BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

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UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. 9 . This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Lesson 4. discusses the regional educational development in India. The need. In. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Lesson 5. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. Jainism and their educational implication. and Jain system of education. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. Lesson 2. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3.

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1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1.4.1.1.5.1.6 Education during British Era 1.5.6.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1.6.3.1.1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1 1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.6.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.LESSON 1.5 Jain system of education 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.6.1.6.1.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1.5.5.1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.3.4.1.2 1.

British system of education presented the modern western model. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. Education in India.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. Indian in blood and colour.1.6. in morals and in the intellect”. in opinion. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. India. has a long past history starting in vedic education.1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1. The history of education passed through Buddhist. “a class of persons. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.3. 1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.1. 1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. 1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.1.6. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. both present and future. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.1.1. you will be able to: 1. elucidate the education during British Era.9 1. describe the Jain system of Education 4. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. Muslim and British periods. That 12 . explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.8 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.1.1. but English in taste.7 1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.

12. 13 . not en masse by the class method. however. Curriculum. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. to light. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. High Status of Teachers. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 6. 3. followed by explanation by the teacher. 14. the monitorial plan was followed. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. questioning by the pupil. with grants of land or money. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. 11. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. from eternal to immorality 2. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. The immediate aim of education. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. 8. religious and spiritual. managed entirely by Brahmans. Individual Teaching. 16. 13. Forests as Centres of Education. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Method of Instruction. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. if they thought fit to do so. Method of Study. Education was a private affair of the people. as it is generally considered to be at present. Teacher as Parents. generally. 5. 9. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. and to agriculture and trade. It was not merely intellectual. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. It was also moral. Free and Accessible. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas.knowledge was real. No State Control on Education. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 10. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. 4. Where pupils were many. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Role of Travel in Education. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. There was. Immediate Aim Vocational. Pupils were taught. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Religious and Spiritual. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. from darkness. individually. Education of Moral. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Residential Schools.

studied Vedas. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils.17. Wide-Spread Education in Women. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times.1. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. It was suited to the needs of the society. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . 1. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . They were very cordial and intimate. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values.3.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. It was freely available to all those who wanted. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. lived a life of celebacy. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.

medium of Pali. Right endeavour 7. which included abstaining from theft. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. use of intoxicating things. use of cosmetics.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education.1. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. Right contemplation 1. in which. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Right thought 3. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. Consequently. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. Right means of livelihood 6. 15 . Buddha was concerned about the suffering. Right memory 8. dressed himself in yellow clothes. I take Refuge to Dharma.C. I take Refuge to Sangh. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. except the Chandals. It was denied only to the ill.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. he was qualified to become a monk. the most significant of which were the following 1. Education was imparted through the. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. Right speech 4. After attaining the age of 20. impure conduct. killing of any living being. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. partaking of food at prohibited times. the student remained in a state of Shramana. 2.4. every class in society. taking things without being offered. Right activity 5. disease and death of the human beings. Right knowledge 2. etc. the student had his head shaved of all hair. had the right to receive education. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. watching dances or listening to music. the handicapped. 1.

changing the goals. medicine. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. animal husbandry. etc. a continuous change creating 16 . the presence of the monks was essential. along with education in script writing. Life is in a flux. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. commerce. cottage industries. a change is not only total but also perpetual. wear three items. 4. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. arithmetic and religious discussion. Later on. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. it is regarded as true”. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. women occupied a position inferior to men. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. the science of taming and training animals. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. 2. etc. nothing is of any permanent consequence. etc. Initially.. On this occasion. Whatever its nature and extent. eat food thrice a day. bodily gestures. aspirations and. These are called later Buddhist schools. approach. assumptions. meaning. be considered the aim of education It. and. beg for alms. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations.3. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. geology.4. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. As reality is becoming. education was impart in art. archery. has no metaphysical value for life. 3. 6. handicrafts. After this ritual. objectives of human life. Hence. Even at this stage. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. therefore. magic. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. knowledge of reviving the dead. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. archery. control over sensuous activities. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. It comprehended education in writing. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. 7. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. depth and range. so long as it successfully does so. however. 5. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. military science. of clothes. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. nature. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. 1. 8. agriculture. elephant lore.

the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.new and peculiar situations. and to give it a shape that it has today. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. However.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. Education must. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. its pessimistic outlook on life. it is much older than the latter. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5.e. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. whatever works are true and good. 5. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. therefore. Jainism insists 17 .1. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. 1. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. however. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. such as. Write Eight fold path . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. In fact.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. i. goes to Vardhaman. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Its chief feature. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1.. Validity is effective and consequences. and its refusal to believe in supreme God.

Development of personality as an individual. 3. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. thought and deed. Hence. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. 7. but on both. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. e) To renounce the world. and believe in happiness to all. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. rather than the interpretation of the universe. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. and is to be redeemed and liberated. They are: a) Not to injure. As such. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. 10.1. b) Not utter falsehood.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. more stress on individual aims. it has a foot in both the words. 3. c) Right conduct. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. c) Not to steal. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 6. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection.5. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. 8. 18 . it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. b) Right knowledge. 1. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. 2. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. d) To lead a celibate life. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 2. 1. 9. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. 4. 5.

19 . Teaching must develop these faculties.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. that would be socially desirable. 2. education should develop sense of discrimination. success and love.5. What are Triratnas ? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. education must be action based and ideally oriented. and should bring happiness to all. Hence. here and now. 8. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. practised and not only aspired for.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . 2. 1. Teaching should be social and tolerant. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. therefore.5. 5. 1. 4. Jiva is essentially karmic. 3. Belief in transmigration of soul. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. 3.

6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. Bombay.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. 1.6.6. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”.6. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. philosophy and literature of Europe. 1. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. 1. However. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. Madras. with rally and rout.1. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. 1. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler.6. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. 1953). and not for life. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. science. North West Province and Punjab. 2. primary 20 . public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. To set up separate departments of. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service.

