SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. discusses the regional educational development in India. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Lesson 2. The need.
. In. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. Lesson 4. and Jain system of education. Jainism and their educational implication. Lesson 5.
5 Jain system of education 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 184.108.40.206.1.6 Education during British Era 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.5.LESSON 220.127.116.11.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929)
.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 18.104.22.168.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.5.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.2 22.214.171.124.6.4 Buddhist system of Education 126.96.36.199.4.1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.5.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.1
EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD
STRUCTURE 1.1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 188.8.131.52.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.1 184.108.40.206 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.1.6.
Indian in blood and colour.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1. The history of education passed through Buddhist. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.1. has a long past history starting in vedic education. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.6.1. both present and future.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. Education in India. “a class of persons. 220.127.116.11. That
.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. India. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.6. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.3. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. you will be able to: 1. 1. in morals and in the intellect”.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. elucidate the education during British Era. Muslim and British periods. describe the Jain system of Education 4.1. in opinion.1. British system of education presented the modern western model.1.9 1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.1. 1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.8 1.1. but English in taste. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.7 1.
Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service.knowledge was real. Education of Moral. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. as it is generally considered to be at present. from eternal to immorality 2. Education was a private affair of the people. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 14. 4. the monitorial plan was followed. Immediate Aim Vocational. and to agriculture and trade. It was not merely intellectual. Method of Instruction. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. individually. No State Control on Education. 13. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. 8. 5. Pupils were taught. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Where pupils were many. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. if they thought fit to do so. Teacher as Parents. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. Method of Study. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Role of Travel in Education. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. High Status of Teachers. 6. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. not en masse by the class method. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. from darkness. managed entirely by Brahmans. followed by explanation by the teacher. Individual Teaching. 9. however. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. 3. 16. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y.
. 10. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. Curriculum. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. questioning by the pupil. Forests as Centres of Education. 12. Religious and Spiritual. It was also moral. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. generally. 11. with grants of land or money. to light. There was. Residential Schools. religious and spiritual. Free and Accessible. The immediate aim of education.
Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. It was suited to the needs of the society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education?
.17. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils.1. lived a life of celebacy. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. It was freely available to all those who wanted. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection.
1. studied Vedas.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education?
. Wide-Spread Education in Women. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education?
3. They were very cordial and intimate.3.
1. the most significant of which were the following 1. watching dances or listening to music. dressed himself in yellow clothes. etc. partaking of food at prohibited times. I take Refuge to Sangh. which included abstaining from theft. the student had his head shaved of all hair. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. Right endeavour 7. Right contemplation 1. Right knowledge 2. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. impure conduct. use of cosmetics. had the right to receive education. the student remained in a state of Shramana. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. I take Refuge to Dharma. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. except the Chandals. Consequently. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. 1. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Right thought 3. in which.C. taking things without being offered. Right means of livelihood 6. the handicapped. killing of any living being. every class in society. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. It was denied only to the ill. use of intoxicating things.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Right memory 8. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. He was then ordained to obey ten rules.4
BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B.
. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. Right activity 5. Right speech 4. he was qualified to become a monk. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. 2. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. After attaining the age of 20.4. medium of Pali. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. disease and death of the human beings. Education was imparted through the.
The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. control over sensuous activities.3. it is regarded as true”. knowledge of reviving the dead. etc. handicrafts. Later on. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. These are called later Buddhist schools. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. nature. cottage industries. etc. 2. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. a continuous change creating
. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. of clothes. depth and range. 1. 7. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. 5. magic. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. It comprehended education in writing. wear three items. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. 4. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. On this occasion. geology. approach. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. a change is not only total but also perpetual. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. along with education in script writing. objectives of human life. commerce. 6. 3. Even at this stage. Initially. Life is in a flux. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. etc. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. military science. After this ritual. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. medicine. changing the goals. so long as it successfully does so. As reality is becoming. the science of taming and training animals. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. animal husbandry. be considered the aim of education It.. assumptions.4. arithmetic and religious discussion. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. meaning.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. Hence. the presence of the monks was essential. agriculture. beg for alms. education was impart in art. elephant lore. however. nothing is of any permanent consequence. has no metaphysical value for life. and. bodily gestures. 8. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. women occupied a position inferior to men. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. aspirations and. therefore. archery. eat food thrice a day. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. archery. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. Whatever its nature and extent. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1.
Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals?
6. However. goes to Vardhaman. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. Its chief feature.new and peculiar situations. such as. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Jainism insists
. In fact. therefore. Validity is effective and consequences. and to give it a shape that it has today. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education?
1. its pessimistic outlook on life. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write Eight fold path . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Education must.5. whatever works are true and good. it is much older than the latter. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching.. 1.e. 5. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success.1. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. i. however.
9. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 3. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. 3. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. c) Not to steal. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. 10. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. more stress on individual aims. Development of personality as an individual.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. b) Right knowledge. thought and deed. 7. 4. 8. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect.5. d) To lead a celibate life. it has a foot in both the words. 2. e) To renounce the world. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. As such. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. and is to be redeemed and liberated. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. 6.1. 5. b) Not utter falsehood. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. 2. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. 1. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. 1. c) Right conduct.
. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. Hence. and believe in happiness to all. They are: a) Not to injure. but on both.
5.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
1. 3. Hence. 2. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. Belief in transmigration of soul. 8. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. 5.4. Jiva is essentially karmic. therefore. success and love. practised and not only aspired for.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
1. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas.
‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Teaching should be social and tolerant.5. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. 1. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education?
. 2. Teaching must develop these faculties. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. education must be action based and ideally oriented. that would be socially desirable. here and now.
Knowledge is through senses and meditation.
. and should bring happiness to all. education should develop sense of discrimination. 4. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. What are Triratnas ?
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
However. Bombay. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.
1. North West Province and Punjab. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. philosophy and literature of Europe. To set up separate departments of. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. with rally and rout. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. primary
.6. Madras. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. 1. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. 1.6. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). 1953). In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. 2. science. 1. and not for life.1. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.6. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.6.1. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time.
general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. The broad outlines of the report are as follows:
.6. Then the prevalent education was anti-national.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. 1. 1. namely. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success.education was neglected. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools.6.6. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. 1. Later on. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. secondary education became a step towards university. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. The universities dominated the secondary education. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. • Secondary education.K. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. In 1882. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929)
Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. self-respecting and competent. To ensure qualitative improvement. • Universal free primary education. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. At that time M. at the primary level.
commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. The objective of education was to provide
. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission?
12. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. After this stage. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. 10. all children are to have a common curriculum. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year
1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813?
setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. arithmetic and religious discussion. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. Right contemplation. 4. military science. Right thought. 4. 2. questioning by the pupil. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. geology. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. along with education in script writing. 2. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Right endeavour.education of European literature. It was suited to the needs of the society. The immediate aim of education.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. a. 3. 6. the science of taming and training animals. science and English language. education was impart in art. handicrafts. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. establishment of universities. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses.
1. Right memory. archery.1. The system of education was well-organised. 3. etc. Right means of livelihood. 5. Right activity. Right speech. During the Buddhist period. b.1. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil.
. followed by explanation by the teacher. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. 1. Right knowledge..
Hence. Ltd.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Sargent report 12. 8.K. 1882.K. b. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Development of Educational System in India. 10. Development of personality as an individual. Singh. Aggarwal.1. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. R. History of Indian Education System. J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Right knowledge. 9. (2005). (1984). Right faith. b. 1937 1. more stress on individual aims. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Improvement of Literature. a.C. c.7. Ltd. Sharma. (2007). a. Right conduct. (2009).C.
. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. and Nath. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 11. Y. Y.
2.6 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.5 1.8 1.2.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.18.104.22.168.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1.2 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 22.214.171.124.2
THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA
STRUCTURE 1.7 1.3.4 National Policy on Education 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.3.4 1.2.2.LESSON 126.96.36.199 University Education Commission 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.1 1.9 1. The
.2.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.
1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr.2. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. technological engineering. you will be able to: 1. 1986
1. There had been vast institutional expansion. examination system. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. diversification of courses of studies. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1. Post-graduate
. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education.2. vocational education. technical. analyse the progress of education in free India. explosion of enrolment. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 2. S. girls and women education besides primary. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. 1. curriculum. New Educational Policy.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES
The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1.2. standard of teaching. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. medical and legal education. expansion of vocational. Kothari (1964-66) 8. secondary and higher education.3.conditions of the teachers. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. National Board of Teacher Education 10. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. National Council for Women’s Education 5. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan.
accumulated over the years. 1986. Finally. Education for Equality. 1. 1966. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. material and spiritual. All possible efforts will be made on the removal
. A meaningfully Partnership.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964.S. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States.
1. Kothari. 1. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. the chairman of University Grants commission. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.3.2. Education is the key to our allround development. A. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. the New National Policy on Education. 1952. 2.3. 3. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. utility and financial outlay.3.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. in January 1985. quantity. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. However. research et. Problems of access. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. D. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. 4. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. quality. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Government of India.2. The Essence and Role of Education. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency.teaching. National System of Education. Therefore.2.
Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work.” Thus. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. attitudes. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. By working with hands. the concepts of work experience. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year
1. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality.2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The UNESCO Report. It can train practical aptitudes. Thus. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. the minorities and the handicapped. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools.
. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage.
the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop.” The Mudaliar Commission. it will conduce self. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. With adequate planning. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. Besides. In 1955. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. The Radhakrishnan Commission. co-ordinations. “The aim of these colleges.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. “It may be described. As such. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. the Commission. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. if he wishes. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. The Education Commission. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. According to.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the
. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling.
“For harmonious development of the child’s personality. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. admission requirements to vocational courses. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. Therefore. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. the semester and credit system.. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. With a view to relating education to the life. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. T h is Co mmit t ee
. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). the rigid streaming of courses. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. raising the special facilities.ot her. Subsequently. the. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. for quality of life in the rural areas. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. etc. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. The Central Advisory Board of Education. In addition.
The Father of Nation.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. who conceived the System of Basic Education.2. 1. etc. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. The wave of Basic Education. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. which swept the country for over two decades. meaningful.and the world of work. which offer scientific. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. giving importance to productivity in the national development. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. preferably spinning and weaving. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed.
. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. felt that education should be centred around a craft.defined S UP W as “purposive. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. meaningful. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. aimed at this goal.. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. technological courses including Agriculture. which are useful to the community. In short. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. manual work resulting in either goods or services. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. According to committee. Commerce. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level.
The teachers should make use of. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. tools and techniques and 3. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Work practice. 2. Productive 2. Culture and recreation 6. Shelter 4. Educative and 3. Health and Hygiene 2. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant.
. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. as far as possible. be that the work involved is: 1. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Experimentation with materials. Food 3.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Community work and social service. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. so that it is educational in essence.
Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. Clothing 5. 3. 4. locally available materials and tools. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised.
It can become an instrument to build character. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. 1. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. slum clearance. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Productive Work
. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. 6. improve discipline. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. To make education more realistic. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Education through work The SUPW should. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Community Service In-1972. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. the local community should be actively associated. as far as possible.2. Merits of the Programme 1.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. inculcate a faith. removal of illiteracy. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. Check on educated unemployed 4. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. adoption of a a locality for its improvement.5. etc. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience.
The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. etc.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. skills and better future for the children. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . offering first aid. helping the adults-in productive work. What are the work areas in SUPW
6. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. Define SUPW
. should involve itself in the educational effort. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. in turn. AICTE was set up in year 4. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. traffic control.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. The community. if not productive.
which are useful to the community.1. 1952 3. manual work resulting in either goods or services. 1955 4. 2.
6. f. c. d. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. e.
1.2. Dr.2. a. Write short note on SUPW.
1. b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. meaningful. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 3.9
ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.2.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. Radhakrishnan 2.
.H. (2007). Ltd.K. Rao. Singh.P. Anupama. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. History and Problems of Indian Education.2. Amala. (2007). P. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. B. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. History of Indian Education System.C. Y. J. : Sharma. (2005). R. A.(2005).1.K. V. and Rao.P. (2009).K.D.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. History of Education. Development of Educational System in India. New Delhi: A. and Nath. Y.
EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION
STRUCTURE 1.3. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.3.5 1.3.7 1.6 1. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.1 1. directive principles and duties of citizens. assuring its citizens of justice. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. there is an official Hindi translation.3. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.3. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. it came into effect on January 26. 1949.3. containing 395 articles.3.3. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.1 Significance of DPSP 1.369 words in the English language version.4 1.3.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.9 1.3.3. for a total of 117.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1. equality. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. Besides the English version.2 1. Being the supreme law of the country. procedures.3.8 1. 1950. democratic republic. and liberty. establishing the structure.
1. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. learn the role of central and state government on education.3. Through them. On August 29. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 1950. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution.3. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights.3. Two days later. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. 3.In the August 14. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. for 166 days. administrative. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. 1. 1947. According to the constitution. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. economic. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. After many deliberations and some modifications. social.3. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. spread over a period of 2 years.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. 4. 1. legal and environmental. understand our Indian constitution. you will be able to: 1. 1947. political. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. in sessions open to public. Dr. with Dr. The Assembly met. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”.
. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. the Drafting Committee was appointed. 2.
No abuse of children.
