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. “India is a secular-country. 76 . Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. "which seeks the development of physical. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students.” In every political and educational corner. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. secularism is being propagated. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary.
2) It permits freedom of religion.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation.1. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 77 . That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. liberty. 2. During the recent past. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. 5) It implies tolerance. 6) It has faith in rational thinking.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. 3) It permits freedom of worship. That is why. should be independent of religion. fraternity. In this type of prevailing situations. people started believing in regionalism. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. education etc.1. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. 9) It stress free inquiry. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. the belief that the state morals.6. Moral values have to be imbibed. A large number of people is uneducated. 8) It believes in co-existence. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. There is need of making the people open minded. “Webster further says.opposed to religious education. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. people have narrow mindedness. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading.6. Equality.
6. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. The students may be taken to different centers of religions.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. The very sight of the building. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. While doing so. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. Patiala. education. No doubt. 1) Moral Education.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. Religious Education. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers.presented by the students in the gathering. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. students belonging to different religions should be associated. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. tours and trips may be organized. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. that the central string of all religions is one. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance.1. In the hands of such teachers. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. There should be some internal checking of the material being. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. In the celebration of each such function. 2. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 .
Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Secularism 9. 2. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. No doubt.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. The term secularism was first used by 8. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. The word “Seculum” means 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For.
b. a.1. 5. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. b. Power of the people 2. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. 5. 4. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. creed. Provision of Manual Work. 3. c. George Jacob Holydake 80 . Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Since socialism stands for equality. a. 3. Equal Opportunities for Admission. colour or wealth. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. there should be made no distinction of caste. Tuition free education b. What are the implications of socialism on education 2.1. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Abraham Lincoln. 6. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. d. This present age 7. In the matter of admitting students in schools. 2. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. for the people and the people”. Socialism aims at social justice. Respect of Individual Personality.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. a. 4. Socialism aims at equality.
Theory and Principles of Education. J. B. b. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. b. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Anmol Publications Pvt.” 9. L. Mohanty. N. (2003). (2004). It permits freedom of religion.C. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 10. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.1. Bhatia. education etc. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. J. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. It treats all religions on an equal footing. Modern Trends in Indian Education.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Ltd.8. (2005). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2008). 81 . P. New Delhi : Pahuja. the belief that the state morals. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Dash. should be independent of religion. Ltd. a. N. a. K. K and Narang C. (2007).
2.8 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.1 International understanding in the school 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 220.127.116.11.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.10 2.2.LESSON 2.2 2.2.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 18.104.22.168 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.3 2.5.9 2.2.7 2.4 2.1 2.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.
2. skills. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. application. understandings. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. aims and objectives of the school.2. and 4. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. therefore. It involves physical. you will be able to: 1. a r e 1. 2. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. mental. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. as learners. 2. The developmental roles of children. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. 3. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. 83 . The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. moral. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. as citizens. development.an instructor of school children. who are placed in his custody. social and moral aspects.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. as workers. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. social. as persons. as it is t he aim o f modern education.2. A teacher is first and foremost.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. emotional.generation to another.
teacher has to play the role of a citizen. The following are some of such roles described in brief. mentally. mental. He is to become an active member. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. member of his community at the outset. 2. experiences and acceptance. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. inquisitive.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. morally. morally. intellectually. a part of their day in 84 . and aesthetically to become. 3. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. The students live. 2. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. He has to look after their physical. culturally confident. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. 1. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. economically effective. socially. physically fit for socially efficient. motivated. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. Teacher as a Citizen Next.All education should lead to better behavioural development.2. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. emotionally. social and emotional health.
List out the role of teachers towards community development . It 85 . it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. languages and religions. 4. Unless. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. Dr. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. and most of hours. creeds. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs.2. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. India is a land of many castes. solve them. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. faiths. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They will be spending with their parents. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. science club.the school being under the custody of teachers. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. activities of the society into which he is born. 2. fine art associations. photographic clubs.
a. the citizens of the Republic of India.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. ‘We should not become parochial.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. social studies. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. c.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. It should broaden the outlook. folklore and teaching of social studies.” Regarding the role of education. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform.2. At the primary stage the importance of stories. this integration of the Indian people. should be emphasised. Let us. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. stand up straight. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . therefore. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. Sampurnanand remarked.” 2.is. the study of language and literature. The only process is the process of education. b. narrow-minded provincial. poems. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. national anthem and other national songs. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. 1. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. Nehruji has explained this as. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities.5. and make into one strong national unit. with straight backs and look up at the skies. Radhakrishnan. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. Re-orientation of the Curriculum.
Co-Curricular Activities. 4. Scouts and Guides. Celebrations of National Days. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. ACC. Singing of National Anthem. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Textbooks. 2. 6. Taking Pledge. educational excursions. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. National Days—January 26. 10. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Reverence of National Flag. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Uniform for School Children. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important.different social sciences. 87 . Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. debates. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. dramatics and youth festivals. sports. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. 7. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. and picnics. 3. t he st udent s and t he community. languages and literature. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Student Camps. 5. 9. tours. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. symposia. 8. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. militar y training like the NCC. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen.
Admissions. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. 88 . t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. 2. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 14. 12. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. 13. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. region or religion. ii. Students Exchange and Tours. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. 15. flora and fauna.2. ways of thinking and doing things. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. language. Open-Air Dramas. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. iii. Educational and Travel Documentaries. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and .11.5. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. iv. 16. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. Admissions to schools. colour. School Projects. v. Recognition of Institutions. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places.
"There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’.2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. ix. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. viii.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Define National Integration 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. vii. irrespective of national boundaries. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. cultures and races on equal bases. 2. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Community dinners. camps.vi.
exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. and the healthy development.6. Teachers 90 .2. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. of his body and mind.friendships between children of different countries. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. often in connection with anniversaries. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. 3. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. if it happens. the international level.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. (b) stories of children of other lands. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. 4. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. 2. Radhakrishnan states.. 5. (c) fairly tales. 6. Organising of debates and. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. 2. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations.” 2. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. Dr. therefore. This. C. In a very real sense.as important as that of a national citizenship. Therefore. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it.2.F. patriotism is not enough. that war.6.e. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. Strong has observed.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Indian and American. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. Impartial in their Treatment. Russian. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background.” Well Informed About World Situations. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should not be propagandists. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. an Englishman. a German.
they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students.2.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. Chronic Poverty .7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. 5.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. understand and indiscipline: 1. As the school is but a miniature society. there is wide spread frustration among all people. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .2. which results in agitation and aggression language.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. and help the students to over . the education function can be carried. majority of people are. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 .Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. If this is done. Wide Spread Frustration . 2. Devaluation of Values . 4. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. 3. It does not prepare students for life. Soon after they leave their educational institutions.Another major. leading to. Defects of the educational System . A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully.
In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner.2. co-operation. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. 2.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. community development. 4. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. fellow feeling. love.2.democratic nature. sympathy and good will among the nations. 3. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. 93 . 5. 2. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 22.214.171.124 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 126.96.36.199 Functions and role of schools in the society 188.8.131.52 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 184.108.40.206 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 220.127.116.11 Radio as an agency of education 18.104.22.168 Television as an agency of education 22.214.171.124 Press as a medium of education 126.96.36.199 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
188.8.131.52 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 184.108.40.206 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
220.127.116.11 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
18.104.22.168 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
Moreover. periodicals.V. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. led to the printing of books. Then came newspapers. Crow and Crow write. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Hence. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. books. To make them achieve their aim. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. art galleries. the invention of the printing press. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. Museums. Define community. Now internet is being used. He taught his students orally. are increasingly used in education. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. 2. “All the citizens of the community. Emphasising this thing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room.3. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. In fact.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. During the course of time.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do.
rather than on picture.3. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Thus. “Listening participation” in current history. Various talks. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Important happening inventions. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students.6. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. It is also an important source of entertainment. Thus. 2. In the emphasis is on sound. Effective means of presenting music. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. social studies. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. Students listen various talks. politics. It stimulates curiosity and interests. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. languages. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. It enlightens public opinion. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. current affairs and other areas. A lot of work by way of pre.G. music.telecast. the teacher still occupies. the place of importance. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. 2. Reynolds. art. In collaboration with the experts. dram appreciation. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. 101 . The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning.classroom teachers. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching.
It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. 4. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. at drawing room. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. audibility and presentability. at play. 3. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. School concerts. speech. at recreational centers. informal and non-formal education. development of lessons. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. mathematics. travel talks. Participation of local teachers and pupils. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. Making learning an open system. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Team-teaching demonstrations. at any place. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. 5. At present. Before presenting the programme. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. projects or creative activities. 102 . fol classical music. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. style. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. plays. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Educational radio excels through dramatisation.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 22.214.171.124 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
126.96.36.199 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 188.8.131.52 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 184.108.40.206.1 2.5 220.127.116.11.2 2.4.LESSON 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.3.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4 Non formal educational system 18.104.22.168.4 Advantages of Non formal education 22.214.171.124.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.6 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 126.96.36.199.4.4.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.3.8 2.4.3 Advantages of formal education 2.7 2.3.4.
1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. 2. 3. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 2. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. 2. Education. 7.2.3. the temple. School is. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. Education associated with a degree or certificate. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan.4.4.4. the community. 2. 4. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education.4. 9. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. 110 . his mental alertness. you will be able to: 1. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. 3. open school. Education organised by some agency. In ancient time in India. 2. 8. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 5. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. compare formal and non formal system of education. imparted at the residence of the teacher.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. the most important agency of formal education. the mass media et. the learner are acquainted. the family. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. 4. starting and ending at -a particular age. open university. 6. To realize this objective of education.. say the Government or the private enterprise. it was mostly.
but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. structured education. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal.4. In general. such as a high school or secondary school. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Some education systems have separate middle schools.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. or academic degrees. the elements of language are first learned. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. depending on the jurisdiction. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. 2. third stage. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen.3. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. or post secondary education. and relations are formed and developed through normal play.3. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. as well as vocational education and training. Concepts of proportion.2. Through early formal education. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. also called tertiary. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Higher Education: Higher education. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. capacity. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education.4.a secondary education.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. diplomas. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 .