The universities dominated the secondary education. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). Instead of being a self-sufficient course. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement.6.K. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. To ensure qualitative improvement. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). • Universal free primary education. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. In 1882. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 .education was neglected. 1. Later on. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. at the primary level. Then the prevalent education was anti-national.6. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. self-respecting and competent. • Secondary education. 1. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. 1. At that time M. they named these schools as polytechnic schools.6. secondary education became a step towards university. namely. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies.

1. After this stage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. all children are to have a common curriculum.At the primary stage (6-11 years). What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. The objective of education was to provide 22 . 10. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians.

was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. arithmetic and religious discussion. questioning by the pupil. the science of taming and training animals. 23 .8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. 6. 2. followed by explanation by the teacher. 5. 3. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. Right knowledge. archery. It was suited to the needs of the society. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. The system of education was well-organised. 1. 2. geology. handicrafts.1. etc. Right contemplation.1. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. Right memory.education of European literature. 4. military science. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Right activity. 4. Right thought. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. education was impart in art. Right speech. 3.. The immediate aim of education. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. During the Buddhist period. Right endeavour. 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. establishment of universities. Right means of livelihood. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. along with education in script writing. b. science and English language. a.

Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Sargent report 12. Development of personality as an individual. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Right conduct. Right knowledge. (2007).C. Ltd. c. Aggarwal. Sharma. 1882. Right faith. 9. Singh. Improvement of Literature. 8. Ltd. 24 . (2009). 10. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. R. 11.K. History of Indian Education System. a. more stress on individual aims.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Development of Educational System in India.1. Y. b. 1937 1.K. b. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). a. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science.C.7. J. and Nath. Hence. (1984). Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Y. J.

4 1.3.3.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.3.2.8 1.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.2.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.2.7 1.1 University Education Commission 1.2.3. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.3 Kothari Commission 1.2.2.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 1.9 1. The 25 .2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5 1.LESSON 1.6 1.2.2 1.2.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.

2. technological engineering. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. New Educational Policy.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. medical and legal education. expansion of vocational.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. technical. standard of teaching. secondary and higher education. vocational education. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. analyse the progress of education in free India. There had been vast institutional expansion. examination system. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. National Council for Women’s Education 5. curriculum. Kothari (1964-66) 8. Post-graduate 26 . The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. 1. 1. girls and women education besides primary. 2.3. explosion of enrolment. S. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. National Board of Teacher Education 10. 1986 1. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. you will be able to: 1. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1.2.conditions of the teachers. diversification of courses of studies.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.

material and spiritual. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. 3. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. A.3. utility and financial outlay.2. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. However. Education for Equality. Education is the key to our allround development. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. Kothari. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. research et. D. Finally. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. The Essence and Role of Education. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. in January 1985. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. Therefore. 1. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University.3. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. National System of Education. accumulated over the years. 4. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. 1. 1986. quality. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. Problems of access. the chairman of University Grants commission. 1966. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. A meaningfully Partnership.2.3.teaching. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. Government of India. 1. 1952.2.S.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. 2. the New National Policy on Education. quantity. The national system of education envisages common educational structure.

needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. By working with hands. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. It can train practical aptitudes. attitudes. 28 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The UNESCO Report. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production.” Thus. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Thus. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. the minorities and the handicapped. the concepts of work experience.2.

1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position.” The Mudaliar Commission.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. if he wishes.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. “It may be described. it will conduce self. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. In 1955. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. The Education Commission. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. The Radhakrishnan Commission. Besides." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. the Commission. co-ordinations. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. “The aim of these colleges. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. With adequate planning. According to. As such.

the semester and credit system. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. Subsequently. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. admission requirements to vocational courses. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. for quality of life in the rural areas. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. The Central Advisory Board of Education. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. the. In addition. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. With a view to relating education to the life. raising the special facilities. Therefore. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. the rigid streaming of courses. etc. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976.. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation.ot her.

31 .. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. 1. etc. Commerce. meaningful. which offer scientific.and the world of work. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. technological courses including Agriculture.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000.defined S UP W as “purposive. aimed at this goal. preferably spinning and weaving. which swept the country for over two decades. According to committee. which are useful to the community. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past.2. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. The wave of Basic Education. meaningful. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. who conceived the System of Basic Education. manual work resulting in either goods or services. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. felt that education should be centred around a craft. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. The Father of Nation. giving importance to productivity in the national development. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. In short. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed.

so that it is educational in essence. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. Experimentation with materials. 3. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. tools and techniques and 3. Community work and social service. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Educative and 3. The teachers should make use of. Health and Hygiene 2. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. 2.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. as far as possible. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. 4. Work practice. locally available materials and tools. Shelter 4. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. be that the work involved is: 1. Productive 2. Clothing 5. Food 3. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Culture and recreation 6. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. 32 . is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Some Hints to Teachers 1.

adoption of a a locality for its improvement. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. Productive Work 33 . 6. Check on educated unemployed 4. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. as far as possible.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. 1. To make education more realistic.2. removal of illiteracy. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. the local community should be actively associated. It can become an instrument to build character. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. improve discipline. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. etc. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. Community Service In-1972.5. slum clearance. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. inculcate a faith. Merits of the Programme 1. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. Education through work The SUPW should.

It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. offering first aid. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. traffic control. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. if not productive. should involve itself in the educational effort. helping the adults-in productive work. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other .and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. The community. AICTE was set up in year 4. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. Define SUPW 34 . skills and better future for the children.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. etc. in turn. helping the adults in festivals and Functions.