. Equal pay for both sex. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Equal justice and free legal aid. in particular. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Article 43. make effective provision for securing the right to work. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. Article 40. The State shall. on the basis of equal opportunity. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Liking wage etc.government. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. old age. Protecting health of the workers. Right to work. for workers. The State shall endeavour to secure. men and women. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. Minimising inequalities in status. Organisation of village panchayat. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Protecting children from exploitation. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Appropriate concentration of wealth. and in other cases of undeserved want.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. That the health and strength of workers. and shall. sickness and disablement. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Article 41. Condition for dignity of children. provide free legal aid. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Article 39A. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Article 42. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.
of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. a living wage. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Participation of workers in management of industries. [declared by or under law made by
. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Article 47. in particular. and. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. in particular. to all workers. See also Article 21A). Article 45. Article 49. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. agricultural. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. The State shall take steps. Article 48A. Article 48. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. work. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Article 43A. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Article 44. Note: Subs. (Original Article 45. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. in particular. industrial or otherwise. by suitable legislation or in any other way. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Article 46. Uniform civil code for the citizens. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. The State shall endeavour to provide. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. 2002 for “45. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years.
Article 51. Article 50. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Article-21A Right to Education. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. disposal or export. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. disfigurement. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Promotion of international peace and security. Separation of judiciary from executive. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.3.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. as the case may be. from spoliation. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. Article 45 . 2002. 2. 1. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy?
1. may be law determine”. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. destruction. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State.Parliament] to be of national importance. removal.
Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. 6. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. if such person is a minor. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. in particular. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion.”
. 5. 3. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. iii. language or any of them”. his guardian has given his consent thereto.
8. race. ii. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. 2002. and shall protect them. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. from justice and all forms of exploitations. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. caste. 4. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. and. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. 7.
1. and by drawing. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . the forms. Educational Reforms From time to time.3. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. The central government determines targets and promotes education.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 351 gives importance to 6. 2. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION
1. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Write Article 21 A and Article 45?
4.9. for its vocabulary.
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. wherever necessary or desirable.
7. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Local bodies and private enterprise. private agencies etc. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. The following pilot projects. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. 6. 8. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas
. So that they may work well. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Production of suitable for children and adults f. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. So as to encourage education on right lines. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. 4. 5.. By starting these projects. Organisation For carrying out educational plans.3. to achieve the desired ends. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. the state governments. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. etc. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. All India Council of Medical Science. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education.
reports etc. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. The
. handicapped. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. 1. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. 10. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. 3. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. is the state responsibility. 11. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. 12. are published by it. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. books. education for women. 4. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. etc.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas.3. training and statistics. 1. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. research. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. Material concerning nation-wide interests. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. 9.
Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India?
8. 1. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government.
1. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Explain Directive principles 2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 21A c. 5.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Article 46 4. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. articles in the Directive principles. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government?
9. Write short notes on a.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
. Article 45 b. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Write any two functions of State Government of Education?
.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.
a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. b. Ambedkar 2.
4. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Article 45 .
. may be law determine”.3. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 1. Article 46 5. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 3. The Directive Principles of State Policy. a.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Clearing House function 9. b. 2002. Dr. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Article 29 and 30 7. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Development of Hindi Language 6. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Article-21A Right to Education. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 2002. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b.5. Describe the educational role of State Government. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. a.
New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. New Delhi: Shipra Publications.
. B. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. N. (2007). (2009). Education in Emerging Indian Society. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. K and Narang C.
Dash. S. (2008). K. Ghosh. L.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. S.1.
1 1.4 Moral education 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 1.4. religious education should be broad based.188.8.131.52.2 1.3.4. Christianity.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.1 Why Moral Education 1.5 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 184.108.40.206.4.6 1. Students should be
.4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.4.7 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1.4. Buddhism etc.3 Precautions while introducing 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 220.127.116.11 1. Islam.4.4. Jainism.
. According to E.D. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. duty-consciousness. India' can produce men of character. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. know the position of religious education in our country 3.
1. "In A multireligious society like ours.4. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions.and dedication. religious education and the concept of secularism. integrity.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education.” Education broadens human outlook. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion.4. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. In the complicated and complex society of today. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. As result of which. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. state meaning and need for moral education 1. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. Thus. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. beauty and goodness so that
castes and creeds. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. 1.” From the above. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. As our country is a country of diverse religions. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. it is clear that the State has no religion. Hence. 1. if not regularly.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. rancour. all citizens are free to follow any creed. religion and democracy are same. As a matter of fact. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. Viewing the defects of religious education. realizes God in himself. at least occasionally. They thought that any kind of narrow. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. Thus. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. through religious practices and
. According to Article 19. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. Children attend these organizations. In short. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August.3. 1947 we achieved our freedom. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. No religious tax can be imposed on them. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. According to Article 22. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society.3. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world.4.4.
” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. intellectual and physical faculties of children.teachings. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people
. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment.. If unreleased. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. It is religious education. one fully developed. for the development of the individual and the society. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. when he becomes an adult. He also learns about social. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. As a result of which. It helps to modify habits attitudes. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). which help him for the development of his character. what is done and what is not done etc. which can mould. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. temperament etc. aggressive. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. and what is evil. moral and spiritual values. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. Good education. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character.
Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. and other impulses are often denied direct expression.
All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal.4. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. which is the basic need of a democratic life. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. If we open the pages of history. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. Therefore. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4.3.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. 3. 1. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. towards the society. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. 2. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. This should not be allowed to happen.
.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning.
4. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. For this. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. fellow-feeling. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians
8. 11.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry
. churches and mosques 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. examples of patriotism. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools?
1. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Write Article 22
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two aims of religious education?
3. 10. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. stories of moral greatness. 9. Gurudwara as. Life histories of great persons of the world. therefore. Since all religions have virtues.5.
It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 1. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 6.4. 8.4. 3. Non-injury. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. “Let all be happy and free from disease. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Asvada (Control of palate).
. let men see well of one another. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Swadeshi (Patriotism). 5. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). They will play their role effectively. students. 2. Without moral values. 4. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Ahimsa (Non-violence).acquisitiveness). the methods of teaching. 6. Service to others. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 7. 2. 8. Patriotism. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. therefore. Fearlessness. Cultivation of emotions. in the home.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Purity. 1. 4. Aparigarha (Non. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. The content of the curriculum. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Moral education. 5. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Self sacrifice. 3. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. 7. Satyam (truth). is that which develops moral values.
Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Efficiency. Asatyam (Non-thieving).4. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Good temper. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. 4. 1. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. 3. minutes in the morning for group singing. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Simple texts and stories concerning different. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics.9. National unity and Spiritual values. Secondary Stage 1. loyalty and self-sacrifice. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. religions may be included in the syllabus. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. 10. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Good manners. Integrity. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. In the school programme. Unity of mankind. 3.
. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Sharivashram (Physical work). Discipline. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. 2. discipline.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. 11. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 .
University Stage 1. 5. Silent meditation should be encouraged. In this connection. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. love of humanity. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction?
6. 5. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. 2. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. 3.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. patriotism and self-discipline. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. In other words. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. should form a normal part of school programme.4. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. b. For this.1. 1. The School Assembly should be held for a few. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. a. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. Training of Character 3. a. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.
. 1959 5.4. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. In short. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. minutes in the morning for group singing. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. Sri Prakasa 6 .10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid
blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.4. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. b. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 2.
4. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. 1.4. Discuss the aims of Religious education. a. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. the.
Bhatia. (2007). Publishing Corporation. N. P.1. K and Narang C.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.4. M. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. B.P. Theory and Principles of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2003). N.H.
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
Pahuja. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2008).
Dash. Ltd. L. (2004).C. J. New Delhi: A. K.
. New Delhi :
12 1.4 1.2 1. i.10 1.5 1.5.
.5..6 1. Although.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5.e.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5.1 1.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1.3 1.11 1.9 1.5. disparities between provinces/States.5.5.LESSON 5
REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
STRUCTURE 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.8 1.5.7 1.5.
Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.
. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. they take appropriate measures. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. roads. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.5. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.5. for example.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF
Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. Accordingly.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. 5.5.
1.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. They therefore. etc. energy. 4. 6. understand the regional educational development in India 3. 8. know the education suited to different environments. This leads to separatist movements. work hard towards this end. 1. 2.1. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.5. 1. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. 7. waters. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. you will be able to: 1.
The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. Secularism.
. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. some States became educationally far advanced. 2. • Separate States (of course viable States). and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. while others remained educationally backward. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. Therefore. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected.5. 4. on the basis of regional development may be formed. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. some average. and. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . Tight security arrangements should be made. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. 3. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still.
Out of this. etc. approved proposals worth Rs. Regional Centres of IGNOU.g. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. and provision of informal education to enable those. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. After the attainment of independence.480. the State Governments. NERIST.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. academic buildings. Mizoram. Rs. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. 1.After the Planning Process has originated. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. Silchar.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. Central Universities of Assam. remained under developed. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments.14. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. These projects are in various stages of implementation. Funds amounting to Rs.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice.. the Union Government. library buildings.84 crore was released in 2005-06. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. Nagaland and NEHU. Even in each State. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. Tezpur. However. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. books. Guwahati.
.392. Itanagar. while some States like Bihar. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. In the Central sector. Jammu and Kashmir. etc.5. since its inception in 1998-99. NIT. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. scholarships.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters.
42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. During 2003-04. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.57 crore and Rs. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.500.261.8 per cent in 05). NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. too. A provision of Rs. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.05 crore and Rs. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Tezpur University.501.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.40. Moreover. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010
. Out of this an amount of Rs.5.187.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION
The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. Government expenditure on education. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.
and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. Kerala and Gujarat. Medical education. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India.
Moreover. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. English.
1. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. pharma. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. telecom.
Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Karnataka.
The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. notes the study.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all
. To add to the woes. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. engineering and R&D. for instance. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Andhra Pradesh. The Chandigarh Administration.5. Tamil Nadu. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18).
Listing the positives. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. for which 16 sites. too. Karnataka. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. too. too. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub.
there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. and so on. Of course. the vocations.
. taking the average in the middle. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. while the former does not. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. the working days: an academic . They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. In the same manner. in which the learners live. which a non-tribal person cannot do. the curricular subjects. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. the interests. Hence it is called as need-based. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. even actually looking at the watch. The working hours of educational institutions. life-oriented and environment slanted. For a learner living in a rural area. when he will not be sure of time. the socio-physical conditions.year. The living conditions. Then education become realistic and idealistic. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. the teaching methods. the needs. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to suit education to different environments? 1. 2. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education?
3.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region?
1.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.5.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.5. 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance?
. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. 2. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.
. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.
some of areas which were under the native rulers. A.K. during the British rule. Giridhar. (2002).N. (2008).5.H. R.
. some States have become more developed than others b. S. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. a. Educational Development in India.2. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2001). Education in Developmental Arena. (2001). Salim. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. New Delhi: Authors press. 60% 1. and Nair. S.G. C. Dubey. remained undeveloped 3.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Education Scenario in India.
UNIT – II
the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. semi literate and illiterates. community development. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. National Integration. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Of all the human factors in the school system. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home.
. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. school community and mass media. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people.
1.1.9 2.1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.6 Education for Secularism 2.LESSON 2.6.7 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 2.1 2.1
IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.3 2.2 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.5.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.8 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.6.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.4 126.96.36.199 Main features of Socialism 188.8.131.52.1.1.
social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. creed. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. In the matter of admitting students in schools. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. there should be made no distinction of caste. The students may be associated with the management of the school.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. socialistic and secular state. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. This is the political aspect of democracy.1. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission.1. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 3) Provision of Manual Work. Democracy thus means power of the people. socialism and secularism 2.1.
2.1. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. for the people by the people”.
. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. you will be able to: 1. 2. understand the concept of democracy.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality.2. socialism and secularism 2.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. colour or wealth. Abraham Lincoln. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.
8) Opportunities for Social Service.
. 12) Visits to Legislatures. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. may be planned. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. declamation contest etc. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. debates. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life.. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible.1. 11) Student Parliament.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Democracy means 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln?
3. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. There are different brands of socialism. it soon spread all over the world. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems.
2. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum.
1. none high”. but on the path of non-violence. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work.5. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 7) Special facilities for girls. free from exploitation.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. Under it.
2.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. service and cooperation.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society.
.1. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. the prince and the peasant. 2. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 2) Socialism aims at equality. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. oppression and disparity. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote.5. the wealthy and the poor. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books.
9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. 11) State schools.1. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.
. Everyone says. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. According to Holydake. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. secularism is being propagated. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system.” In every political and educational corner. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’.
5. "which seeks the development of physical.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
2. “India is a secular-country. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. Write any two main features of socialism. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values.
6.1. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.opposed to religious education. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. liberty. 9) It stress free inquiry. Moral values have to be imbibed.
. people have narrow mindedness. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. 8) It believes in co-existence.6. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. 5) It implies tolerance. “Webster further says. In this type of prevailing situations. the belief that the state morals. people started believing in regionalism. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. education etc. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. 3) It permits freedom of worship. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. During the recent past. should be independent of religion.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. A large number of people is uneducated. Equality. 2) It permits freedom of religion.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. fraternity. There is need of making the people open minded. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. That is why. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. 2. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated.1.
2. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. that the central string of all religions is one. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. While doing so. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. it has then everlasting impact on their
. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. In the celebration of each such function. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. No doubt. There should be some internal checking of the material being. education. tours and trips may be organized. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations.6. 1) Moral Education. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education.presented by the students in the gathering. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING
In the schools. Religious Education. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. The very sight of the building.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. Patiala. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. In the hands of such teachers. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. students belonging to different religions should be associated. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution.1.
personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook
10. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering.7 LET US SUM UP
. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. The word “Seculum” means 7. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For.
2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.1. Define Secularism
9. No doubt. The term secularism was first used by 8.
it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. In the matter of admitting students in schools. creed. there should be made no distinction of caste. Abraham Lincoln. Since socialism stands for equality. Provision of Manual Work. colour or wealth. 3. 5. a. c. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. The students may be associated with the management of the school. 6.
2. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Respect of Individual Personality. What are the implications of socialism on education
2. Socialism aims at social justice. 4. a.9
ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. for the people and the people”. This present age 7. George Jacob Holydake
.1. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. b. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. Tuition free education b. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.1. Equal Opportunities for Admission. a. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. 3. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Socialism aims at equality. d.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. 5. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. b. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. Power of the people 2.
b. (2008). a. b. (2004). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Anmol Publications Pvt. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools
Bhatia. (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education.
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. a. education etc. B. It permits freedom of religion. New Delhi :
Pahuja. the belief that the state morals. Mohanty.8. (2007).” 9. K.C. Dash. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J.1. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. should be independent of religion. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ltd. (2003). N. P. N. K and Narang C. Theory and Principles of Education. 10.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. It treats all religions on an equal footing.
184.108.40.206.2.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.10 2.6.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.1 2.9 2.2 220.127.116.11.2.7 2.6.8 2.5.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.3 2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2. knowledge and experience of one
.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 18.104.22.168.2.LESSON 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.4 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.2
ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY
who are placed in his custody.
2. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower.2. development. moral. A teacher is first and foremost.an instructor of school children.generation to another. as persons. social and moral aspects. 2.2. It involves physical. emotional. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. as citizens. as workers. mental. application. a r e 1. skills. and 4. you will be able to: 1. therefore. as it is t he aim o f modern education. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. social. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. 3. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental.
. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. understandings. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. The developmental roles of children.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. as learners. 2. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. aims and objectives of the school. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.
economically effective. member of his community at the outset. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. mentally. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. 3. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. morally. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. He has to look after their physical. mental.2. The students live. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association
Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. Teacher as a Citizen
Next. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. 1. Teacher as a Parent
Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. social and emotional health. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. a part of their day in
. intellectually. motivated. He is to become an active member. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong.All education should lead to better behavioural development. and aesthetically to become. socially. culturally confident. physically fit for socially efficient. The following are some of such roles described in brief. emotionally. inquisitive. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. 2. 2. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. morally. experiences and acceptance. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner.
objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. faiths. photographic clubs. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. 4.
2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the role of teachers towards community development
. languages and religions. and most of hours. They will be spending with their parents. fine art associations. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. science club.2. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. Unless. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs
In addition to the above cited roles in the community. creeds. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. It
.the school being under the custody of teachers. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. India is a land of many castes. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. solve them. activities of the society into which he is born. Dr.
the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. b. ‘We should not become parochial. and make into one strong national unit. the citizens of the Republic of India. narrow-minded provincial. this integration of the Indian people. c. It should broaden the outlook. Radhakrishnan. poems. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. therefore. At the primary stage the importance of stories. stand up straight. Sampurnanand remarked.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. a. national anthem and other national songs. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of
. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. the study of language and literature. should be emphasised. Let us. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. Nehruji has explained this as. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. with straight backs and look up at the skies.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr.” 2.2.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. folklore and teaching of social studies. 1.is. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities.” Regarding the role of education. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. The only process is the process of education.5. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. social studies.
dramatics and youth festivals. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Uniform for School Children. tours. 6. Celebrations of National Days.
. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. 2. 8. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. debates. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. Reverence of National Flag. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. 7. and picnics. 10. Student Camps. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Taking Pledge. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. sports. Singing of National Anthem. National Days—January 26. 3. Co-Curricular Activities. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. 9. Scouts and Guides. languages and literature. t he st udent s and t he community. Textbooks. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. ACC. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. symposia. 4. militar y training like the NCC. 5. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. educational excursions. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important.different social sciences. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s.
Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. Recognition of Institutions. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. 14. 15. 16. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted.5. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 12. language. region or religion. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Students Exchange and Tours. flora and fauna. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. iv. Admissions. School Projects. v. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. Open-Air Dramas. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. Admissions to schools. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own.11. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country.
. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING
Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. colour. Educational and Travel Documentaries. iii. ways of thinking and doing things. ii. 2. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc.2. 13.
irrespective of national boundaries. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. ix. cultures and races on equal bases. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Community dinners. camps.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL
International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. 2.vi. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained.
viii. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Define National Integration
3. vii. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’.2. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students?
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee?
All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings.
Organising of debates and. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. 3. (b) stories of children of other lands. therefore.6.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. Teachers
.as important as that of a national citizenship. Dr.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. 2. Radhakrishnan states.F.e. often in connection with anniversaries.2. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it.friendships between children of different countries.” 2. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. patriotism is not enough. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. the international level. and the healthy development. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. 6. In a very real sense. of his body and mind. This. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. 2. Strong has observed. (c) fairly tales. Therefore. 4. C..” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. if it happens. that war.6. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .2. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. 5.
List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students
. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Indian and American. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding
7. a German. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. an Englishman. Russian.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Impartial in their Treatment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should not be propagandists. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew.
As the school is but a miniature society. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than
. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. Devaluation of Values . A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . 5.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. 3. Wide Spread Frustration .Another major. the education function can be carried. leading to.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. 4. majority of people are. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. and help the students to over . If this is done.
Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. there is wide spread frustration among all people. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. Chronic Poverty . Defects of the educational System . 2.2.2. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. It does not prepare students for life. which results in agitation and aggression language. understand and indiscipline: 1.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them.
He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. List out the factors causing social tension in schools
. love.democratic nature. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. co-operation.2. community development. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
2. fellow feeling. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. etc. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
8. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.
. List out six characteristics of a good teacher.2. 5. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. sympathy and good will among the nations.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 22.214.171.124 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 126.96.36.199 Functions and role of schools in the society 188.8.131.52 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 184.108.40.206 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 220.127.116.11 Radio as an agency of education 18.104.22.168 Television as an agency of education 22.214.171.124 Press as a medium of education 126.96.36.199 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
188.8.131.52 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 184.108.40.206 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
220.127.116.11 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
18.104.22.168 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
3. “All the citizens of the community. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. Define community. Now internet is being used. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Hence. Emphasising this thing. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. led to the printing of books. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher.V. He taught his students orally. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. art galleries. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the
. books. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. periodicals. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. During the course of time.3. Moreover. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. Then came newspapers. Crow and Crow write. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. In fact. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. are increasingly used in education. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the invention of the printing press. Museums. To make them achieve their aim.
dram appreciation. Important happening inventions. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Reynolds. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. It enlightens public opinion. Various talks. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication.3. rather than on picture. music. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. politics. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. the place of importance.telecast.6. Thus. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. current affairs and other areas. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Effective means of presenting music. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. It is also an important source of entertainment. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. languages. 2. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. 2.classroom teachers. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. for the teacher through school broadcasts. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. In collaboration with the experts. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. A lot of work by way of pre. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. Many gaps are to be filled up by them.G. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. art. It stimulates curiosity and interests.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. the teacher still occupies. Students listen various talks. Thus.
. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. In the emphasis is on sound. social studies. “Listening participation” in current history.
In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. projects or creative activities. 4. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. style. at drawing room. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. Team-teaching demonstrations. development of lessons. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. 3. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. travel talks. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. mathematics. plays. at play. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. speech. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. at any place.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society.
. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. Before presenting the programme. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. At present. fol classical music. audibility and presentability. Participation of local teachers and pupils. 5. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. at recreational centers. informal and non-formal education. School concerts. Making learning an open system. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 22.214.171.124 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
126.96.36.199 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 188.8.131.52 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
1 Characteristics of formal education 2.7 2.3 Advantages of formal education 184.108.40.206.4.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.4.4 Non formal educational system 220.127.116.11.4.4.5 2.4
FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 2.4.2 2.3.1 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 18.104.22.168 Levels of formal education system 2.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.6 2.4.4 Limitations of formal education 22.214.171.124 Academic objectives of Non formal education 126.96.36.199 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.8 188.8.131.52.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.LESSON 2.4.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.3.4.
Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. the mass media et. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education.4. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. 9. imparted at the residence of the teacher. compare formal and non formal system of education. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. To realize this objective of education. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4. 3. starting and ending at -a particular age. 4. the community. In ancient time in India. 5.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness.2. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. open university. it was mostly. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. Education organised by some agency. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. the family. 3. say the Government or the private enterprise. his mental alertness.4. 2. the learner are acquainted. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises..3. 8. you will be able to: 1. 2. School is. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. 4. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. the most important agency of formal education.
. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. 6. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. 2. 7. the temple.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 2. open school. 2. Education.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.4. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner.
with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. capacity. In general.3.a secondary education. depending on the jurisdiction. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. Through early formal education. as well as vocational education and training. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. the elements of language are first learned. diplomas.2. Concepts of proportion. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. also called tertiary. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . or academic degrees.3. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate
. such as a high school or secondary school. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. third stage. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills.4. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. structured education.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. or post secondary education. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education.4. Higher Education: Higher education.
2. Some education systems have separate middle schools. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals.
Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.which will help for nation's development. 4. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. 2.
is an important agency of formal education. Agencies can be classified as 2.
3. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. late beginners etc.4.3. What are levels of formal educational system?
. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Write any two characteristics of formal education?
. that is intended to serve identifiable
. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. children with disabilities. and remote dwellers.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit &
Non-formal education includes adult education. i. to help themselves. etc.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. adults as well as children. It is deliberate. systematic. place of instruction. it has its own valid claim to reality. it is a more effective tool for rural development.e. It unlocks the doors of development plans.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. curriculum. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. continuing education and on the job oriented education.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. one could say that non-formal education is an active. It is much more responsive to needs and change.learning client take some learning objectives. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. Adiseshiah.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. systematic. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Therefore. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. It is functional. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. adding up to a true learning society. “Non-formal education should
. However. staffed. According to Malcolm A. until 1970 it had not been defined.formal education. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. Open university. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. financially supported life formal education. Thus.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. planned.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system..” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. open learning.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. admissions.
Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. Part-time education.S. 7. exploring. 4.
• • •
To help the student to acquire languages skills. 5. place of education. Covering life span of an individual. 2. national integration. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.4. i. evaluation etc. Process of sharing. Preparation for future needs.
. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things.renewal.” According to H. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. To help industrial workers to better their skills.
To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. Lawrence. 2. admissions. curriculum.S. co-curricular activities.4. self. It should lay emphasis on the self.4.” 2. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. socialism.
The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. age. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status.learning pattern. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth.4. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. To develop in the student. Flexibility in various aspects of education.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.e. 6. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. the Ideas of citizenship.be marketable and vocationalised. modes of teaching. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. international understanding.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved.
• • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. 3.
The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 2. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. Technical.4. •
2.4. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. school dropouts. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. 10. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 4. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. Eradication of adult literacy. 5. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. 5.4. in villages and those who live in towns. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. 3. 4. 8. working adults. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge.4. 6. 9. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Universalisation of primary education.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. To offer Secondary. Senior Secondary. publication and information dissemination. 2. 7. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 3.
. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research.
It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.4. etc. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. factory. Institutions for formal education. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. open space. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes
.4. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. effective in modern societal context. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. self-employment iii. To increase knowledge and 2. if organised in isolation. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. Radio and television. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. others are formal and informal. 2. 4. 3.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. centres of correspondence education.. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college .5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1.2. To better qualifications. Therefore. library. public libraries. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. training centres in factories. Again. All-round development i. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. farm. To make if. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education.4. etc.full time to learners – can be home. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. 2. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.
V. Teaching to face teaching.
Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give examples of non formal education?
. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning.6 7
Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Written tests. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
5. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Face Contact programmes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6. Lecturing T. Correspondence lesson. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. List out any two aims of non formal education. institution. Define non formal education.
8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. a. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress.
b. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. 4. 3.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5.
7. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Higher Secondary level and University level. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Pre-school level. Open University.4. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society.4. b. Formal and Non Formal 2. Open School.2. Secondary level. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution.” 6.
.4. School 3. The school. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. a. the college and the university come under this category.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. 2. Primary level. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 4. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. systematic.
2. adults as well as children. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.
Gupta. S. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. K and Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. L.C. P. K. N. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Pahuja. Bhatia. Dash. New Delhi :
. (2004). N. Education in Emerging India. J. Ltd.2.4. (2008). J. (2008). Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. B.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2005). Theory and Principles of Education. (2003). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Mohanty. (2007).
4.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 184.108.40.206 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168.5.7 22.214.171.124.1 Characteristic features of open University 126.96.36.199.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5
CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
STRUCTURE 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 188.8.131.52.3.2 2.3 Objectives of Open University 2.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.4 Need for Open University 2.4 Open University 2.4.LESSON 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5 2.1 184.108.40.206.5.
Thus. know the need and objectives of open university.5.3. continuing education is a boon. It is a lifelong process. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. 2. This knowledge may be in political field.3
In India. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies.5. economic field or such other fields. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. It is a continuous process. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. 2.2. give the meaning. Any person. However. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. For them. characteristics of open university 4. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. you will be able to: 1. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically.5. Under these circumstances. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. farmers. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. industries.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. labourers and half educated individuals.
2. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not
. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon.
1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. For them too continuing education is essential. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Radio and T.5. 2. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society.V. are also contributing their might for the purpose. Radio.V. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. The objectives of National Literacy Mission
. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. Cinema.directly related to his job. T. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened.literate person. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. Throughout the country. deteriorating to his character and personality. cultured and progressive. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas.3. After the achievement of independence. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. if he gets opportunity to develop them. On the other hand. Persons engaged in health services. On the other hand. Doctors. Block Development Officers. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. Thus. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI
As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans.
(3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. 3.. (1) ancient history. 6. (16) liking. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (14) information about bringing up young children. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (8) psychology of adults. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (10) first aid. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. and Radio. Inspite of the great efforts. (7) folk songs. 4. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. 7.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (6) folk stories.3. These books are not very useful.5. 2. (15) music. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. habits of people of other lands. 2. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (2) basic religious matters. Of course. especially women. (13) psychology of child behaviour.
. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. we have not been able to achieve our targets.V. (17) modern international and national events. 5. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities.3. 2. (4) the fundamentals of economics.5.
The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left
. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. What is the objectives of NLM?
3. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. attendance restrict ion. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc.4
O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M
Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate?
2. of educational opportunities.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.5.5. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University.
2. NLM was launched in the year 2. lack of time etc.4.
The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. c. it makes use of educational techno logy. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning.4. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. 4. No one is too old or too late to learn. Which was the first open university in India? .2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 2. IGNOU was established in the year 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. b. 3. the higher the degree of openness. Education is not a once for-all process. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements.
An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. 5. and in teaching. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. its education is not class room based but home based.5. d. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. e.unobserved. but
. Mention any two characteristics of Open University?
To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 2. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all.
. 3. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”.5. who were deprived of t he same earlier. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. supplementing the existing provision. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes.4. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. 6. 4. 3. 2.4. 2. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced.5. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. 5. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 4. it a ims at wider and hig her. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. or who realised too late that they need it. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 2. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country.who did not get it. Mo re o ver. cho ice o f co ur ses. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books.
1. 5. Tutor Comments. 8.
. Laboratory works. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored.4. In the present day world. Self instructional materials. Every day. 3. you have learnt the concept. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking.5. a state or nation. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. semi – literates.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.
2.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. 4. 7.
B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist any two objectives of Open University?
. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Correspondence tuition. 8. school drop outs. List out any four methods of Open University? .5. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Therefore.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y.2. a society. 6. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates.
3. Explain the objectives. a.
2. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. 7. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. b. agricultural and industrial workers. (1) ancient history. b. 8. unskilled workers and other professionals. Television Lessons.5. (2) basic religious matters.
8.5. 7. which may include house wives. 6.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. its education is not class room based but home based.
. cho ic e o f co u r ses.ambitious learners. need and characteristics of Open University. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. youth. a. (4) the fundamentals of economics. a. Write about the philosophy of Open University
2. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 9. d. P r int med ia b. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 1988. aspirants for continuing education. 2.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. 4. 1985. Broad casting lectures c. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.
S. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.K. L. Modern Problems of Education. Reddy. K and Narang C.. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2004). (2004). New Delhi: Rajat Publication.2. (2001). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K. S. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. R.5. Udaiveer. (2007).8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.
. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.
UNIT – III
the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. its causes and remedial measures. Training teachers for all levels of education. In Lesson 2. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. Examination reform. wastage and stagnation. which may claim the attention of those concerned.
. and teacher education. examination.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. All which is the need of the hour. the education of women. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. The problems pertaining to the aim of education.
1 EFA – For whom? 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1
STRUCTURE 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.
. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.5 3.1 220.127.116.11 3.2 EFA – How? 3.3 New initiatives.7 18.104.22.168 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3.1.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.8 3.LESSON 3.1.4 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 3.
may be political. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3.3. you will be able to: 1. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. economic or cultural. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. therefore.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. On the other hand. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). “The State shall
. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). Therefore. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. Eradication of Illiteracy. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. directed that. education received added importance and significance. (EOI) 2.1. Continuing Education (CE) 1.1. 2. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI).
3. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. understands the country. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. social.
This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. rights and responsibilities. Universalization of Retention. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration.
. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people.endeavour to provide. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. After the attainment of independence. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Therefore. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Due to the adoption of democratic system. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. It enables the parents to send their children to School. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Continuing Education (CE). After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Three Stages for Universalization.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. 3. the national Government under. Universalization of Enrolment. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves.
Write Article 45. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. later to 1988.
3. 1990. 1995 (for upper primary stage). Therefore.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind.1. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. UNESCO Bulletin states. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education?
2.3. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. It is safe to assure. educational enterprise. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society.
. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. then to 1976. This target had to be revised to 1970. present and future. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
1. rural areas. slum areas. creed. their enrolment and retention. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. NAEP. the art of preparing fruit-juice.3. 10. problem of literacy. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. etc. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. 11. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. Education of Girls. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. In order to make the programme of education for all community.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. 6. 8. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Apart from primary education.
. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. sex. Early childhood education should be streamlined. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. The Social Education. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. nutrition education and sports and games. Jams and Jellies. 3. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. adolescent and adult. 12. 5. and Women’s education programme should be improved. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. Education of the Impaired. By undertaking survey. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). Disabled. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. FELF. 3. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. their social economic status and occupations. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. 9. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. Emphasis must be given on health education.
3.1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. 4. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA?
4.1. If any child drops out from the school before completing the
.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES
W AS TAG E
The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.3 NEW INITIATIVES. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.e. Expand MLL and SSA
. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Wastage and Stagnation. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.
Familial Factors . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage :
unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools
parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home
over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and
excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. School Factors .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. it is considered as wastage.
(a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas
1.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school
poor standard of institutions
higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness
Personal Factors . Social Factors .The personal factors responsible for wastage are
Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties
Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments
lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education
2.first stage of education.
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.
.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education.
. 7. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation?
6. Define Wastage. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation
.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. Personal Factors . are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. Societal Factors . They are described hereunder :1.3. relating to home.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES
Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Family Factors . in his home. School Factors .1. school or society. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. rural or urban 3.The following factors.
stationary. uniforms. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation?
. etc. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Define Stagnation?
9.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. mid-day meals. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education.
7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. 2.
3. Minimum Levels of Learning b. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. Hartog Committee.” 3. 4. a. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. therefore. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. a. “The State shall endeavour to provide. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Universalization of Enrolment c.. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. Universalization of Retention 2. Universalization of Provision b.1. a.3.
. 3.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b.1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. 4. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. 6.1. directed that. improvement of curriculum. 3.
N. S. Familial Factors c. S.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.1. (2001). Personal Factor b. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations.7. 3. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. New Delhi:
. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. School Factors d. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. b. Hemchand. Crescent Publishing Corporation. T.K. Social Factors
8. improve examination system. Sharma. (2008). Problems of Elementary Education. a. (2007). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 9.K. a. introduce graded curriculum.
188.8.131.52 Inspection and Supervision 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.3 Modern reforms of examination 18.104.22.168.2.5 New evaluation procedures 3.1 Problems of examination 3.6.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2 22.214.171.124.2.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2
STRUCTURE 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2.2.LESSON 126.96.36.199.5.4 Question banks 3.4.2 Grade System 3.7 Open book examination 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 Let us sum up
3.2.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION
There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. but on the other. Besides.9 3.10
Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. managing of co-educational schools is 148
. 4. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. 3.2. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. 3.2.2. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. 220.127.116.11 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION
One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . suggest the new evaluation procedures. you will be able to: 1.8 3. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.2. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.
roadside Romeoism. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers.
4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated
5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. schools for them wherever necessary. which the educational authorities have to face. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened.
3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. etc. If the students are in sufficient number.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. etc. They develop secondary sex characteristics. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age.3. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life.. The following steps should be taken up. waiting rooms for girl students.
3. They may cause problems relating to discipline. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. etc. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. hostel facilities.
. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances.2. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools.
conduct of internal examinations. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. It is considered as a major sub-system. assessment and Finance. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. public interested in education.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. Instruction. the examination system has an important role to play. appointment of paper-setters. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. teachers. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations.2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. Write any two advantages of Co-education?
3. 3. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. public administrators and statesmen.4.
. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country.2. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
examiners. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. establishing reliability. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. etc. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different
. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. announcement of results. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. scrutinizers. etc.4. values. introducing objective-based testing. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness.printing and distribution of question papers. tabulators. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. 3. training of examiners. etc. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. validity and practicability. invigilators. etc.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. etc.2.
may also discredit them. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. Rote memorisation. stereotyped questions.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. it s a common experience that subjectivity. lack of objectivity etc. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. 3) With respect to method of teaching.. halo-effect.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. 7) In connection with the question papers. takes the place of comprehensive learning. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. do not appeal to the students and parents.4.
.2.. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. Vagaries in making.
3. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. which they are expected to study. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. Subjects. 2) From the angle of content of education. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc.. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education.
Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.develop true love for education. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. revaluation. etc. re-numbering of answer scripts. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. List any two merits of examination. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. 4.
. Spot valuation. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. What are the major areas of problems of examination?
3. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. may be introduced.. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests.a part of internal assessment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. When a person chooses to work extra. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the
. attitudes.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . In this system. In actual practice.2.2. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. 3. he is given extra credit points. skills are given importance.5.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. The students can take any course offered in any department. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features:
3.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times.
More autonomy is given to students. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. Every paper is treated equal. It is complicated. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.3.5. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures.
Practical limitations are there. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. The new scheme of assessment.2. Their interests.
In the new system. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. poor. These weightages are called credits. or as a 4 credit course. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. This system reduces comparison of marks.discipline. The one shot written examination is not an effective
. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. An example is a seminar. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. courses can have weightages defined.
Less understanding by the parents.2.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development.5. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D
Avoids or less comparison. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. While designing syllabus.good. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. 3. v. only the total credits to be earned is specified.poor. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. Groupism is encouraged. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal.
However. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.2.5. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.5. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education.2.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.5.
3. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. 3. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. 3. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.
.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.2.
. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India.
3. List any four new evaluation procedures.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. 6. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard.2. However. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships.2. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. recruitment. What is the reason for introducing grade system?
.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
5. There are no proper procedures for selection. In the hierarchy. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and
• • • • • •
.3. Therefore. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.
submitting of the inspection reports. of late. finding out the adequacy of.• • •
• • •
administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties.qualified personnel. Academic inspection. in a sense. Separation of Inspection and Supervision.
3. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. qualifications. staff. finding out whether the prescribed text. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. complaints and compliments. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making.. taking up the follow-up programmes.6. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. books are followed. whether the syllabus has been covered. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. requirements. being realised as two different functions. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. When they are fully realised.
. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. disciplinary problems. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools.2.. wherever necessary. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. library books. 1. interpersonal relationships and so on. laboratory equipment. in contrast. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. playgrounds. They are. inspecting the class-room teaching. etc. etc. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. school buildings. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision.
Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well.
. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors.. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision.Ed.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. once in five years. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose.Ed. courses. course in either educational. or. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments.. modern. Similarly. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. 3.2. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. their professional knowledge. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. Insistence on specialisation in the B. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. M. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. In the case of departmental candidates. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. at least. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. aptitude. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. In the light of these conceptualisation.
Administration.2. a. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. assessment and Finance. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. 3.
. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. a.
It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
7. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. b. 5.
3. b. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. 2. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. d.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Instruction. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. b.2. c. 4. Grade System. 3.
To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. Problems of Education in India. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. R and Sharma. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Question banks. Open book examinations. K.2. Vaidya. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.
5. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. b. 7. Educational Reforms.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. (2002). History and Problems of Education in India.4. c. (2004). New
. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . S. b.
Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. a. Multiple sets of question paper. K. (2005). Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. a.a part of internal assessment. a. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.
1 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3.3.8 3.10 3.4 3.3
HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 3.3. you will be able to: 1. 2.LESSON 18.104.22.168.3.5 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.
.3.3 3.9 3.7 3. 4.3. identify the needs of rural India and social. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. 3. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3.3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. 3.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.2 3.3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3.6 3.
University Education. Similar is the case with some other States. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre.. The. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. Commission emphasised to continue.. the Banaras Sanskrit College. 10 years of general Secondary Education. i. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i.3. and 3 years of First Degree Course. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively
. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. 2. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses .e. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. Consequent on the recommendations. e. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. in Andhra Pradesh. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education..3.. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. etc.e.g.specialisation programmes 3. 8 years of general education. The Calcutta Madras. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1.
It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. Genera l Objectives are
1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. cultural and economic development of the country. 10.3. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. However. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes
. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. b.confidence in students. habits of hard work and develop . 3. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . 5) to help for the social. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to
Higher Education. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. to prepare. 8. historical.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 5. general rise
in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. and. educational channels. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. is also a plus point . economical and political. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . to imbibe.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. who desire to change from one stream to another.
3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. 6. 7. Provision for transfer of credits to students. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal.a sense of dignity of labour. social.
Psychologically. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission.. Philosophically it is not the conception. cooperativeness. The General Educational Spectrum. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. and. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. 1. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. and that required to enter the tertiary level.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. on one hand. international understanding. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of
. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only.national integration. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities.3. etc. democratic living. social justice. 3. Sociologically it is undesirable. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. cultural and' religious tolerance. to develop national character. at the other. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone.
technological. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. or other machinery. 2. horticulture.
. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. Agriculture is the main occupation. fish culture. Biology. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. educational and cultural services. commerce. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-.3. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Commerce and other disciplines. medical plants.— tube-wells. All these need for an. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. physics or mathematics. rural health. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. and vocations based on dairy-farming. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. Science. industrial agricultural production is growing. technical. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. vegetable growing. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. In the vocational spectrum. In the matter of language. 3. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. chemistry. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. commerce. In our country. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. professional.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. such as Agriculture.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. the rural areas have suffered very much. India is a land of villages. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum.. 3. In this way. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.etc. In this it may be concluded. the local resources available. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education?
3. etc. and the needs.. social justice. 4. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2.3. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage?
. In time. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . There had been favourable reaction from the students. and
5. can be ensured. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. interests and aptitudes of the students.
Modern Trends in Indian Education. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. Ltd. b. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007).3. we studied the history. habits of hard work and develop .10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage?
3.3. J. 3. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. B. a. J. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. 3. Dash.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 3. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.K. a.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Vocational Sepctrum.3.3. b. Mohanty. New Delhi :
. 2. N. a. to imbibe. 3.3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. objectives.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. General Educational Spectrum and b. (2001).a sense of dignity of labour. (2005). curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. S. (2008). Calcutta University Commission 2.C.