4.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1.which will help for nation's development.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. is an important agency of formal education. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. 3. 2.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. late beginners etc.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Agencies can be classified as 2. and remote dwellers. children with disabilities. 4. What are levels of formal educational system? . 2. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs.
Thus. place of instruction. It is deliberate. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. until 1970 it had not been defined.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. staffed. continuing education and on the job oriented education. admissions. planned. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.formal education. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. it is a more effective tool for rural development. It is functional.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. It unlocks the doors of development plans. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education.e.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system.. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. systematic.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. one could say that non-formal education is an active. Adiseshiah. systematic. curriculum.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. It is much more responsive to needs and change. Open university. i. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. According to Malcolm A. Therefore. financially supported life formal education. etc. open learning. “Non-formal education should 113 . However. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. to help themselves. it has its own valid claim to reality. adults as well as children. Non-formal education includes adult education. adding up to a true learning society.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action.learning client take some learning objectives.
6. modes of teaching. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. curriculum. To help industrial workers to better their skills. self. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. co-curricular activities. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. 5. 2. international understanding. It should lay emphasis on the self. 3. 114 . "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. the Ideas of citizenship. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs.S. 2.” 2. Part-time education. evaluation etc. Lawrence. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. socialism. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. exploring.learning pattern.4. national integration. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.4. Preparation for future needs.4.renewal. age.4. Covering life span of an individual.S. Flexibility in various aspects of education. place of education. 7. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields.e. Process of sharing. i. admissions. To develop in the student.” According to H. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things.be marketable and vocationalised. 4.
Eradication of adult literacy. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 5. 3. 10.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 115 . Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. 9.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. publication and information dissemination. Universalisation of primary education. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. Technical. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society.4.4. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live.4. 2. working adults. 8. 2. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 3. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country.4. in villages and those who live in towns. 6. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. 4. school dropouts. • 2. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 4. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Senior Secondary. 5.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To offer Secondary. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. Meeting the omissions of formal education. 7.
public libraries. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. etc. if organised in isolation.full time to learners – can be home. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. self-employment iii.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. effective in modern societal context. Radio and television. Therefore. open space.4. Institutions for formal education. Again. library. All-round development i.4. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. 4. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. To make if.4. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. training centres in factories. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. 2. 3. 2. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. farm. etc. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home.2. To increase knowledge and 2. centres of correspondence education. To better qualifications. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. others are formal and informal. factory.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give examples of non formal education? . institution. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. 7. . Correspondence lesson. radio. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods.V. Face Contact programmes. List out any two aims of non formal education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . Teaching to face teaching. 117 . Define non formal education. 6. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Lecturing T.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Written tests. Essay Assignments and short answer questions.
” 6. 2. Open School. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. systematic.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Pre-school level. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. 4. 118 . is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. School 3. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. adults as well as children. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. 7. The school. a. 5. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. 3.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 2. Primary level. b. Formal and Non Formal 2. Secondary level.4. a. the college and the university come under this category. b.4. 4. Higher Secondary level and University level. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education.2. Open learning and Correspondence Courses.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Open University.4.
S. B.2. N. Theory and Principles of Education. J. L. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Mohanty. (2005). (2003). New Delhi : 119 . Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. Ltd. K. K and Narang C.C. (2008). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.4. Anmol Publications Pvt. Bhatia. (2004). Pahuja. Ltd. Education in Emerging India. (2007).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2008). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. P. Dash. Gupta.
8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .7 2.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 188.8.131.52.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 184.108.40.206 Need for Open University 220.127.116.11.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.2 2.5 18.104.22.168.5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.4 Open University 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5.4.LESSON 2.5.1 22.214.171.124.6 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.3 Objectives of Open University 126.96.36.199 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.3.
their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. Under these circumstances. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. Education is for refinement and enlightenment.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. continuing education is a boon.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. economic field or such other fields. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically.5. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . It is a continuous process.2. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. industries. 2. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. know the need and objectives of open university. 2. For them. It is a lifelong process. you will be able to: 1. characteristics of open university 4.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. This knowledge may be in political field.5. 2.5. labourers and half educated individuals. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. Thus. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. However.3. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. Any person.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. farmers. give the meaning. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.5.
our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Cinema. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature.literate person. Throughout the country.5. Doctors. Radio and T. On the other hand.directly related to his job. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Block Development Officers. On the other hand. Radio. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. deteriorating to his character and personality. Thus. Persons engaged in health services.V. For them too continuing education is essential. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. cultured and progressive.3. 2. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. are also contributing their might for the purpose.V. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. After the achievement of independence.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. if he gets opportunity to develop them. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. T.
(6) folk stories.. (8) psychology of adults. (17) modern international and national events.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely.3. 2. we have not been able to achieve our targets. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (1) ancient history. (13) psychology of child behaviour. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (14) information about bringing up young children. (7) folk songs. (16) liking. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. 4. 2. These books are not very useful. especially women. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. and Radio. 3. habits of people of other lands. 5. (2) basic religious matters. Inspite of the great efforts. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (9) fundamentals of philosophy.3. 6. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (10) first aid.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.V. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life.5.5. Of course. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. 123 . (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 7. (4) the fundamentals of economics. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. 2. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (15) music.
of educational opportunities. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. What is the objectives of NLM? 3.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. attendance restrict ion. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. lack of time etc. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. 2. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. NLM was launched in the year 2.5. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns.4.5. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e .
it makes use of educational techno logy. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. 3.4.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. c. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. e. Which was the first open university in India? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system.5. d. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. 2. 4.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . and in teaching. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. 5.unobserved. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. the higher the degree of openness. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. Education is not a once for-all process. b. its education is not class room based but home based. 2. but 125 . IGNOU was established in the year 6. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. No one is too old or too late to learn.
Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. cho ice o f co ur ses. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced.4. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 126 . 6. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. or who realised too late that they need it. Mo re o ver. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. it a ims at wider and hig her. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”.5. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. 2. supplementing the existing provision. 3. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 2. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l.5. 3. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. who were deprived of t he same earlier. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 2. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all.who did not get it. 5. 4. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. 2. 4.4. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n.
a state or nation. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. 3. 8. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. semi – literates.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Correspondence tuition. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes.5.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Every day.2. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve .5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. 5. 127 . 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates.4. Tutor Comments. Therefore. List out any four methods of Open University? . 8. 4. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. 1. Laboratory works. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. In the present day world. a society. 7. 2. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. school drop outs. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. you have learnt the concept. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . Self instructional materials. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living.
P r int med ia b. agricultural and industrial workers. b. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals.5. Broad casting lectures c.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. 8. cho ic e o f co u r ses. 2. 6. b. 1988. a. Television Lessons. which may include house wives. its education is not class room based but home based. a. 7. (1) ancient history. youth. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. 1985. Explain the objectives. need and characteristics of Open University.5.ambitious learners. 4. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. a. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 9. 128 . The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. unskilled workers and other professionals. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 8. d. 3. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. (2) basic religious matters. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. aspirants for continuing education. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 7. 2.
Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.S. K and Narang C.. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Reddy. (2004). (2004). (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. R. Modern Problems of Education. (2001). New Delhi: Rajat Publication.2. K. 129 .K. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Udaiveer.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. L. Ltd.5.
UNIT – III 131 .
Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. wastage and stagnation. examination. Training teachers for all levels of education. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. In Lesson 2. 133 . Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. and teacher education. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. Examination reform. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. the education of women. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. its causes and remedial measures. which may claim the attention of those concerned. All which is the need of the hour.
1.5 3.1.LESSON 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.2 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3. 135 .188.8.131.52 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.4 3.2 EFA – How? 3.1 3.3 New initiatives.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.7 184.108.40.206 EFA – For whom? 3.8 3.6 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 220.127.116.11.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.1.1.
It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. Eradication of Illiteracy. therefore.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. On the other hand. education received added importance and significance. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). (EOI) 2.3. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. Therefore. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. directed that. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education.1. 3. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. Continuing Education (CE) 1. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. 2. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). economic or cultural. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. understands the country. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. social. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). may be political.1. “The State shall 136 .
the national Government under. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Even then we have not yet achieved the target.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. After the attainment of independence. Universalization of Retention. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Universalization of Enrolment. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Three Stages for Universalization. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. 3. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. rights and responsibilities. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration.endeavour to provide. 137 . Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. It enables the parents to send their children to School. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Therefore. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Continuing Education (CE). the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year.
we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. This target had to be revised to 1970. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. later to 1988. educational enterprise. 138 . “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1990. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. then to 1976.1. Write Article 45. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. Therefore.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. UNESCO Bulletin states. 1995 (for upper primary stage). 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal.3. present and future. It is safe to assure. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960.
rural areas. 6. 12. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. Emphasis must be given on health education. 5. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. problem of literacy. nutrition education and sports and games. their social economic status and occupations. 10. slum areas. By undertaking survey. creed. 8. In order to make the programme of education for all community. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. FELF. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. and Women’s education programme should be improved. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. Education of the Impaired. sex. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Disabled. Early childhood education should be streamlined. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them.1. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. 3. 9. Apart from primary education. Education of Girls. 11. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. 139 . etc.3. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). adolescent and adult. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. their enrolment and retention. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. The Social Education. 3. NAEP. Jams and Jellies.
According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. 3.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.3.3 NEW INITIATIVES. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.e. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.3. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. 4. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.1. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Wastage and Stagnation. Expand MLL and SSA . Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.
Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. Familial Factors .first stage of education.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. Social Factors . School Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. it is considered as wastage.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Personal Factors .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.
can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. . . 142 . Define Wastage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.
rural or urban 3. Family Factors .The following factors. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. in his home. Personal Factors . are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. They are described hereunder :1. Societal Factors . relating to home.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. school or society.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .3.1. School Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.
appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. 144 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. etc. Define Stagnation? 9. mid-day meals.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. stationary. uniforms. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books.
1.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 145 . Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA.1. 3.3. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. therefore. 4. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. a.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. improvement of curriculum.” 3. Hartog Committee. Universalization of Enrolment c. 4. “The State shall endeavour to provide.. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. 6. b. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. directed that. 3. Universalization of Retention 2. 2. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Universalization of Provision b. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. a. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. 3. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA.1. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Minimum Levels of Learning b. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. a.
