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CHALLENGES_IN_EDUCATION_1

CHALLENGES_IN_EDUCATION_1

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04/12/2013

Sections

  • 1.1.1 Introduction
  • 1.1.2 Objectives
  • 1.1.3.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education
  • 1.1.3.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education
  • 1.1.4.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education
  • 1.1.4.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education
  • 1.1.5.1 Practical teachings of Jainism
  • 1.1.5.2 Aims of Jain system of Education
  • 1.1.5.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education
  • 1.1.5.4 Methods of Jain system of Education
  • 1.1.6.1 Charter Act of 1813
  • 1.1.6.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833)
  • 1.1.6.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854)
  • 1.1.6.4 Hunter Commission (1882)
  • 1.1.6.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937)
  • 1.1.6.7 Sargent Report (1944)
  • 1.1.7 LET US SUM UP
  • 1.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 1.1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 1.1.10 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 1.2.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 1.2.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 1.2.3.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49)
  • 1.2.3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53)
  • 1.2.3.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66)
  • 1.2.3.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986)
  • 1.2.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION
  • 1.2.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK
  • 1.2.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE
  • 1.2.7 LET US SUM UP
  • 1.2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 1.2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 1.2.10 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 1.3.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 1.3.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 1.3.3.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE
  • 1.3.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR
  • 1.3.5 RESPONSIBILITIES OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON
  • 1.3.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION
  • 1.3.7 LET US SUM UP
  • 1.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 1.3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 1.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 1.4.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 1.4.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 1.4.3.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE
  • 1.4.3.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION
  • 1.4.3.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION
  • 1.4.4 MORAL EDUCATION
  • 1.4.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION?
  • 1.4.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION?
  • 1.4.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL
  • 1.4.8 LET US SUM UP
  • 1.4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 1.4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 1.4.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 1.5.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 1.5.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 1.5.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY
  • 1.5.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE
  • 1.5.5 POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF
  • 1.5.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION
  • 1.5.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION
  • 1.5.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION
  • 1.5.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS
  • 1.5.10 LET US SUM UP
  • 1.5.11 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 1.5.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 1.5.13 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 2.1.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 2.1.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 2.1.3 DEMOCRACY
  • 2.1.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC
  • 2.1.5.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM
  • 2.1.5.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION
  • 2.1.6.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK
  • 2.1.6.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA
  • 2.1.6.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING
  • 2.1.7 LET US SUM UP
  • 2.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 2.1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 2.1.10 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 2.2.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 2.2.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 2.2.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT
  • 2.2.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
  • 2.2.5.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL
  • 2.2.5.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS IN PROMOTING
  • 2.2.6.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL
  • 2.2.6.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING
  • 2.2.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS
  • 2.2.8 LET US SUM UP
  • 2.2.9 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 2.3.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY
  • 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY
  • 2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL
  • 2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION
  • 2.3.6.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY
  • 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION
  • 2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
  • 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES
  • 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP
  • 2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 2.3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 2.4.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 2.4.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 2.4.3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION
  • 2.4.3.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM
  • 2.4.3.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION
  • 2.4.3.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION
  • 2.4.4.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
  • 2.4.4.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
  • 2.4.4.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
  • 2.4.4.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
  • 2.4.4.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
  • 2.4.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL
  • 2.4.6 LET US SUM UP
  • 2.4.7 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 2.4.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 2.4.9 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 2.5.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 2.5.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 2.5.3.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR
  • 2.5.3.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI
  • 2.5.3.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS
  • 2.5.3.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION
  • 2.5.4.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
  • 2.5.4.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM
  • 2.5.4.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM
  • 2.5.4.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM
  • 2.5.4.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM
  • 2.5.5 LET US SUM UP
  • 2.5.6 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 2.5.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 2.5.8 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 3.1.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 3.1.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 3.1.3.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM?
  • 3.1.3.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ?
  • 3.1.3.3 NEW INITIATIVES, SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN
  • 3.1.4 NATURE AND CAUSES OF WASTAGE AND ITS REMEDIAL MEASURES
  • 3.1.5 NATURE AND CAUSES OF STAGNATION AND ITS
  • 3.1.6 LET US SUM UP
  • 3.1.7 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 3.1.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 3.1.9 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 3.2.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 3.2.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 3.2.3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION
  • 3.2.3.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION
  • 3.2.4.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS
  • 3.2.4.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS
  • 3.2.4.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION
  • 3.2.5.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS)
  • 3.2.5.2 GRADE SYSTEM
  • 3.2.5.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE)
  • 3.2.5.4 QUESTION BANKS
  • 3.2.5.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER
  • 3.2.5.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER
  • 3.2.5.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS
  • 3.2.6.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION
  • 3.2.7 LET US SUM UP
  • 3.2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 3.2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 3.2.10 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 3.3.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 3.3.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 3.3.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION
  • 3.3.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION
  • 3.3.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA
  • 3.3.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA
  • 3.3.7 SOCIAL IMPACT
  • 3.3.8 LET US SUM UP
  • 3.3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 3.3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 3.3.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 3.4.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 3.4.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 3.4.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION - INDIAN CONTEXT
  • 3.4.4.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT
  • 3.4.4.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS
  • 3.4.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN
  • 3.4.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES
  • 3.4.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION
  • 3.4.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION
  • 3.4.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN
  • 3.4.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION - GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE
  • 3.4.11 LET US SUM UP
  • 3.4.12 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 3.4.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 3.4.14 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 3.5.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 3.5.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 3.5.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION
  • 3.5.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION
  • 3.5.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION
  • 3.5.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY, SECONDARY AND
  • 3.5.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES
  • 3.5.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS
  • 3.5.9 LET US SUM UP
  • 3.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 3.5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 3.5.12 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 4.1.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 4.1.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 4.1.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN
  • 4.1.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH
  • 4.1.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN
  • 4.1.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION
  • 4.1.7 FIRST AID
  • 4.1.8 SEX EDUCATION
  • 4.1.9 LET US SUM UP
  • 4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 4.1.12 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 4.2.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 4.2.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS
  • 4.2.5 PRESERVATION OF NUTRIENTS
  • 4.2.6.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS
  • 4.2.8 LET US SUM UP
  • 4.2.9 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 4.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 4.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 4.3.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 4.3.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 4.3.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION
  • 4.3.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION
  • 4.3.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION
  • 4.3.6.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
  • 4.3.6.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
  • 4.3.6.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION
  • 4.3.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION
  • 4.3.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION
  • 4.3.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM
  • 4.3.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES
  • 4.3.11 LET US SUM UP
  • 4.3.12 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 4.3.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 4.3.14 SUGGESTED READING
  • 4.4.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 4.4.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 4.4.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
  • 4.4.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
  • 4.4.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
  • 4.4.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS
  • 4.4.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS
  • 4.4.8.1 MINOR GAMES
  • 4.4.8.2 MAJOR GAMES
  • 4.4.8.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES
  • 4.4.8.4 LEAD UP GAMES
  • 4.4.9 LET US SUM UP
  • 4.4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 4.4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 4.4.12 SUGGESTED READING
  • 4.5.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 4.5.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 4.5.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
  • 4.5.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
  • 4.5.5.1 Natural environment
  • 4.5.5.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A
  • 4.5.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
  • 4.5.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND
  • 4.5.8 ROLE OF TEACHER
  • 4.5.9 LET US SUM UP
  • 4.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 4.5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 4.5.12 SUGGESTED READING
  • 5.1.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION
  • 5.1.3.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM
  • 5.1.3.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING
  • 5.1.3.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER
  • 5.1.4.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION
  • 5.1.4.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM
  • 5.1.4.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING
  • 5.1.4.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER
  • 5.1.5.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION
  • 5.1.5.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM
  • 5.1.5.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING
  • 5.1.5.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER
  • 5.1.6.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION
  • 5.1.6.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM
  • 5.1.6.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING
  • 5.1.6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER
  • 5.1.7 LET US SUM UP
  • 5.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 5.1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS
  • 5.1.10 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 5.2.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 5.2.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 5.2.3.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION
  • 5.2.3.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM
  • 5.2.3.3 METHODS OF TEACHING
  • 5.2.3.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER
  • 5.2.3.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST, PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST
  • 5.2.3.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION
  • 5.2.4.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION
  • 5.2.4.2 CURRICULUM
  • 5.2.4.3 METHODS OF TEACHING
  • 5.2.4.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER
  • 5.2.4.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI
  • 5.2.5.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION
  • 5.2.5.2 CURRUCULUM
  • 5.2.5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING
  • 5.2.5.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER
  • 5.2.6 LET US SUM UP
  • 5.2.7 UINT END EXERCISES
  • 5.2.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 5.2.9 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 5.3.1 Introduction
  • 5.3.2 Objectives
  • 5.3.3 Curriculum and education
  • 5.3.4 Flexibility of the curriculum
  • 5.3.5 Curriculum Reconstruction in India
  • 5.3.6 Curriculum and National goals
  • 5.3.7 Principles of curriculum construction
  • 5.3.8 Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation
  • 5.3.9 LET US SUM UP
  • 5.3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 5.3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 5.3.12 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 5.4.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 5.4.2 OBJECTIVES
  • 5.4.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION
  • 5.4.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION
  • 5.4.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION
  • 5.4.6.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK
  • 5.4.6.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC
  • 5.4.7.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE
  • 5.4.7.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE
  • 5.4.7.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE
  • 5.4.7.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE
  • 5.4.8 LET US SUM UP
  • 5.4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES
  • 5.4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
  • 5.4.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
  • 5.5.1 Introduction
  • 5.5.2 Objectives
  • 5.5.3 Concept of Institutional Educational Planning
  • 5.5.4 Objectives of Institutional Planning
  • 5.5.5 Characteristics of Institutional Planning
  • 5.5.6 Areas of Institutional Planning
  • 5.5.7 The Human relationships in Educational Institution
  • 5.5.8 Modern management techniques in educational institutions
  • 5.5.9 Let us sum up
  • 5.5.10 Unit – End Exercises
  • 5.5.11 Answers to check your progress
  • 5.5.12 Suggested Readings
  • 6. Socio-Scientific Approach - Of all the approaches, the socio scientific
  • 7. Rapport between the Management and Employees - There is need to
  • 8. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical
  • 9. Worker Participation - Any good management allows its workers to
  • 10. Cost-Benefit Analysis - Any management is also concerned with the
  • 11. Democratic Management - The manager should take his subordinates
  • 12. Liasion with the Public - Any good management will always have good
  • 13. Economic Management - Management should be efficient and economical
  • 14. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance - These two
  • 17. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning
  • 18. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution
  • 19. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions

BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

1

2

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
3

4

BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
5

127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

6

UNIT – I 7 .

8 .

The need. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Lesson 2. 9 . of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. and Jain system of education. discusses the regional educational development in India. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. Lesson 4. Lesson 5. In. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. Jainism and their educational implication.

10 .

5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1.1.6.6.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.6.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.4.LESSON 1.6 Education during British Era 1.5.3.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.5 Jain system of education 1.1.1.1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1.1.6.1.1 1.1.3.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1.4.1.1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.6.1.5.1.5.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1.2 1.5.

while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. The history of education passed through Buddhist. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. “a class of persons. That 12 .6. you will be able to: 1.6.7 1.1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. describe the Jain system of Education 4. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.3. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.1.9 1. India. 1. both present and future.1. British system of education presented the modern western model. Indian in blood and colour.1. has a long past history starting in vedic education. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. in opinion. Education in India. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.1.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.1.1.8 1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. 1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. in morals and in the intellect”. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1. Muslim and British periods. 1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. but English in taste. elucidate the education during British Era.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.1.

There was. 13. however. 6. 5. 12. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Role of Travel in Education. the monitorial plan was followed. 9. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline.knowledge was real. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. Method of Study. Forests as Centres of Education. Where pupils were many. generally. High Status of Teachers. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. 13 . Self-Control and Self-Discipline. followed by explanation by the teacher. It was not merely intellectual. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. to light. Teacher as Parents. from eternal to immorality 2. Method of Instruction. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. managed entirely by Brahmans. individually. from darkness. and to agriculture and trade. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Residential Schools. 3. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. questioning by the pupil. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. 10. Free and Accessible. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. It was also moral. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. with grants of land or money. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. No State Control on Education. religious and spiritual. 4. as it is generally considered to be at present. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Religious and Spiritual. 11. Immediate Aim Vocational. Curriculum. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Education was a private affair of the people. 14. not en masse by the class method. Individual Teaching. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Pupils were taught. if they thought fit to do so. Education of Moral. The immediate aim of education. 8. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. 16. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Rulers of the country could subsidies it.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . It was suited to the needs of the society. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.1. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. lived a life of celebacy.17. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. 1. 2. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . They were very cordial and intimate. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. It was freely available to all those who wanted. Wide-Spread Education in Women. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. studied Vedas.3.

Education was imparted through the. 15 . the student remained in a state of Shramana. killing of any living being. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. which included abstaining from theft. Right memory 8. he was qualified to become a monk. disease and death of the human beings.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. the most significant of which were the following 1. Right contemplation 1. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. every class in society. 1. After attaining the age of 20. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Right means of livelihood 6. watching dances or listening to music. use of intoxicating things. the student had his head shaved of all hair. in which. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. 2. Consequently. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. I take Refuge to Sangh. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. the handicapped. impure conduct.4. Right activity 5. Right speech 4.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. dressed himself in yellow clothes. medium of Pali. Right endeavour 7. It was denied only to the ill. I take Refuge to Dharma. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles.1. partaking of food at prohibited times. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. had the right to receive education. use of cosmetics. Right thought 3. Right knowledge 2. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. taking things without being offered. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. except the Chandals.C. etc.

a continuous change creating 16 . wear three items. has no metaphysical value for life. agriculture. eat food thrice a day. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. women occupied a position inferior to men. Later on. Even at this stage. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. As reality is becoming. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. so long as it successfully does so. assumptions. commerce. arithmetic and religious discussion.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. After this ritual. depth and range. 1. approach. archery. Hence. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. cottage industries. It comprehended education in writing. 5. and. 4. geology. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers.4. handicrafts. be considered the aim of education It. 2. 7. 8. of clothes. magic. archery. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. changing the goals. These are called later Buddhist schools. nothing is of any permanent consequence. military science. meaning. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. objectives of human life. Initially. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period.. etc. Whatever its nature and extent. medicine. aspirations and. the science of taming and training animals. along with education in script writing. nature. knowledge of reviving the dead. Life is in a flux. control over sensuous activities. a change is not only total but also perpetual. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. etc. therefore. bodily gestures. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. animal husbandry. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. etc. beg for alms. the presence of the monks was essential. however. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. it is regarded as true”. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. education was impart in art. 6. elephant lore.3. On this occasion. 3.

5. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. however. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. Jainism insists 17 . the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. Write Eight fold path . and to give it a shape that it has today. In fact.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. therefore. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. goes to Vardhaman. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. such as.new and peculiar situations.e. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Validity is effective and consequences. Its chief feature. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. i. 5. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. whatever works are true and good. Education must. However. 1. its pessimistic outlook on life.. it is much older than the latter. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

Self-realisation as jiva is divine. b) Not utter falsehood. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. 18 . 2. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. Development of personality as an individual.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 1. rather than the interpretation of the universe. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection.1. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. thought and deed. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. 4. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. d) To lead a celibate life. 7. 8. 5. but on both. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. more stress on individual aims.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. 3. They are: a) Not to injure. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 10. it has a foot in both the words. 2. and is to be redeemed and liberated. restoring the ideal character of the jiva.5. b) Right knowledge. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. c) Not to steal. and believe in happiness to all. e) To renounce the world. 9. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 3. 6. 1. As such. Hence. c) Right conduct.

that would be socially desirable. Teaching should be social and tolerant. 19 . the precious principles of life that bring happiness. 2. What are Triratnas ? . Knowledge is through senses and meditation. and should bring happiness to all. education must be action based and ideally oriented. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Jiva is essentially karmic. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.5. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Teaching must develop these faculties. success and love. 1. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. education should develop sense of discrimination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. Belief in transmigration of soul. Hence. 5. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. 1. therefore. here and now. 3. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. practised and not only aspired for.5. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter.4. 8. 2.

1. primary 20 . 1.6.6.1. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.1. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. philosophy and literature of Europe. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. To set up separate departments of. However. 2. 1. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. and not for life. Madras. with rally and rout. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. Bombay. North West Province and Punjab. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. 1.6.6. science. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. 1953).1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.

1.education was neglected. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). at the primary level. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life.6. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. 1.6. secondary education became a step towards university.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education.6. • Secondary education. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. 1. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. In 1882. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 .K.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. namely. self-respecting and competent. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. The universities dominated the secondary education. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. Later on. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. • Universal free primary education. At that time M. To ensure qualitative improvement.

The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9.At the primary stage (6-11 years). During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want.1. all children are to have a common curriculum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. After this stage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. The objective of education was to provide 22 .7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. 10. The report suggested development of adult education scheme.

arithmetic and religious discussion. the science of taming and training animals. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Right endeavour. 2. Right speech. 23 . science and English language. It was suited to the needs of the society. The system of education was well-organised. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. archery. Right thought.1. handicrafts. Right means of livelihood. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 4. establishment of universities. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools.education of European literature. Right contemplation. 3. etc. Right knowledge. 1.. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 3. along with education in script writing.1. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Right activity. 5. Right memory. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. questioning by the pupil. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. education was impart in art. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. 4. followed by explanation by the teacher. 1. geology. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. The immediate aim of education. 6. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. During the Buddhist period.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. military science. a. b.

Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Right faith. 24 .1. 8. History of Indian Education System. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. 9. Singh. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Sargent report 12. Development of Educational System in India. Ltd. J. J. Sharma. and Nath. Y. Ltd. a. b. Y. 1937 1. Development of personality as an individual. 1882.C. 11. Aggarwal. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). Hence. Right conduct.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. b. a. (2005). R. (1984). (2009). more stress on individual aims. 10. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.7.K. Improvement of Literature. Right knowledge.C.K. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. c.

2.2.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.2 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.4 National Policy on Education 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.2.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2.6 1.4 1.8 1.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.3.9 1.2.2.3.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.3.1 University Education Commission 1.2.7 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.LESSON 1. The 25 .2.1 1.5 1.3.2.2.

The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. 1986 1. curriculum. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. diversification of courses of studies. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. 1. There had been vast institutional expansion. explosion of enrolment. Kothari (1964-66) 8. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. 2. medical and legal education. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. standard of teaching. girls and women education besides primary. Post-graduate 26 . Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. expansion of vocational. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. technical.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. New Educational Policy. National Board of Teacher Education 10. technological engineering.3. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. vocational education. 1. S.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. secondary and higher education. you will be able to: 1. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.conditions of the teachers. analyse the progress of education in free India. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2. examination system. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2.2.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4.2. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. National Council for Women’s Education 5.

accumulated over the years. in January 1985. 1. quantity. Government of India. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. A meaningfully Partnership. 1952. 1986. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. 2. 1. research et.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. 4. Education is the key to our allround development.teaching. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. D. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. The Essence and Role of Education. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.3. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. the chairman of University Grants commission. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. material and spiritual. the New National Policy on Education. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. However. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. Therefore. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States.2. National System of Education.2. 1. Problems of access.3. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. Kothari.3. Education for Equality. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission.2. utility and financial outlay. 3. quality. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . 1966. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. A.S. Finally.

Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. By working with hands. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” Thus.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. attitudes. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. It can train practical aptitudes. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. 28 . Thus. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. the concepts of work experience. The UNESCO Report. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. the minorities and the handicapped. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world.

The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. if he wishes. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. co-ordinations. “The aim of these colleges. Besides. According to. With adequate planning. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. it will conduce self. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries.” The Mudaliar Commission. In 1955.” the Kothari Commission mentioned.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. As such." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. The Radhakrishnan Commission. “It may be described. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. The Education Commission. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. the Commission. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 .

giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. raising the special facilities. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality.. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. In addition. the rigid streaming of courses. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. the. the semester and credit system. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education.ot her. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. admission requirements to vocational courses. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. The Central Advisory Board of Education. for quality of life in the rural areas. etc. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. Therefore.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. Subsequently. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. With a view to relating education to the life. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern.

The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. meaningful. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. which offer scientific.. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. who conceived the System of Basic Education. technological courses including Agriculture. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. 31 . For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. preferably spinning and weaving. Commerce. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. felt that education should be centred around a craft. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. The wave of Basic Education.2. which swept the country for over two decades. which are useful to the community.and the world of work. etc. aimed at this goal.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. According to committee. manual work resulting in either goods or services. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. The Father of Nation. 1. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. meaningful. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. giving importance to productivity in the national development. In short. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”.defined S UP W as “purposive.

Clothing 5. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. 32 . in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Experimentation with materials.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. 4. Community work and social service. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. locally available materials and tools. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Health and Hygiene 2. 3. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. so that it is educational in essence. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Productive 2. as far as possible. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Food 3. 2. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Shelter 4. Work practice. Culture and recreation 6. be that the work involved is: 1. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. tools and techniques and 3. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. The teachers should make use of. Educative and 3.

Community Service In-1972.5. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. 6. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school.2. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. Productive Work 33 . Reduction of gap in work and education 2. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. as far as possible. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. improve discipline. inculcate a faith. It can become an instrument to build character. the local community should be actively associated. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. etc. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. To make education more realistic. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. slum clearance. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. Merits of the Programme 1. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Check on educated unemployed 4. 1. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Education through work The SUPW should.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. removal of illiteracy.

in turn. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . if not productive. skills and better future for the children. should involve itself in the educational effort. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. The community. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. Define SUPW 34 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. helping the adults in festivals and Functions.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. traffic control.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. offering first aid. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. AICTE was set up in year 4. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. helping the adults-in productive work.

b. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.2. 1955 4. 1. Radhakrishnan 2. f. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. 35 .1. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. a. 3. 1. Write short note on SUPW. 1952 3. c.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. 6. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Dr. e.2. meaningful. 2. d.2. which are useful to the community. manual work resulting in either goods or services.

K. Ltd. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. : Sharma. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.2. P. B.C. V. (2007).K. Singh.H. History of Education. and Nath. and Rao.P. (2005).P.. (2009). New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. History and Problems of Indian Education.D. J. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.1. New Delhi: A.(2005). Y. Rao. Anupama. Development of Educational System in India.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2007). Y. 36 . Amala.K. A. R. History of Indian Education System.

1949.3. assuring its citizens of justice.9 1. 37 .2 1.3. there is an official Hindi translation. equality.3.3.3.3. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. procedures.6 1. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.3. directive principles and duties of citizens.3. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. 1950.3.4 1.3.5 1. it came into effect on January 26. Being the supreme law of the country. establishing the structure. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. and liberty.3. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. democratic republic.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.8 1.369 words in the English language version.7 1. containing 395 articles.3. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. for a total of 117.1 1.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.3.1 Significance of DPSP 1. Besides the English version.

analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Dr. After many deliberations and some modifications. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy.In the August 14. 38 . 2. spread over a period of 2 years. 1. for 166 days. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. with Dr. On August 29. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. 1947. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. political. 1.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. 3. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. learn the role of central and state government on education. The Assembly met. social. 1947. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. legal and environmental.3. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. Through them. understand our Indian constitution. According to the constitution.3. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. the Drafting Committee was appointed. 1950. economic. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. 1. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. in sessions open to public. administrative. you will be able to: 1. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. Two days later. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved.3.3. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian.

Equal justice and free legal aid. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Protecting health of the workers. Liking wage etc. sickness and disablement. Article 41. Equal pay for both sex. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. old age. for workers. Protecting children from exploitation. and in other cases of undeserved want. and shall. Article 42. The State shall. on the basis of equal opportunity. Right to work. Article 40.government. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. No abuse of children. Article 43. 39 . and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. That the health and strength of workers. Minimising inequalities in status. Organisation of village panchayat. Article 39A. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Appropriate concentration of wealth. provide free legal aid.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Condition for dignity of children. make effective provision for securing the right to work. men and women. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. in particular. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. The State shall endeavour to secure. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.

in particular. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Article 44. agricultural. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. (Original Article 45. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Article 46. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. The State shall take steps. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. to all workers. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. work. industrial or otherwise. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. a living wage. Note: Subs. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. in particular. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. by suitable legislation or in any other way. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Uniform civil code for the citizens.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. [declared by or under law made by 40 . Article 47. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 48. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Participation of workers in management of industries. and. See also Article 21A). for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. The State shall endeavour to provide. 2002 for “45. Article 45. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Article 49. Article 43A. in particular. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Article 48A.

(This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. as the case may be. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution.Parliament] to be of national importance. 1. removal. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. from spoliation. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. disposal or export. Article-21A Right to Education. 2. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. 2002. may be law determine”. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.3. Separation of judiciary from executive. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Article 45 . Article 51. disfigurement. Promotion of international peace and security. destruction. Article 50. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1.

Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. 8.” 42 . 2002. 6. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. 5. his guardian has given his consent thereto. in particular. and. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. 3. iii. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. 7. from justice and all forms of exploitations. language or any of them”.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. and shall protect them. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. race. 4. caste. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. ii. if such person is a minor. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”.

Provision for Education for minorities is given in .3. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. the forms. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. for its vocabulary. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. The central government determines targets and promotes education. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5.9. 2. Educational Reforms From time to time. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. wherever necessary or desirable. 43 . Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. and by drawing. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. & 1.

6. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. By starting these projects. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. 4. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. the state governments. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. private agencies etc. to achieve the desired ends. Production of suitable for children and adults f.3. All India Council of Medical Science. So as to encourage education on right lines. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. The following pilot projects. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. 7. Local bodies and private enterprise.. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. 8. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. etc. 5. So that they may work well. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education.

Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. 3. 11. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. 4.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. research. training and statistics. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. 1. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. education for women. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. 12. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. handicapped. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. are published by it. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Material concerning nation-wide interests.3. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. The 45 . 9. is the state responsibility. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. books. reports etc.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. 10. 1. etc. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state.

46 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.3. Explain Directive principles 2. 5. Article 21A c. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. articles in the Directive principles. Article 46 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Write short notes on a. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Article 45 b. 1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.

The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. The Directive Principles of State Policy. Article 45 . Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. 2002. may be law determine”. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. a. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Article-21A Right to Education. 2002. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Dr. Ambedkar 2. b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.3. 1. Development of Hindi Language 6. b. a. a. Clearing House function 9. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 4. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Article 46 5. Describe the educational role of State Government.5. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Article 29 and 30 7. 47 . 3.

S. Bhatia. Education in Emerging Indian Society. 48 . Ghosh. B. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. (2004). L. (2007). (2008). Dash. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society.3. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. S. K and Narang C. (2009).1. New Delhi: Shipra Publications.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. K.

3 Precautions while introducing 1. Students should be 49 .4.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.1 Why Moral Education 1.4.4.4.3.4.4.3.4.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1. Jainism. religious education should be broad based.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.3.4. Islam. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.2 1.4 Moral education 1.5 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1. Buddhism etc.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4.8 1.6 1. Christianity.4.4.7 1.1 1.4.4.

As result of which.and dedication.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education.4. know the position of religious education in our country 3. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. state meaning and need for moral education 1. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. duty-consciousness. According to E. you will be able to: 1.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication.4.. "In A multireligious society like ours. India' can produce men of character. integrity. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. religious education and the concept of secularism. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. 1. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth.” Education broadens human outlook.D. understand the relationship between religion and education 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. beauty and goodness so that 50 . Thus. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. In the complicated and complex society of today.

our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. They thought that any kind of narrow. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. Children attend these organizations. all citizens are free to follow any creed. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. According to Article 19. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. rancour.4.3. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. 1947 we achieved our freedom. 1. Viewing the defects of religious education. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy.3. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate.4.” From the above. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. Thus. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. if not regularly. 1. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. religion and democracy are same. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. through religious practices and 51 . Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. at least occasionally. castes and creeds. No religious tax can be imposed on them.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. In short. realizes God in himself. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. it is clear that the State has no religion. As a matter of fact. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. As our country is a country of diverse religions.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. According to Article 22. Hence.

which help him for the development of his character. As a result of which. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. intellectual and physical faculties of children. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. It is religious education. Good education. If unreleased. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. temperament etc. for the development of the individual and the society. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. one fully developed. It helps to modify habits attitudes. and what is evil. what is done and what is not done etc. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. He also learns about social. which can mould. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. moral and spiritual values.teachings. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance.. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. when he becomes an adult. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. aggressive. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna).