4. but the lighting of a fire”.4.12 3.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.6 22.214.171.124.4.1 3.4.4
STRUCTURE 3.4.8 3.LESSON 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.1
“Education is not the filling of a trail.3 3.7 3. Education contributes to human development.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.11 3.10 184.108.40.206 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3.9 3.4. social and
higher education in particular. In the post —independence period. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. There is a close connection between education and development. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. economic. Nursing. although we have miles to go. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. For the first time in the history of India. Education . It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. While women constituted only 9. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. Teaching and Fine Arts. particularly
. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. cultural and political development of the individual.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. 3.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. The relevance of women’s education to social. analyze the women and distance education. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .4. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. community and nation is universally acknowledged. you will be able to: 1. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. These courses were. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. During the year 1937. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. Home Economics. Dr. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way.4. family. higher education of girls developed immensely.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877.
3.0 32. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. we have more than 1200 institutions. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than
.65 lakhs in 1994-95.2 29.4.1 31. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.4. levels and professions. 3.4
ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS
In the post Independence period. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. The idea of women’s education for equality. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.N. Coimbatore.D. Yet. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.4.T Women University.9 14. out of 9200 and odd colleges.women.0 16.1 24. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. Mother Teresa Women University. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Mumbai. in our country. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.0
Today. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. In 1950-51.9 27.2 22. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.0 43. Even today. In the rest of the country. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. Kodaikanal. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.
4.1 and 14. 2. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education?
.that of boys.1 respectively.46 82.17 52.63 Female % 34.73 10.44 35.4.4%) prefer Arts subjects.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that
.34 33.83 47.54 12.
3.53 34. 3.56 64. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.47 65. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.27 89. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India?
3.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which was the first Women’s University in our country?
.4.66 66. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.
Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. In every third family. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. Also. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. she will only learn fashion. They gave up their studies to enter home life. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations.4. promoted and increased. particularly. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. 3. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. etc. The major hurdles. Book banks should be established. irrelevance of the content of education. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. what is the need for higher education for her.hinders the girls from getting higher education. financial difficulty of the parents. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. marriage is a very common I factor. distance of the college or university from home. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. and coeducation may spoil her character. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Thus. According to a survey. In college. curriculum not suited to their requirements.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas.
It is a productive investment.
3. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. and the limitations of the conventional education system. Education. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. There are constraints of time.
Distance education is a boon to women.4. Full-time employment. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. resources and socio . 3. Geographic distance of educational institutions.economic disabilities faced by women. Empowerment in a nutshell. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. which is the most dynamic factor of development. It also brings about
. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. is the only tool for realising empowerment. space. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. It enables to study.4. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.
and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. higher learning. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex.4. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media
. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education
system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies:
Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. The major objectives of women's higher education. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. education of women is of paramount importance. on their own.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. empowerment means being assertive.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. This can be achieved through reflection. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. Empowerment is an active. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. education of women must be given priority in national plans. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. 3. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. Women are partners in development. for full development of our human resources. legal awareness and economic independence. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities.
GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. which had been the sole domain of men. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. Scholarships and concessions for women. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. Reservation for women. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Better opportunities. The local administration. who are eager to take up courses. which is pending for a long time.4. will encourage them to venture new grounds. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. especially so in the developing countries. 3. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. But their number is small.
. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men.
3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. has to be implemented at the earliest. The educational institutions. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops.
8%). Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. According to Lindy Hyam. IDP Education. talents. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace
. especially in developing countries like African countries. But. capacities etc. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Also. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. 3. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. engineering and related technologies (16..000 women in the country.9%).1%) and architecture and building (38. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education?
. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Chief Executive. Australia. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
Pattanaikj. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Women and Education.C. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. SNDT Women’s University. (2005).
3. Coimbatore.4. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. 2.4. 4. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women.to the family.
. R. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. (2008). Rajasthan 5. and Suryalatha. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication.R. Mumbai. Women Education. 4. Mother Teresa Women University.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Kodaikanal. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. 3. S. Annakodi. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life
3. create the right attitude towards life. Mishra. R. Women Education. Coimbatore. Mumbai. 43% 6. A. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. (2000).12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. R. a. (2007). S.K. A. 3. Rao. Centre for Women’s Studies. community and the nation.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. and Swain. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. SNDT Women’s University. individuals and society b.4.
5.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5
STRUCTURE 3.6 3.2 3. so as to enable them to acquire
.5.9 3.1 3.5. whole. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. They should be trained. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5.5.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.3 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.personality of children in and out of school.10 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.7 3.LESSON 220.127.116.11.4 3.5.11 3.8 3.5.5 3.
2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. national consciousness. know the pre service and in service training facilities. understanding and strong desire for international peace.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education.
. 5. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. equality and justice. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. 3. international. you will be able to: 1. list out the agencies of teachers education 3.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students.5. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Shorter working hours. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. understand the training teachers for Primary. and national character. 4. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. social and emotional integration. 3.5. Lack of physical facilities. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching.
students. and M. Depending on the levels. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. it is called the Extension teacher Education. Lop-sided curriculum. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and
. higher secondary teacher education. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. the state Government. the secondary teacher education.. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education.Ed. and the collegiate teacher education.5. 3. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. the centre. inservice and extension education programmes. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . (NCERT) New Delhi. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. who have not been trained earlier. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. levels. At the diploma level. etc. Inadequate training in practical skills. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. a Diploma course and a Degree course. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. it is called the In-service teacher education.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. the primary teacher education.5. If the student teachers are working teachers.Less qualified teacher educators. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years.Ed..
3. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community.
Educational teehnology cells. are established. Education cells.5. non-formal. depart ments etc. extensio n service. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs .Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. etc. state Institutes of Educat ion. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
3. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate
. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Expand NCERT 2.. Evaluation unit. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers
The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory .
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. collegiate cells. Write any two problems of Teacher Education?
.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. Also Guidance Bureaux. Science Education units.
. to improve curricular programmes. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. degree.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities .Ed. primary and secondary school teachers. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department.•
• • • • (B)
manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . which should include experience in the primary schools too.Ed. should be improved on a top priority basis. Training of Secondary School Teachers
The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. to offer consultative services. audio visual aids. laboratories.. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. The following defects are note-worthy
• • •
it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. which help breaking isolation from one another . through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. material conditions relating to libraries.. to prescribe conditions for recognition. schools and sister institutions. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. and
. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers.
The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. and so on. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . despite its vast expansion. to ensure teacher competence.
Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary.
. Psychology of Students. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. etc. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. The problem. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Organisation of Content Courses. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . To meet this exigency. Workshops. Modern Methods of Evaluation. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. and XII. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. Induction Courses. though no pre-service training. not came up once again. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers
As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Meanwhile. Modern Techniques of Teaching. methodology and evaluation. whether they should have professional education or. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. etc. Agriculture.secondary education.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Hence.
Ed. in Education.’s are elig ible for M.. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education..A. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.. (Education) and M... Degree and M. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. training.S. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.A. Courses leading to B. All B Ed. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.5. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. State Institutes of Education.. Ajmer.’s for Ph. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. M. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. courses and M. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Degree.Ed. (Education) are organized by
3. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. These facilities are available for regular students.D. Post-Graduates also undergo B. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.Ed. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Pre-service training is for those.Ed. Give your answer as instructed in each question b..Ed. For re-orienting the teachers.Ed. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. Point out two defects in primary teacher training
and B.. 5. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and .List any two code of conduct for teachers?
. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics.).5. . However. (Ed). they should be conscientious . established by tradition and teachers of the past. (Ed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. of conduct—written or unwritten. 6.some Faculties of Education of some Universities.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.A. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence the employability of M. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.
4. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. What is the role of ERIC?
. 3. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.A.. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them.
Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education.5. 4. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. 5. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. b. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. a.5.
3. Explain code of conduct for teachers. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.9 LET US SUM UP
The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. a. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. Bhopal.
. The necessity is however this. 3. National Council of Educational Research and Training. b.3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. However.5. Shorter working hours. a. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations.
4. they should be conscientious. Ajmer. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 2. 2.
3. Discuss the problems of teacher education.
N. Tewari. and Teacher Education.5. P. Corporation.D.3. Mohanty. (2010). (2009). Publication Pvt. J. Teacher Education. Ltd Aggarwal. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing
. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. A.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. (2003). B. Teacher Education.
UNIT – IV
The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients.
. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. nutritional deficiency diseases. If the diet is poor. common ailments of children. the focus is on the school health programmes. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. The person’s environment is equally important. objectives. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. objectives. economic and educational developments. need for population education and impact of population growth on social.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. communicable diseases and their prevention. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. objectives and role of the physical education. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. preservation of nutrients. Since food is the source of nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important. In lesson 4. In lesson 1.
1. for giving health education to the children under its custody. It is a miniature society. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1.1 18.104.22.168.1.6 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1. mental.11 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.4 4.LESSON 22.214.171.124 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. emotional and social.8 4. physical.1
SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES
STRUCTURE 4.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
4.2 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.7 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1.9 4.
. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.e.3 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.5 4.1.1.
to his family and to the community at large. understand school health programmes 2. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. 9. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To give information regarding health rules. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. To develop certain skills concerning health. explain the importance of First aid 5. 4. 4.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student.g. content of health education. training of teachers and evaluation. 3. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 6. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4.1. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 7. To develop healthy health habits among children.
. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools.1. you will be able to: 1. list the common ailments of children 3. 2. 8. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. e. 11. know the need for sex education. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. 10. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. Instruction. training in first aid and etc. 5. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health.. cleanliness and healthful living.
It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp.coming or absence. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to
.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. (viii) first aid. (xii) smoking education etc. organisation of school health days. The flooring should not be damp. (ii) communit y healt h. play festivals. “Play-for-all” programmes. typhoid. 5.4. (xl) mental health. B. 4. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. direct lighting. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. cleanliness weeks. 2. excusing late.C. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes.. (vi) nutrition education. ( iii) sanit at io n. The surroundings of schools should be clean. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. B. is imperative. 2. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. 3. (v) safety education. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. First aid facilities should be made readily available.1.. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. minimizing the travelling distance. etc. as described below 1. proper doors and windows. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. There should be good drainage facilities. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. Arranging better transportation facilities. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. suitable furniture. The school buildings should be spacious. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. inoculation against cholera. There should be regular water supply.G. Triple Antigen Vaccination. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. Vaccination for small pox. vaccination. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. (iv) co mmunicable diseases.
sports and games in the interest of their health. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. isolate and notify. dislocations. bleeding. fainting (epileptic fit). wounds. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row.•
afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. insect stings. • Take nutritious food. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes.
C. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. scalds. D. etc. • Have adequate rest and sleep. if epidemic is wide-spread. cuts. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. and other accidents. • Keep all rooms clean. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. • When sleeping in groups. poisons. drowning. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes.
. • Close the schools. fractures. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes.. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. • Find out the cases. burns.
During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and
. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. chicken pox. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. List out the Health curriculum
4. fever. backache. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. which are – cold. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. Once these germs get into the body. cough. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage.1. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. water or bodily contact. tuberculosis.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children.1. So they easily get illnesses. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. asthma.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. headache. Mention the school health programmes. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. polio. pain in the joints. These diseases are called communicable diseases. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage.
2.. They are: i) The incubation stage. measles etc. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. There are three stages in any communicable disease.
Others make the children very weak.This disease is caused by bacteria. Hence liquid diet is recommended. unhygienic bottle feeding. Measles . The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Tonsilitis . Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. head-ache and cough. Important salts and water are lost in this process. The following are the common communicable diseases. cough and fever. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Throat is affected. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Mumps . rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Common Cold .•
start affecting the body systems. unhygienic living conditions. Ear Infections . Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. The symptoms include cold.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. eating food which is not clean. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air.When a child suffers from scabies. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief.
. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. etc. The child may have fever. Hence it is called a killer disease. Children catch cold from persons having cold. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Scabies . Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. After three or four days of fever. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Diarrhoea . He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. This is caused by cold virus. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt.It is caused by measles virus. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. sugar and water.
A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. face and waist. the child is not able to breathe. If proper treatment is not given. raised pink spots appear on head.
. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. It begins with fever.•
Chicken Pox . Enlist the common ailments of children. Diphtheria . The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. the child may die.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. As the disease progresses. Typhoid . Shortly.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. separate. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. By scratching he causes secondary infections. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are communicable diseases?
5. The child may also have diarrhoea.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Expand DPT .
Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. bleeding. scorpion stings. cuts. It has its rightful place in education too. exciting and body-oriented.4.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. 3. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. swelling. Drowning . Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. Cuts and Bruises . fiction. simple fractures. It is both biological and psychological.
4. Sprains . It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. man-woman behaviours. fainting. 4. so-called sex books and periodicals. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. head injury.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Wounds . sprains. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. eye injury.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. wounds.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. 5. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological.1. 2. and films. etc. it is a subject of art.g. films and jokes.1.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. and Community Work and Social Service. drowning. sprains. In such cases. bruises.
. Sex is popular. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. snakebites. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. dislocation. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation.
in their ignorance. 3. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. Sex education has the major components as follows:
1..old values. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. B. Should the boys and girls. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. health. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives
. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. the religious organisations. In today's liberal and interactive society. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. the school. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. but preserve them from disaster and disease. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child.
Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex
A.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. sex education is being recommended in schools. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. 2. The values of life. try experimenting with their bodies.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. In secondary schools. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. they would be treading the path of sure doom. Hence. celibacy are age. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. The home. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. first aid and sex education.