Sharma.K. b. a. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.N. Hemchand. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Crescent Publishing Corporation. Problems of Elementary Education.K. S. New Delhi: 146 . Personal Factor b. S. (2008). Social Factors 8. 9. a. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. improve examination system.1. (2001). 3. (2007). School Factors d. Familial Factors c. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers.7. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. T. introduce graded curriculum.
7 Open book examination 18.104.22.168 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 22.214.171.124 Question banks 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.4.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 126.96.36.199.5.1 Choice Based Credit System 188.8.131.52.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Inspection and Supervision 3.1 Problems of examination 3.LESSON 3.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.5.2 18.104.22.168.3.5 New evaluation procedures 22.214.171.124 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .4.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2.2 Grade System 3.5.1 3.
3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. you will be able to: 1.2.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .2. Besides. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. 3. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.2. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. suggest the new evaluation procedures. but on the other. 3.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. 4. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.2. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.9 126.96.36.199.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2.8 3. 3. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. 3. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.
. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. The following steps should be taken up. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. They develop secondary sex characteristics.2. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. If the students are in sufficient number. which the educational authorities have to face.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. etc. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. 3. They may cause problems relating to discipline. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. hostel facilities.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. waiting rooms for girl students. roadside Romeoism. schools for them wherever necessary. etc. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life.3. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. etc. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. 149 .
the net-work of examination system has also become vast. teachers. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. public interested in education.2.4. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. conduct of internal examinations. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. 3. public administrators and statesmen. the examination system has an important role to play. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. assessment and Finance. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations.2.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. appointment of paper-setters. It is considered as a major sub-system. Instruction. 150 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. scrutinizers. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . etc. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. etc.4. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. training of examiners. etc. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. invigilators. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. values.printing and distribution of question papers. etc. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. etc. establishing reliability.2. introducing objective-based testing. announcement of results. examiners. validity and practicability. 3. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. tabulators.
3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education.2. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. which they are expected to study.. 3. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. takes the place of comprehensive learning. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. 2) From the angle of content of education. 152 .4. lack of objectivity etc. halo-effect. not meant to be assessed in the examinations.. Subjects. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. 7) In connection with the question papers. stereotyped questions. also forbid the reliability of these examinations.. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. 3) With respect to method of teaching. Vagaries in making. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. it s a common experience that subjectivity. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. do not appeal to the students and parents. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. Rote memorisation. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. may also discredit them.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made.
. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. etc. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. may be introduced. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. 4. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. re-numbering of answer scripts.develop true love for education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. . revaluation. Spot valuation. Question Books may be developed in all schools. List any two merits of examination. 153 . Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests.a part of internal assessment.
It is complicated. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . 3.2. skills are given importance. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Their interests. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. Every paper is treated equal. When a person chooses to work extra. In actual practice.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3.5.2. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. he is given extra credit points. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. In this system. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination.3. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. The new scheme of assessment.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. attitudes. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times.5. The students can take any course offered in any department.2.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.
FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. courses can have weightages defined. While designing syllabus. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . In the new system. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper.2.poor. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. 3. or as a 4 credit course. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. This system reduces comparison of marks.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. An example is a seminar.discipline. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. v. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. only the total credits to be earned is specified.5. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. These weightages are called credits. Groupism is encouraged. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. poor. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents.good.
Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.2. 3. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.2. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.5. 3.5.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. However. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.2. 156 . Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.5. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. 3. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students.
In the hierarchy. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. recruitment. Therefore. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . However.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . List any four new evaluation procedures. There are no proper procedures for selection. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.2. 6.5. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. . 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.
and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools.. being realised as two different functions. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. inspecting the class-room teaching. in a sense. Academic inspection. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. submitting of the inspection reports. in contrast. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. finding out whether the prescribed text. library books. qualifications. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. When they are fully realised. school buildings. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. 158 . lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. of late.2. staff. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. requirements. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. complaints and compliments. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. 3. disciplinary problems. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. whether the syllabus has been covered. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. books are followed. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. playgrounds.. taking up the follow-up programmes. wherever necessary. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. etc. finding out the adequacy of. 1. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. etc. interpersonal relationships and so on.6. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number.qualified personnel. laboratory equipment.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. They are.
courses. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors.Ed. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. modern. Insistence on specialisation in the B. 3. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level.2. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. M.. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. In the case of departmental candidates. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Similarly. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose.. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. at least. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. their professional knowledge. In the light of these conceptualisation. 159 . attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments.Ed. aptitude. or. course in either educational.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. once in five years. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors.
5. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country.2. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. Administration. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. a. 3. b. b. 3. 3. 3. Instruction. 2. a. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. assessment and Finance. d. a.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. c. Grade System. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. 160 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. 3. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper.2. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education.
5. S. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. c. Open book examinations. R and Sharma. K. New 161 . a. Educational Reforms. History and Problems of Education in India.4. (2002). Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.2. a. a.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. (2005). Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Problems of Education in India. Vaidya. (2004). Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. b. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. 7. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.a part of internal assessment. 3. Question banks. K. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. b. Multiple sets of question paper. b. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline.
6 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3. 162 .188.8.131.52 3.4 3.3.8 3.1 184.108.40.206 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. 3. you will be able to: 1. identify the needs of rural India and social. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities. 2.3. 5.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.LESSON 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. 220.127.116.11 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3.5 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. impact of Higher Secondary Education.10 3.3. 4.2 3.3 3.
e. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. Similar is the case with some other States.. 8 years of general education. The. 2. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. the Banaras Sanskrit College. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. in Andhra Pradesh. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education.3. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses ..3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.e. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges.. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. i. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education.e. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919.g. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta.specialisation programmes 3. Consequent on the recommendations. Commission emphasised to continue.. 10 years of general Secondary Education. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. University Education. The Calcutta Madras. and 3 years of First Degree Course. etc.3. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i.
to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . economical and political. to prepare. 8. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures.a sense of dignity of labour. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. social.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 5) to help for the social. b. cultural and economic development of the country. educational channels. historical. 5. Provision for transfer of credits to students. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. habits of hard work and develop . is also a plus point . and. However. 3. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage.confidence in students. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. who desire to change from one stream to another.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. to imbibe. 7. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. 10. 6. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal.3. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9.
50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . Here the choice of subjects is provided for. and. 1. and that required to enter the tertiary level. Philosophically it is not the conception. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. The General Educational Spectrum. democratic living. Psychologically. cultural and' religious tolerance. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. to develop national character. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. social justice. cooperativeness. on one hand. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. Sociologically it is undesirable.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum.3. international understanding. at the other..national integration. etc. 3. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies.
medical plants. Biology. industrial agricultural production is growing. the rural areas have suffered very much. India is a land of villages. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. 3. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. In the matter of language.— tube-wells. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. Science. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. chemistry. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. and vocations based on dairy-farming.3. such as Agriculture. horticulture. 2. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. physics or mathematics. educational and cultural services. technical. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. All these need for an. commerce. fish culture. Agriculture is the main occupation. In the vocational spectrum.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. or other machinery. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. 166 . technological. vegetable growing. In our country. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Commerce and other disciplines. professional.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. commerce. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. rural health. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers.
Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely .. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. interests and aptitudes of the students. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. There had been favourable reaction from the students. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? .7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. social justice. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging.etc. and 5. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. In this it may be concluded.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. and the needs. 3. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. In time. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. can be ensured. etc. In this way. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. the local resources available.3. 4. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 .
New Delhi : 168 . Mohanty. N.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.3. (2001). Dash. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. a. b.a sense of dignity of labour.K. B. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. Calcutta University Commission 2. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.C. Anmol Publications Pvt.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. (2007). to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. General Educational Spectrum and b. 3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. J.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage.3. S. J.3. b. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3.3. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2005). objectives. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Vocational Sepctrum. a. 3. 2. (2008).3. we studied the history. habits of hard work and develop . to imbibe. a. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. 3. Ltd.
10 18.104.22.168.8 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.7 3.3 22.214.171.124 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 126.96.36.199 3.4.4.LESSON 3. but the lighting of a fire”.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.9 3.13 3.4.11 3.12 3. Education contributes to human development.4.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4.4. social and 169 .1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.5 188.8.131.52.4.1 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.2 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.
higher education of girls developed immensely. analyze the women and distance education. although we have miles to go. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. 3. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. The relevance of women’s education to social.4. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. In the post —independence period.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . There is a close connection between education and development.higher education in particular.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. 3. family. While women constituted only 9. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. These courses were. cultural and political development of the individual.4. Home Economics. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. Dr. Teaching and Fine Arts. you will be able to: 1. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. community and nation is universally acknowledged. Nursing.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. For the first time in the history of India. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. Education . state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. economic. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. During the year 1937.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. particularly 170 .
Yet. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.0 32. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.4. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. The idea of women’s education for equality.0 Today.9 14. Kodaikanal. In the rest of the country. Even today.T Women University.women.4.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.2 29.9 27. 3. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.2 22.1 31. Coimbatore. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . 3.4. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. Mother Teresa Women University.N. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.0 43.1 24. Mumbai. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.65 lakhs in 1994-95. out of 9200 and odd colleges. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. we have more than 1200 institutions. in our country. levels and professions.0 16.D. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. In 1950-51. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.
3.73 10.1 and 14.53 34.17 52. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .that of boys.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .4.54 12. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.66 66.27 89.46 82.83 47. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.34 33. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .63 Female % 34.44 35.56 64. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.36 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4%) prefer Arts subjects.47 65. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. 184.108.40.206 respectively. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. 2.
Thus. distance of the college or university from home. In college. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations.4. In every third family. irrelevance of the content of education. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. what is the need for higher education for her.hinders the girls from getting higher education. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. 3. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. marriage is a very common I factor. etc. promoted and increased. and coeducation may spoil her character. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. According to a survey. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. 173 . The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. They gave up their studies to enter home life. The major hurdles. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. she will only learn fashion. financial difficulty of the parents. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Book banks should be established. curriculum not suited to their requirements. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. particularly. Also. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided.
3. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. and the limitations of the conventional education system. It is a productive investment. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. 3.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. Geographic distance of educational institutions.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Distance education is a boon to women. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. It also brings about 174 . Empowerment in a nutshell. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests.economic disabilities faced by women.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. which is the most dynamic factor of development. is the only tool for realising empowerment.4. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. It enables to study. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Education. Full-time employment.4. There are constraints of time. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. resources and socio . Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. space.
education of women must be given priority in national plans. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. higher learning. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. empowerment means being assertive. education of women is of paramount importance. Empowerment is an active.4. for full development of our human resources. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. on their own. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. This can be achieved through reflection. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. 3. legal awareness and economic independence. The major objectives of women's higher education. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 .9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. Women are partners in development. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment.
More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. which had been the sole domain of men. 3. Better opportunities. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. which is pending for a long time. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. The local administration.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. has to be implemented at the earliest. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. especially so in the developing countries. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. Reservation for women. will encourage them to venture new grounds. But their number is small. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. 176 . The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions.4. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. The educational institutions. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Scholarships and concessions for women. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. who are eager to take up courses.
capacities etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.4. But. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. engineering and related technologies (16.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. 3. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.9%). The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. Also. IDP Education. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. especially in developing countries like African countries.000 women in the country.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. According to Lindy Hyam.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem.8%).1%) and architecture and building (38.3 percent. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Chief Executive. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. talents. Australia.
Coimbatore. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Centre for Women’s Studies. 3. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. (2000). 178 .13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. (2008). SNDT Women’s University. and Suryalatha. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Coimbatore. A. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. (2007). individuals and society b. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. 3. Women and Education. community and the nation. 4.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. S. and Swain. A. Pattanaikj. Rajasthan 5. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Women Education.4. R. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.K. Women Education. Mishra.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. R.4. 43% 6. 3. 2. Annakodi. Rao. create the right attitude towards life. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Mumbai. Mumbai. SNDT Women’s University. S. a.4.to the family. Mother Teresa Women University.C. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. R. 4. (2005). Kodaikanal.R.
8 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.personality of children in and out of school.3 3.5.9 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5.5.6 3.5.7 3.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5. whole.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.LESSON 3.10 3.4 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 220.127.116.11 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.5 3.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5.5. They should be trained. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.2 3.5.
you will be able to: 1. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. 4. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. international.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. understanding and strong desire for international peace. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has.5. 3. equality and justice. 5. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. Shorter working hours. 3. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. and national character. social and emotional integration.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary level.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. Lack of physical facilities. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. understand the training teachers for Primary. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. know the pre service and in service training facilities. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Dearth of new technology of teaching. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. national consciousness. 180 .
5. If the student teachers are working teachers. students. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. (NCERT) New Delhi. 3. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. it is called the In-service teacher education. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. and the collegiate teacher education. the secondary teacher education. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years .5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Lop-sided curriculum. who have not been trained earlier.Less qualified teacher educators.. 3. Depending on the levels. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years.5. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. etc. the state Government. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. the centre. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them.. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . higher secondary teacher education. the primary teacher education. Inadequate training in practical skills. levels. inservice and extension education programmes.Ed. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers.Ed. it is called the Extension teacher Education. At the diploma level. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. and M. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. a Diploma course and a Degree course. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools.
Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . extensio n service. etc.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . non-formal. Evaluation unit. Educational teehnology cells. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. depart ments etc. Science Education units. state Institutes of Educat ion. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Expand NCERT 2. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research.5.. Education cells.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Also Guidance Bureaux. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. are established. collegiate cells.
• • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . to ensure teacher competence. to offer consultative services.. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers.Ed. audio visual aids.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. to improve curricular programmes. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . and so on. degree. which should include experience in the primary schools too. primary and secondary school teachers.Ed. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. and 183 . despite its vast expansion. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. laboratories. schools and sister institutions.. to prescribe conditions for recognition. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department.. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. which help breaking isolation from one another . the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . material conditions relating to libraries. should be improved on a top priority basis.
it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. etc. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. methodology and evaluation.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. whether they should have professional education or. Hence. Workshops. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. 184 . To meet this exigency.secondary education. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Psychology of Students. Organisation of Content Courses. Agriculture. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. Meanwhile. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. Modern Techniques of Teaching.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Modern Methods of Evaluation. Induction Courses. and XII. not came up once again. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. The problem. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. etc.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. though no pre-service training.
Degree and M.Ed. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. Ajmer. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. All B Ed. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.. M. Point out two defects in primary teacher training .5.’s are elig ible for M.. courses and M. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. in Education. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. Courses leading to B.Ed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (Education) are organized by 185 ... Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.Ed. training.’s for Ph. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.A. State Institutes of Education. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. Degree. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. Post-Graduates also undergo B.Ed.S.A..Ed. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. (Education) and M. For re-orienting the teachers.D. These facilities are available for regular students.Ed.. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. Pre-service training is for those.
. Hence the employability of M. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. 5. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them.). So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 3. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. they should be conscientious .8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. .A. What is the role of ERIC? . and B. However. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. of conduct—written or unwritten. 186 . as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit ..some Faculties of Education of some Universities. 4. (Ed. (Ed). established by tradition and teachers of the past. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. 6.List any two code of conduct for teachers? .A. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.
Discuss the problems of teacher education. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. 5. 6. b. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. 187 . a. 2.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. Explain code of conduct for teachers. However. a. 2. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Ajmer. The necessity is however this. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. b. National Council of Educational Research and Training. 3. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Dearth of new technology of teaching.3. a. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. Bhopal. 3.5. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. they should be conscientious. 3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. 3. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. 4. Shorter working hours. 4.
Teacher Education.5. Publication Pvt.D. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . (2003). Tewari. B.3.N. (2010). Ltd Aggarwal. A. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. J. and Teacher Education.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. (2009). Teacher Education. P. Mohanty. Corporation.
UNIT – IV 189 .
The person’s environment is equally important. Since food is the source of nutrients. preservation of nutrients. If the diet is poor. the focus is on the school health programmes. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. common ailments of children. nutritional deficiency diseases. objectives and role of the physical education. economic and educational developments. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. objectives. 191 . objectives. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. In lesson 4. communicable diseases and their prevention. In lesson 1. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients.
1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.3 4.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.9 4.1.8 4.2 4.1.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. mental.e. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1 4.7 4. It is a miniature society.11 4.1. physical. emotional and social.4 4.1. The programmes of school health education are quite important.6 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.LESSON 4.10 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 18.104.22.168 4.1.1. 193 .1.
To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. cleanliness and healthful living. 194 . e. understand school health programmes 2. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself.. 10. 8.g. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. training of teachers and evaluation. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. content of health education. Instruction. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. explain the importance of First aid 5. 5. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. To develop certain skills concerning health. 2. To develop healthy health habits among children. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. you will be able to: 1. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. know the need for sex education.1. 11. training in first aid and etc.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. 3. 4. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. list the common ailments of children 3. 6. 4. 4. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 9. To give information regarding health rules. to his family and to the community at large. 7.1.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1.
cleanliness weeks. Triple Antigen Vaccination. ( iii) sanit at io n. Arranging better transportation facilities.C. etc. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . is imperative. Vaccination for small pox. 4. as described below 1. minimizing the travelling distance. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. (xl) mental health. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. proper doors and windows. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. 2.G. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. (xii) smoking education etc. “Play-for-all” programmes.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. There should be regular water supply. (v) safety education. (viii) first aid. The school buildings should be spacious.. B. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. vaccination. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp.. (ii) communit y healt h. suitable furniture.coming or absence. organisation of school health days. There should be good drainage facilities. typhoid. (vi) nutrition education. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. inoculation against cholera. play festivals. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. The surroundings of schools should be clean. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body.1. 5. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. First aid facilities should be made readily available. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. 2. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. 3. B. The flooring should not be damp. direct lighting. excusing late.4. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene.
• Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. sports and games in the interest of their health. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. dislocations. • Keep all rooms clean. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. fractures. • Close the schools.. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. scalds.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. isolate and notify. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. C. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. drowning. 196 . if epidemic is wide-spread. etc. • Take nutritious food. poisons. • Find out the cases. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. bleeding. and other accidents. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. burns. insect stings. • Have adequate rest and sleep. wounds. • When sleeping in groups. D. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. fainting (epileptic fit). Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. cuts. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains.
Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. measles etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. headache. So they easily get illnesses. tuberculosis. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage.1. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. 2. There are three stages in any communicable disease.. List out the Health curriculum 3.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. cough. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. polio. asthma. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. water or bodily contact. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. They are: i) The incubation stage. which are – cold. chicken pox. 4. fever. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Once these germs get into the body.1. backache. Mention the school health programmes. These diseases are called communicable diseases. pain in the joints.
Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. etc.When a child suffers from scabies.It is caused by measles virus. Children catch cold from persons having cold. The child may have fever. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted.This disease is caused by bacteria. Throat is affected. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Others make the children very weak. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. unhygienic living conditions. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Scabies . After three or four days of fever. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Tonsilitis . Hence it is called a killer disease. head-ache and cough. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Ear Infections . Mumps . unhygienic bottle feeding.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. This is caused by cold virus. cough and fever. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Measles .One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. The symptoms include cold.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Diarrhoea . In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. eating food which is not clean. The following are the common communicable diseases. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. 198 . Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Common Cold . sugar and water.
The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child.• • • • Chicken Pox . The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. It begins with fever. What are communicable diseases? 6. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. Diphtheria .This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. raised pink spots appear on head. If proper treatment is not given. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The child may also have diarrhoea. the child may die. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. As the disease progresses. the child is not able to breathe.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. By scratching he causes secondary infections. Shortly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. face and waist. 5. Enlist the common ailments of children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. separate. Expand DPT . Typhoid .It is caused by the germ called Variola minor.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. 199 . The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day.
it is a subject of art. eye injury. and Community Work and Social Service. 5. films and jokes. Sprains . Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. It is both biological and psychological. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl.1. sprains. cuts. dislocation. wounds. 4. Drowning .” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. man-woman behaviours. so-called sex books and periodicals. 3.1.g. drowning. sprains. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. fainting.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. scorpion stings.4. 2. bleeding.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. 200 . Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. and films. Wounds . In such cases. It has its rightful place in education too.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. Cuts and Bruises . Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. fiction. etc. 4. snakebites.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. bruises. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. simple fractures.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. head injury. Sex is popular. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. swelling.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. exciting and body-oriented. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological.