No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society.3. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. towards the society. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. 3. which is the basic need of a democratic life. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore.4. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. 1. 2. Therefore.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. This should not be allowed to happen. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. If we open the pages of history. 53 . Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write Article 22 2. Life histories of great persons of the world. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. For this. churches and mosques 7.4. stories of moral greatness. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. examples of patriotism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. 9. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. 11. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. fellow-feeling. they should be discussed in the right earnest. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values.5. 10. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . therefore. Gurudwara as. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Since all religions have virtues.

7. Ahimsa (Non-violence). personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness).acquisitiveness). Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). the methods of teaching. Moral education. Service to others.4. The content of the curriculum. 2. “Let all be happy and free from disease.4. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Patriotism. 3. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 1. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 5. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Aparigarha (Non. They will play their role effectively. Without moral values. Satyam (truth). 6. 3. 8. is that which develops moral values. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Cultivation of emotions. Purity. Non-injury.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. 1. Brahmacharya (celebacy). 2. 7. let men see well of one another. 5. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 55 . Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 4. students. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. Fearlessness. Self sacrifice. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Asvada (Control of palate). the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Swadeshi (Patriotism). 8. in the home. 4. 6. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. therefore.

Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. religions may be included in the syllabus. 11. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction.4. Unity of mankind. In the school programme. Good temper. Integrity. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Asatyam (Non-thieving). 2. discipline. loyalty and self-sacrifice. 56 . 3. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). The School Assembly should be held for a few. 1. 4. Secondary Stage 1. 3. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Discipline.9. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Sharivashram (Physical work). minutes in the morning for group singing. National unity and Spiritual values. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Good manners.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. 10. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Efficiency. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Community singing should also be encouraged 2.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. 3. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. In this connection. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. 57 . Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. 5. patriotism and self-discipline. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion.4. love of humanity. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In other words. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. University Stage 1. Silent meditation should be encouraged. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . 5. should form a normal part of school programme. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. 4.

a. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.4. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. the. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. The School Assembly should be held for a few. 58 . In short.4. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. b. 2. 1. 4.1. minutes in the morning for group singing.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. 1.4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. b. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. a. a. Sri Prakasa 6 . For this. 2. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. Discuss the aims of Religious education. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. Training of Character 3.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 1959 5.

(2008).1.H. New Delhi: A. (2008). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : Siddiqui. B. (2003). Publishing Corporation. (2004).P. J. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.4. P.C. (2007).11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Dash. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. N. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Pahuja. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Theory and Principles of Education. L. Ltd.H. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. 59 . Bhatia. Anmol Publications Pvt. K. K and Narang C. M.

5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also. 60 .5.6 1.1 1.5.9 1.5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively. Although.5.5.5.7 1. i.5.10 1.4 1.5.3 1.2 1. disparities between provinces/States.5.12 1.11 1.e..5.5.5 1.5.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.8 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.

for example. They therefore. 8. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 7. you will be able to: 1. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. they take appropriate measures. 1. work hard towards this end. Accordingly. 61 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. etc. This leads to separatist movements. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.1. understand the regional educational development in India 3. 3. 1. 5.5. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. 2. 6.5. energy. 4.5. waters. know the education suited to different environments. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. roads. 1.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.5.

There are many reasons for this during the British rule. • Separate States (of course viable States). education as a fundamental human right was recognized. Therefore. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. some average. Tight security arrangements should be made.5. while others remained educationally backward. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. and. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. on the basis of regional development may be formed. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. 4. 2. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . some States became educationally far advanced. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. 3. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. Secularism. 62 . The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly.

Funds amounting to Rs. Mizoram.After the Planning Process has originated. Jammu and Kashmir. the Union Government.g. Rs.84 crore was released in 2005-06.480. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. Nagaland and NEHU. Out of this. approved proposals worth Rs. However. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. Tezpur.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. Guwahati. since its inception in 1998-99. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. library buildings.392. scholarships. After the attainment of independence. academic buildings. etc. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. books. etc. Silchar. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. NERIST. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. In the Central sector. 1.14. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. NIT.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. Central Universities of Assam. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. while some States like Bihar. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. remained under developed. Itanagar. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools.. Regional Centres of IGNOU. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. the State Governments. Even in each State. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. and provision of informal education to enable those.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005.5. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. 63 .68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. These projects are in various stages of implementation.

NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.8 per cent in 05). Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. too.57 crore and Rs.261. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Tezpur University.187.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Moreover. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.501. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.500. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. During 2003-04. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. 64 .5. Government expenditure on education. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.05 crore and Rs.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. Out of this an amount of Rs.40. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. A provision of Rs. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west).

Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. for which 16 sites. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21).5. Andhra Pradesh. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. Karnataka. Tamil Nadu. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. Karnataka. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Listing the positives. English.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . too. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. Medical education. Kerala and Gujarat. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. The Chandigarh Administration. pharma. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. too. Moreover. notes the study. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. telecom. health services and welfare of the citizen population. To add to the woes. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. too. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. 1. for instance. engineering and R&D. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats.

Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. the teaching methods. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Then education become realistic and idealistic. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. The working hours of educational institutions. the socio-physical conditions.year. even actually looking at the watch. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. the working days: an academic .people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. the interests. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. 66 . the needs. In the same manner. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. For a learner living in a rural area. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. and so on. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the curricular subjects. which a non-tribal person cannot do. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. while the former does not. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. taking the average in the middle. The living conditions. life-oriented and environment slanted. Hence it is called as need-based. in which the learners live. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. Of course. when he will not be sure of time. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. the vocations. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers.

5. 67 .5. to suit education to different environments? 1. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2.5. 2. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. 1.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .

Giridhar. some States have become more developed than others b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. S. during the British rule. Education in Developmental Arena. Dubey.H. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. (2002). New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. S. A. R. Educational Development in India. New Delhi: Authors press. and Nair.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 60% 1. 68 . remained undeveloped 3. Education Scenario in India. (2001). a.2. C.G.K. some of areas which were under the native rulers. (2008). (2001).N. Salim. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.5.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. National Integration. 71 . secularism and democracy through Indian education. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. semi literate and illiterates. community development. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. school community and mass media. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life.

6.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1.2 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .7 2.1.5.6 Education for Secularism 2.1.1.1.1.9 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.6.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.8 2.6.5.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.3 2.1.LESSON 2.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.1.4 2.1.1.1 2.

1. 2. 73 . social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. This is the political aspect of democracy. socialism and secularism 2. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. Democracy thus means power of the people. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. socialism and secularism 2. for the people by the people”.1. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 3) Provision of Manual Work. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. socialistic and secular state.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality.2. colour or wealth. The students may be associated with the management of the school. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. 2. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. In the matter of admitting students in schools. creed. Abraham Lincoln. there should be made no distinction of caste. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. you will be able to: 1. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. understand the concept of democracy. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.1.1.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. There are different brands of socialism. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. 74 . 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. debates. it soon spread all over the world. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students..6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. 11) Student Parliament.1. 2. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. declamation contest etc. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Democracy means 2. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. may be planned. 12) Visits to Legislatures. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions.

75 . 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 2. but on the path of non-violence.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 7) Special facilities for girls. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. none high”. Under it. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 2) Socialism aims at equality.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. service and cooperation. 2. oppression and disparity. free from exploitation. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. the wealthy and the poor. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production.1.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote.5.5.1. the prince and the peasant. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections.

the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. According to Holydake. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. 76 . secularism is being propagated. 11) State schools. "which seeks the development of physical. 2. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary.1.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. 5.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Everyone says. Write any two main features of socialism.” In every political and educational corner. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. “India is a secular-country.

6. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. In this type of prevailing situations. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. education etc. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. the belief that the state morals.1. people started believing in regionalism. There is need of making the people open minded. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. That is why. 2. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. liberty.opposed to religious education. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. During the recent past. 3) It permits freedom of worship.6.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. A large number of people is uneducated. fraternity. 5) It implies tolerance. trifles over petty religious matters are caused.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. Moral values have to be imbibed. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. people have narrow mindedness. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. “Webster further says. 77 . Equality. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. 9) It stress free inquiry. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation.1. should be independent of religion.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. 8) It believes in co-existence. People have different religions and they have different beliefs.

1) Moral Education. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. In the hands of such teachers. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show.presented by the students in the gathering. While doing so. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. 2. In the celebration of each such function. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based.6. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. that the central string of all religions is one. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions.1.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. The very sight of the building. education. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. Religious Education. Patiala. No doubt. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. There should be some internal checking of the material being. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. students belonging to different religions should be associated. tours and trips may be organized.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The word “Seculum” means 7. The term secularism was first used by 8. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. No doubt.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.7 LET US SUM UP 79 .1. 2. Define Secularism 9. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For.

Socialism aims at social justice. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. there should be made no distinction of caste. colour or wealth. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. In the matter of admitting students in schools.1. Tuition free education b. George Jacob Holydake 80 . In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. d.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. for the people and the people”. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 3. a. c. Equal Opportunities for Admission. b. Power of the people 2. Abraham Lincoln. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. 4. 6. This present age 7. 5.1. creed. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Respect of Individual Personality. b. 5. Socialism aims at equality. Since socialism stands for equality. a. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Provision of Manual Work. 2. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. 3. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. a. 4.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic.

8. b. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. should be independent of religion. (2008). (2003). the belief that the state morals. education etc. 10. L. It treats all religions on an equal footing. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. a. 81 . It permits freedom of religion. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2004). Ltd. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. (2005). B. Theory and Principles of Education. N.C.” 9. a. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Mohanty. Dash. Bhatia. (2007).1. Ltd. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Pahuja. K. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. N.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. J. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. P. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. K and Narang C. Modern Trends in Indian Education. J. b.

2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.3 2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2.1 2.6.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.2.LESSON 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.2.8 2.2.10 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.7 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.2.2.9 2.4 2.2.2.5.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.5.2 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.6.2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.

The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. therefore. and 4. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. who are placed in his custody. emotional. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. It involves physical. The developmental roles of children. as citizens.2.2. a r e 1. development. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. 2. moral. social. A teacher is first and foremost. as it is t he aim o f modern education. 83 . as workers. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.an instructor of school children. understandings. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. skills. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. 3. you will be able to: 1. as learners. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. 2.generation to another. application. as persons. social and moral aspects. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. mental. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. aims and objectives of the school.

morally. social and emotional health. morally. He is to become an active member. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. member of his community at the outset.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. and aesthetically to become. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers.All education should lead to better behavioural development. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. The following are some of such roles described in brief. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. socially. 2. inquisitive. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. intellectually.2. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. economically effective. mental. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. culturally confident. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. physically fit for socially efficient. a part of their day in 84 . 3. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. mentally. motivated. 1. Teacher as a Citizen Next. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. The students live. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. 2. He has to look after their physical. experiences and acceptance. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. emotionally. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens.

objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. photographic clubs. science club. faiths. fine art associations. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. creeds. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. solve them. They will be spending with their parents. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. India is a land of many castes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and most of hours. Dr. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community.the school being under the custody of teachers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It 85 . 4. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. 2. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. activities of the society into which he is born. List out the role of teachers towards community development . Unless. languages and religions.

with straight backs and look up at the skies. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. should be emphasised. b. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . poems. Nehruji has explained this as. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. and make into one strong national unit.is. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. narrow-minded provincial. a. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. c. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. The only process is the process of education. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. social studies. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. Sampurnanand remarked. the citizens of the Republic of India. the study of language and literature. It should broaden the outlook. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice.” Regarding the role of education.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. folklore and teaching of social studies. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration.5. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. At the primary stage the importance of stories. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. Radhakrishnan. this integration of the Indian people. therefore.” 2. 1. Let us.2. national anthem and other national songs. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. stand up straight. ‘We should not become parochial. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation.

6.different social sciences. 87 . it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. languages and literature. Singing of National Anthem. and picnics. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. dramatics and youth festivals. 2. sports. Textbooks. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. militar y training like the NCC. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. symposia. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. 4. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. educational excursions. Uniform for School Children. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Reverence of National Flag. 8. debates. t he st udent s and t he community. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Co-Curricular Activities. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. National Days—January 26. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Scouts and Guides. Student Camps. 7. Celebrations of National Days. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. 9. Taking Pledge. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. 3. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. tours. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. ACC. 10. 5.

Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. School Projects. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. iii.11. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . Educational and Travel Documentaries.2. Admissions to schools. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. Students Exchange and Tours. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. v. 13. 14. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. colour. flora and fauna. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. 12. 15. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places.5. Admissions. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. 2. iv. ways of thinking and doing things. Open-Air Dramas. language. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. ii. 88 . Recognition of Institutions. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. region or religion. 16.

Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. irrespective of national boundaries. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Community dinners.vi. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. cultures and races on equal bases. Define National Integration 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. vii. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. viii. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. camps. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. ix. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings.2.

Strong has observed.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding.. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. In a very real sense. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. Organising of debates and. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it.e. C. therefore. that war. Dr. 5. often in connection with anniversaries. 3. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. This. if it happens. 2. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. 2. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. patriotism is not enough. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. 4. Radhakrishnan states.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. of his body and mind. (c) fairly tales. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .2. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. Therefore. (b) stories of children of other lands. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1.6. the international level. 6. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries.” 2. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child.6. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. and the healthy development.as important as that of a national citizenship. Teachers 90 .2. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations.F.friendships between children of different countries.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . Russian. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. Impartial in their Treatment. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should not be propagandists. a German. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Indian and American. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. an Englishman.

factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. the education function can be carried. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. Chronic Poverty . If this is done. understand and indiscipline: 1.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. majority of people are.Another major. 2. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. 4. there is wide spread frustration among all people. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. It does not prepare students for life.2. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. Defects of the educational System . and help the students to over . they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. 5. leading to. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. As the school is but a miniature society.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. 3. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. Devaluation of Values .Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom.2. Wide Spread Frustration . which results in agitation and aggression language.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students.

4. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. etc.2. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. love. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. 93 .8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. co-operation.democratic nature. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. 5. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. sympathy and good will among the nations. 2.2. fellow feeling. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. community development.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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3. During the course of time. To make them achieve their aim. the invention of the printing press.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Moreover. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. art galleries. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Crow and Crow write. 2. led to the printing of books. He taught his students orally. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Hence. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided.V. “All the citizens of the community. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Museums. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. books. In fact. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Emphasising this thing. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. are increasingly used in education. Now internet is being used. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Define community. Then came newspapers. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. periodicals.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times.

It is also an important source of entertainment. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. art. music. politics.classroom teachers. Thus. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. In collaboration with the experts. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. 2. social studies. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. the place of importance. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. languages. dram appreciation. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. Reynolds. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. the teacher still occupies. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. It stimulates curiosity and interests. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Thus. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Important happening inventions. In the emphasis is on sound. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. 2. Various talks. Effective means of presenting music. It enlightens public opinion. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. 101 . Students listen various talks. for the teacher through school broadcasts. “Listening participation” in current history.G. rather than on picture.telecast. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. current affairs and other areas.6. A lot of work by way of pre. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher.3.