It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now.1. Teacher education institutions are. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. common ailments of children. hence.1) 2) 3)
as a separate course. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others.
. C. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. the school health programmes. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. communicable diseases and their prevention. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum.
4. when the courses are already overloaded.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. there will no crisis in its implementation. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. What are the major components of Sex Education.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 126.96.36.199 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia
6. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to
4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency?
3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
a. Rickets is the deficiency of
5. Mention the food nutrients
6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.4. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . minerals. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4.2. If you look at the definition carefully. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s.
.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s.2. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s.
Let us talk about each of these aspects. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a.
The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex.one in the morning and the other at night. 4. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. moderate or heavy work.sedentary. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). Preferences/customs are also important. construction labourer).1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. There is no point. Even within given States there is considerable variation. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. for example. activity level and physiological stress. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are
.2. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. In other words. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet.g. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. paratha and poori. the social and religious practices of that region. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. sex. People in the east of our country prefer rice. it is also specific to a given activity level . A balanced diet is specific firstly.6. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. dosa are typical of the south. These are: region where the person resides and income. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . In the case of adults.g. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress).
however. enables a person to add more variety to the diet.planning the diet. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. In addition to these. vegetables and fruits. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. These determine the acceptability of foods. One must. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. for example. Judicious selection of food is. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. however. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. Among the social factors. However. taboos related to food may play an important role. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. as important for the rich as for the poor. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. however. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Including these
. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. while another may hate them. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. fat and sugar tend to increase. nuts and dry fruits. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. As you read this discussion. Having more money. Even among flesh foods. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. As income increases. customs. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. If you think of your own religious group. income plays a vital role. One person may be fond of milk products.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. eggs . 8) Walk a while after eating. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . etc. fruits. over-eating or under. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. List out any two healthy food habits. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands.eating is hazardous. mouth. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. Define balanced diet. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. but they should be thrown away. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. For this. if the teachers have good food habits. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too.
. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. green leaves. meat. 17.
8.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed .
Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Corneal xerosis. Bitot’s spots.2. Beri Beri 4. c. 4. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. e. preservation of nutrients. d. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Vitamin D 5.2. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Conjuctival xerosis.2. Explain food nutrients 4. a. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. In fact. Fatigue and Giddiness
. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins
2. When the diet is inadequate. Discuss good food habits. b.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Keratomalacia 3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4.4. good nutrition is essential for good health. Night blindness.
R. Chopra. A Text Book of Foods. b. S.6. a. (2005). plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Health and Nutrition Education. (2009). R. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. mouth. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. Hands. minerals. Food and Nutrition Education. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Sri Lakshmi B. Nutrition and Dietetics.
4. (2008). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation
.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum.C. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. 7. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Nutrition Science.2. (2008).M. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . a .N. P. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. 8. Food should be consumed after eating well. b. (2004). Food and Nutrition Education.
2 4.6.2 Impact on economic development 4.6.1 Impact on social development 4.11 4.3.3 Impact on Education 4.1 188.8.131.52.3.3.
.3.LESSON 4.7 4.4 184.108.40.206 4.12 4.9 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 220.127.116.11.3.3
STRUCTURE 4.10 4.3.13 4.3.3 4.3.5 4.3.
The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. therefore.4. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. and the consequences of these processes.3.3. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. you will be able to: 1. objectives and need for population education 2. understand the importance of small family norm 5. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. Population Education. population characteristics. state the meaning. economic and educational development 3. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. Whenever we talk of sex education. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. It is a much wider co ncept. 4. aims at providing the younger generation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. There is some difference. his family. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood.3.
.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. family planning and sex education etc. community. the stress is.
4. It is not sex education. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. his societ y and the world.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. describe the impact of population growth on social. characteristics and changes for himself. the causes of population change.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India.
3. the nation and the world. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. List out any two objectives of Population Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points:
. the society. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.
4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Define Population Education
2.4. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. the family.
3. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country.6. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. With the larger families. When the family is small. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. 4. 4. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Every second two thousand children are being born. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. economic and educational development of the country. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. the family programmes are also handicapped. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. which will not be possible without population control. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed.
.3. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Family is considered as a social unit. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. health and happiness of its citizens. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood.
more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. Many students herded in a small room. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends.
. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. heavy intern I migration etc. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. Swollen cities.3. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. lack of proper health care.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. unemployment. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. teacher index. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils.. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production.3.6. facility for drinking water. organization index and material index.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. 4. 4. and so on. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. toilets. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. in buses and trains. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective.6.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. In developing countries.e. i. in cinema halls and theatres. in parks and other places of public gatherings. pollution of the environment. The gulf between them is widening further.
7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. less space facilities. can be taken up. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. There would be poor library facilities. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages.. essays. Regional Language. family planning etc. reproduction. less budget for education. even text books would be in short supply. and laboratory equipments. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. bar graphs etc.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. can be studied in science and health education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme.3. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. blank verses etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. thus. There would be very few audiovisual aids. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. Hindi and English. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education
4. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Social Studies Statistics on population education. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. there will be lacuna in many other spheres.
They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Brazil. Bihar. 2. China. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved.3. 12. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. 9.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION
1. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends.4. Children with the help of parents. 8. 14. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 15. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 13. deaths. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. 11. causes of deaths etc. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 3. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Canada. 7. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. 4. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. West Bengal. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to
. United States of America. 5. area and average density of population. Uttar Pradesh. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Children may compare two families. 10.
be opened in their schools. 17. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. 18. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. age at marriage. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Comparing life in various respects in two families. How will you correlate Population Education?
5. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education?
4. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. we have no right to stop
. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. values and role children etc. 16. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. preferences for sex. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. The question. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife.
6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).to emphasize family planning services. More than 45 years ago. continued .4-6. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. at varying places in different regions. especially the expansion of child immunization services . The Family Welfare Program. which education can only do. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.their entry into the world”. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. and the child survival components of the news: program. Since the program's inception. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality..sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. 4.were implemented
.3. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. on an overall basis.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. “He who is responsible for population growth. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . should be overcome at the intellectual levels. however. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children.
and it focuses on improving the quality of care by
. the community appears willing to pay for services. expansion of services to unmarried women. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men.earlier than the safe motherhood components. a focus on health promotion. and the World Conference on Women. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. At these meetings. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. men. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. Moreover. In October 1997. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. and nominal fees for services. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. reliance on local women as community health workers. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. Local programs vary in their approaches. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. In April 1996. Therefore.
3. What are the goals of RCH?
4. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training.
. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Describe the impact of population growth on social.emphasizing the needs of the client. community. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. family. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme?
7. nation and the world. Its main purposes are to create awareness. 1997). which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. 4.3. economic and educational development 4.3. involving the community.
and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. b.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. 5. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. United States of America. a. 3. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. his society and the world. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures.
. 7. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. Canada. population characteristics. 4.” 2. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. less administrative initiative and leadership talents.3. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. b. characteristics and changes for himself. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. China. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. area and average density of population. less space facilities. his family.4. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. Brazil. and the consequences of these processes. less budget for education. 6. the causes of population change. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. a. bar graphs.
Ltd.4. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. (2004).14 SUGGESTED READING
Mohanty. Coimbatore. J. A. N.
Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. (1992).
Jayapoorni. Centre for Women’s Studies. V. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.
. T. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.3. (2002).K. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Ltd. Principles of Population Studies. Bhende. (2005).
“Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Kantikar. (2005). Changing attitudes to Education in India.
Modern Problems of Education. Reddy.
Modern Trends in Indian Education.
STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168 4.3 4.11 22.214.171.124 Indigenous games 4.1 Minor games 4.9 4.2 126.96.36.199.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 188.8.131.52.4.10 4.4.4 Lead up games 184.108.40.206.4.4.7 4.1 4.2 Major games 4.5 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. perseverance. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. understand the importance of Physical Education 4.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. leadership and balance in defect.4. classify the different types of games.4. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. 4. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education.4. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. 4. team spirit. the youth of the country. full records of physical activities should be maintained. moral fitness and emotional fitness. as it should
. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. social fitness. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools.4.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. which forms its most valuable assets. you will be able to: 1. mental alertness. The concept of physical education has been made broader.
It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Therefore. obedience to rules. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. The educational efforts at home.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. To be more precise. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. leadership. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. They are inseparably united together. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. team spirit. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. They go hand in hand. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s
. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Every individual is a part of society. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning.
game and sports. Buck has observed that
. Physical exercises. a sound health. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. Rousseau states.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. 4. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers.” Montaigue writes. nor body but the whole man. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. ment al.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. mo ral.4. pleasing manners.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. Regarding the significance of physical education.” The Secondary Education Commission. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. C. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. Just like Education. H.
Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Froebel says.4. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. coordinative abilities. we must exercise the whole human being. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength.
. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. “If we wish to develop the whole being. etc.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. elegance. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. efficiency and character. endurance.” In brief. initiative.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. strength. speed. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. happiness.” 4. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively.a properly directed physical education should result in health. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. flexibility and power. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. resourcefulness and smartness.
including all racial groups and historical ages. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. While wars. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. in greater or lesser degree. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. systems of government. its adherents and its enemies. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. they may form gangs. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. these fundamental things have always been present. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Tournaments foster this sentiment. plagues and famines. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Every age has its artists.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. should help in the spiritual development of the student. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. poetry and painting. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical.
. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina.
obedience. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline.
2. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x)
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. self. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. respect for rules. Write any two importance of Physical Education.sacrifice. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour.
. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. bravery and interest in games and sports.
B. to develop tolerance. etc. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems.(iii) (iv) (v)
to develop rhythmic bodily movements.\ to develop perseverance.
defects. Be in the uniform. 11. Haag. 16. students. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. is essential. 13. 15. injuries among pupils should be made.4.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 5. Be sportive. 10. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases.4.4. Always keep the whistle ready. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. and. Usually parents. Inform health principles. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. 6. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Keep the field ready for the activities. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Be well-prepared. 4. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. 3. Act as a leader. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 2.
. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured.H. Be self-confident. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 14. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. and readmission after they have recovered. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities.
1. Be punctual. 9. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. 8. 7. 4. 12. Posture screening should be done.
chasing. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely.4. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games.
1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls.
4. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. less equipment and less expense. 3.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Such inst incts as imitation. their development is handicapped. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.8. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Moreover. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. the play. Lead up games. frolic and jo y. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. Indigenous games. 4.
skipping. on mountain tops and on river beds. Soft Ball.With a very few rules. on hard courts. muffling. For each game the rules are many. couple tag. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. These games require varied skills such as running. catching. over ball pass Relay. the play equipment. Kabaddy etc. women take part most of the games. Throwing. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Hockey. The dimension of the posts and nets. Ball Badminton.4. with implements or without implements. under ball pass Relay. Khokho. benefit in playing minor games.. Jumping. finding the partner. Cricket. trapping. zig zag relay. driving. dribbling. On lawns.
. stopping. some of them are played indoors. bowling etc. While many of them are played in the open playfields. Tennis. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. Shuttle Badminton. spiking. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. snatching the kerchief. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Basket Ball. Tennikoit. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Except a few games. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. pitching. 4. heading. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. hitting. Jump the stick clay and so on. Hopping. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Dodging. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. the number of players and substitutes. Volley Ball. wherever the kids assemble. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. boosting. the games can be modified according to convenience.8. They are played for a shorter duration. They are rules approved by the International Associations. on sea-shore.
7. these games being popular.4. Games may be classified as 6. death. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. What do you mean by lead up games?
.8. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8. and . They have an abundant social value. birth. While observing the players in action. On occasions like marriage.4. they are in existence. festivals connected with religion and public functions.4. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. Kho-kho. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. An example for indigenous game is 8. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. All the fundamental tactics. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. List out some major games.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. For example. 4.
to develop physical stamina. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. b. 4. 4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept.
4.4. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. 3. Minor and Major
.4. b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. d.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. a. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Posture screening should be done.4. b. aims and objectives and need of physical education. 2. 2. physically and emotionally fit and alert. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Briefly discuss the different types of games. a. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. a. a. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. to secure physical health b. 5. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. c. 3. 4. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose.4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.
. Soft Ball. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Tennis. Mohanty. (2009). J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Volley Ball. J. Handbook of Physical Education. Hockey. Shuttle Badminton. Tennikoit. J. (2008). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Khokho 8. (2008). Health. Physical Education and Sports.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Aggarwal.C. G.K. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Basket Ball. Krishna murthy. (2005).6. Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.
4.4. Kabaddy 7. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Khokho. Cricket. Ball Badminton.
6 4.5.9 4.5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 220.127.116.11.5.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 4.4 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as
.5.1 Natural Environment 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.5.11 4.3 4.LESSON 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.1 126.96.36.199 4.2 4.
you will able to: 1. role of teacher in environmental conservation. it covers the following elements: 1. The best place to start such learning is school. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. Details are given below: I. Participation. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. list out the types of environment 3. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. 2. 5.
4. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. 3. 6. economic. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. Awareness. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. social. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. aesthetic and educational factors. 4. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A.5.5. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4.
. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Broadly.
4. Evaluation Ability. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2.5. Essential knowledge about the Environment. population explosion and resource depletion could be. political.educat ion for the environment. Attitude.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Skills. 2.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Knowledge. education about the environment and education through the environment. 3. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological.
Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle.B. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. F. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. D. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. • Biological magnification E. a. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Oxidants Other pollutants. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. 2.
. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle.
Socio-economic measures. Use of medical science i. 2. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. c. 4. 3. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. 2. Family planning ii. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Intrauterine device iii. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. III. Sterilisation. The human ecosystem II. Control of population growth a.3. The pill ii. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources
. Abortion iv. economic. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. B. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Persuasion: i. Birth control through education b.
e) Recycling. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Define Environmental Education. 1983). Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection.