7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. 1. e. 1955 4. f. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Radhakrishnan 2. meaningful. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. d. 35 .2. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Dr. manual work resulting in either goods or services.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1952 3.1. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India.2. c. which are useful to the community. a.2. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. Write short note on SUPW. 1. 6. b. 3.

and Nath. Ltd. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. Y. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. (2009). Y. 36 .10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. A. (2007). Rao.H. Development of Educational System in India. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J.D. : Sharma.2. B. History of Education. and Rao.K.1. New Delhi: A.(2005). History of Indian Education System.. Singh. V. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. P.K.P. (2007). R. Anupama. Amala. Publishing Corporation.C.K. (2005).P. History and Problems of Indian Education.

there is an official Hindi translation. democratic republic.5 1.3.3. equality.8 1.6 1. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.3.3. assuring its citizens of justice. containing 395 articles.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. Besides the English version.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2 1. 1950. and liberty.3.369 words in the English language version.3. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.3.9 1. for a total of 117. 37 .1 1. 1949. establishing the structure.3. procedures. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.7 1.3. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.4 1. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. Being the supreme law of the country.3. directive principles and duties of citizens.3. it came into effect on January 26. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3.3. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.1 Significance of DPSP 1.

In the August 14. 1. The Assembly met. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. the Drafting Committee was appointed. Through them.3. legal and environmental. in sessions open to public. 3. understand our Indian constitution. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. 2. political. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. 38 . was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. On August 29. 4. with Dr. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. you will be able to: 1. social. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. 1950. 1947. spread over a period of 2 years. Dr. 1. 1947. administrative. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. Two days later. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. After many deliberations and some modifications. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution.3.3. 1. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members.3. for 166 days.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. learn the role of central and state government on education. economic. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. According to the constitution.

That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. provide free legal aid. make effective provision for securing the right to work. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. old age. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Article 40. Equal pay for both sex.government. and shall. for workers. Organisation of village panchayat. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. The State shall endeavour to secure. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Protecting children from exploitation. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Right to work. Minimising inequalities in status. That the health and strength of workers. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. sickness and disablement. on the basis of equal opportunity. 39 . Article 43. Protecting health of the workers. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. and in other cases of undeserved want. Equal justice and free legal aid. Article 42. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Article 39A. No abuse of children. in particular. Article 41. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Condition for dignity of children. men and women. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. The State shall.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Liking wage etc.

of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. [declared by or under law made by 40 . The State shall endeavour to provide. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Article 45. a living wage. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Article 43A. work. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. in particular. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Article 44. Note: Subs. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. by suitable legislation or in any other way. The State shall take steps. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Article 46. and. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Article 48A. industrial or otherwise. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. agricultural. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. in particular. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Article 49. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. See also Article 21A). Article 48. to all workers. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. (Original Article 45. 2002 for “45. Article 47. in particular. Participation of workers in management of industries.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. Article 45 . destruction. 2002. 2. Promotion of international peace and security. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. disposal or export. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. as the case may be. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Article 50. Separation of judiciary from executive. from spoliation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. Article 51. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. removal. Article-21A Right to Education.Parliament] to be of national importance. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. 1. may be law determine”. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. disfigurement. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another.

and shall protect them. language or any of them”. caste. his guardian has given his consent thereto. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. ii. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. 5. iii. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. from justice and all forms of exploitations. 4. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act.” 42 . and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. 3. in particular. if such person is a minor. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. 2002. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. 6.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. 8. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. race. 7. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. and. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes.

These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. the forms. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Educational Reforms From time to time. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. & 1. and by drawing. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Provision for Education for minorities is given in .5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1.3. wherever necessary or desirable. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. The central government determines targets and promotes education. for its vocabulary. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. Article 351 gives importance to 6. 43 . Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis.9.

standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. By starting these projects.. private agencies etc. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. So that they may work well. 7. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. 8. Production of suitable for children and adults f. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. So as to encourage education on right lines. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. 4. the state governments. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. 6. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. 5. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. etc. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. to achieve the desired ends.3. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. The following pilot projects. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Local bodies and private enterprise. All India Council of Medical Science. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d.

Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. reports etc. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. 4. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. 10. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. training and statistics. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. books. 1. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. etc. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. are published by it. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. handicapped. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 11. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers.3. 1. education for women. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. 12. is the state responsibility. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. 3.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. The 45 . research. 9. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education.

Explain Directive principles 2.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Article 46 4. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. Write short notes on a. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 5. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . 1. Article 45 b. 1. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 21A c. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. 46 . and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. articles in the Directive principles.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.

The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. may be law determine”. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Article 29 and 30 7. Ambedkar 2. Development of Hindi Language 6. 47 . Describe the educational role of State Government. a. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 3. 1. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Article-21A Right to Education.5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Dr. Article 46 5. Clearing House function 9. 2002. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Article 45 . b.3. b. The Directive Principles of State Policy. 4. a.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 2002. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. a. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.

S. K. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Dash. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Bhatia. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. K and Narang C. N.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. S. (2007). New Delhi: Shipra Publications. B.1. (2009). Education in Emerging Indian Society. 48 . Ghosh. L. (2008). (2004). New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd.3.

4.2 1.1 1.4.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.4.4.4.1 Why Moral Education 1.7 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4.4 Moral education 1.5 1.3.6 1.4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4.4. Students should be 49 .3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1. religious education should be broad based.4.4.3.4.8 1.4. Islam. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.3. Buddhism etc.4.4. Christianity. Jainism.3 Precautions while introducing 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.

1. enumerate the aims of religious education 4.. duty-consciousness.D. state meaning and need for moral education 1. beauty and goodness so that 50 . Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. India' can produce men of character. In the complicated and complex society of today. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. integrity. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment.4. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. you will be able to: 1. "In A multireligious society like ours. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. know the position of religious education in our country 3. According to E.4. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions.and dedication. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. religious education and the concept of secularism. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Thus. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66).” Education broadens human outlook. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. As result of which. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life.

it is clear that the State has no religion. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education.4. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. 1947 we achieved our freedom. rancour. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. As a matter of fact. 1. Thus. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. realizes God in himself. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. Viewing the defects of religious education. if not regularly. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate.” From the above.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. castes and creeds. As our country is a country of diverse religions. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. "In view of the provision in the Constitution.3.3. at least occasionally. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.4. In short. They thought that any kind of narrow. Hence. According to Article 22.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. Children attend these organizations. 1. religion and democracy are same. through religious practices and 51 . No religious tax can be imposed on them. all citizens are free to follow any creed. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. According to Article 19.

Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . and other impulses are often denied direct expression. for the development of the individual and the society. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. and what is evil. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. It helps to modify habits attitudes. If unreleased. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. aggressive. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. temperament etc. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. As a result of which.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. what is done and what is not done etc.teachings. when he becomes an adult. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Good education. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. which can mould. It is religious education.. one fully developed. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. intellectual and physical faculties of children. which help him for the development of his character. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. He also learns about social. moral and spiritual values. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.

Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. 3. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. Therefore. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. 1. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. which is the basic need of a democratic life. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. 53 . This should not be allowed to happen. If we open the pages of history. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people.4.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. towards the society.3. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. 2.

examples of patriotism.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. fellow-feeling. 9. Life histories of great persons of the world. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. churches and mosques 7. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. stories of moral greatness. Gurudwara as. 11. Write Article 22 2. List out any two aims of religious education? 3.4. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Since all religions have virtues. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. therefore. 10. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. they should be discussed in the right earnest. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. For this.

of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. Service to others.4. 8. 5. Satyam (truth). 7. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Asvada (Control of palate). Patriotism. 4. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 5. 6. Cultivation of emotions. 3. Aparigarha (Non. 2. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Brahmacharya (celebacy). 2. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. therefore. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. the methods of teaching. “Let all be happy and free from disease. 6. Self sacrifice. 1. Fearlessness. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. It they learn what morality is in their early years.4. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. 4. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness).acquisitiveness). Non-injury. 7. Swadeshi (Patriotism). students. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. 1. 55 . Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Purity. is that which develops moral values. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 3. Ahimsa (Non-violence). They will play their role effectively. in the home. The content of the curriculum. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Moral education. let men see well of one another. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Without moral values. 8. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together.

The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Good temper. Unity of mankind. 2. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 10. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. 56 . Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. 4. In the school programme. religions may be included in the syllabus. Secondary Stage 1.4. Efficiency. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Discipline. discipline. Asatyam (Non-thieving). Sharivashram (Physical work). The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. 1. National unity and Spiritual values. 11. Love for humanity and Self-discipline.9. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. minutes in the morning for group singing. 3.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). loyalty and self-sacrifice. Good manners. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. 3. Integrity. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions.

Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. University Stage 1. 5. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated.4. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. love of humanity. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. In this connection. Silent meditation should be encouraged. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 57 . patriotism and self-discipline. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. 4. 2. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. In other words. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. should form a normal part of school programme. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . 3.

it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. 58 . a. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b.1. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. Discuss the aims of Religious education. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. 1. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. In short. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. 2. b.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. The School Assembly should be held for a few.4. 4. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Training of Character 3. minutes in the morning for group singing. Sri Prakasa 6 .8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. 1. the. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. For this. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. a. 2.4. a.4. 1959 5. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.

N. Bhatia. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. J. 59 . Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C. New Delhi : Siddiqui.H. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K. (2008).P.1. Ltd. L. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Anmol Publications Pvt.H.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. K and Narang C. Publishing Corporation. N. Pahuja. (2007).4. Theory and Principles of Education. (2004). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. P. (2003). M. Dash. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). New Delhi: A. B.

5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.8 1. disparities between provinces/States. i. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.1 1.10 1.5.12 1.4 1.5.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.6 1.5.5.2 1.3 1.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.11 1.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.9 1.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5.5.5.5. Although.5 1.7 1.5.5. 60 ..e.

roads. you will be able to: 1. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. They therefore. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. 8. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 61 . for example. waters. know the education suited to different environments. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. energy. 6. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. 4. Accordingly. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5. 7. This leads to separatist movements. etc. 1.1. 2. 1. 3. 1.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1.5. understand the regional educational development in India 3. work hard towards this end. they take appropriate measures. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region.5.5. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.

• Separate States (of course viable States). education as a fundamental human right was recognized. some average. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. 2. and. 62 . 4. Secularism. Tight security arrangements should be made. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. some States became educationally far advanced.5. 3. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . Therefore. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. while others remained educationally backward. on the basis of regional development may be formed. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II.

efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. academic buildings. Out of this. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. Nagaland and NEHU. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice.After the Planning Process has originated. while some States like Bihar. Even in each State.84 crore was released in 2005-06.5. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. library buildings. Funds amounting to Rs. the State Governments.14. In the Central sector.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. Rs. and provision of informal education to enable those. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. the Union Government. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. 63 . etc. remained under developed. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. Central Universities of Assam. NIT. Tezpur.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. Silchar. etc. approved proposals worth Rs. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted.g. However. These projects are in various stages of implementation. 1.392. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. NERIST.480. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. Regional Centres of IGNOU.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. Jammu and Kashmir. Itanagar. Guwahati. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. Mizoram. books. After the attainment of independence. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. since its inception in 1998-99.. scholarships.

Out of this an amount of Rs. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. During 2003-04.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. too. 64 . is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.57 crore and Rs. Tezpur University.187.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.5. Government expenditure on education. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.8 per cent in 05). it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. Moreover.501.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.261. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.05 crore and Rs. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.40.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. A provision of Rs. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.500. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.

Kerala and Gujarat. Moreover. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. telecom. too. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Medical education. pharma. To add to the woes. 1. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Andhra Pradesh. Listing the positives.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. engineering and R&D. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. for which 16 sites. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. too. notes the study. English. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). The Chandigarh Administration.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . health services and welfare of the citizen population. Karnataka. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside.5. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. for instance. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Karnataka. too. Tamil Nadu.

the interests. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. the curricular subjects. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail.year. the socio-physical conditions. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. Hence it is called as need-based. and so on. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. 66 . when he will not be sure of time. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. taking the average in the middle. Then education become realistic and idealistic. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. For a learner living in a rural area. In the same manner. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. the working days: an academic . life-oriented and environment slanted. Of course. The working hours of educational institutions. the teaching methods. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. while the former does not. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. The living conditions. in which the learners live. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. even actually looking at the watch. the needs. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. which a non-tribal person cannot do. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. the vocations.