Team-teaching demonstrations. at any place. development of lessons. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. travel talks. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. at play. 3. fol classical music. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. 5. School concerts. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Before presenting the programme. At present. Participation of local teachers and pupils. style. projects or creative activities. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. mathematics. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. at recreational centers. 102 . at drawing room. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. speech. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Making learning an open system. audibility and presentability. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. informal and non-formal education. plays. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. 4.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

3.4.4.4.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.6 2.4.4.4.8 2.5 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.4.4.7 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.3.4.4.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.4.4.4.3.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.LESSON 2.4.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.2 2.1 2.4.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.

Education organised by some agency.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. the learner are acquainted. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education.4. say the Government or the private enterprise. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. his mental alertness. 6. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. the family. imparted at the residence of the teacher. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. it was mostly. 2. open university. starting and ending at -a particular age.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 3. Education. 110 .4. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. 2.4. To realize this objective of education. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. 9.4. 7. 4. 2. 5.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. the most important agency of formal education. the temple. the mass media et.3. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. the community. 4. 2. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 8. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system.. compare formal and non formal system of education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 2. open school. you will be able to: 1. In ancient time in India. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. School is.2. 3.

A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Through early formal education. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing .3. 2. third stage. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Higher Education: Higher education. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals.3. capacity. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. In general. structured education. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 .4. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. or academic degrees. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates.a secondary education. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. such as a high school or secondary school. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. as well as vocational education and training. or post secondary education. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. also called tertiary. diplomas. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills.2. the elements of language are first learned. depending on the jurisdiction.4. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Concepts of proportion.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Some education systems have separate middle schools. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six.

It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Agencies can be classified as 2.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. What are levels of formal educational system? . 3.3. is an important agency of formal education. children with disabilities. late beginners etc.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities.4. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1.which will help for nation's development. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. and remote dwellers. 2. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.

In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. systematic. systematic. curriculum. it is a more effective tool for rural development. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon.formal education. However. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. one could say that non-formal education is an active. According to Malcolm A. Adiseshiah. Thus. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. It is much more responsive to needs and change.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. It is functional. place of instruction. planned. Therefore. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. admissions. “Non-formal education should 113 . it has its own valid claim to reality. adding up to a true learning society. Non-formal education includes adult education.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. financially supported life formal education. It unlocks the doors of development plans.. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. until 1970 it had not been defined. open learning.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population.e. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. adults as well as children. to help themselves.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. continuing education and on the job oriented education. It is deliberate. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. etc. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education.learning client take some learning objectives. Open university.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. i. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. staffed.

• • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. the Ideas of citizenship. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. It should lay emphasis on the self. co-curricular activities. place of education. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. evaluation etc.4. age. To help industrial workers to better their skills. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. 7.4.renewal. international understanding.S. 114 . modes of teaching. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. Flexibility in various aspects of education.4. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. curriculum. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. Process of sharing.” According to H.4. self. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. national integration. exploring. 5. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.be marketable and vocationalised. Lawrence. 2. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields.S. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. Preparation for future needs. Covering life span of an individual. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them.e. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. To develop in the student.learning pattern. admissions. 2. socialism. Part-time education. 3.” 2. 4. i. 6.

4. Universalisation of primary education. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. publication and information dissemination. 6. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. 4. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up.4. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country.4. 8. Technical. 9.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. 3. Meeting the omissions of formal education. working adults. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. 2. 2. 115 . To offer Secondary. Eradication of adult literacy. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. 5. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.4. school dropouts. • 2. 3. in villages and those who live in towns. Senior Secondary. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 7. 10.4. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 5. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.

if organised in isolation. training centres in factories. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. Therefore.4. self-employment iii.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. 2.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. etc. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. 2. others are formal and informal.4. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. Radio and television. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. effective in modern societal context. To make if. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.. centres of correspondence education. factory. Institutions for formal education. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . etc. Again. library. 3. 4. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.full time to learners – can be home. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. public libraries.4. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. All-round development i. To increase knowledge and 2.2. farm. open space. To better qualifications.

. Define non formal education. 117 . Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Written tests. Teaching to face teaching. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Face Contact programmes.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Lecturing T. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. institution. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Correspondence lesson. List out any two aims of non formal education. 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . radio. 7. Give examples of non formal education? .V.

systematic. The school. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. b. b. Open University. 2. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Pre-school level.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. 7. Primary level. 2.4.4. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. 118 . Higher Secondary level and University level. 2. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Open School. a. 4. Formal and Non Formal 2. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. the college and the university come under this category. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Secondary level. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. Explain the different levels of formal system of education.” 6. 3. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned.4. 5. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. a. adults as well as children. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education.2. 4. School 3.

(2004). Bhatia. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. L. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : 119 .9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Gupta. Dash.2. (2008). K. Theory and Principles of Education. Mohanty. (2007). J. J. (2008). N. B. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Modern Trends in Indian Education. N. Education in Emerging India. Ltd. Ltd. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2005). P. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2003). S. Pahuja.4.C. K and Narang C.

3.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.5.5.7 2.5.5.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5.3.3 Objectives of Open University 2.5 2.3.4.5.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.3.5.5.6 2.4 Open University 2.5.4.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.2 2.4.LESSON 2.4.5.5.5.4.4 Need for Open University 2.5.1 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.

It is a continuous process. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. Any person. However. It is a lifelong process.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture.5. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. industries. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. characteristics of open university 4. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. labourers and half educated individuals.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. For them. you will be able to: 1.5. 2. Under these circumstances. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. economic field or such other fields. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools.5.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. farmers.2.3. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened.5. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. know the need and objectives of open university. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. Thus. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. continuing education is a boon. 2.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. give the meaning. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . This knowledge may be in political field. 2.

if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. After the achievement of independence.5. Radio. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons.V. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education.V. are also contributing their might for the purpose. For them too continuing education is essential. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. cultured and progressive. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. if he gets opportunity to develop them. deteriorating to his character and personality. Block Development Officers. Radio and T. Throughout the country.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. Doctors. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . On the other hand. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge.3. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. On the other hand. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened.literate person.directly related to his job. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Persons engaged in health services. Thus. Cinema. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. T. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. 2. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans.

(18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements.V.5. (13) psychology of child behaviour. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. 2. we have not been able to achieve our targets. (14) information about bringing up young children. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (4) the fundamentals of economics. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. habits of people of other lands. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (1) ancient history. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. especially women. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. (2) basic religious matters. (10) first aid. These books are not very useful. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. Of course. 3. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (17) modern international and national events. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. Inspite of the great efforts.. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. 123 . In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (7) folk songs.5. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. 7. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. 2. 6.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 2. (15) music.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1.3. 4. and Radio. (8) psychology of adults. (6) folk stories.3. 5. (16) liking.

r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . It also attempts to pr ovide equality. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. attendance restrict ion.5. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. lack of time etc. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . of educational opportunities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. NLM was launched in the year 2. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. 2. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc.

unobserved. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. 3. the higher the degree of openness. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. c. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 5. its education is not class room based but home based. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? .5. b. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. 4. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. IGNOU was established in the year 6. it makes use of educational techno logy.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. but 125 . It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. Which was the first open university in India? . The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. e. Education is not a once for-all process. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. and in teaching. No one is too old or too late to learn. d.4. 2.

b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. supplementing the existing provision.who did not get it. Mo re o ver. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. it a ims at wider and hig her. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 4. 4. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. 3. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 6.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. 126 . T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 3. 5.4. 2. cho ice o f co ur ses.4. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books.5.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1.5. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 2. who were deprived of t he same earlier. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. 2. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. or who realised too late that they need it. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. 2.

4. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . In the present day world. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. 2.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. 1. Self instructional materials. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 3. 2. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. 127 . Every day. Laboratory works. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. you have learnt the concept. List out any four methods of Open University? . 7. school drop outs.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Therefore. Correspondence tuition.4. semi – literates. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. 8.5. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 6. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. 5. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. 8.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Tutor Comments. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. a society. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve .5. a state or nation.

7. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. (2) basic religious matters. 7. 1988. 8. 3. 4. (4) the fundamentals of economics. its education is not class room based but home based. 1985. cho ic e o f co u r ses. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. Broad casting lectures c. P r int med ia b. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. a. youth. a. 128 . 2. aspirants for continuing education. b. 6. a. agricultural and industrial workers.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. unskilled workers and other professionals. Television Lessons. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. Explain the objectives. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. (1) ancient history. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc.5. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. d. 2. 9. need and characteristics of Open University.ambitious learners.5. which may include house wives.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. b. 8.

K. Ltd.2. (2004). Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. (2001). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Udaiveer.. Recent trends in Non Formal Education.S. K and Narang C. Modern Problems of Education. R. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. K. L. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2004). Reddy.5. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 129 .8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. All which is the need of the hour. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. examination. 133 . the education of women. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. In Lesson 2. wastage and stagnation. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Examination reform. Training teachers for all levels of education. its causes and remedial measures. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. which may claim the attention of those concerned. and teacher education. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education.

134 .

9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3 New initiatives.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1.8 3.7 3.1.1. 135 .1 EFA – For whom? 3.4 3.3.1 3.1.1.1.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.LESSON 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1.1.5 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.2 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.2 EFA – How? 3.1.1.3.3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.6 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.

describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. Continuing Education (CE) 1. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. may be political.1. you will be able to: 1. “The State shall 136 . know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986.3. understands the country. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). directed that. Eradication of Illiteracy. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). education received added importance and significance. 3.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. 2. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. On the other hand. economic or cultural. Therefore. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. social.1. therefore.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. (EOI) 2. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly.

Due to the adoption of democratic system. Therefore. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . Three Stages for Universalization. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves.endeavour to provide. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Universalization of Enrolment. the national Government under. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. 137 . The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. After the attainment of independence. It enables the parents to send their children to School. rights and responsibilities. Universalization of Retention. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. 3. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. Continuing Education (CE). After the enrolment of the students in school is over.

all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education.3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. UNESCO Bulletin states. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. Therefore. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. 3. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. Write Article 45. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. 138 . It is safe to assure. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. This target had to be revised to 1970. educational enterprise. 1990. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. later to 1988. then to 1976. present and future. 1995 (for upper primary stage).1. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society.

Education of the Impaired. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. their social economic status and occupations. Disabled. 12. 10. 5. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. By undertaking survey. nutrition education and sports and games. adolescent and adult. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. Apart from primary education. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women.3. Early childhood education should be streamlined. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. FELF. Education of Girls. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. 3. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. and Women’s education programme should be improved. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. In order to make the programme of education for all community. rural areas. 11. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). sex. 139 . problem of literacy. creed. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. 6. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. etc. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. 9. NAEP. Emphasis must be given on health education. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Jams and Jellies. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 3. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. The Social Education.1.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. 8. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. their enrolment and retention. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). we have to develop the programme of Adult education. slum areas.

Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Expand MLL and SSA . SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. 4. Wastage and Stagnation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.3. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4.1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.1.3. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 .e. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. 3.

community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. School Factors . Familial Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Social Factors . it is considered as wastage. Personal Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.first stage of education. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.

Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Define Wastage. 7. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. . Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 142 .

Personal Factors .The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . school or society. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. rural or urban 3.3.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. in his home. relating to home. They are described hereunder :1.1. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. Societal Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.The following factors.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. Family Factors . School Factors .

144 . mid-day meals.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Stagnation? 9. etc. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. stationary. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. uniforms.

1. 145 . a. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. 4. 4. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.1. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. a. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA.” 3. Hartog Committee. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. improvement of curriculum. Universalization of Enrolment c. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. b. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA.1. therefore. a. Universalization of Provision b. 2.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 6. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. 3. “The State shall endeavour to provide. Universalization of Retention 2. directed that. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. 3. 3.3.

Personal Factor b. Sharma. New Delhi: 146 . introduce graded curriculum. S. 9. (2007).1.7. Crescent Publishing Corporation.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S. a. School Factors d.K.K. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Hemchand. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. a. b. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Familial Factors c. improve examination system. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2008). Problems of Elementary Education. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.N. 3. T. (2001). Social Factors 8.

2.5 New evaluation procedures 3.2.4.2.2.4.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.5.6.2 Grade System 3.5.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.5.2.2.2.5.4 Question banks 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .6 Inspection and Supervision 3.LESSON 3.2.5.5.4.2.5.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2 3.7 Open book examination 3.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2.2.3.1 Problems of examination 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.2.3.2.2.1 3.2.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.

2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.2.2. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.9 3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.3. 3.2. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.2.2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. you will be able to: 1. but on the other. 3.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. 3. Besides.8 3. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . 3.2. suggest the new evaluation procedures.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.2. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. 4. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .

4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. schools for them wherever necessary. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. They develop secondary sex characteristics.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. hostel facilities. etc. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. waiting rooms for girl students. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. 149 .. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex.2. which the educational authorities have to face. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. The following steps should be taken up. etc. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. etc. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. roadside Romeoism. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. 3. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner.3. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. They may cause problems relating to discipline. If the students are in sufficient number.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty.

4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. public administrators and statesmen. teachers. the examination system has an important role to play. It is considered as a major sub-system. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. public interested in education. appointment of paper-setters. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. assessment and Finance. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations.4. conduct of internal examinations.2. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. the net-work of examination system has also become vast.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. Instruction. 150 .2. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.

validity and practicability. etc. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. introducing objective-based testing. etc. etc. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. values. examiners.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. invigilators. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. 3. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. etc. training of examiners. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. tabulators. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom.4. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . etc. announcement of results. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation.printing and distribution of question papers. establishing reliability. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. scrutinizers.2.

may also discredit them. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. 7) In connection with the question papers. takes the place of comprehensive learning. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. 3) With respect to method of teaching. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. do not appeal to the students and parents.4. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books.. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. lack of objectivity etc. halo-effect. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. it can be said that they become examination-oriented.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. stereotyped questions. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. which they are expected to study. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. it s a common experience that subjectivity.. Vagaries in making.. Subjects. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. Rote memorisation.2. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. 3.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. 2) From the angle of content of education. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. 152 . inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education.

Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. etc. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. 153 . List any two merits of examination. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. revaluation.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers.. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions.develop true love for education. Spot valuation. may be introduced. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately.a part of internal assessment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. re-numbering of answer scripts. 4. . What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3.