2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. 3. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Air pollution abatement ii.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (UNESCO.
. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Water pollution abatement.
-other. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.5. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . A change in one brings about a change in the other.5. Biological environment The biological environment. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific.5.4. They interact with each.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION
The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following
. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. a. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. to his needs. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. These are biotic components. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. way is called environmental or ecological factor. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.5. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. He modifies according”. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.other components of the environment. fax agricultural apparatus.5.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. Any constituent or condition of the environment. animals and other organisms (biotic).5. b. includes the plants. telex. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. 4.
balance of nature. need for bio-diversity. importance of nitrogen cycle. History The rise and fall. noise pollution. use of medicinal plants. relation between population and pollution. air pollutants from industries. maintaining the ecological diversity. wars and hazards of war. need for conservation. t heir role in preventing pollution. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. river systems. solar cookers. etc. use of pesticides. extinction of species. nuclear energy. greenhouse effect. effects o f CFC. natural way of controlling pests. water scarcity. reasons. etc. ozone layer deplet ion. role of trees in building economy. biogas plants. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. change in climate may be added. over exploitation of ground water. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. industrial survey. noise control. effects. supplying timber for various uses. food chain and food-web. sources of pollut ion. mineral survey. population. industrial pollut io n. acid rain. alternate sources of energy. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. windmills. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. desertification
. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . are the topics which may be taught in History. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. excellent recreation sites. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. preventing siltation of dams.
Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. preserving the watersheds. trees reducing noise pollution. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. of civilizations. nuclear warfare. (ii) Air pollution. sources. social studies. evolution. explosion deforestation.. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. ozone depletion.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science.
Peepal and Tulsi. 12. Organising conferences. group discussions and seminars. 6. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 5. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 3. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 10. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials.
Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 2. 4. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. 14. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. 9. aims and scope.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND
P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development:
1.5.may be inc ded in Geography.
Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. 13. 8. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 7. animal and plants. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Providing. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. 11. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 4.
toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. World Environmental falls on
. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. If it is done.
5. Reuse carrier bags. used oils down the drain. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so.Send their waste oil. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Don’t burn any waste. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. all these can cause serious pollution. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. it will cause pollution. Never put any left over chemicals. especially plastics. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit.
. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. To arrange for visiting speakers. etc. nuclear wars. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. To provide reference materials for children’s use. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. etc.mat erials. developing desirable attitudes. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. dest roying nat ural habitats. Social responsibilit y (common good. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. depletion of ozone.). minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. deforestation. viz. potable water. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. orderliness and beauty). diversity and stability. Harmony with the nature . and
. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. CFCs. Att itudes of balance towards nature.4. values and habits. To provide materials needed for practical work. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. To arrange visits or expeditions. concern for others). disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information.5. Concern for species. Conservation of natural resources. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. (cleanliness. rather than conquest and mastery.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. The groups may exchange. loss of bio-diversity. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes.
5.5. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.
4. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. preserving natural cycles.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. 4. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3.
. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.
b.K. water scarcity. importance of nitrogen cycle. b. New Delhi : Authors Press. Environmental Education. Awareness. greenhouse effect. a. T. 6. ozone layer deplet ion. new problems from science and technology. New Delhi : Anmol
. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. S. (2007). relat ion between population and pollution. 8.2. over exploitation of ground water. Anmol Publications Pvt. 3. group discussions and seminars. Rapid population growth. air pollutants from industries. reasons. Knowledge. population. Social responsibilit y (common good. sources. a. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. concern for others). a. Modern Problems of Education.K. New Delhi :
Sharma.5. acid rain. b.\ 4. To provide materials needed for practical work. Education for values. Environmental Education. Ltd. b. explosion deforestation. (2004).K.. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Ltd. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. To provide reference materials for children’s use.K. Y. S. 5. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 4. sources of pollution. Providing. (ii) Air pollution. (1997). Environment and Human Rights. June 5 7. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. a. Organising conferences. effects.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Udaiveer. Publications Pvt. Nanda. Kuldeep. (2007).
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 188.8.131.52 Idealism and aims of Education 184.108.40.206 Idealism and Curriculum 220.127.116.11 Idealism and methods of teaching 18.104.22.168 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 22.214.171.124 Naturalism and aims of Education 126.96.36.199 Naturalism and Curriculum 188.8.131.52 Naturalism and methods of teaching 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 220.127.116.11 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
18.104.22.168 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 22.214.171.124 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. Education must contribute to development of culture. the emancipation of spirit. It is self-realisation. Therefore. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities
. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. According to Rusk'. moral. The universe is regarded as a thought process. should be universal in nature. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe.
Spiritual Development. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Education according to idealism. enrichment and transmission of culture.” 5. man is essentially a moral being."
Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage.3.
Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says.our life.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality.
Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism.
Universal Education. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. in fact. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism.1.
while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. It considers teacher as. 5. Learning through lecturing. Learning through discussion. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. He sets the environment in which education takes place. History. an indispensable necessity. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. hygiene. subjects like Languages. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Philosophy. However.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. So he should embody. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. The teacher serves as a living model for the students.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. Ethics. Learning through questioning.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students.” He is thus.3.1. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection.3. So health. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. friend and guide. Learning through reading. so subjects like Religion. For this no particular method has been suggested. 4. Science. 2. Mathematics etc. 5.” 5. So cognition (knowing). Herbert advocated instruction method. According to idealism. and collation (striving) should find due place. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. The plant can grow. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. He carries the child from darkness to light. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. According to Frobel. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to
. 3. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. should be there. the school is a garden. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method.the spiritual qualities of mankind.1. a spiritual guide for the child. no doubt. Learning through imitation. For intellectual development. affecting (feeling).
“The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.
5. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.1.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
2. time tables.4. "Education should make
.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. 5.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.perfection and beauty. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. formal lessons or examinations. Perfection of Human Machine. Ross explains. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. In the words of Ross.preservation. curricula. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. text books.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.
It stresses basic sciences. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Zoology. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Arithmetic. There is no place for religious and moral education.
Autonomous Development of Individuality. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. useful and mature child.4. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. education should develop the child into Joyous. Chemistry. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. “Education finds its purpose. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Biology. 4. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. is based on the nature of the child. Therefore. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3.
. Education should. subjects like history.
5. rational harmoniously balanced.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. It is based on the psychology of the child. Literature. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Naturalistic curriculum. Botany etc Language. In all. therefore.1.
3. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. and rebels against the academic and orthodox
. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Learning through observation. Dalton Plan.126.96.36.199. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.
5. Rousseau says. It discards all rigid. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Learning through experience. the stage. Heuristic method. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. a provider of an ideal environment.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. he should be taught by experience alone. a supplier of materials and opportunities.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. In the . 5. The main aim of Naturalism is &
4.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1.1. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Learning by doing. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. 4.
It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. is true. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Geography.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Vocational and
. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Social Efficiency.1. Agriculture. Physical training.5. Personal Social Adjustment. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. intellectual. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. 5. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. diversified and flexible.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience.1. 5. Subjects. Continuous Growth. The aim of educational development. History. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order.5. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Social Science. Sciences. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. social and moral aspects. All Round Development of an Individual.absolutism of idealism.
Technical Education. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism
. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher.5. He must be trained. a teacher occupies an important position.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles.1. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Learning by Doing. He has to be active. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. alert and resourceful.1. should find proper place. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. activities and experience should be integrated properly.5. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child.” 5. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. The subjects. a senior partner and a sincere guide. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.
5. Literature. Chemistry. Population Education. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. 2. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. 3.1. Crafts. 4. 2. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Astrology. scientific and psychological education. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Mathematics. 5. practical. Study of Subjects like Language. Sex Education. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. rich and happy. 3.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. It favours child-centered. Education is preparation for a complete living. Biography Philosophy. liberal. Art. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. literary or humanistic education. Geography are unnecessary
5. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing.1. Psychology.1. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. specific. intellectual. Music and Dance.6.5.6. Biology. History. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. 4. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism.
1.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.6. certainly and clearly. easily and pleasantly.1.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.5. List out the methods of teaching in realism
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
6. Child centered c. Learning through discussion. in this lesson. a.1. Universal Education 2. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Vocational and Technical Education. Learning through lecturing. Learning through imitation. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Agriculture. 5. e. 3. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Self preservation & Self expression 4. pragmatism and realism. a. Education according to pragmatism. Learning through experience b. Tours / Excursion e. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim.1. Rousseau 5. has no end other than growth.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Self Realisation b.1. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3.5. c. History. & curriculum. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. a. Physical training.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. naturalism. 5.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Demonstration and Observation
. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. d. Social Science. Experimentation d. b. 5. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Languages. Learning through questioning. Learning through reading. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Sciences. Geography. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression.
P. N. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. (2007). (2007). Ltd.
. New Delhi : A. K and
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.P.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Foundations of Education. Anmol Publications Pvt.H.
Pahuja. O. L. K. P. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.
New Delhi :
Bhatia.1. R.P. (2004). (2003). Publishing corporation. Narang C. of
Theory and Principles of Education.
3.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.3 Methods of teaching 5.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.3 Methods of teaching
.1 Aims of Education 5.2.4 Views about teacher 188.8.131.52 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 184.108.40.206 Aims of Education 5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA
STRUCTURE 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.2.2.4.LESSON 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.4.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.4 Views about teacher 5.2
EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2.2 Curriculum 5.2.1 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.2 188.8.131.52.3.2 Curriculum 5.
Tagore was a poet.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. Gandhiji was primarily a social. mind and spirit. content and methods. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.2. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. you will able to: 1.2. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.2. an artist. 3. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.2. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.2.2. economic and political reconstruction in our country.
.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life.4 Role of the teacher 5. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.2.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. 5.8 5.2.
5.6 5. 2.7 5.5.
it is education of life.3." Dignity of Labour. righteousness.supporting. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.intellectual and physical faculties of the children.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. mind and soul of children He further observed. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. 5. strength of mind. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. It really provides opportunity for character building. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. His scheme of education is life centred. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. through life and for life. 'Man is neither mere intellect. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. nor the gross animals body. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. self-restraint and service of humanity.
. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor.2.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. "I attach more. In the words of Gandhiji. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self.
Drawing and Hindustani. "Development of the moral character. metal work. the realization of the ultimate reality. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Individual and Social Aims.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. Music. leather work have been suggested.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. gardening. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Art. wood work.2. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. Mother-tongue. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. He suggested Home-Science for girls
.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self.Training for Leadership.3. According to Gandhi. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. General Sciences. 5. Only good individual forms a better society. development of the whole all were directed: towards.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.3.3. men of
. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.2. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. proficient. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. Basic education is other wise known as 4. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji
5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.trained. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.
He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. 3. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Education must be child centered. “To develop the spirit is to build character
5.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST
On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. He also advocates freedom for the child. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.3. That is why. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies.
4. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.2.” Like all other ideals. He was deadly against untouchability. He believed in the oneness of humanity. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. Gandhi in 1937.3.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. • Education should involve manual work.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He was a true patriot. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.2. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. he was a true Vedantist 5.K.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. 5. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under:
. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. • Ideal of citizenship. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.
5. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. • Cult of non-violence.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
Chemistry. them solve problems of day to day life.4. Music. he said. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. International understanding. Dance. It should help. Geography. sentiment. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Civics. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Tagore said. Botany. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully.2. That way only. deeper in. stronger in power than ever before. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. International Understanding. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Zoology. Therefore.
. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. complete manhood could be attained. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding.Language and Literature . the more dedicated and devoted.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . wider in range. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. (vi) Philosophy. "Mankind must realise a unity. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. could help in forging unity among all. It should help the learner have good physique. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Religion and Psychology. etc.
His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. 5. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.4. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.2.” He further says. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. Activity Method Heuristic Method.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.
5." 5. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. Tagore rightly says. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.4. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.4. In 1921.
.2. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.2.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.
g. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.
. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5.
10. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. It is open to all irrespective of country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. race. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2.
It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Book learning.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. He believed in to learning or selflearning. man making. work and deeds come out of it. Education for Self-realization. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself." He was against the theoretical type of education. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building.5. Education should make a person self-reliant.” 5. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality
. Purity of thought.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court.2. 3. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. According to him.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. Freedom. 4. Concept of Education. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Education for strong Moral Character. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual.2. Education for Self-reliance. character forming and assimilation of ideas. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. 2. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man.5.
That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. And above all.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Secondly he wanted Science. Discussion Method. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. engineering and technical subjects.
. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. 5.2.5. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Swami. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more.2. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Thirdly he wished that games. Education for Physical Development. Only a selfless person can be good teacher.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. Philosophy and Theology.5. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. A physically strong person is the need of the society. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.the learners on different students in the discussion. Of course. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things.2. That will serve the purpose of education fully. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. philosopher and guide to the students He. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. The teacher should be the facilitator. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. 6. Religion. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Every individual should be trained for concentration.5. 5.5. 5. Education should help in the physical development of an individual.
3. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. and pragmatist . Write short notes on Basic education. ears and eyes. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man.
5.2.2. of course. 2.
12. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. Gandhiji as a Idealist. We have seen that Tagore. in this lesson. Their educational ideas.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands.Substantiate your answer.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. legs.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher.
. naturalist.6 LET US SUM UP We have.
Debate and Discussion Method. metal work. Meditation and concentration c. d. 9. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.
5. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Basic education. wood work. Self-Study
b. c. f. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. e. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment.4. Education should involve manual work. Learning by Doing c. gardening. b. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Explain Vishwabharathi. a. Ideal of citizenship. 3. Heuristic Method. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Self realization. c. 8. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man
12. a. 2. 11. 1937 7.2. 5. a. 5. Teaching while Walking b. Technique of Correlation 6. Discussion Method
. 10.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Cult of non-violence. a. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. leather work have been suggested. Activity Method d. Activity Method
b. Nai Talim 4.