3. In secondary schools. Should the boys and girls. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. B.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world.old values. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . And here is where some protests would be inevitable.. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. in their ignorance. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. In today's liberal and interactive society. the school. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. The values of life. 2. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. but preserve them from disaster and disease. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. The home. Hence. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. sex education is being recommended in schools. celibacy are age. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. try experimenting with their bodies. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. they would be treading the path of sure doom. health. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. the religious organisations. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge.
Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. when the courses are already overloaded. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there will no crisis in its implementation. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 202 .1) 2) 3) as a separate course. 4. the school health programmes. hence. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education.1. What are the major components of Sex Education. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. communicable diseases and their prevention. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. C. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. common ailments of children.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. Teacher education institutions are. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. first aid and sex education. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. offering sex education as a part of their curricula.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 22.214.171.124 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
209 . List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Mention the food nutrients 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
Let us talk about each of these aspects. 210 .2. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. If you look at the definition carefully. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s .5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a.4.2. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . minerals.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.
A balanced diet is specific firstly.g.6. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. construction labourer). paratha and poori. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals.g. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. Even within given States there is considerable variation. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet.one in the morning and the other at night. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. In the case of adults. sex. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . People in the east of our country prefer rice. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. for example. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. These are: region where the person resides and income. There is no point. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. 4. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. the social and religious practices of that region. activity level and physiological stress. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods.2. dosa are typical of the south.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. Preferences/customs are also important. In other words. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. it is also specific to a given activity level .sedentary. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. moderate or heavy work. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety.
The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. income plays a vital role. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. however. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. Including these 212 . however. nuts and dry fruits. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. These determine the acceptability of foods. Judicious selection of food is. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. As income increases. however. taboos related to food may play an important role.planning the diet. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. If you think of your own religious group. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Even among flesh foods. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. However. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. As you read this discussion. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. as important for the rich as for the poor. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. fat and sugar tend to increase. while another may hate them. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. customs. Having more money. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. One person may be fond of milk products. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. One must. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. for example. Among the social factors. vegetables and fruits. In addition to these. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat.
Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. but they should be thrown away. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 17. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. fruits. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. eggs .eating is hazardous. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. over-eating or under. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. Define balanced diet. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. List out any two healthy food habits. if the teachers have good food habits. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. green leaves. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. meat. 213 . mouth. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. For this. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. 8. 8) Walk a while after eating. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished.
b. 4. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Keratomalacia 3. e.2. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. d.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.2. preservation of nutrients. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. good nutrition is essential for good health. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Explain food nutrients 4. Vitamin D 5. In fact. Discuss good food habits.2. Conjuctival xerosis.4. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. 4. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. When the diet is inadequate.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Bitot’s spots. Corneal xerosis. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Beri Beri 4. Night blindness. c.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a.
(2005). mouth. (2004). vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. b. a. Nutrition and Dietetics. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . Health and Nutrition Education. P. R. S. Chopra. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Hands. minerals. 7.C. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.2. Sri Lakshmi B.M. Food should be consumed after eating well. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra.6. 4. Food and Nutrition Education. (2008). (2009). Nutrition Science.N. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. a . b. (2008). R. A Text Book of Foods. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . 8. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Food and Nutrition Education.
1 Impact on social development 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 4.3 184.108.40.206.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.4 4.6.9 4.6.7 4.3.13 4.6.12 4.10 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 220.127.116.11 4.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.5 4.2 Impact on economic development 4. 216 .3 Impact on Education 4.1 4.3.3.LESSON 18.104.22.168 4.
It is a much wider co ncept. economic and educational development 3. aims at providing the younger generation. It is not sex education. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. the stress is. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. 217 . family planning and sex education etc. community. state the meaning. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. population characteristics.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.4.3. Population Education. understand the importance of small family norm 5. the causes of population change. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. characteristics and changes for himself.3. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. and the consequences of these processes. 4. objectives and need for population education 2.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. his family. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. therefore. his societ y and the world. describe the impact of population growth on social.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. you will be able to: 1. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. Whenever we talk of sex education. There is some difference. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as.3.
3.4. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 4. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. the society. the family.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. the nation and the world.3. Define Population Education 2. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two objectives of Population Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. 4. which will not be possible without population control. 4. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. With the larger families.3.3.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. the family programmes are also handicapped. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. economic and educational development of the country. health and happiness of its citizens.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. Every second two thousand children are being born. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. When the family is small. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it.6. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. Family is considered as a social unit. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. 219 .
It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious.3. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. Swollen cities. 4. 220 . They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. in parks and other places of public gatherings.3. facility for drinking water. toilets. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. In developing countries.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. Many students herded in a small room. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. pollution of the environment. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. The gulf between them is widening further. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt.6. organization index and material index. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.e. teacher index. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching.6. there is an inverse relationship between population and development.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. heavy intern I migration etc. in buses and trains. unemployment.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. lack of proper health care. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. i. 4. and so on. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. in cinema halls and theatres..
Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. can be studied in science and health education. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. Social Studies Statistics on population education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. There would be poor library facilities.. can be taken up. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. bar graphs etc. less space facilities. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. there will be lacuna in many other spheres.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Regional Language.3. even text books would be in short supply. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. and laboratory equipments. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. thus. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. family planning etc. blank verses etc. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. essays. Hindi and English. There would be very few audiovisual aids. less budget for education.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. 221 . material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. reproduction.
China.3.4. Children may compare two families. 7. Brazil. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. causes of deaths etc. 9. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. 8. 2.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Bihar. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 4. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. deaths. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 12. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Uttar Pradesh. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 15. Canada. 3. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Children with the help of parents. area and average density of population. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. United States of America. 11. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 14. West Bengal. 5. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 10. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. 13.
Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. Comparing life in various respects in two families.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. 16. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. The question. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. we have no right to stop 223 . age at marriage. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. values and role children etc. 17. preferences for sex. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important.3. 18. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.be opened in their schools. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people.
The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. “He who is responsible for population growth. The Family Welfare Program.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. at varying places in different regions.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. 4. however.3. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. on an overall basis.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. which education can only do. More than 45 years ago. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. fertility levels have declined throughout the country..4-6. Since the program's inception. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. and the child survival components of the news: program.their entry into the world”.to emphasize family planning services. continued . especially the expansion of child immunization services . Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.were implemented 224 . The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.
and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. In April 1996. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. men. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. reliance on local women as community health workers. Moreover. a focus on health promotion. and the World Conference on Women. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. In October 1997. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. expansion of services to unmarried women.earlier than the safe motherhood components. and nominal fees for services. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. Therefore. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. Local programs vary in their approaches. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. the community appears willing to pay for services. At these meetings.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. family.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. 1997). Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. Its main purposes are to create awareness. involving the community.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.3. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. What are the goals of RCH? 4. community. Describe the impact of population growth on social. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. economic and educational development 4. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers.emphasizing the needs of the client. nation and the world. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.3. 226 .
a.” 2. 4. b. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. bar graphs. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. and the consequences of these processes. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. less budget for education. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. 5. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. b. area and average density of population. 227 .4. his family. China. 6. less space facilities. a. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods.3.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 7. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. his society and the world. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. the causes of population change. Brazil. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 3. characteristics and changes for himself. population characteristics. a. Canada. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. United States of America.
J. Centre for Women’s Studies. Reddy. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.4. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. (2005). (2002). Principles of Population Studies. Kantikar. Jayapoorni. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 228 . N. Bhende.K. T. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Coimbatore. Changing attitudes to Education in India. (2005). New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. (2004).3.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. V. A. (1992). Modern Problems of Education. Udaiveer. Ltd. Ltd.
4.4.LESSON 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .1 4.8.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.8.11 19.2 4.3 4.4.6 4.4.9 4.10 4.4 Lead up games 22.214.171.124 4.1 Minor games 126.96.36.199.4.4.3 Indigenous games 188.8.131.52.5 4.2 Major games 184.108.40.206.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.7 4.
” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. leadership and balance in defect. The concept of physical education has been made broader. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. 4. team spirit. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. social fitness. which forms its most valuable assets.4. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. classify the different types of games.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness.4. state the meaning of Physical Education 2.4.4. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. you will be able to: 1. perseverance. moral fitness and emotional fitness. as it should 230 . explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. full records of physical activities should be maintained. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. 4.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. the youth of the country. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. mental alertness.
Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Therefore. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. team spirit. Every individual is a part of society. They are inseparably united together. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. They go hand in hand. To be more precise. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. leadership. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. The educational efforts at home. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. obedience to rules.
Buck has observed that 232 . game and sports.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. mo ral. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. Physical exercises. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences.” The Secondary Education Commission. ment al. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain.4. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. nor body but the whole man. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. Rousseau states. C. a sound health.” Montaigue writes. H.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. pleasing manners. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. 4. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. Regarding the significance of physical education. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. Just like Education. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side.
Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. strength. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. resourcefulness and smartness. etc. 233 . Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Froebel says. endurance. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life.a properly directed physical education should result in health.” 4. efficiency and character. elegance.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. we must exercise the whole human being.4. speed.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society.” In brief. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. flexibility and power. “If we wish to develop the whole being. coordinative abilities. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. initiative. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. happiness.
including all racial groups and historical ages. in greater or lesser degree. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Every age has its artists. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. systems of government. While wars. should help in the spiritual development of the student. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. 234 (i) (ii) . Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. If no opportunity is provided to the students. plagues and famines. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. these fundamental things have always been present. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. poetry and painting.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. they may form gangs. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Tournaments foster this sentiment. have come and gone in the long record of mankind.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. its adherents and its enemies.
3.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems.sacrifice. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . obedience. respect for rules. B. Write any two importance of Physical Education. to develop tolerance. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. 235 . 2. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. self. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.\ to develop perseverance. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. bravery and interest in games and sports. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education.
8. is essential. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 4.4. defects.4. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 9. Inform health principles. 13. Act as a leader.4. 16. 5. injuries among pupils should be made. Haag. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. 11. Be self-confident. 12. Usually parents. Be in the uniform. Be sportive. 14. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. 4. 10. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 236 1. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Be well-prepared. 3. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. and readmission after they have recovered. 2. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Posture screening should be done. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Keep the field ready for the activities. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 6. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. students. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students.H. 7. and. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. . 15. Always keep the whistle ready. Be punctual. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases.