5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society.2. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. Their interests. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. 3. It is complicated. he is given extra credit points. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. In actual practice. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. In this system. The new scheme of assessment. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. skills are given importance. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. When a person chooses to work extra. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. attitudes.5.2. Advantages More autonomy is given to students.2. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination.3. The students can take any course offered in any department. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.5. Every paper is treated equal.

A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. only the total credits to be earned is specified.2. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. or as a 4 credit course. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. poor. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4.5. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. This system reduces comparison of marks. courses can have weightages defined. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. These weightages are called credits. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. In the new system. An example is a seminar. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. 3. Groupism is encouraged.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. v. While designing syllabus.poor. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120.good.discipline.

3. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education.2. However.5. the need for re-evaluation should not arise.5. 3. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. 3. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. 156 . most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners.2.2. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.

3. In the hierarchy. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. However. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. There are no proper procedures for selection.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. recruitment. Therefore. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.2. 6. . The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. List any four new evaluation procedures.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.

interpersonal relationships and so on. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. finding out the adequacy of. being realised as two different functions. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. laboratory equipment. books are followed. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. inspecting the class-room teaching. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. etc.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. qualifications.2. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools.qualified personnel.6. Academic inspection. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. When they are fully realised. playgrounds. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. They are.. school buildings. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. wherever necessary. in a sense. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. complaints and compliments. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. etc. 3. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. staff.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. 158 . and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. taking up the follow-up programmes. finding out whether the prescribed text. submitting of the inspection reports. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. in contrast. 1. requirements. of late. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. disciplinary problems.. library books. whether the syllabus has been covered. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision.

giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. 159 . at least. Insistence on specialisation in the B.. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. course in either educational. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. modern.Ed.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. their professional knowledge. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. M. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo.2. Similarly. aptitude. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. In the case of departmental candidates. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. courses. In the light of these conceptualisation. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. 3. or.. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. once in five years.Ed. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well.

Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. 3. 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India.2. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Instruction. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. 3. 160 .7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. a. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. b. b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 2. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Administration. a. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. d. 5. b. 3. Grade System. c. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. 4.2. 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. assessment and Finance. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2.

Problems of Education in India.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. (2005). 5. b.2. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. (2002). c. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. a. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . a. Vaidya. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. b. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. b. a. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.4. K. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Question banks. (2004). S. R and Sharma. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment.a part of internal assessment. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. History and Problems of Education in India. Open book examinations. 7. Educational Reforms. New 161 . Multiple sets of question paper. K. 3.

6 3.3. 5. 3. 3.3.3. 4.8 3.10 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. 162 . identify the needs of rural India and social.3.3.1 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.4 3.3.3.LESSON 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3. you will be able to: 1.3 3.9 3.3.3.7 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.5 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 3.3.3.3. 2.

. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. the Banaras Sanskrit College. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919.g.. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . in Andhra Pradesh. 10 years of general Secondary Education. Consequent on the recommendations. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education.e.e. The Calcutta Madras. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges.. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. e. and 3 years of First Degree Course. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1.specialisation programmes 3. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. 8 years of general education. i. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. 2.3. University Education. etc.3. Commission emphasised to continue. Similar is the case with some other States.. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. The.

3. who desire to change from one stream to another. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . 10.a sense of dignity of labour. 5) to help for the social. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. to prepare. historical. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . habits of hard work and develop . Provision for transfer of credits to students. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . and. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. is also a plus point . 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. educational channels. economical and political. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. However. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. cultural and economic development of the country. 5. 7.confidence in students. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. 6. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. to imbibe. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. 8.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 3. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. social. b. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.

Psychologically. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone.3.national integration. international understanding. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. cooperativeness. on one hand. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. and that required to enter the tertiary level. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. Philosophically it is not the conception.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. democratic living. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. to develop national character. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. The General Educational Spectrum. and. cultural and' religious tolerance. 1.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. social justice.. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . Here the choice of subjects is provided for. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. at the other. 3. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. Sociologically it is undesirable. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. etc. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level.

they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Biology. industrial agricultural production is growing. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. In our country. medical plants. such as Agriculture. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. professional. 2. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. Commerce and other disciplines. technological. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. In the matter of language. and vocations based on dairy-farming. Science. Agriculture is the main occupation. or other machinery. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education.— tube-wells. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. India is a land of villages. All these need for an. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. horticulture.3. commerce. the rural areas have suffered very much. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. 3. fish culture. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. rural health. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. educational and cultural services. physics or mathematics. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. technical. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. vegetable growing. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. commerce. chemistry. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. In the vocational spectrum. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. 166 .

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In this way. the local resources available. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely .. interests and aptitudes of the students. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . etc. There had been favourable reaction from the students. social justice. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. In time. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. and the needs. can be ensured. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. In this it may be concluded.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . should find their due place in the vocational spectrum.3.etc. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. 3. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. 4. and 5..

a sense of dignity of labour. objectives. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage.3. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. a. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. 2. 3. (2005). a. S. a. Vocational Sepctrum.3. 3. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. (2008).10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. N. J. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3.C.3. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. J. to imbibe. New Delhi : 168 . B. Dash.3. we studied the history. b. Ltd. Calcutta University Commission 2.3. Anmol Publications Pvt. b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 3. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education.K. (2007). to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. 3. (2001).9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Mohanty.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. habits of hard work and develop . General Educational Spectrum and b.

4.LESSON 3.4.7 3.6 3.8 3. social and 169 .4.4.12 3.4.4.1 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.4.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. but the lighting of a fire”.13 3.4.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.9 3.2 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4.4.11 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.10 3.4.3 3.4.4. Education contributes to human development.4.5 3.4.

Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. There is a close connection between education and development.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. Teaching and Fine Arts. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states.4.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . you will be able to: 1. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. Education .4. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. family. In the post —independence period. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. cultural and political development of the individual. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. For the first time in the history of India. These courses were. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. economic. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. analyze the women and distance education. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. During the year 1937. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. community and nation is universally acknowledged. particularly 170 . Nursing. higher education of girls developed immensely. The relevance of women’s education to social.higher education in particular. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. 3. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. While women constituted only 9. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. Dr. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. although we have miles to go.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. Home Economics.

3.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. Coimbatore. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. 3.2 22. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.9 14. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.0 16. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. we have more than 1200 institutions. In the rest of the country.4.N. out of 9200 and odd colleges. levels and professions. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.9 27. Kodaikanal. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.T Women University.1 31.65 lakhs in 1994-95.4. Yet.4.1 24. in our country. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.D. In 1950-51. Mother Teresa Women University.0 43. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. Even today. Mumbai. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.0 Today.0 32.2 29. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.women. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. The idea of women’s education for equality.

4.1 respectively.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .4. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.63 Female % 34.4. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .73 10.56 64.36 3. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .46 82.66 66. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.17 52.1 and 14. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.83 47. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .44 35.4%) prefer Arts subjects. 3. 3.34 33.that of boys.47 65.53 34.27 89.54 12. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.

Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. marriage is a very common I factor. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. financial difficulty of the parents. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. irrelevance of the content of education. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. she will only learn fashion. what is the need for higher education for her. Also.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. and coeducation may spoil her character. promoted and increased. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Book banks should be established. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. The major hurdles. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. They gave up their studies to enter home life. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. etc. Thus. In every third family. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. 3.4. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. particularly. According to a survey. distance of the college or university from home. curriculum not suited to their requirements. In college.hinders the girls from getting higher education. 173 . lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided.

3. Empowerment in a nutshell. It is a productive investment. It enables to study. Distance education is a boon to women. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Full-time employment. is the only tool for realising empowerment. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. There are constraints of time. resources and socio . It also brings about 174 . Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Education.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. 3. Geographic distance of educational institutions. space. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment.4. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. and the limitations of the conventional education system.economic disabilities faced by women. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.4. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously.

and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. on their own. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities.4. The major objectives of women's higher education. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. for full development of our human resources. This can be achieved through reflection. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. education of women must be given priority in national plans. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. Empowerment is an active. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. legal awareness and economic independence. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. higher learning. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. education of women is of paramount importance. empowerment means being assertive. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 .9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. 3. Women are partners in development. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity.

Reservation for women. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. has to be implemented at the earliest. Better opportunities.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. which is pending for a long time. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. Scholarships and concessions for women. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. which had been the sole domain of men.4. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. 176 . Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. The local administration. who are eager to take up courses. But their number is small. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . will encourage them to venture new grounds. The educational institutions. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. 3. especially so in the developing countries. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women.

Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates.. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. talents. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . But. especially in developing countries like African countries. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%).3 percent. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. According to Lindy Hyam. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. capacities etc. Australia.8%). It also must help women to discover their latent abilities.4.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century.1%) and architecture and building (38.000 women in the country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Chief Executive. 3. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability.9%). IDP Education. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. engineering and related technologies (16. Also. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.

A. Mumbai. individuals and society b. (2007). Rao.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. SNDT Women’s University. Centre for Women’s Studies. (2000). Annakodi. 4. 4. 3. a. Coimbatore.K. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. R. create the right attitude towards life. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. (2008). Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Coimbatore. 178 . Rajasthan 5. Kodaikanal.R. R. S. community and the nation. Women Education.C. 3. SNDT Women’s University. and Swain. (2005). Mishra. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.4. S. R. Women and Education. 3. 43% 6.4. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Women Education. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. and Suryalatha. Pattanaikj. Mumbai.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2.4. Mother Teresa Women University. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication.to the family. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. A.

1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5.5.11 3.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .2 3.3 3.5.5.5 3.personality of children in and out of school.5.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.8 3.1 3.10 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.4 3.5.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.LESSON 3. whole.5.5.7 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.6 3. They should be trained.9 3.5.

list out the agencies of teachers education 3. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. Shorter working hours. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. know the pre service and in service training facilities. and national character. social and emotional integration.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. national consciousness. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. Dearth of new technology of teaching. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. 3. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. Lack of physical facilities. 5. equality and justice. 180 .5. you will be able to: 1. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. understanding and strong desire for international peace. understand the training teachers for Primary. 4. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. 3. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals.5. international.

it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. it is called the In-service teacher education. Lop-sided curriculum. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work.5. the centre. higher secondary teacher education. the primary teacher education. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. the state Government.5. (NCERT) New Delhi. and M.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. etc. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. Depending on the levels. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate.Ed. At the diploma level. 3. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools.Ed. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. Inadequate training in practical skills. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. 3. students. levels. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. inservice and extension education programmes. If the student teachers are working teachers. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education.Less qualified teacher educators. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them.. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching.. a Diploma course and a Degree course. who have not been trained earlier. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. and the collegiate teacher education. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . the secondary teacher education. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. it is called the Extension teacher Education.

Education cells. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Science Education units.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. etc. non-formal. state Institutes of Educat ion..5. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. are established. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. collegiate cells. Expand NCERT 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . Evaluation unit. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. Educational teehnology cells. Also Guidance Bureaux. depart ments etc. 3. extensio n service.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY.

primary and secondary school teachers.Ed. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. and so on. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. schools and sister institutions. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. degree. should be improved on a top priority basis. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training .Ed. and 183 . a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B.. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. despite its vast expansion. to ensure teacher competence. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. to prescribe conditions for recognition. audio visual aids. which should include experience in the primary schools too. to offer consultative services. which help breaking isolation from one another . laboratories..post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . material conditions relating to libraries.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified .. to improve curricular programmes. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and .

With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education.secondary education. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Modern Methods of Evaluation. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. not came up once again. Modern Techniques of Teaching. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. methodology and evaluation. and XII. etc. Hence. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. Workshops. Induction Courses. Psychology of Students. though no pre-service training. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. etc. To meet this exigency. Agriculture. The problem. Meanwhile. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. 184 . Organisation of Content Courses. whether they should have professional education or. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively.

inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. in Education.S. (Education) and M. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. Ajmer.Ed.5. Degree.Ed.’s for Ph. training. For re-orienting the teachers.. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.Ed. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. These facilities are available for regular students. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. M.Ed.. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.Ed.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.A. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. Courses leading to B. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. Post-Graduates also undergo B. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.’s are elig ible for M. State Institutes of Education.A.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.D. Degree and M.. Point out two defects in primary teacher training .. Pre-service training is for those. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.. 3.. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. All B Ed..Ed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. (Education) are organized by 185 . courses and M.

Hence the employability of M. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. What is the role of ERIC? . However. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.List any two code of conduct for teachers? .8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. (Ed. (Ed).A. 6.A. . 3. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. they should be conscientious .). So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . of conduct—written or unwritten. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a..some Faculties of Education of some Universities. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. and B. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. 5. 186 . 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned.5. established by tradition and teachers of the past.

The necessity is however this.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 187 . they should be conscientious. 3. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. 4. 3. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. 2. b. Shorter working hours. Discuss the problems of teacher education. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Explain code of conduct for teachers. Ajmer.5. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. 3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. 2.5. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.3. National Council of Educational Research and Training. 3. 5.5. Bhopal. 6. a. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. However. b. 4.

Teacher Education.5. (2009). A. and Teacher Education. P. Tewari. Ltd Aggarwal. B.3. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . Publication Pvt. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House.N. Teacher Education.D. (2003). Corporation. Mohanty. J.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. (2010).

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

In lesson 4. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. In lesson 1. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. economic and educational developments. common ailments of children. objectives. the focus is on the school health programmes. communicable diseases and their prevention. Since food is the source of nutrients. The person’s environment is equally important. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. need for population education and impact of population growth on social.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. objectives. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. preservation of nutrients. nutritional deficiency diseases. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. 191 . If the diet is poor. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. consuming the right amounts becomes important. objectives and role of the physical education.

192 .

1.8 4.1.1.1.3 4.1.1.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. mental.e.11 4.1. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.7 4.1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.9 4.5 4. It is a miniature society.10 4.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.1 4.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1.4 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody. 193 . for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.LESSON 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i. physical.2 4.1. emotional and social. The programmes of school health education are quite important.6 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.

cleanliness and healthful living.1. 2. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself.g. 4. you will be able to: 1. 5. 8. 9. Instruction. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To develop certain skills concerning health. 4.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. To give information regarding health rules. 4. training of teachers and evaluation. To develop healthy health habits among children.1. 194 . list the common ailments of children 3. content of health education. understand school health programmes 2. know the need for sex education. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. 3.. 6. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. 7. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 10. explain the importance of First aid 5. training in first aid and etc. to his family and to the community at large. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 11. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. e.