5.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.5. to suit education to different environments? 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. 2. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.5. 1. 67 . Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.

remained undeveloped 3. A. 60% 1.N.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. a. R. New Delhi: Authors press. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2001). Education in Developmental Arena. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. during the British rule. C.H. S.K. Salim. (2008). 68 . (2001).G. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.5. and Nair. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. some of areas which were under the native rulers. S. Giridhar. some States have become more developed than others b. (2002). Education Scenario in India. Educational Development in India.2. Dubey.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

school community and mass media. secularism and democracy through Indian education. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. 71 . the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. community development. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. National Integration.

7 2.6.8 2.9 2.1.6.LESSON 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .3 2.5.5.6.2 2.1.1.1.1.1.1.4 2.1.1.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1 2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.6 Education for Secularism 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.

Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and.1. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Democracy thus means power of the people. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically.1. you will be able to: 1. socialism and secularism 2. 2. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. Abraham Lincoln.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. This is the political aspect of democracy. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. creed.2.1. understand the concept of democracy. The students may be associated with the management of the school. In the matter of admitting students in schools.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. socialism and secularism 2. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. 3) Provision of Manual Work. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. colour or wealth. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. there should be made no distinction of caste. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. for the people by the people”. socialistic and secular state. 73 .1. 2.

hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together.1. debates. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. 74 . Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 11) Student Parliament. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. 12) Visits to Legislatures. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. 2. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. There are different brands of socialism.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Democracy means 2.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at.. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. declamation contest etc. it soon spread all over the world. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. may be planned. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3.

oppression and disparity. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. Under it. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.5. 2. 7) Special facilities for girls. the wealthy and the poor. the prince and the peasant. 2. none high”. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. stationary and uniforms to the needy students.1. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 75 .2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.1. free from exploitation. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. service and cooperation. but on the path of non-violence. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote.5. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society.

Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children.1. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. According to Holydake. 76 .” In every political and educational corner. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. “India is a secular-country.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. Write any two main features of socialism. secularism is being propagated. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. "which seeks the development of physical. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. 11) State schools. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Everyone says. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’.

77 . the belief that the state morals. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. There is need of making the people open minded. 9) It stress free inquiry. 2. people started believing in regionalism. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. A large number of people is uneducated. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. People have different religions and they have different beliefs.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state.1. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. education etc. That is why. 5) It implies tolerance. Equality. 8) It believes in co-existence. In this type of prevailing situations.6. During the recent past. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. “Webster further says. Moral values have to be imbibed. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.opposed to religious education. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. should be independent of religion. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. liberty. people have narrow mindedness.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase.1.6. fraternity.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. 3) It permits freedom of worship. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. 2) It permits freedom of religion. trifles over petty religious matters are caused.

The very sight of the building. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. education. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. 2. No doubt. While doing so.6. In the hands of such teachers. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. Patiala. Religious Education. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. students belonging to different religions should be associated. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. In the celebration of each such function. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. The students may be taken to different centers of religions.presented by the students in the gathering. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. tours and trips may be organized.1. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. 1) Moral Education. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. that the central string of all religions is one. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. There should be some internal checking of the material being. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students.

List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Define Secularism 9. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. The word “Seculum” means 7. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. No doubt. 2.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . The term secularism was first used by 8. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved.

creed. 3. Since socialism stands for equality. 6. 4. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Power of the people 2. 2. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Abraham Lincoln. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. George Jacob Holydake 80 . The students may be associated with the management of the school. 5. there should be made no distinction of caste. Socialism aims at equality. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. c. Provision of Manual Work. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. b. Respect of Individual Personality. In the matter of admitting students in schools. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. d. b. 3. Tuition free education b.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. a. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. 5. for the people and the people”. Equal Opportunities for Admission. a. Socialism aims at social justice. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. This present age 7. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary.1. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. colour or wealth. a.1. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 4. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society.

L. 10. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. It permits freedom of religion. 81 . the belief that the state morals. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. B. K and Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ltd. New Delhi : Pahuja. b. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.C.” 9. (2005).8. (2004). Dash. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. J. should be independent of religion. K. Ltd. Bhatia. N. (2008). Modern Trends in Indian Education. Mohanty. b. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. a.1. education etc. N. Theory and Principles of Education.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2007). a. (2003). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. P. J. It treats all religions on an equal footing.

6.10 2.2.2.2.2.2 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2.9 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .6.2.7 2.5.2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2.1 2.2.2.2.1 International understanding in the school 2.LESSON 2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.3 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.2.4 2.5.8 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.

A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. The developmental roles of children. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. moral. 2. and 4. 2. skills. as it is t he aim o f modern education. who are placed in his custody. 3. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values.2. It involves physical.2. understandings. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. as workers. social and moral aspects. application. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. 83 . describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. 2. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. you will be able to: 1. A teacher is first and foremost. development. as persons. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. social. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. a r e 1. mental. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. therefore.generation to another. emotional. as citizens. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. as learners.an instructor of school children. aims and objectives of the school.

mentally. economically effective. experiences and acceptance. 2. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. The students live. a part of their day in 84 . He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. inquisitive. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. morally. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. and aesthetically to become. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. The following are some of such roles described in brief. physically fit for socially efficient. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. culturally confident. 1. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. motivated. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. member of his community at the outset. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. intellectually.2. socially. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. 2. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. emotionally. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. 3. He is to become an active member. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. mental. morally. He has to look after their physical. social and emotional health. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens.All education should lead to better behavioural development. Teacher as a Citizen Next.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. languages and religions. creeds. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. India is a land of many castes. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. and most of hours. They will be spending with their parents.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Unless. 2. photographic clubs.2.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. faiths. 4. It 85 . Dr. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. science club. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. List out the role of teachers towards community development .the school being under the custody of teachers. activities of the society into which he is born. solve them. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. fine art associations.

should be emphasised. poems. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. Political integration has already taken place to some extent.2. a. social studies.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. and make into one strong national unit. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. c. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . narrow-minded provincial. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. b. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. Nehruji has explained this as. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis.5. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. therefore. national anthem and other national songs. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. It should broaden the outlook.is. this integration of the Indian people. the study of language and literature. ‘We should not become parochial.” Regarding the role of education. 1. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. the citizens of the Republic of India. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. stand up straight. Radhakrishnan. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. The only process is the process of education.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. At the primary stage the importance of stories. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. Sampurnanand remarked. Let us. with straight backs and look up at the skies. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration.” 2. folklore and teaching of social studies.