1. their development is handicapped. less equipment and less expense.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. frolic and jo y. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.4. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. Lead up games. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. 3. chasing. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. 237 . Indigenous games. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. 4. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. the play. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. Such inst incts as imitation. 2.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls.8. 4. Moreover.
Hockey. Cricket. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. the number of players and substitutes. Jump the stick clay and so on. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. couple tag. zig zag relay. The dimension of the posts and nets. driving. hitting.. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. snatching the kerchief. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. 238 . spiking. Soft Ball.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. some of them are played indoors. Hopping. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. on mountain tops and on river beds. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Basket Ball. the play equipment. These games require varied skills such as running. For each game the rules are many. Ball Badminton. Volley Ball.With a very few rules. Jumping. Shuttle Badminton. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. pitching. muffling. finding the partner. Khokho. wherever the kids assemble. Dodging. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. the games can be modified according to convenience. women take part most of the games. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Tennikoit. Except a few games. with implements or without implements. stopping. On lawns. They are rules approved by the International Associations. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. dribbling. catching. trapping. boosting. Kabaddy etc. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games.4. heading. skipping. They are played for a shorter duration. benefit in playing minor games. under ball pass Relay. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Throwing. While many of them are played in the open playfields. on sea-shore. over ball pass Relay. on hard courts. bowling etc. Tennis. 4.8. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball.
Kho-kho. death. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. While observing the players in action. 4.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu.4. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. They have an abundant social value.8.4. List out some major games. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. birth. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. festivals connected with religion and public functions.8. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. On occasions like marriage. these games being popular. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. 7. An example for indigenous game is 8. Games may be classified as 6. and . They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. they are in existence. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . For example. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. All the fundamental tactics.
Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Posture screening should be done. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. 3. a. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. aims and objectives and need of physical education. a. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education.4.4. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept.4. b. d. 2. b.4. a. to develop physical stamina.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. 4. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. Minor and Major 240 . 2.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. 5. 4. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. c. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. a. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. b. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 4. to secure physical health b. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.
Soft Ball. Tennis. Hockey. Krishna murthy. Aggarwal. Foot-ball. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Shuttle Badminton.K. Ball Badminton. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 4. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Tennikoit. Health. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. J.4. Kabaddy 7. (2008). Khokho. Physical Education and Sports.6. Handbook of Physical Education. Khokho 8. J. Cricket. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Ltd. J.C.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Basket Ball. 241 . G. (2008). (2009). Volley Ball. (2005). Mohanty.
3 4.5.7 220.127.116.11.6 18.104.22.168 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 22.214.171.124.5.5.2 4.5.8 4.11 4.5.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.9 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .4 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.1 Natural Environment 4.5.1 4.5.LESSON 4.
political.5. education about the environment and education through the environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. population explosion and resource depletion could be.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. Evaluation Ability. 4.5. 3. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. economic. it covers the following elements: 1. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. social. 2. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. role of teacher in environmental conservation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Participation. The best place to start such learning is school. Skills. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Essential knowledge about the Environment. Broadly. aesthetic and educational factors. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. 4. Attitude. 3.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. 6. you will able to: 1.educat ion for the environment.5. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. Awareness. list out the types of environment 3. 5. 4. 2. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. Knowledge. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. 243 . Details are given below: I.
Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. 2. heat sink and wind flow in cities. • Biological magnification E. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. 244 . Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. a. F. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. D. Oxidants Other pollutants.B. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen.
Family planning ii. Socio-economic measures. The pill ii. Sterilisation. 2. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. 3. Intrauterine device iii. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. c. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Abortion iv. economic. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. 2. Use of medical science i. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. B. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. The human ecosystem II. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. 4. Persuasion: i.3. III. Control of population growth a. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Birth control through education b.
Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Define Environmental Education. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. 246 . 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. e) Recycling. 2. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Air pollution abatement ii. Water pollution abatement. 3. 1983). (UNESCO.
He modifies according”. These are biotic components. A change in one brings about a change in the other.5. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.4.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . -other. way is called environmental or ecological factor. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. Any constituent or condition of the environment. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. 4.5. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism.5. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .other components of the environment. animals and other organisms (biotic). Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain.5. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. to his needs.5. telex. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. b. a.5. fax agricultural apparatus. Biological environment The biological environment. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. includes the plants. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. They interact with each.
need for conservation. role of trees in building economy. food chain and food-web. over exploitation of ground water. of civilizations. (ii) Air pollution. importance of nitrogen cycle. biogas plants. ozone layer deplet ion. maintaining the ecological diversity. etc. preserving the watersheds. water scarcity. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. need for bio-diversity. supplying timber for various uses. sources. windmills. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. desertification 248 . ozone depletion. natural way of controlling pests. balance of nature. History The rise and fall. noise control. preventing siltation of dams. acid rain. excellent recreation sites. nuclear energy. alternate sources of energy. industrial pollut io n. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. industrial survey. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. sources of pollut ion. are the topics which may be taught in History. reasons. social studies. use of pesticides. extinction of species. mineral survey. effects. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. nuclear warfare. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. trees reducing noise pollution. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. greenhouse effect. explosion deforestation. noise pollution. etc. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . river systems. use of medicinal plants. wars and hazards of war. t heir role in preventing pollution. solar cookers. population. change in climate may be added.. relation between population and pollution.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. evolution. air pollutants from industries. effects o f CFC.
Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Peepal and Tulsi. Organising conferences. 11. 13. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 249 . This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. animal and plants. 3. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. 12. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. 4. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 14. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control.5. 8. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. aims and scope. 7. 4. Providing.may be inc ded in Geography. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. 9. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 6. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. group discussions and seminars. 10. 5. 2. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’.
and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. especially plastics. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Never put any left over chemicals. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Don’t burn any waste. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. all these can cause serious pollution. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. If it is done. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Reuse carrier bags. 6. it will cause pollution. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. used oils down the drain. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. Use public transport wherever it is possible. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. or form a car pool for everyday travel. World Environmental falls on 250 . old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so.Send their waste oil.
The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. orderliness and beauty). The groups may exchange. (cleanliness. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . potable water.4.5. Concern for species. To provide materials needed for practical work.). dest roying nat ural habitats. deforestation. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. concern for others).8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. To provide reference materials for children’s use. and 251 . Social responsibilit y (common good. etc.mat erials. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. To arrange visits or expeditions. rather than conquest and mastery. To arrange for visiting speakers. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. viz. Att itudes of balance towards nature. loss of bio-diversity. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. values and habits. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. etc. CFCs.. diversity and stability. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. nuclear wars. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. depletion of ozone. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. developing desirable attitudes. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. Conservation of natural resources. Harmony with the nature . Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems.
Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. 4. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. 252 .Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. preserving natural cycles. 4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. 8.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.5.
Modern Problems of Education. reasons. Awareness. a. Ltd. group discussions and seminars. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). New Delhi : Anmol 253 . explosion deforestation. T. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Udaiveer.. Environmental Education. acid rain. 5.K. (ii) Air pollution. a. sources of pollution. Ltd. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. population. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. over exploitation of ground water. water scarcity. Kuldeep. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Knowledge. Publications Pvt. Environmental Education. S. Environment and Human Rights. a. new problems from science and technology. relat ion between population and pollution. New Delhi : Sharma.\ 4. (2004). To provide materials needed for practical work.2. Y.5.K. 4. Providing.K. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. (2007).K. (1997). 8. a. 6. S. air pollutants from industries. Social responsibilit y (common good. Organising conferences. b. importance of nitrogen cycle. b. Education for values. Rapid population growth. b. sources. b. New Delhi : Authors Press. greenhouse effect. Nanda. 3.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. ozone layer deplet ion. concern for others). June 5 7. effects.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 126.96.36.199 Idealism and aims of Education 188.8.131.52 Idealism and Curriculum 184.108.40.206 Idealism and methods of teaching 220.127.116.11 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and aims of Education 22.214.171.124 Naturalism and Curriculum 126.96.36.199 Naturalism and methods of teaching 188.8.131.52 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 184.108.40.206 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
220.127.116.11 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 18.104.22.168 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. Universal Education. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. in fact. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. Therefore. enrichment and transmission of culture.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. According to Rusk'. Education according to idealism.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments.3.our life. Spiritual Development. It is self-realisation. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . moral. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. man is essentially a moral being." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage.1. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. The universe is regarded as a thought process. should be universal in nature. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Education must contribute to development of culture. the emancipation of spirit. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind.” 5.
a spiritual guide for the child. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . so subjects like Religion. Herbert advocated instruction method. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. History. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. Learning through discussion. friend and guide. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. hygiene. 5.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Learning through lecturing. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. Philosophy. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. affecting (feeling). Learning through imitation. It considers teacher as. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. For this no particular method has been suggested. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. According to Frobel. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. 3.” He is thus.” 5. The plant can grow.1. For intellectual development. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. 2. the school is a garden. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Learning through questioning. Mathematics etc. subjects like Languages. Science. 5. no doubt. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. He carries the child from darkness to light. According to idealism. 4. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. So he should embody.the spiritual qualities of mankind. So cognition (knowing). Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1.1. So health. an indispensable necessity. should be there. However. Learning through reading. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. and collation (striving) should find due place.3. Ethics. He sets the environment in which education takes place. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant.3.
1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. text books. "Education should make 263 • . formal lessons or examinations.1.preservation. time tables.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. 5. In the words of Ross. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. Ross explains. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. curricula. Perfection of Human Machine.perfection and beauty. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.1.4.
The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. There is no place for religious and moral education. therefore. Literature. Education also aims at helping the individual t. It is based on the psychology of the child. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones.4. “Education finds its purpose. Botany etc Language. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. subjects like history.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. It stresses basic sciences. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Therefore. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. is based on the nature of the child. 264 . Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics.1. Zoology. Biology. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Chemistry. 4.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Naturalistic curriculum. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. • 5. useful and mature child. Education should. geography should also be included in the curriculum. In all. Arithmetic. It emphasises physical and health education 5. rational harmoniously balanced. education should develop the child into Joyous.
Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.5.4. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism.1. Learning by doing. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. 4. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. 2. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. he should be taught by experience alone. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation.4. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .1. Learning through experience. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. 3. It discards all rigid.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. the stage. Heuristic method. Learning through observation. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. 5. Dalton Plan. 5. a provider of an ideal environment.1. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Rousseau says. a supplier of materials and opportunities. In the .4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher.
immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. The individual has not only to adjust himself. intellectual. 5.1. History. Sciences. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Subjects. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons.absolutism of idealism.5. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency.1. 5. Agriculture. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Personal Social Adjustment. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Continuous Growth. Continuous reconstruction of Experience.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. is true. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. social and moral aspects. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Social Efficiency. diversified and flexible. Social Science. The aim of educational development. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. of human personality is in terms of his physical. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Physical training. All Round Development of an Individual.5. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Vocational and 266 . Geography.
According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life.Technical Education.” 5.5. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. should find proper place. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. The subjects.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. activities and experience should be integrated properly.1. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Learning by Doing. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. He must be trained. a teacher occupies an important position. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. a senior partner and a sincere guide. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. He has to be active. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. alert and resourceful. Methods of teaching should not be fixed.
rich and happy. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. It favours child-centered. 5.1. 4. 3. liberal. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. 2. Geography are unnecessary 268 . The basic tenets of realism are 1. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Chemistry. Biology. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Biography Philosophy. Astrology. Literature. scientific and psychological education. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing.6. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life.1. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Psychology. practical. intellectual. History. Mathematics. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. 3.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. 5.6. Art.5. Sex Education. literary or humanistic education. specific. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Population Education. 4. Education is preparation for a complete living.1. 2. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Study of Subjects like Language. 5. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Crafts. Music and Dance.
4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.6.1. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.6.5. easily and pleasantly.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .1. certainly and clearly.
Social Science. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Learning through discussion. 5. d. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. 3. 5. a. Sciences. e. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Learning through lecturing. Geography. Child centered c. in this lesson.1. pragmatism and realism.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. History. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. c. Universal Education 2.5. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Learning through questioning. 6. Learning through experience b. Education according to pragmatism. naturalism. Self Realisation b. 5.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Vocational and Technical Education. Languages. Tours / Excursion e. b.1. Learning through imitation.1. has no end other than growth. a.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Self preservation & Self expression 4. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Rousseau 5. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. a. & curriculum. Experimentation d. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Physical training. Agriculture. Learning through reading.
(2007). of Pathak. K. (2004). 271 . Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. (2007).P.1.5. Narang C. N. P. New Delhi : A. Ltd.H. Foundations of Education.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Bhatia. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Publishing corporation. (2003). L. R. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. Anmol Publications Pvt.P. P. Pahuja. O.
2 Curriculum 5.3.3 Methods of Teaching 22.214.171.124.4 Views about teacher 126.96.36.199 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.3 Methods of teaching 188.8.131.52.2.2.2 5.3.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.3.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.1 Aims of Education 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 184.108.40.206.2.2.LESSON 220.127.116.11 Gandhiji and Curriculum 18.104.22.168.2.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2.1 5.5.2 Curriculum 22.214.171.124.4 Views about teacher 5.
content and methods. economic and political reconstruction in our country.7 5. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.4 Role of the teacher 5. 5. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.2.2. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.2. 2. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. you will able to: 1. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.5. an artist. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. mind and spirit. Tagore was a poet. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.2.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.2. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.5. 273 . Gandhiji was primarily a social.8 5. 3. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.2.2. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life.2. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.6 5. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. 5.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.
Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. In the words of Gandhiji.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. mind and soul of children He further observed." Dignity of Labour. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. 274 . Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. It really provides opportunity for character building.supporting. "I attach more.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. 'Man is neither mere intellect. righteousness.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. it is education of life. 5. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. strength of mind.3. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. through life and for life. nor the gross animals body. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage.2. self-restraint and service of humanity. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. His scheme of education is life centred.
The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. 5.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. the realization of the ultimate reality. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Individual and Social Aims.Training for Leadership. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Music. General Sciences. Mother-tongue. metal work. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. leather work have been suggested. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. Only good individual forms a better society. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.2. Art. According to Gandhi. Drawing and Hindustani. wood work. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. "Development of the moral character. gardening.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 .3. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving.
all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.3.2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. men of 276 . Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.trained. Basic education is other wise known as 4. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.3. proficient. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.
He also advocates freedom for the child.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. Education must be child centered. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies.2. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. 5. That is why.knowledge. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. He has an experimental approach towards life 2.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST.
and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. • Ideal of citizenship. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .2.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. • Cult of non-violence.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. Gandhi in 1937.2.3. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. • Education should involve manual work.” Like all other ideals. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.K. 5. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. he was a true Vedantist 5.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.4. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. He believed in the oneness of humanity.2. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. He was a true patriot. He was deadly against untouchability.
complete manhood could be attained. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. "Mankind must realise a unity. Chemistry. Tagore said. sentiment. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. International understanding.Language and Literature . Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Geography. Religion and Psychology. Civics. Therefore. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding.4. (vi) Philosophy. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. It should help. he said. etc. the more dedicated and devoted. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. 279 . stronger in power than ever before. wider in range. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. International Understanding. them solve problems of day to day life.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Zoology. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Music. That way only. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. deeper in. Dance. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners.2.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. It should help the learner have good physique. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Botany. could help in forging unity among all.
A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. 280 . it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. In 1921. Activity Method Heuristic Method. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”.2. 5. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.4. Tagore rightly says.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.2. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.” He further says. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. 5." 5. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.4.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.4.2.
281 . religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.g. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. It is open to all irrespective of country. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. 10. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. race. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. 9.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore.
2. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Education for Self-realization.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual." He was against the theoretical type of education. Purity of thought. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. He believed in to learning or selflearning. According to him. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. character forming and assimilation of ideas. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Education for strong Moral Character. Education should make a person self-reliant. Freedom. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. man making. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. 2. 3. work and deeds come out of it. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. Concept of Education. Book learning. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge.5. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him.2. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Education for Self-reliance. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court.” 5. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. 4.5. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all.
with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses.2. A physically strong person is the need of the society. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. 5. 283 . engineering and technical subjects. Religion. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Education for Physical Development. And above all. That will serve the purpose of education fully.2. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. 5. Discussion Method. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Every individual should be trained for concentration. 6. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other.5. Thirdly he wished that games.2.5. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. The teacher should be the facilitator. Swami. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . 5. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching.5. philosopher and guide to the students He. Of course.the learners on different students in the discussion. Secondly he wanted Science.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Philosophy and Theology. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses.5.
2.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. naturalist. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers.Substantiate your answer. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. legs.6 LET US SUM UP We have. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. Their educational ideas. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. Write short notes on Basic education. of course. ears and eyes. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. 284 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. 3. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. and pragmatist . 5. We have seen that Tagore. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. Gandhiji as a Idealist. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. 2. in this lesson. 12.
Explain Vishwabharathi. 2. a.4. 5. c. Teaching while Walking b. f. metal work. Ideal of citizenship. Activity Method b. a. Basic education. Meditation and concentration c. c. 11. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. 8. 3. e. 1937 7. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. d. Cult of non-violence. 5. b. Discussion Method 285 . Self-Study b. Technique of Correlation 6.2. Nai Talim 4. Debate and Discussion Method. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. a.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Self realization. a. 10. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Education should involve manual work. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. wood work. Learning by Doing c. leather work have been suggested. gardening. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Activity Method d. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. 5. Heuristic Method. 9.
9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.P.H. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. K. Dhiman. (2007). (2002). New Delhi : A. Anmol Publications Pvt. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. (2003).5. Theory and Principles of Education. Publishing Corporation. O.2. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Aggarwal. P. Ltd. K and Narang C. C. Pahuja. P. N. (2007). B. J. N. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 286 . on Bhatia. Foundations of Education. L. (2004).
2 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.11 126.96.36.199 5.7 5. In this lesson.1 5.5 5.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3.3.10 5.LESSON 5.3.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.8 5.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3 5.6 188.8.131.52 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3.
Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. From the latter point of view. present behaviour may be modified. curriculum signifies situations for learning. curriculum. Since the demands. Curriculum is intimately related to education.3. 5. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. you will be able to: 1.A. living in the hilly area.3. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. While education is learning. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. it is identical wit h socializat ion.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”.under the direction of the school. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. the plateau area and 288 . Then in a big country like India. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. the plain area. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. Both the processes are integrated. in fact .3. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. 5.. In the words of Kerney and Cook. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. state the meaning of curriculum 2. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. in Russia or in Japan. the desert area. in the form of new experience.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static.S. in the U. is a means to the process. A g o o d curricu lu m. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. In it. In the former sense. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. there is a large number of communities. While education is a process.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. new behaviour may be acquired. maintained or eliminated.
coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. too. In fact . it is. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. democratic and socialistic country. Besides craft. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. It must differ from locality and from society to society. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. environment. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. studying therein. differs from individual to individual. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. 5. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. according to modern trends in the educational process. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. However. From a slave-country we became secular. Again. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. the learning capacity of children. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. therefore. irrespective of their needs and environment.3. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. and 289 . Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. customs and needs. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils.
290 . 3. social. National Integration. unambiguous and functional. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes.. Application Objective. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. moral. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. etc. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. general or specific. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. e.. tangible. 4. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. in instructional objectives. 5. Knowledge Objective. which may or may not be attained. eg. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. of classroom. They are achievable. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. They speak of perfect goals.3. So it is inadequate.g. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. remote or immediate. they depend on the political. individual or Social and so on. 1. They are visionary goals e. emotional. Goals of Primary Education... uninspiring and unscientific. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. Self Realisation. unsatisfactory. social. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. Understanding Objective.. 2. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals.g. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. They speak of immediate purposes of education. specific. aesthetic and spiritual development. Vocational Efficiency.g.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. etc. aims. Goals of Secondary Education. e. The word “Curere” means 2. They may be ultimate or proximate.
capacities. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. Raymont rightly says. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. heavy fire. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. needs.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. but it includes the totality of experiences. educationists. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. in the class rooms. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. on the playing fields.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. According to Crow and Crow.5. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. finding them very interesting and captivating.3. The interests. Crow and Crow remarks. abilities. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization.” 291 . there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects.
” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. tendencies. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. They often waste it or rather kill it. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. mental. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. time in a useful manner. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. aptitudes. capacities and abilities. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. Due to these variations and differences. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. urges. moral.
phased preparation. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. 2. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. Similarly. To ensure success of the process. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. 293 . supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. 3. administrative programme need be planned. development of professional capability at all levels.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels.curricular. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. organized. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility.
12. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. 11. 17. a. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. laboratory. workshop. principles of curriculum construction. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. library. 10. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee.3. 5. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. Relation with Life c. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3.3.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Child Centred Education b. 5. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. 18.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Run. in the class room. 1937 19. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 .
(2001). (2007). (2007). New Delhi : Authorspress. S.3. Innovations in Education.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Lakshmi. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Curriculum and Instruction. Bhalla. New Delhi : Isha Books.5.S.K. P. 295 . N. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. and Sarita Kumari. Curriculum Development. S. D. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. (2007).
4.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4.4 5.LESSON 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.7.10 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.7.9 5.3 5.1 18.104.22.168 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 22.214.171.124 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.5 5.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.2 126.96.36.199 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.8 188.8.131.52.4.
in the economic reconstruction of society.4. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. 5. you will be able to: 1. 2. honesty. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. 5. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. explain the concept of scientific attitude.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. 297 . willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. We mean curiosity.during the second half of this century. Gradually. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. open-mindedness. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. know the importance of science education. 4. 3. tolerance for the opinions of others. newer and newer industries started growing. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not.4. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. superstition or emotion. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings.5.4. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking.
teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. 6. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 4.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Promotion of science clubs. 3. 4. Love for truth enhances. Devotion towards nature increases. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Thinking and memory develops. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. 3. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Schemes of teaching science. After such experience and training.So that. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. as well as of the society. 7. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. 5. 2. 6. Through newspapers. 5.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. 5. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Selection for science education. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Organisation of science fairs. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Central science workshop. Through examinations. 2. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Principles are formulated. seminars and symposiums. 5.4.4. stipends and appreciations in various ways.
6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They ask many questions about the objects they see. each child to “enquiry skill building”. It is. Enquiry teaching is. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. essential that teachers. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life.needs and conditions. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . 5. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative.4. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. 7.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other.4. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. In the inquiry approach. 5. After presenting the problem. For laboratory and workshop techniques. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. objectivity. therefore. should provide opportunities to. They experience natural phenomenon.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. Write any two advantages of Science Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Training of science teachers. sex or religion. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. They encounter many social events as they grow. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force.
to ask questions and experience things. 4. Appreciating pupils ideas. test. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 3. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 5. Adopting creative models of teaching. Giving less directions. 300 . 6. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. stern pursuit of accurate data. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? .Herma Wouk. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. if they like.books. 5. 5.4.4. Social sciences.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1.6. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. . 2. It requires consistent thinking. . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Evidence. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. commands or orders.
They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. To achieve this we should understand what it means. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. neighbourhood.(Smith 2008). In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. (Vaidya 2007). These include open mindedness. The students observation. keen observation. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. For instance. see and feel the need of developing this attitude.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. friends. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. 5. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. and emphasized during the learning process . Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. it must be encouraged.4. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. school and society at large.7. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. of vast resources running waste. critical thinking and suspended judgments. therefore should be unbiased and objective. to develop among the learners. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. practiced.
Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. rumor. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. 2007). or superstitions. The intention to respect another’s point of view. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. 302 .7. In considering a situation or a problem. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. understanding and logic. 5. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. think and work it”.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. intuition or wishful thinking”.4. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. (Das. he studies all aspects of it.
By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.7. 5. but to begin only after careful planning. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.4.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. • 5.7.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil.4.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.
and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. it must be encourages.4.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. 304 . Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude.
Reflections on Scientific attitude. Rao. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. a. (2006). a. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. 5.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Proper example of the teacher c. Vaidya. 2.4.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. D. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. a. Wide reading b. N. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Adopting creative models of teaching. Love for truth enhances. Planning of activities 5. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. objectivity. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. b.4. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. 16. (2000). 4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop.B (2008). Discuss the importance of science education 14. 5. 305 . The intention to respect another’s point of view. Yadav.4. S. New Delhi : Anmol Publications.S.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. (2008). b. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. 3. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. M. a. Study of superstitions d. b.5.
5.5. actively. you will be able to: 184.108.40.206.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.11 220.127.116.11.3 5. 5. 2.10 5.1 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.7 5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2 5.5.6 5.5. objectives and characteristics. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5 18.104.22.168. areas of institutional planning.9 5.LESSON 5.8 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. 306 .4 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5. state the concept.
State and national levels from below. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . and each student are regarded as separate entities. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. and.5. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. every teacher. 5. every parent. • to make planning development-oriented. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy.3. in the task of educational planning. teachers and students is not lost sight of. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. and every student in the process of educational planning. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. executive as well as public. each teacher. which become the bases for further planning at the district.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Institution should be regarded as the unit.5. • To make institutional planning more successful. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. 5. and supplement planning from above. • to involve teachers and school administrators.
308 . etc. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5.• implemented. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. Examinations. 5. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion.curricular Activities. Syllabus. and Personnel services.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as.5. (2) Co. Classwork. it becomes the basis for school inspection.5. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. which will be discussed in the general. Co-curricular activities. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. council and.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. approved after making necessary modifications.
etc. Courts. Preparation of instructional material. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Improving the subject competence of teachers. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Preparation of audio-visual aids. scientific and historical excursions. hobby-centres. Editing the school magazine. 3. Conducting of educational. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . charts and apparatus. 1. Running science clubs.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. 2. Improving the internal assessment. Organisation of Pupils. etc. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. etc. Equipping of laboratory and library. Organisation of class-room libraries. Organising play-for-all programmes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. etc.No. Preparation of models. Organisation of Students’ Association. Fair distribution of syllabi. Undertaking remedial instruction services.
pupils. ii. teacher-teacher. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. understanding. teacherinspector. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. parents. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. co-operation. involving mainly human materials. and —pupil-pupil. teacher-pupil. teachers. science teachers’ associations. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. and solidarity.” The human relationships in. pupil310 . which are divided as the in. Administrator-State. teacher-State. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. administrator-pupil. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. parent-teacher associations. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. headmasters associations.5.5. teacher-managing body. administrator-supervisor. students’ associations. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. etc. administrator-administrator.
According to C. administrator. teacher-parent. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. control. supervision. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. pupil-parent.State. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. pupil-non-official functionaries. social sciences and other disciplines. superintendence. to accomplish.5.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. supervision and superintendence. 311 . etc. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. to attend. now-a-days. and to serve. pupil-community leader. pupil-inspector. to carry out. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. It is also being modernized to become a technique. Good. organisation. It covers personnel and material management. teacher-community leader. To administer means to manage. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. organisation and management. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. V.
He should be an artist in human relationships. 13. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. Leadership . 12. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. Decision Making . He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . Motiviation . 10. 11. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. Cost-Benefit Analysis . Rapport between the Management and Employees .The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. 9. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. 8. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions.Of all the approaches. 5. it is not worth-while. 6.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. Better Human Relationships . Democratic Management .This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. 4. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. The relationship should change from master. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. Socio-Scientific Approach .sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. Liasion with the Public . Worker Participation .This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. 3. This is the latest democratic trend in management.The manager should have leadership traits. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. If the cost benefit ratio is less.Management should be efficient and economical 312 .The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 2.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. Those. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.Any good management will always have good public relations. low. who occupy the managerial positions. If it is more. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. 7. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. Communication . Economic Management . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis.
5. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. 18. to improve the quality of education it provides. enrichment of curricula. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . reduction of wastage and stagnation etc.5. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. and cooperative performance should be ensured. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. 313 . Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution.These two are. 14. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 19. improvement of teaching methods.g. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education.too. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. objective.
K. 4. 2. R. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. Decision Making b. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Communication 5.5. S. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. and Personnel services. Co-curricular activities. b. Classwork. a. 314 .12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. d. (2003). NUEPA. a. a.M. Singh. APH Publishing Corporation.5. f. Examinations. a. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. In group and Out group 5. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. c. Fundamental of Educational Management. Instruction. H. e. (2001).11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. it becomes the basis for school inspection. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Leadership c. b. Syllabus. Tarachand and Prakash. (1995). b. Educational Administration. Motiviation d. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3.
Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .Religious and Modern Education 1. Buddhist and Jain system of education.4 India's Secular Policy .3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. Examination reforms.5 Regional Educational Development in India . social Impact 3. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.I. Sex-education 4. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Education by Christian Missionaries 1.1 School Health Programme.3 Directive Principles .1 Gurukula system of education.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Economic 315 . 2. wastage and Stagnation 3.CORE PAPER .Article 45 .2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .Imbalances and Variations in different environment. 4. School.1 Primary Education : Education for all. women education and teacher education in India. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Inspection and Supervision 3.teachers should have : 1. population education. Healthy Food Habit 4. Common ailments of Children.1 Inculcation of Socialism. nutritional requirement.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . higher education. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.Pre-service and In-services facilities. Realized the problems of school education. New evaluation procedures. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. Community and Mass Media 2. physical education and environmental education 5.2 Nutritional deficiencies.3 Educational Influences of Home. Communicable diseases .4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Preservation of nutrients. Code of conduct for teachers. Balanced diet.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. First Aid.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. 1. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.Preventive measures.
(2005) Foundations of Education. Tagore 5. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Ram S. Prof.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.K. and Dash B. curriculum and teacher's role 5. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. T.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles .improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. 5. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. (1999) Culture.Aim.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Socialization.N.4 4.K.N. and Mohanty R. and Human Development. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Mahatma Gandhi. New Delhi: NCERT 3. Kalan Paper Packs 10.K. 316 . B. (2004) Problems of Education in India.1 Idealism. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. 7. REFERENCE 1. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Ghanta R.S.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. R. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. Taneja V. Naturalism and Pragmatism .R.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.K. Curriculum and national goals . Delhi : University Publications 2. Saraswathi T.4. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. Mishra. and Sharma R.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Hemchand. Pandy V.C. Realism. Sharma. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.
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