B. (viii) first aid.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. 5. Triple Antigen Vaccination. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. The school buildings should be spacious.. proper doors and windows. (xl) mental health. minimizing the travelling distance. (vi) nutrition education. Vaccination for small pox. First aid facilities should be made readily available. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. ( iii) sanit at io n. cleanliness weeks. 2. 3. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1.4. Arranging better transportation facilities. suitable furniture. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. B. (xii) smoking education etc. (v) safety education. organisation of school health days. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. 4. excusing late. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. The flooring should not be damp. inoculation against cholera. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. “Play-for-all” programmes. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs.G. There should be regular water supply. The surroundings of schools should be clean. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. There should be good drainage facilities. as described below 1.1. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. 2. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students.C.coming or absence. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. typhoid.. (ii) communit y healt h. is imperative. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. etc. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. vaccination. direct lighting. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . play festivals. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled.

The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. C. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. D. drowning. if epidemic is wide-spread. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. insect stings. cuts. • When sleeping in groups. wounds. fainting (epileptic fit). dislocations. • Keep all rooms clean. • Take nutritious food. poisons. • Have adequate rest and sleep. scalds. and other accidents. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. burns. etc. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. 196 .• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • Close the schools.. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. bleeding. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. sports and games in the interest of their health. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. isolate and notify. • Find out the cases. fractures. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease.

which are – cold. backache. 4. There are three stages in any communicable disease.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. cough. water or bodily contact. So they easily get illnesses.1. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. fever. pain in the joints. tuberculosis. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. Mention the school health programmes. measles etc. They are: i) The incubation stage. chicken pox. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Once these germs get into the body. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage.. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. polio. List out the Health curriculum 3. 4. They have less resistence to diseases than adults.1. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. asthma. 2. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. headache. These diseases are called communicable diseases. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye.

Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. The child may have fever. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. unhygienic living conditions. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Common Cold . Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Mumps . Children catch cold from persons having cold. unhygienic bottle feeding. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease.It is caused by measles virus. Tonsilitis . Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Ear Infections . The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness.This disease is caused by bacteria. Measles .It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. The symptoms include cold. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. The following are the common communicable diseases. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Hence it is called a killer disease. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. eating food which is not clean. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Throat is affected. Others make the children very weak.When a child suffers from scabies. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. cough and fever. sugar and water. The virus is present in the secretions of throat.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. head-ache and cough. Diarrhoea . Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. 198 . etc. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. After three or four days of fever. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. This is caused by cold virus. Scabies . The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Some suffer cold due to allergy.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus.

The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. It begins with fever.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. face and waist. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. the child is not able to breathe.• • • • Chicken Pox . The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. Expand DPT . By scratching he causes secondary infections. Enlist the common ailments of children. Shortly. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are communicable diseases? 6. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. As the disease progresses. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The child may also have diarrhoea. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Typhoid . So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. separate. Diphtheria . raised pink spots appear on head. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. 5. If proper treatment is not given. the child may die. 199 .

Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. etc. 5.1.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Sex is popular. snakebites.g. sprains.1. exciting and body-oriented. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. 4. films and jokes. drowning. bruises. swelling.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. and Community Work and Social Service. In such cases. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. scorpion stings. 4. 3.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. wounds. 200 . fiction. so-called sex books and periodicals. 2. It is both biological and psychological. head injury. fainting.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. It has its rightful place in education too.4. eye injury. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. simple fractures. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. Cuts and Bruises . Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. cuts. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. dislocation. and films. sprains. it is a subject of art. Wounds . Sprains . Drowning . man-woman behaviours. bleeding.

the state and the private and public enterprises should work together.old values. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. but preserve them from disaster and disease. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. try experimenting with their bodies. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. they would be treading the path of sure doom. The home. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. Should the boys and girls. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. B. the religious organisations. health. In secondary schools. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. 2. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. Hence.. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. In today's liberal and interactive society. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. sex education is being recommended in schools. the school. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. celibacy are age. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . in their ignorance.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. 3. The values of life.

and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. when the courses are already overloaded. first aid and sex education. common ailments of children. hence.1. 202 . What are the major components of Sex Education. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. Teacher education institutions are. the school health programmes. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. C. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. 4. communicable diseases and their prevention. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. there will no crisis in its implementation. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 209 . Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Mention the food nutrients 2.

How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned.2. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s .5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. minerals. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. If you look at the definition carefully. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . 210 . Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet.2. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods.4. Let us talk about each of these aspects.

In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. In other words.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. People in the east of our country prefer rice. activity level and physiological stress. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning.sedentary. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. for example. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex).Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. Even within given States there is considerable variation. dosa are typical of the south. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. In the case of adults. These are: region where the person resides and income. Those in the west also tend to eat rice.2. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). it is also specific to a given activity level . to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. moderate or heavy work. There is no point. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. A balanced diet is specific firstly. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety.one in the morning and the other at night. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. Preferences/customs are also important. the social and religious practices of that region. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. sex. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . 4. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. construction labourer).g. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals .g.6. paratha and poori. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires.

Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. One person may be fond of milk products. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. As you read this discussion. however. fat and sugar tend to increase. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. However. Among the social factors. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. Having more money. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. however. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. As income increases. while another may hate them. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. customs. Judicious selection of food is. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. vegetables and fruits. If you think of your own religious group. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. as important for the rich as for the poor. These determine the acceptability of foods. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. In addition to these. income plays a vital role. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. One must. nuts and dry fruits. Even among flesh foods. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. however. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. Including these 212 . It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. for example. taboos related to food may play an important role. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual.planning the diet. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting.

eating is hazardous. 8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. green leaves. eggs . List out any two healthy food habits.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. For this. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. Define balanced diet. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 8) Walk a while after eating. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. 213 . 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. over-eating or under. etc. fruits. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. if the teachers have good food habits. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. but they should be thrown away. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. meat. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. mouth. 17.

Bitot’s spots. e. Explain food nutrients 4.4. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. b. Keratomalacia 3. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. 4. d. Night blindness. In fact. Corneal xerosis.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. c. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. good nutrition is essential for good health. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Discuss good food habits.2. Beri Beri 4. Vitamin D 5. a.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Conjuctival xerosis.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 .2. preservation of nutrients. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. When the diet is inadequate. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.2. 4. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2.

C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s.M. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. 7. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. mouth.6. Health and Nutrition Education. Hands.C. a. (2008). P. (2005). S. b. (2009). (2004). Nutrition and Dietetics. Food should be consumed after eating well. b. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 4.2. R.N. 8. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Food and Nutrition Education. Food and Nutrition Education. minerals. (2008). Chopra. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. R. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . a . Nutrition Science. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. Sri Lakshmi B.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. A Text Book of Foods. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.

6.3.2 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.11 4.3.3.3.3.3.3.6.1 4.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3 Impact on Education 4.8 4.3 4.6.4 4.3.3.10 4. 216 .LESSON 4.13 4.3.12 4.3.1 Impact on social development 4.7 4.3.3.2 Impact on economic development 4.9 4.5 4.3.3.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.

family planning and sex education etc. population characteristics.4. Whenever we talk of sex education. characteristics and changes for himself. the causes of population change. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. and the consequences of these processes.3. aims at providing the younger generation. economic and educational development 3. 4. his family. the stress is. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. 4. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. community. 217 . Population Education. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. state the meaning. therefore.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. It is a much wider co ncept. It is not sex education.3. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. There is some difference. objectives and need for population education 2. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. his societ y and the world.3. describe the impact of population growth on social.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. you will be able to: 1.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. understand the importance of small family norm 5.

4. the family. the nation and the world.3.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 4.3.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . Define Population Education 2. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. the society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.

6. With the larger families.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed.3. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. Every second two thousand children are being born. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. which will not be possible without population control. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. economic and educational development of the country. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. 4. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. the family programmes are also handicapped. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. When the family is small. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. 219 . About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. health and happiness of its citizens. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare.3. 4. Family is considered as a social unit.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum.

But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective.3. facility for drinking water. 4. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. in cinema halls and theatres.e. lack of proper health care.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. pollution of the environment. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development.. and so on.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. unemployment.6. In developing countries. heavy intern I migration etc. toilets. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. in parks and other places of public gatherings. Swollen cities. in buses and trains. teacher index.6. The gulf between them is widening further. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. 4. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils.3. 220 . will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. i. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. Many students herded in a small room. organization index and material index.

even text books would be in short supply. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. family planning etc. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. blank verses etc. essays. less space facilities.3. Social Studies Statistics on population education. less budget for education. There would be very few audiovisual aids. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. bar graphs etc. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Regional Language. less administrative initiative and leadership talents.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. and laboratory equipments. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hindi and English. reproduction. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. There would be poor library facilities. thus. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. 221 .. can be studied in science and health education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. can be taken up. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility.

Uttar Pradesh. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 3. 10. 15. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. 5. Children may compare two families. Children with the help of parents. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. United States of America. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Canada. 7. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. causes of deaths etc. 12. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Brazil. Bihar. China. 2. 4.3. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 11. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. 9. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. West Bengal. 14. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. area and average density of population. deaths. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. 8. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 13. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 .4. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves.

It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education.be opened in their schools. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. 17. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. 18. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. age at marriage. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. values and role children etc. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. we have no right to stop 223 . The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Comparing life in various respects in two families. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. preferences for sex. 16. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife.3. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The question.

The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. 4. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. at varying places in different regions. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).to emphasize family planning services. The Family Welfare Program. continued . fertility levels have declined throughout the country. however. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. More than 45 years ago.4-6. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. especially the expansion of child immunization services . “He who is responsible for population growth. Since the program's inception.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.were implemented 224 . should be overcome at the intellectual levels. which education can only do. on an overall basis. and the child survival components of the news: program.their entry into the world”. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3.3.. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.

earlier than the safe motherhood components. At these meetings. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. expansion of services to unmarried women. and nominal fees for services. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. and the World Conference on Women. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . Local programs vary in their approaches. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. Therefore. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. In October 1997. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. a focus on health promotion. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. Moreover. reliance on local women as community health workers. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. In April 1996. the community appears willing to pay for services. men.

to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. 4. family. 226 . economic and educational development 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Describe the impact of population growth on social. 1997). Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. What are the goals of RCH? 4. involving the community. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.3. Its main purposes are to create awareness. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2.3.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. nation and the world. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion.emphasizing the needs of the client. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. community.

Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. area and average density of population. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 7. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. a. less space facilities. 227 . The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. the causes of population change. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. his society and the world. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 4. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. characteristics and changes for himself. Canada. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. United States of America. China. population characteristics.3. Brazil. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 3. his family. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. less budget for education. 6. a. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. less administrative initiative and leadership talents.4. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. and the consequences of these processes. b. b. 5. bar graphs. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. a.” 2.

New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Centre for Women’s Studies. N.3. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Changing attitudes to Education in India. (2005). 228 . Coimbatore. (1992). J. Principles of Population Studies.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. (2005). Bhende. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Ltd. Reddy. T. Modern Problems of Education. (2004).K. V. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.4. Udaiveer. Jayapoorni. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. (2002). Kantikar. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. A.

4.8.8.4.4 4.2 4.1 4.4.4.7 4.2 Major games 4.4.11 19.4.4.8.4.3 Indigenous games 4.LESSON 4.4.6 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.1 Minor games 4.4 Lead up games 4.9 4.4.4.8.4.3 4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.4.4.5 4.10 4.

4. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. 4. the youth of the country.4. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. moral fitness and emotional fitness.4. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. full records of physical activities should be maintained. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.4. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value.4. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. social fitness.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. which forms its most valuable assets.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. classify the different types of games. leadership and balance in defect. as it should 230 . team spirit. perseverance. The concept of physical education has been made broader. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. mental alertness. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness.

mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. They are inseparably united together. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Therefore. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. leadership. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. To be more precise. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. obedience to rules. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. They go hand in hand. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Every individual is a part of society. team spirit. The educational efforts at home.

” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency.4.” Montaigue writes.” The Secondary Education Commission. Rousseau states. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. H.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. a sound health. ment al. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. Buck has observed that 232 . Just like Education. nor body but the whole man. mo ral. Physical exercises. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. game and sports. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. C. pleasing manners. 4. Regarding the significance of physical education. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences.

physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. efficiency and character. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development.4. we must exercise the whole human being. initiative. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. elegance. coordinative abilities. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. flexibility and power. etc.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. “If we wish to develop the whole being. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. happiness. Froebel says. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. strength. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully.a properly directed physical education should result in health. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief.” 4. endurance. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. resourcefulness and smartness. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. speed.” In brief. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. 233 . It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility.

Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. 234 (i) (ii) .” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. If no opportunity is provided to the students. plagues and famines. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. its adherents and its enemies. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. While wars. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. including all racial groups and historical ages. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. they may form gangs. Tournaments foster this sentiment. these fundamental things have always been present. Every age has its artists. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. in greater or lesser degree. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. systems of government. poetry and painting.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements.sacrifice. obedience. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. self. to develop tolerance. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. etc. 235 . to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. 3.\ to develop perseverance. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . bravery and interest in games and sports. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. Write any two importance of Physical Education. B. respect for rules.

4. and. 10. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Posture screening should be done. Be in the uniform.4. Inform health principles. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Act as a leader. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Be punctual. Always keep the whistle ready. Be sportive. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. defects. 236 1. . Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 15. 14. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 3. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Be self-confident. 11. 9. 6. 5. Emergency care procedures should be followed.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Haag. 8. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. 13. Keep the field ready for the activities. is essential.H. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. 2. Usually parents. 16. students. At least now its importance should be duly recognized.4. and readmission after they have recovered. injuries among pupils should be made. 4.4. 12. 7. Be well-prepared.

Moreover.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely.4. As such they are well enjoyed by children. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. chasing. the play. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character.8. Such inst incts as imitation. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. their development is handicapped. 3.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. 4. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Indigenous games. 4. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Lead up games. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. 2.4. 1. 4. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 237 . less equipment and less expense. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. frolic and jo y.