It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. languages and literature. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. sports. Uniform for School Children. symposia. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Textbooks. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. Taking Pledge. militar y training like the NCC. dramatics and youth festivals. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. 5. and picnics. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. Celebrations of National Days. 6. Scouts and Guides. educational excursions. 4. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. Reverence of National Flag. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. 9. Singing of National Anthem. National Days—January 26. 3. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. 10. Student Camps. Co-Curricular Activities. 2. t he st udent s and t he community. tours. 87 . 8. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. 7.different social sciences. debates. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. ACC.

A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. iii. Recognition of Institutions. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. region or religion. 12.5. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. Educational and Travel Documentaries. iv. Admissions to schools. 13. language. ways of thinking and doing things. 88 . At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Students Exchange and Tours. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. ii. Admissions. 16. flora and fauna. School Projects. 15.11. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. v. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. 14. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another.2. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. Open-Air Dramas. colour. 2. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school.

The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. 2. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2.vi. Community dinners. Define National Integration 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. ix. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. cultures and races on equal bases. camps. viii. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . vii. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. irrespective of national boundaries.

either plunged in or overshadowed by war.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1.” 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. (b) stories of children of other lands.F. patriotism is not enough. Radhakrishnan states. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. This. Dr. 4. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. often in connection with anniversaries.e. therefore. the international level. (c) fairly tales. Organising of debates and. of his body and mind. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. 3. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. Teachers 90 .as important as that of a national citizenship. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. and the healthy development. Strong has observed. if it happens. 6.6.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.. that war. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. 2. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .2. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. 5. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes.6. 2. C. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. Therefore. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations.friendships between children of different countries. In a very real sense.2.

a German. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Russian. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts.” Well Informed About World Situations. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. They should not be propagandists. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. an Englishman. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . Indian and American. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. Impartial in their Treatment.

Another major. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. Devaluation of Values . which results in agitation and aggression language. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. and help the students to over . majority of people are. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. As the school is but a miniature society.2.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. there is wide spread frustration among all people. leading to. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. Wide Spread Frustration . 3. 4. If this is done.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. 2. Chronic Poverty . 5. Defects of the educational System . out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. It does not prepare students for life.2. understand and indiscipline: 1. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. the education function can be carried.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom.

9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . List out six characteristics of a good teacher. etc. 4. sympathy and good will among the nations. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. 2. love. fellow feeling. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 2. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust.2.2. 2. co-operation.democratic nature. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. 5. 93 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. community development. 3.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Moreover. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. Now internet is being used. To make them achieve their aim. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Hence. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Crow and Crow write. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. During the course of time. Museums.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. In fact. Define community. He taught his students orally. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. Emphasising this thing.3.V. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. 2. art galleries. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the invention of the printing press. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . books. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. are increasingly used in education. periodicals. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. “All the citizens of the community. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Then came newspapers. led to the printing of books.

the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. art. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. the teacher still occupies. Effective means of presenting music. “Listening participation” in current history.classroom teachers. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded.G. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. social studies. 101 . Important happening inventions. It is also an important source of entertainment. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. current affairs and other areas. the place of importance. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. Thus. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. 2. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Students listen various talks. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Various talks. rather than on picture. A lot of work by way of pre. In the emphasis is on sound. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. 2. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science.6. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. It enlightens public opinion.3. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. Thus. politics. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Reynolds. In collaboration with the experts. languages.telecast. music. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. dram appreciation.

These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. 4. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. style. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. School concerts. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. 3. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. Team-teaching demonstrations. At present. mathematics. Participation of local teachers and pupils. Making learning an open system. plays. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. projects or creative activities. 102 . informal and non-formal education. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. 5. development of lessons. travel talks. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. at any place. fol classical music. Before presenting the programme. speech. audibility and presentability. at recreational centers. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. at drawing room. at play.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

3.4.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.3.4.4.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4.7 2.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.3.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.8 2.4.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.2 2.1 2.4.3.4.6 2.4.4.4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.4.4.5 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.LESSON 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.4.

4. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. the temple. 9. open school. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. 4. School is. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 2.4..2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. it was mostly. Education.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. you will be able to: 1. 2. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. the mass media et.3. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. open university. 2. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. the community. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. 6. 3. In ancient time in India. 7. 2. 2. Education associated with a degree or certificate.4. say the Government or the private enterprise.2. To realize this objective of education.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. the learner are acquainted. 3. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. his mental alertness. the family. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. 8.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 4. 110 . compare formal and non formal system of education. imparted at the residence of the teacher. Education organised by some agency. the most important agency of formal education. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. starting and ending at -a particular age. 5.4.

2. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. 2. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. as well as vocational education and training. also called tertiary. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation.3.3. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. capacity. Higher Education: Higher education. or academic degrees. Through early formal education. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . diplomas. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. structured education. Concepts of proportion. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Some education systems have separate middle schools.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. In general. or post secondary education.a secondary education. third stage. such as a high school or secondary school. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. and relations are formed and developed through normal play.4. the elements of language are first learned.4. depending on the jurisdiction.

children with disabilities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. is an important agency of formal education. 2. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . What are levels of formal educational system? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1.which will help for nation's development. and remote dwellers. late beginners etc.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.3. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . Agencies can be classified as 2.4. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. 2. 4. 3.4.

place of instruction. one could say that non-formal education is an active. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. adults as well as children. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. open learning. systematic. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. until 1970 it had not been defined. It is functional. i.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. planned. curriculum. It unlocks the doors of development plans. etc.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. staffed. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.formal education. According to Malcolm A. financially supported life formal education. to help themselves. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. it is a more effective tool for rural development. adding up to a true learning society.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. Therefore. Non-formal education includes adult education. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. continuing education and on the job oriented education.learning client take some learning objectives. Open university. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. Adiseshiah. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. “Non-formal education should 113 . To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. Thus. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. admissions.. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. It is deliberate. systematic. it has its own valid claim to reality. It is much more responsive to needs and change.e. However.