(2007).2. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.5. N. C. Publishing Corporation. J. N. (2004). P. P.
New Delhi :
Aggarwal. B. Foundations of Education.P.9 SUGGESTED READINGS
Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. O. L. Ltd. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2007).
Dhiman. (2002). New Delhi : A. (2003).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K and Narang C.
Theory and Principles of Education. K.
Bhatia. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.
Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.
8 5.LESSON 5.3 5.3.11 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.9 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.4 5. In this lesson.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION
STRUCTURE 5.3.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.6 5.3.1 5.7 5.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students
.10 5.2 5.3.5 184.108.40.206. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.3.3.
curriculum signifies situations for learning. Since the demands. In the former sense. new behaviour may be acquired.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. maintained or eliminated. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. While education is a process. state the meaning of curriculum 2. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Both the processes are integrated. is a means to the process. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. in Russia or in Japan. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society.S. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . curriculum. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. there is a large number of communities.under the direction of the school. the plain area. Then in a big country like India. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. living in the hilly area. While education is learning. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. From the latter point of view.. One is the individual process and the other is the social process.3. A g o o d curricu lu m.3. in the U. in the form of new experience. the plateau area and
. present behaviour may be modified. 5. it is identical wit h socializat ion. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. in fact . the desert area. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. In it. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. In the words of Kerney and Cook. Curriculum is intimately related to education. you will be able to: 1. 5.3.A. curriculum also offers a wide contrast.
So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. differs from individual to individual. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. too. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. environment. However. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. It must differ from locality and from society to society. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. the learning capacity of children. irrespective of their needs and environment. democratic and socialistic country. From a slave-country we became secular. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. In fact . The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft.3. customs and needs. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. Besides craft. Again. therefore. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. studying therein. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. 5. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. and
.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. according to modern trends in the educational process. it is.
The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made
. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They speak of immediate purposes of education. moral. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. emotional. They are visionary goals e. 4. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. etc. Knowledge Objective.. eg.g.. What is the meaning of curriculum ?
3. specific. e. individual or Social and so on. The word “Curere” means 2. e. 1.
5. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education.3. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. of classroom. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. unsatisfactory. social.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS
At this juncture. 3. unambiguous and functional. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals.. Application Objective. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process.g. remote or immediate. National Integration. social. uninspiring and unscientific. in instructional objectives. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. Understanding Objective. Goals of Primary Education. they depend on the political. They may be ultimate or proximate. which may or may not be attained. etc. aesthetic and spiritual development. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. Goals of Secondary Education. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. Self Realisation... aims.
.g. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. So it is inadequate. They speak of perfect goals. Vocational Efficiency. general or specific. 2. They are achievable.(vii)
it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. tangible. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and.
but it includes the totality of experiences. heavy fire. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. abilities. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.3. According to Crow and Crow. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. capacities. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects.”
. on the playing fields. finding them very interesting and captivating. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. The old and prevalent curriculum is under.”
Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects.5.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. Crow and Crow remarks. educationists. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. needs. The interests. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.
Raymont rightly says. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. in the class rooms.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others.
Due to these variations and differences. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. mental. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. They often waste it or rather kill it. tendencies. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. moral. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment
according to his needs
Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. time in a useful manner. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. urges. capacities and abilities. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new
. aptitudes.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic.
phased preparation. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. 3. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. administrative programme need be planned. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. 2. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. organized.curricular. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel.
. development of professional capability at all levels. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. To ensure success of the process. Similarly. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books.
3. principles of curriculum construction.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9.3. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum?
5. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. library. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities
. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. laboratory. 18. 11. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school.
5. Run.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. 17. 1937 19. 12. Child Centred Education b. Relation with Life c. workshop.3. in the class room. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. 5. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. a. 10.
K. (2007). (2001). New Delhi : Authorspress. P. and Sarita Kumari. New Delhi : Isha Books. (2007). Curriculum Development. Lakshmi.
. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava.5. (2007).3. S. D. N. S. Innovations in Education. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Bhalla. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Curriculum and Instruction.S.
4.5 220.127.116.11.4.2 5.4.9 18.104.22.168 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.22.214.171.124.4 5.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 126.96.36.199.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.LESSON 188.8.131.52.8 184.108.40.206 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.3 5.4.4
PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS
STRUCTURE 220.127.116.11 5.10 5.
importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. newer and newer industries started growing. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons.4.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. you will be able to: 1. honesty.
. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth .4. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. explain the concept of scientific attitude.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not.5.
5. tolerance for the opinions of others. in the economic reconstruction of society. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology.4. 3. know the importance of science education. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. open-mindedness. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. 2.during the second half of this century. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. Gradually. superstition or emotion. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. We mean curiosity. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners.
4. Organisation of science fairs. Through newspapers. 2. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Promotion of science clubs. 5. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. 5. as well as of the society.5
SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION
NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Devotion towards nature increases. After such experience and training. Schemes of teaching science. 4. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian
. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 6. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Through examinations. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships.So that. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Selection for science education. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. stipends and appreciations in various ways. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 3.
5. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations.4. seminars and symposiums. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Principles are formulated. 7. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 6. 3. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Love for truth enhances. 4. Thinking and memory develops. 2. Central science workshop.
Write any two advantages of Science Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. essential that teachers.
5.4. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste.
5. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations.6. Enquiry teaching is. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. should provide opportunities to. They experience natural phenomenon. For laboratory and workshop techniques. sex or religion. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. each child to “enquiry skill building”. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils.4.needs and conditions. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Training of science teachers. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. therefore. 7. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. In the inquiry approach. They ask many questions about the objects they see. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource
. After presenting the problem. They encounter many social events as they grow. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. objectivity. It is. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life.
test. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. stern pursuit of accurate data. commands or orders.
5. 6. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe.Herma Wouk. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook?
. if they like. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 4. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Adopting creative models of teaching. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Evidence.4.4. . 3. Appreciating pupils ideas. It requires consistent thinking. Social sciences.
.books. 3. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. 5.
.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.6.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Giving less directions. to ask questions and experience things.
practiced. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. therefore should be unbiased and objective. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. neighbourhood. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions.7. critical thinking and suspended judgments. (Vaidya 2007). Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. and emphasized during the learning process . of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. to develop among the learners. These include open mindedness. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. The students observation. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. keen observation. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. it must be encouraged.4. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. friends. see and feel the need of developing this attitude.(Smith 2008). There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. school and society at large. These characteristics of any scientific
. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. To achieve this we should understand what it means. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. For instance. 5. of vast resources running waste.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science.
He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. 2007).4. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. understanding and logic. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. or superstitions. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. he studies all aspects of it.
. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. 5. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. rumor. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. In considering a situation or a problem. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. think and work it”. intuition or wishful thinking”. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. The intention to respect another’s point of view.7. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. (Das. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales.
By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.
5. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. but to begin only after careful planning.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.
5. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading
.4. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.7.4. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.7.• •
The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly.
it must be encourages.
5.• • • • • • •
Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.
5. manuals and reading materials available in school
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude.4. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook.
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.
a. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. (2000). Adopting creative models of teaching.4. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15.B (2008). Self-confidence and self-reliance develop.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Wide reading b. 4. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. S. Discuss the importance of science education 14. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. (2008). New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. 5. Study of superstitions d. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. a. 2. Planning of activities
5. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.S.
. 3. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. b. Reflections on Scientific attitude. b. 5. b. (2006). N. a. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. 16. Rao. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. D. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs.5. M. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.4.4. Proper example of the teacher c. a. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. objectivity. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Vaidya. Yadav. Love for truth enhances.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
STRUCTURE 5. 2.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1 5.5.5. you will be able to: 18.104.22.168 5. actively.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.6 5.LESSON 5. areas of institutional planning. 5.9 22.214.171.124.5.
.5.5.3 5.11 5.7 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5 5.5. state the concept.4 5.8 5. objectives and characteristics.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.
the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and
. every teacher. which become the bases for further planning at the district. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. • to make planning development-oriented. and supplement planning from above. 5. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. 5. every parent. and. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. executive as well as public. in the task of educational planning. Institution should be regarded as the unit.5. each teacher. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators.5. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. State and national levels from below. and every student in the process of educational planning.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. and each student are regarded as separate entities.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.3. • to involve teachers and school administrators. • To make institutional planning more successful. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. teachers and students is not lost sight of.
council and. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans
5. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.
.curricular Activities. and Personnel services. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. having the following areas of operation • •
• • • •
Instruction. Examinations. (2) Co. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. which will be discussed in the general. etc. approved after making necessary modifications.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. it becomes the basis for school inspection. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. Classwork.
Preparation of an Institutional Plan
The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. Co-curricular activities.•
Syllabus.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as.5.5.
Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members.
scientific and historical excursions. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Preparation of models. Organisation of Pupils. Organisation of class-room libraries. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. etc.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. etc. Running science clubs. etc.
Discipline and Welfare. etc. etc. Improving the internal assessment. Organisation of Students’ Association. 1. Fair distribution of syllabi. hobby-centres. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. charts and apparatus. What are the areas of Institutional Planning?
.No. Editing the school magazine. Equipping of laboratory and library. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Preparation of audio-visual aids.
2. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Organising play-for-all programmes. Preparation of instructional material. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Celebrating of national and international festivals.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Conducting of educational. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Courts. Improving the subject competence of teachers.
parent-teacher associations. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. parents. pupils. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. administrator-supervisor. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. teacher-managing body. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. science teachers’ associations. students’ associations. teacher-State.5. ii. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. pupil310
. etc. understanding. involving mainly human materials. administrator-pupil. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. teacher-pupil. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. teacher-teacher.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. teacherinspector. and —pupil-pupil.” The human relationships in. co-operation. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system.group and out-group relationships are as given below i.5. headmasters associations. administrator-administrator. and solidarity. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. which are divided as the in. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. Administrator-State. teachers.
etc. supervision and superintendence. social sciences and other disciplines. teacher-community leader. To administer means to manage. V.State. to carry out.
. pupil-parent. supervision. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into &
5. to attend. It is also being modernized to become a technique. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. According to C. teacher-parent." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. pupil-community leader. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. to accomplish.
The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. administrator. It covers personnel and material management. organisation and management. pupil-inspector. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. superintendence.
functionaries. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. and to serve. Good. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. control. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. organisation.5. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. now-a-days.
it is not worth-while. 9.Of all the approaches. Rapport between the Management and Employees . it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. Liasion with the Public . Democratic Management . Cost-Benefit Analysis . Motiviation . 13. 5. low. 10. Leadership . He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. Socio-Scientific Approach . who occupy the managerial positions. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 12. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. 3.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. If the cost benefit ratio is less. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship .This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. Communication . He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. If it is more. 11.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . He should be an artist in human relationships. Those. Economic Management . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. This is the latest democratic trend in management.Management should be efficient and economical
. Decision Making .The manager should have leadership traits. The relationship should change from master. 4.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner.Any good management will always have good public relations. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. Better Human Relationships . Worker Participation .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. 2. 6. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. 8.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. 7.
. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. 18. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management.5. Wastage and duplication should be avoided.5. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. and cooperative performance should be ensured. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. objective.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. enrichment of curricula. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning.g. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc.too. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . 19.
5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. 14. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. improvement of teaching methods. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. to improve the quality of education it provides. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. 5.These two are. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained.
e. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House.K.5. Instruction.5. 2. Educational Administration. b. a. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Syllabus. S. Tarachand and Prakash. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Fundamental of Educational Management. Singh. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. and Personnel services. b. Classwork.
c.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b.
4. APH Publishing Corporation. Leadership c. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. f. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. d. NUEPA. In group and Out group 5.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.M. (2003). a. a. R. Decision Making b. (1995). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Examinations.
. Motiviation d. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. (2001). Co-curricular activities.5. a. H. Communication
1 School Health Programme.1 Inculcation of Socialism.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.Religious and Modern Education 1. 2. 1. Code of conduct for teachers. Buddhist and Jain system of education.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Inspection and Supervision 3.5 Regional Educational Development in India . wastage and Stagnation 3.1 Gurukula system of education.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. population education.3 Educational Influences of Home.2 Nutritional deficiencies.3 Directive Principles . Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. women education and teacher education in India. First Aid. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. social Impact 3.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. 4.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.teachers should have : 1. Healthy Food Habit 4. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.1 Primary Education : Education for all.4 India's Secular Policy . Economic
. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.Pre-service and In-services facilities. Realized the problems of school education. Preservation of nutrients.Article 45 . Education by Christian Missionaries 1. higher education. Communicable diseases .I. School.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. Community and Mass Media 2. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Balanced diet. Sex-education 4.Preventive measures. nutritional requirement.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Common ailments of Children. New evaluation procedures. physical education and environmental education 5.CORE PAPER .2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Examination reforms.
Idealism. REFERENCE 1.R.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5.K.S.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Mahatma Gandhi. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. R. Naturalism and Pragmatism . New Delhi: NCERT 3. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.N. Socialization. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Ghanta R. Mishra. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. and Sharma R. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Prof. curriculum and teacher's role 5. T.K.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles .K.
. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education
5. and Human Development.4 4. (2004) Problems of Education in India.K. Pandy V.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Realism.5
and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. 7. 5.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Curriculum and national goals . Ram S. (2005) Foundations of Education.C. (1999) Culture.N.4. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. and Dash B. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. and Mohanty R. Saraswathi T. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.Aim.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. B. Taneja V. Tagore 5.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Hemchand. Delhi : University Publications 2. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.