Jumping. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges.4. Ball Badminton. zig zag relay. Hockey. 238 . the games can be modified according to convenience. Soft Ball.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Basket Ball. the number of players and substitutes.8. stopping. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. skipping. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. couple tag. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Dodging. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. For each game the rules are many. snatching the kerchief. Jump the stick clay and so on. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. with implements or without implements. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. pitching. muffling. catching. heading.With a very few rules. on sea-shore. dribbling. The dimension of the posts and nets. 4. Throwing. trapping. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Volley Ball. on hard courts. Cricket. hitting. Tennikoit. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Except a few games. Shuttle Badminton. On lawns. women take part most of the games. the play equipment. bowling etc. wherever the kids assemble. They are played for a shorter duration. on mountain tops and on river beds. They are rules approved by the International Associations. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. benefit in playing minor games. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. some of them are played indoors. spiking. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. over ball pass Relay. Tennis. While many of them are played in the open playfields. Kabaddy etc. These games require varied skills such as running. boosting. finding the partner. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. Khokho.. Hopping. under ball pass Relay. driving.

in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. For example.8. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. While observing the players in action. 4. 7.4. these games being popular. death. birth. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Kho-kho. They have an abundant social value.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. and . On occasions like marriage. List out some major games. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . An example for indigenous game is 8. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. festivals connected with religion and public functions. All the fundamental tactics. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. Games may be classified as 6. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. they are in existence. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes.4.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu.8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial.

the role of physical education teachers and types of games. 5. 2. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 4. 2. Minor and Major 240 . aims and objectives and need of physical education.4. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. 3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Posture screening should be done. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 4. a. b. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. 4. b. to develop physical stamina. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education.4. a. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.4. c. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. d. physically and emotionally fit and alert. 4. to secure physical health b. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. a. 3.4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Briefly discuss the different types of games. b. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. a. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities.

Tennis. Tennikoit. J. Hockey. Basket Ball. J. Krishna murthy. Khokho. Ball Badminton. 241 . (2008). Mohanty. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Soft Ball. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers.6. Foot-ball. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. (2009). Physical Education and Sports. Shuttle Badminton. Modern Trends in Indian Education. J. 4. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2005).C. Khokho 8. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Cricket. (2008). Kabaddy 7. Health. Ltd.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Aggarwal. Volley Ball.K.4. Handbook of Physical Education. G. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.

2 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .3 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.5.5.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.7 4.11 4.8 4.5.1 4.5.1 Natural Environment 4.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.5.9 4.5.5.2 Manmade Environment 4.4 4.5.LESSON 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.5.6 4.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5.5.10 4.

The best place to start such learning is school. Awareness. 3. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. 5. education about the environment and education through the environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. 243 . list out the types of environment 3. aesthetic and educational factors.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. 4. 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Details are given below: I. 4. population explosion and resource depletion could be. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. Participation. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Skills. economic.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast.5. Broadly. 2. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. political. Attitude. Evaluation Ability.5. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. 3. role of teacher in environmental conservation. social. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4.educat ion for the environment. 6. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. you will able to: 1. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems.5. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. it covers the following elements: 1. Knowledge. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. Essential knowledge about the Environment.

its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. 244 . Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. 2. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C.B. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. • Biological magnification E. Oxidants Other pollutants. a. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. F. heat sink and wind flow in cities. D.

c. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. 2. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Family planning ii. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. The pill ii. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. III. B. Persuasion: i.3. 3. Control of population growth a. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. 2. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Socio-economic measures. Intrauterine device iii. Sterilisation. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . economic. Birth control through education b. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. 4. Abortion iv. The human ecosystem II. Use of medical science i.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1983). Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Water pollution abatement. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. 3. e) Recycling. 3. Define Environmental Education. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. 246 . Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (UNESCO. Air pollution abatement ii. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.

6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . Biological environment The biological environment. includes the plants. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.4.5. 4. telex.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. fax agricultural apparatus. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. These are biotic components. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. -other.5.5. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4.other components of the environment. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. They interact with each. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.5. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. He modifies according”. b. Any constituent or condition of the environment. a. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.5. animals and other organisms (biotic).5. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. to his needs. way is called environmental or ecological factor.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. A change in one brings about a change in the other.

social studies. need for bio-diversity. water scarcity. are the topics which may be taught in History. natural way of controlling pests. sources of pollut ion. acid rain. reasons. preserving the watersheds. maintaining the ecological diversity. extinction of species. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. effects o f CFC. trees reducing noise pollution.. over exploitation of ground water. etc. sources. noise pollution. alternate sources of energy. desertification 248 . evolution. mineral survey. change in climate may be added.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. food chain and food-web. etc. river systems. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. preventing siltation of dams. importance of nitrogen cycle. t heir role in preventing pollution. solar cookers. wars and hazards of war. air pollutants from industries. nuclear energy. relation between population and pollution. explosion deforestation. (ii) Air pollution. windmills. use of pesticides. industrial survey. use of medicinal plants. balance of nature. ozone depletion. ozone layer deplet ion. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. excellent recreation sites. History The rise and fall. greenhouse effect. nuclear warfare. need for conservation. effects. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. supplying timber for various uses. biogas plants. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. industrial pollut io n. population. of civilizations. noise control. role of trees in building economy. are the topics which may find place in Zoology.

Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 11.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 5. 249 . 2. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment.may be inc ded in Geography. 9. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Peepal and Tulsi. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 4. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. animal and plants. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 3. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 14. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. group discussions and seminars. 7. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Providing. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 8. 6. Organising conferences.5. 4. 13. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 10. 12. aims and scope.

toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. World Environmental falls on 250 . or form a car pool for everyday travel. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. If it is done. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.Send their waste oil. Never put any left over chemicals. 5. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Don’t burn any waste. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. it will cause pollution. especially plastics. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. all these can cause serious pollution. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. 6. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Reuse carrier bags. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. used oils down the drain.

To arrange visits or expeditions. orderliness and beauty). (cleanliness. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . concern for others). Concern for species. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. Harmony with the nature .mat erials. The groups may exchange. loss of bio-diversity. deforestation. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. and 251 . viz. diversity and stability. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. etc. values and habits. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. Social responsibilit y (common good. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. developing desirable attitudes. potable water. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. To arrange for visiting speakers.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems.4. Att itudes of balance towards nature. Conservation of natural resources. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. dest roying nat ural habitats. etc. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. depletion of ozone. rather than conquest and mastery. To discuss the approach to problems or topics.). CFCs.. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. nuclear wars.5. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. To provide materials needed for practical work. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature.

5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 8.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.5. preserving natural cycles. 4.5. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. 4. 252 . List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.

. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Anmol Publications Pvt. 4. concern for others). Modern Problems of Education. T. b.K. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. a. Social responsibilit y (common good.2. b. 8. (2007).\ 4.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Knowledge. acid rain. S. a. a. Publications Pvt.5. Y. sources. explosion deforestation. a. group discussions and seminars. (2007). sources of pollution. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. new problems from science and technology. 3. 5. importance of trees in the production of oxygen.K.K. reasons. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.K. relat ion between population and pollution. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. S. To provide materials needed for practical work. effects. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Nanda. air pollutants from industries. Ltd. b. Environment and Human Rights. New Delhi : Sharma. June 5 7. Environmental Education. over exploitation of ground water. Rapid population growth. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. b. Kuldeep. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Environmental Education. Organising conferences. water scarcity. ozone layer deplet ion. Udaiveer. greenhouse effect. New Delhi : Authors Press. (2004). population. Ltd. importance of nitrogen cycle. (1997). (ii) Air pollution. 6. Providing. Awareness. Education for values.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. should be universal in nature. Spiritual Development. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. moral.3. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 .1. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. Universal Education. Education must contribute to development of culture. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. the emancipation of spirit.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum.” 5.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted.our life. man is essentially a moral being. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Education according to idealism. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. in fact." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. It is self-realisation. Therefore. The universe is regarded as a thought process. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. enrichment and transmission of culture. According to Rusk'.

He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. hygiene. and collation (striving) should find due place. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. For intellectual development. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. It considers teacher as. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. should be there.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. no doubt. 5.3. Herbert advocated instruction method. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. Learning through imitation. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked.the spiritual qualities of mankind.” 5.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. 5. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. the school is a garden. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. So cognition (knowing). so subjects like Religion.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. subjects like Languages. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1.1. So health. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man.1. Learning through discussion. For this no particular method has been suggested. Mathematics etc. 2. Science. friend and guide.3. 3. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. According to idealism. 4. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Learning through reading. Ethics. an indispensable necessity.” He is thus. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. Philosophy. He carries the child from darkness to light. However. He sets the environment in which education takes place. So he should embody. According to Frobel. a spiritual guide for the child. The plant can grow. History. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . affecting (feeling). Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Learning through questioning. Learning through lecturing.

4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century.perfection and beauty. 2. Perfection of Human Machine. time tables. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. "Education should make 263 • . curricula.preservation. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. 5.1.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. Ross explains. In the words of Ross. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. 5.1. formal lessons or examinations. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. text books.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.4. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

It stresses basic sciences. Education should. Literature. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. useful and mature child. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. There is no place for religious and moral education.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. his interests and inborn tendencies 2.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. It is based on the psychology of the child. In all. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Chemistry. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Biology. Arithmetic. education should develop the child into Joyous.1. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Zoology. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. “Education finds its purpose. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Naturalistic curriculum.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Botany etc Language. It emphasises physical and health education 5. 264 . rational harmoniously balanced. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. 4. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. • 5.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Therefore. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. therefore.4. subjects like history. is based on the nature of the child.

It discards all rigid. Learning by doing. 4.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Rousseau says. Heuristic method.1.4. In the . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development.5. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. a provider of an ideal environment. 5. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. 2. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. 5. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Learning through experience. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Dalton Plan. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . the stage. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. he should be taught by experience alone. Here the emphasis is on the individual method.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. 3. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. a supplier of materials and opportunities. Learning through observation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism.4.1. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers.

Subjects. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Geography.absolutism of idealism. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Personal Social Adjustment. social and moral aspects. Agriculture. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Sciences.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. The aim of educational development. All Round Development of an Individual.5. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences.5. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. The individual has not only to adjust himself. diversified and flexible. History.1. intellectual. Continuous Growth. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. 5. Continuous reconstruction of Experience.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Physical training. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Social Efficiency. Vocational and 266 . Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Social Science. is true.1. 5. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency.

alert and resourceful.1.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. activities and experience should be integrated properly.5. 5.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education.Technical Education.” 5. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles.1. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity.5. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . a senior partner and a sincere guide. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. should find proper place. He must be trained. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. a teacher occupies an important position. He has to be active. Learning by Doing. The subjects. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher.

Biology. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Education is preparation for a complete living. Art. The basic tenets of realism are 1.1. Population Education. Literature. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Biography Philosophy. 3. practical. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects.1. 3. Psychology.1. 2. 4. 5. Astrology. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. 2. Mathematics. rich and happy. Crafts. specific. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Geography are unnecessary 268 .6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. It favours child-centered.6. Chemistry. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. liberal. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood.6. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Music and Dance. Study of Subjects like Language. Sex Education. scientific and psychological education. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. 4.5. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. literary or humanistic education.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. intellectual. 5. 5. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. History.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.6.6.5.1. certainly and clearly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. easily and pleasantly. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .1.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.

Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Universal Education 2. Social Science. Learning through lecturing. has no end other than growth. 3. 5.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Child centered c. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization.5. Languages. Learning through discussion. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2.1. Learning through imitation. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. 5. Self Realisation b. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. History. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Learning through experience b. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Tours / Excursion e. a. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. pragmatism and realism.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. e. a. & curriculum. d. Physical training. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. b. Education according to pragmatism. 6. 5. a. Learning through questioning.1. Geography. Learning through reading. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Sciences. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression.7 LET US SUM UP We have.1. in this lesson. Experimentation d. naturalism. Rousseau 5. Agriculture. Self preservation & Self expression 4. c. Vocational and Technical Education.

New Delhi : A. (2007).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. L.5. Ltd. P.H. Publishing corporation. of Pathak.P. O.P. N.1. P. (2007). R. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Narang C. Theory and Principles of Education. K. (2004). Foundations of Education. 271 . Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Bhatia. (2003). Pahuja.

2.2.5.2.3.2 5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2.3.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.4 Views about teacher 5.2.3.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2.2.3.5.2.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.4.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.3.2.2.LESSON 5.2.2.2.1 Aims of Education 5.4.3 Methods of teaching 272 .4 Views about teacher 5.4.2 Curriculum 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.1 Aims of Education 5.4.4.2.1 5.5.3.2.2.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2 Curriculum 5.3 Methods of teaching 5.2.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.

2.2. 273 . content and methods. 5. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.4 Role of the teacher 5. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. 5.8 5. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. 3. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.2.2. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.2.7 5. 2. Tagore was a poet.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.5. you will able to: 1. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2. mind and spirit. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.2.2. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. economic and political reconstruction in our country. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.6 5.5.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. an artist.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Gandhiji was primarily a social.

Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. mind and soul of children He further observed. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. His scheme of education is life centred.2. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. nor the gross animals body. 5. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. self-restraint and service of humanity. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. It really provides opportunity for character building. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. righteousness. "I attach more.3.supporting. through life and for life. it is education of life. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. 274 . Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. strength of mind. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education." Dignity of Labour. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. 'Man is neither mere intellect.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. In the words of Gandhiji.

Drawing and Hindustani. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy.2. gardening. Mother-tongue.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. Art. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. Only good individual forms a better society.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Individual and Social Aims. "Development of the moral character. wood work.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development .3. 5. General Sciences.Training for Leadership. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. the realization of the ultimate reality. Music. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. metal work. According to Gandhi. leather work have been suggested. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.

3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Basic education is other wise known as 4.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. proficient. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3.2.2.trained. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. men of 276 . What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.3.

men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He has an experimental approach towards life 2.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . That is why.knowledge. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. 5. Education must be child centered. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. He also advocates freedom for the child. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji.2. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations.

5.2. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 5. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Gandhi in 1937. • Cult of non-violence. He believed in the oneness of humanity.2. • Education should involve manual work. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.3. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. He was deadly against untouchability.K. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .2. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. he was a true Vedantist 5. • Ideal of citizenship.4. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. He was a true patriot.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.” Like all other ideals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual.4. sentiment. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. them solve problems of day to day life.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. he said. That way only. Chemistry. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Therefore. Purposeful and Meaningful Education.2. Botany.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. 279 . wider in range. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. deeper in. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. etc. the more dedicated and devoted. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. (vi) Philosophy. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. complete manhood could be attained. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Music. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Civics.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. International understanding. International Understanding. could help in forging unity among all. Geography. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History.Language and Literature . It should help. Zoology. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Religion and Psychology. It should help the learner have good physique. Dance. Tagore said. "Mankind must realise a unity. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. stronger in power than ever before.

" 5. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. 5. Activity Method Heuristic Method.” He further says.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. 5. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.4. 280 . Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.2. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service.4. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. In 1921. Tagore rightly says.2.2. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. Let individualised methods be used for teaching.4.