2. Preparation for future needs. 114 . Flexibility in various aspects of education. 2. 7.learning pattern. 6. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. national integration. 4.e. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth.” 2. exploring. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. It should lay emphasis on the self. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. socialism.4. self. Lawrence.” According to H. place of education. Process of sharing.4. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.4. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. curriculum. i.4.be marketable and vocationalised. 3. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.S. international understanding. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. To help industrial workers to better their skills. admissions.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. modes of teaching. Part-time education. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To develop in the student. the Ideas of citizenship.renewal.S. evaluation etc. co-curricular activities. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. age. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. 5. Covering life span of an individual.

3. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 4. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Eradication of adult literacy. • 2. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. working adults. 2. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 10. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. 5. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. publication and information dissemination. 5. in villages and those who live in towns.4. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances.4.4.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. 4. 2. school dropouts. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. Senior Secondary. 9. Universalisation of primary education.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 115 . Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 6. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn.4. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Technical. 3. 7. 8. To offer Secondary.

It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. public libraries. 3. To better qualifications. Institutions for formal education. if organised in isolation. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. factory. effective in modern societal context.. library.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1.full time to learners – can be home. farm. etc. etc. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college .4. open space. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. 2. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . others are formal and informal. 2. self-employment iii. To increase knowledge and 2. training centres in factories. centres of correspondence education. To make if.2.4. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education.4. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. All-round development i. Again. 4. Therefore.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. Radio and television. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs.

Teaching to face teaching. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. radio. List out any two aims of non formal education. Give examples of non formal education? . Lecturing T. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Face Contact programmes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 117 . very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Define non formal education. Correspondence lesson. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . institution. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. 6. Written tests. 7. .V.

are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.4. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Formal and Non Formal 2. Primary level.4.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Open School. Secondary level. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. Higher Secondary level and University level. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. b.4. 2. a.2. 2.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.” 6. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. School 3. 118 . systematic. 7. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. 5. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. 2. the college and the university come under this category. Pre-school level. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. 4. b. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. 3. Open University. The school. adults as well as children. a.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. 4. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.

(2008). B. Mohanty. (2008). S.C. Ltd. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.2. J. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Education in Emerging India. K and Narang C. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : 119 . (2005). Bhatia. J. Gupta. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. L. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004). Pahuja. P. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theory and Principles of Education. Dash. N.4. N. (2003). K.

5.4.5.4.5.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.7 2.LESSON 2.5.5.5.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.5.5.5.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.5.5 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .4 Open University 2.5.3.4.3.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.4 Need for Open University 2.5.3.4.5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.2 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.1 2.5.3 Objectives of Open University 2.5.6 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.4.3.

it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. This knowledge may be in political field. Under these circumstances. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. you will be able to: 1.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person.2. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. For them. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. farmers. give the meaning.5. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . industries. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. 2. economic field or such other fields. Any person. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. It is a lifelong process. know the need and objectives of open university.3.5. 2. Thus. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. It is a continuous process. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. However. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies.5. labourers and half educated individuals. characteristics of open university 4.5. continuing education is a boon.

Throughout the country. Thus. T. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. For them too continuing education is essential. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education.V. Doctors. Radio and T. 2. are also contributing their might for the purpose.5. if he gets opportunity to develop them. deteriorating to his character and personality. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . Persons engaged in health services. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. cultured and progressive.3. On the other hand. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Block Development Officers. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. Radio.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation.literate person. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs.V. On the other hand.directly related to his job. After the achievement of independence. Cinema. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons.

7.3.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. Inspite of the great efforts.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. especially women. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. 3. (15) music. Of course. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. habits of people of other lands. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. 2. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. we have not been able to achieve our targets. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge.5. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 2. 123 . there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (13) psychology of child behaviour. 6. (16) liking. (8) psychology of adults. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening.5. (14) information about bringing up young children. (4) the fundamentals of economics. and Radio. (2) basic religious matters. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (6) folk stories. 2. (17) modern international and national events. (10) first aid. 4. 5.3. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (7) folk songs. (1) ancient history.. These books are not very useful.V.

restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5. of educational opportunities.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. NLM was launched in the year 2. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. lack of time etc. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2.5.4. 2. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. attendance restrict ion.

2. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. Which was the first open university in India? . c. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. 3. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. Education is not a once for-all process. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. b.5. it makes use of educational techno logy. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world.unobserved.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. e. 2.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. its education is not class room based but home based. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . and in teaching. 4. but 125 . 5. the higher the degree of openness. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. d. IGNOU was established in the year 6. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. No one is too old or too late to learn. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning.4.

Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. annu al wr it t en examinat io n.who did not get it. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. 3. 2. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 2. 2. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books.5. supplementing the existing provision. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 2. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. cho ice o f co ur ses. Mo re o ver.4. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 6. 5. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals.5. or who realised too late that they need it. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 3. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. it a ims at wider and hig her. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. 4.4. 126 . It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. 4. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n.

3.5. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . cha ng e t heir life compet ence. a state or nation. 7. Laboratory works. 8. 6. List out any four methods of Open University? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. 5.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. school drop outs.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 2.2. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Correspondence tuition.4. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 127 .5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Every day. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Therefore. semi – literates. Self instructional materials. 4. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates.5. you have learnt the concept. Tutor Comments. In the present day world. 2. a society. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. 8.

met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc.5. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 2. d. P r int med ia b. 1988. Explain the objectives. (1) ancient history. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. which may include house wives.ambitious learners.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. a. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 6. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. cho ic e o f co u r ses. its education is not class room based but home based. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. 128 . 1985. 9. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. a. unskilled workers and other professionals. Broad casting lectures c. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. 4. b. agricultural and industrial workers. 7. a. aspirants for continuing education. b. 8. Television Lessons. 2. 8. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. need and characteristics of Open University. 7. 3. (2) basic religious matters. youth.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2.