It is open to all irrespective of country. 9. race. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. 281 .Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. 10. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore.g. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e.

we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 .1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. work and deeds come out of it. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. 3.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. character forming and assimilation of ideas." He was against the theoretical type of education. Freedom. He believed in to learning or selflearning.” 5. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. Book learning. Purity of thought. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. According to him. Education for strong Moral Character.2. who possess sweet and amicable tempers.5.5. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Concept of Education.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Education should make a person self-reliant. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. 4. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Education for Self-realization. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Education for Self-reliance. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge.2. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. man making. 2.

Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. A physically strong person is the need of the society. 6.5. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Of course. Secondly he wanted Science. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. And above all. 5. Discussion Method.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend.5.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Swami. philosopher and guide to the students He. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study.2.2. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. 283 . Education should help in the physical development of an individual. The teacher should be the facilitator. That will serve the purpose of education fully. Thirdly he wished that games. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one.5. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion.5. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. engineering and technical subjects. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . 5. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. Religion. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. Education for Physical Development.2.the learners on different students in the discussion. Philosophy and Theology. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. 5. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners.

7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. We have seen that Tagore. Gandhiji as a Idealist. 3.2. 5.2. of course. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. and pragmatist . 12. ears and eyes.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. Their educational ideas. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. Write short notes on Basic education. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.6 LET US SUM UP We have.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. naturalist. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. 5. 284 . If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. in this lesson. legs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.Substantiate your answer. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers.

Activity Method d. Self-Study b. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. 1937 7. Activity Method b. d. Meditation and concentration c. a. Explain Vishwabharathi. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. f. b. 5.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. metal work. 10. Ideal of citizenship. Basic education. 2. 5. a. c.2. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Teaching while Walking b. Nai Talim 4. leather work have been suggested. 8. e. Self realization. wood work. Debate and Discussion Method. Technique of Correlation 6. Discussion Method 285 . Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. gardening. 5. 9. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Learning by Doing c. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. a. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. 11. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Education should involve manual work. a. c. Cult of non-violence. Heuristic Method. 3.4.

(2004). Publishing Corporation. B.H. Anmol Publications Pvt.2.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. C. N. J. New Delhi : Aggarwal. New Delhi : A. P. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.5. N. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2003). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. Dhiman. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2007). on Bhatia. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. P. K. Foundations of Education. Ltd. L. 286 . K and Narang C. Pahuja. (2007). (2002). Theory and Principles of Education.P. O.

10 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.9 5.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3 5.4 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.5 5.6 5.3.3.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.7 5.3.2 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.8 5.3.11 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.LESSON 5.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3. In this lesson.3.3.3.3.1 5.

A. the plateau area and 288 . understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. Curriculum is intimately related to education. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India.under the direction of the school. state the meaning of curriculum 2. Both the processes are integrated. in the form of new experience. While education is a process. In it. you will be able to: 1. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. In the former sense. Since the demands. maintained or eliminated.3. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. the plain area. it is identical wit h socializat ion. the desert area. A g o o d curricu lu m. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. is a means to the process. in fact . ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. In the words of Kerney and Cook. While education is learning.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways.3. From the latter point of view. present behaviour may be modified.. in Russia or in Japan. in the U. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. curriculum signifies situations for learning. Then in a big country like India. 5.S. 5. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. new behaviour may be acquired.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. living in the hilly area. curriculum. there is a large number of communities. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5.

also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. environment. customs and needs. therefore. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. and 289 . In fact . A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. It must differ from locality and from society to society. studying therein. irrespective of their needs and environment. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. it is.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. the learning capacity of children. democratic and socialistic country. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. too. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. However. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. Besides craft. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. Again. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum.3. From a slave-country we became secular. differs from individual to individual. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. 5. according to modern trends in the educational process.

moral. 1. aesthetic and spiritual development. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. The word “Curere” means 2. They are achievable.3. general or specific. tangible. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. social.. 290 .. Self Realisation. So it is inadequate. Goals of Secondary Education. in instructional objectives. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. e.. etc. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . social. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. individual or Social and so on. Goals of Primary Education. e. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. emotional. They are visionary goals e. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. eg. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Understanding Objective.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. They speak of immediate purposes of education. etc. specific.. aims. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. unambiguous and functional.g.. unsatisfactory.g. 3.g. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. Vocational Efficiency. they depend on the political. 4. National Integration. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. of classroom.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. Knowledge Objective. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. uninspiring and unscientific. remote or immediate. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. They speak of perfect goals. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. They may be ultimate or proximate. which may or may not be attained. 2. Application Objective.

in the class rooms. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. The interests. According to Crow and Crow. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. capacities. Crow and Crow remarks.3. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects.5. finding them very interesting and captivating. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. educationists.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future.” 291 . Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. abilities. needs. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. Raymont rightly says. heavy fire. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. on the playing fields. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. but it includes the totality of experiences. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns.

aptitudes. Due to these variations and differences. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. moral. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. time in a useful manner. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . They often waste it or rather kill it. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. tendencies. mental. capacities and abilities.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. urges.

administrative programme need be planned. To ensure success of the process.curricular. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. 293 . organized. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. development of professional capability at all levels. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. phased preparation. Similarly. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. 3. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. 2. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1.

10. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. a. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. 17. library. Relation with Life c. laboratory. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. Child Centred Education b. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum.3. workshop.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. 5. 12. 5. 18. principles of curriculum construction.3. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 1937 19. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. in the class room. Run. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. 11. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum.

5. Bhalla. Curriculum and Instruction. (2001). S. New Delhi : Isha Books.3. (2007). D. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. Lakshmi. Curriculum Development.K. (2007). (2007).S. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. 295 .12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. P. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. N. New Delhi : Authorspress. S. and Sarita Kumari. Innovations in Education.

2 5.8 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.7.1 5.7.4.LESSON 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.9 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4.10 5.4.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4.4.4.4.5 5.4.6.7.7 Scientific Attitude 5.3 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.4.4.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.6.7.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.4.4.4.

Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. in the economic reconstruction of society.4.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. explain the concept of scientific attitude. tolerance for the opinions of others. Gradually.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. superstition or emotion. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. 5. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. honesty. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age.during the second half of this century. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. 4.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.4. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . 2. know the importance of science education. newer and newer industries started growing. 3. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. 5. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. open-mindedness.4. you will be able to: 1. 297 . We mean curiosity. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.

Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Love for truth enhances. 5.So that. seminars and symposiums. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Through examinations. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 5. 7.4. 3. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Through newspapers. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 2. 6. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Selection for science education. 5. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Schemes of teaching science. as well as of the society. 5. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Devotion towards nature increases. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Thinking and memory develops.4. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. 4. 3. Central science workshop. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Organisation of science fairs. Promotion of science clubs. Principles are formulated.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. After such experience and training. 2. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. 4. 6. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs.

For laboratory and workshop techniques. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. essential that teachers. Enquiry teaching is.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. They experience natural phenomenon. which is essential for developing scientific outlook.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. They ask many questions about the objects they see. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. each child to “enquiry skill building”. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions.6. It is. sex or religion. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste.needs and conditions. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. therefore. 7. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. should provide opportunities to. They encounter many social events as they grow. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. 5. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. After presenting the problem. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. 5. Write any two advantages of Science Education.4. In the inquiry approach. Training of science teachers. objectivity.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature.

Giving less directions. test. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. . 3.Herma Wouk.books. 5.4. 3. Appreciating pupils ideas. 6. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions.4. 4. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. stern pursuit of accurate data. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”.6. . It requires consistent thinking. Adopting creative models of teaching. 2. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. 300 . if they like. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. commands or orders. to ask questions and experience things. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. Evidence. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Social sciences. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? .

it must be encouraged. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. practiced. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. keen observation. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. and emphasized during the learning process . friends. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. These include open mindedness. to develop among the learners.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science.(Smith 2008). They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. To achieve this we should understand what it means. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . neighbourhood. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. therefore should be unbiased and objective. critical thinking and suspended judgments. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. school and society at large. (Vaidya 2007). Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.7. The students observation. of vast resources running waste. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. 5. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way.4. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. For instance.

302 . 2007). Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. he studies all aspects of it. rumor. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. intuition or wishful thinking”. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. think and work it”.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. or superstitions.4. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education.7. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. The intention to respect another’s point of view. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. 5. In considering a situation or a problem. understanding and logic.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. (Das.

7. 5.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. but to begin only after careful planning.4.7. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. • 5. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.4. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.

5. it must be encourages. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. 5.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook.4. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. 304 .

New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 16. a. (2006). S. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. New Delhi : Anmol Publications.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. M. Proper example of the teacher c. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Discuss the importance of science education 14. (2000). A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Adopting creative models of teaching. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. 5. 305 .9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Rao. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. N. a. a. Planning of activities 5. 4. D. objectivity. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Reflections on Scientific attitude. Yadav. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. b.4. Wide reading b. 5. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. Study of superstitions d. 2.B (2008). Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. (2008).10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b.4.S. 3. a. b.4. Love for truth enhances. Vaidya.5.

1 5. state the concept. areas of institutional planning. 5.5.5.5 5. actively. you will be able to: 1.5.5.7 5.11 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5. objectives and characteristics.2 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5.5.5.LESSON 5.6 5.9 5.5.5.5. 306 . understand the human relationships in educational institutions. 2.10 5.5.4 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.8 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.3 5.5.5.

executive as well as public.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. • to make planning development-oriented. each teacher. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. every teacher.5. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. and. every parent. 5. 5. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. • to involve teachers and school administrators. and every student in the process of educational planning. and supplement planning from above. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. in the task of educational planning. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. and each student are regarded as separate entities. State and national levels from below. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators.5. Institution should be regarded as the unit.3. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. which become the bases for further planning at the district. teachers and students is not lost sight of. • To make institutional planning more successful.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n.

it becomes the basis for school inspection. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services.curricular Activities. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs.5. 5. Classwork. Co-curricular activities. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. and Personnel services. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. 308 .5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. Examinations. Syllabus. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. (2) Co.5. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. which will be discussed in the general. council and. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. approved after making necessary modifications.• implemented. etc.

No. Equipping of laboratory and library. 1. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Editing the school magazine. Courts. Organisation of Self-Government Days. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. charts and apparatus. Organisation of Students’ Association. etc. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Preparation of models. Running science clubs. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Preparation of instructional material. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. etc.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. Improving the internal assessment. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Organising play-for-all programmes. Fair distribution of syllabi. Organisation of Pupils. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Celebrating of national and international festivals. scientific and historical excursions. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Conducting of educational. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . hobby-centres. etc. etc. 2. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Organisation of class-room libraries. Preparation of audio-visual aids.

teachers. and solidarity.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. parents. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. teacherinspector. understanding. headmasters associations. teacher-pupil. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. pupil310 . The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. and —pupil-pupil. which are divided as the in. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. administrator-supervisor. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school.” The human relationships in.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. science teachers’ associations.5. pupils. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. teacher-managing body. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. teacher-teacher. parent-teacher associations. teacher-State. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. students’ associations. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe.5. etc. co-operation. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. ii. involving mainly human materials. Administrator-State. administrator-pupil. administrator-administrator.

It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. pupil-inspector. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. pupil-parent. superintendence. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. Good. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. to attend. organisation and management. to carry out. supervision. V. To administer means to manage. supervision and superintendence. It covers personnel and material management. 311 . pupil-non-official functionaries. pupil-community leader. to accomplish. teacher-parent. It is also being modernized to become a technique. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. social sciences and other disciplines. It relates to administration of a single educational institution.5. According to C." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer.State. administrator. organisation. control. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. and to serve. now-a-days.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. etc. teacher-community leader. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

Leadership . He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. 9.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. 11. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. Economic Management . Motiviation . who occupy the managerial positions. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. 12. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. If the cost benefit ratio is less.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . 7. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. 8.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. 10. 5. Socio-Scientific Approach .Of all the approaches.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. Cost-Benefit Analysis . 3. Communication .Any good management will always have good public relations. low. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 4. This is the latest democratic trend in management. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. 6. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. He should be an artist in human relationships. without this the efficacy will be handicapped.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. Democratic Management . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. 13.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. it is not worth-while. The relationship should change from master. Better Human Relationships .Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. Liasion with the Public .The manager should have leadership traits.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. 2. Decision Making . If it is more. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. Worker Participation . Those. Rapport between the Management and Employees .

The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.5. improvement of teaching methods. 14. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. to improve the quality of education it provides. 5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17.5. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. 19. 18. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work.too. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. objective. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too.These two are. 313 . It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management.g.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. 5. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. enrichment of curricula. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . and cooperative performance should be ensured. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning.

11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Leadership c. f. Motiviation d. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. a. a. e. (1995). (2001). to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Fundamental of Educational Management. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. Instruction. 2. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. Syllabus.5. Singh. Communication 5. R.5. Classwork. Decision Making b. b. b.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. In group and Out group 5. Co-curricular activities. S. 314 . (2003). APH Publishing Corporation. Educational Administration.K. d. c. H.M. a. b. it becomes the basis for school inspection. a.5. 4. Examinations. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. and Personnel services. NUEPA. Tarachand and Prakash.

5 Regional Educational Development in India . Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. nutritional requirement.teachers should have : 1. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. Realized the problems of school education. 2. wastage and Stagnation 3. Common ailments of Children. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Examination reforms. social Impact 3.Preventive measures. Economic 315 .5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Sex-education 4. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.1 Primary Education : Education for all.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . 1. Balanced diet.I. Code of conduct for teachers. School. Preservation of nutrients.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .Religious and Modern Education 1.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. 4. Community and Mass Media 2.3 Educational Influences of Home. New evaluation procedures. population education.2 Nutritional deficiencies.3 Directive Principles . Communicable diseases . UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.Pre-service and In-services facilities.1 Gurukula system of education.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Inspection and Supervision 3.1 Inculcation of Socialism. First Aid.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. women education and teacher education in India.1 School Health Programme. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.CORE PAPER .Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.Article 45 . Buddhist and Jain system of education.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.4 India's Secular Policy . physical education and environmental education 5.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. higher education. Healthy Food Habit 4. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.

Mahatma Gandhi. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.1 Idealism. Socialization. Sharma.K. Ghanta R. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. and Dash B.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Prof. 5.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Saraswathi T.4 4. 316 . Mishra.K. and Mohanty R. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Ram S. T.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. REFERENCE 1. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.N. Tagore 5. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Curriculum and national goals . hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. Hemchand. Delhi : University Publications 2.S. 7. Naturalism and Pragmatism . Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Taneja V.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. and Sharma R. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. and Human Development. Kalan Paper Packs 10.K. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.K.Aim. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.N. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. (2004) Problems of Education in India.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.4.C. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. New Delhi: NCERT 3.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Pandy V. B.R. (1999) Culture. (2005) Foundations of Education. R. Realism.

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