129 . Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. S. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. (2001). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Modern Problems of Education. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.K.5.. R. (2004). K and Narang C.S. (2007). Udaiveer. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Reddy. L. (2004).2.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. wastage and stagnation. Examination reform. and teacher education.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. Training teachers for all levels of education. its causes and remedial measures. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. the education of women. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. In Lesson 2. which may claim the attention of those concerned. examination. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. 133 . pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. All which is the need of the hour.

134 .

1.6 3.1.1.2 3.8 3. 135 .3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1.5 3.LESSON 3.1.1 3.1 EFA – For whom? 3.1.4 3.1.1.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.3 New initiatives.7 3.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1.3.3.3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.2 EFA – How? 3.

Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). social. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. education received added importance and significance. directed that. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. “The State shall 136 .3. therefore. may be political.1. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. you will be able to: 1. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. 2. economic or cultural. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). Eradication of Illiteracy. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. Continuing Education (CE) 1. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE).2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. Therefore. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. (EOI) 2. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. understands the country. On the other hand. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986.1. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures.

In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. It enables the parents to send their children to School. rights and responsibilities. After the attainment of independence. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. 3. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Universalization of Retention. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. 137 . After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Therefore. the national Government under. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution.endeavour to provide. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Three Stages for Universalization. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Due to the adoption of democratic system. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. Universalization of Enrolment. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Continuing Education (CE). This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education.

later to 1988.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. then to 1976. educational enterprise. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960.3. 1995 (for upper primary stage). 1990. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. This target had to be revised to 1970. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. Therefore.1. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. Write Article 45. 138 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. It is safe to assure. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. present and future. 3. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. UNESCO Bulletin states.

This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. Jams and Jellies. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. Education of the Impaired. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. 6.3. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. 11. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. their enrolment and retention. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. sex. 3. By undertaking survey. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 10. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. nutrition education and sports and games. 8. the art of preparing fruit-juice.1. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. Apart from primary education. Education of Girls.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. etc. and Women’s education programme should be improved. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). 3. adolescent and adult. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. 9.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. rural areas. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. creed. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. Early childhood education should be streamlined. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. slum areas. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. In order to make the programme of education for all community. problem of literacy. NAEP. 12. The Social Education. 5. FELF. Disabled. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. 139 . Emphasis must be given on health education. their social economic status and occupations.

Expand MLL and SSA .3 NEW INITIATIVES. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.1. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.3.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.e. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. 4. 3. Wastage and Stagnation. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.

The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. School Factors .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Social Factors . Familial Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .first stage of education. it is considered as wastage. Personal Factors .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.

Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Define Wastage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. . Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. .occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 142 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 7.

The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . Personal Factors . They are described hereunder :1. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.3. relating to home.The following factors. in his home. rural or urban 3. School Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. school or society. Family Factors .1. Societal Factors .5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.

uniforms. Define Stagnation? 9. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. mid-day meals. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . stationary. 144 . appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.

” 3. a. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. 4. “The State shall endeavour to provide.. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. improvement of curriculum. a. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. 3. 4. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. directed that.1. 3. Hartog Committee. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. b. 145 . 6. Universalization of Enrolment c. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. a. 2. therefore.1.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education.1. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community.3. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. 3. Universalization of Provision b. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. Universalization of Retention 2. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all.

Teacher and Education in Indian Society.7. New Delhi: 146 . (2008). Familial Factors c. 9. a. improve examination system. T.N.K. Personal Factor b. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Problems of Elementary Education. S. S. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. a.K.1. b. Sharma. 3. (2007). (2001). Crescent Publishing Corporation. Hemchand.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. School Factors d. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. introduce graded curriculum. Social Factors 8.

2.4.5.1 Problems of examination 3.2.LESSON 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2.2.2.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.1 3.2.2.2.2.4.3.2.2.5.5.3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2.5 New evaluation procedures 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.6.5.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2.7 Open book examination 3.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.4 Question banks 3.2.4.7 Let us sum up 147 .1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2.5.5.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.2 3.2.2 Grade System 3.5.2.

3. 3. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.2.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. you will be able to: 1. 3.2. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.2. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.8 3.2.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. 4. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.2.3. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . but on the other.9 3. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.3.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. 3. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. Besides.2. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. suggest the new evaluation procedures.2.

by providing free education and liberal scholarships. hostel facilities. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. They develop secondary sex characteristics. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. 149 . 3. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. waiting rooms for girl students. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. schools for them wherever necessary. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education.3. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. etc. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. etc. roadside Romeoism. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. They may cause problems relating to discipline.2. etc. If the students are in sufficient number. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. The following steps should be taken up. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. which the educational authorities have to face.. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers.

assessment and Finance.2. the examination system has an important role to play. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4.2. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. public administrators and statesmen. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Instruction. teachers. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. appointment of paper-setters. It is considered as a major sub-system. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. conduct of internal examinations. 150 . public interested in education.

etc. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. tabulators.printing and distribution of question papers. etc. announcement of results. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. scrutinizers.2. introducing objective-based testing. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. reducing the domination of knowledge objective.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. etc. examiners. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. etc. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. validity and practicability. training of examiners. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. etc. values. invigilators. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 .4. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. 3. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. establishing reliability.

inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. Vagaries in making. 7) In connection with the question papers. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. 2) From the angle of content of education.. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. which they are expected to study.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. stereotyped questions. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education.. 152 . Rote memorisation.2. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. 3. takes the place of comprehensive learning. 6) With reference to scoring procedure.4. Subjects. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. do not appeal to the students and parents. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. 3) With respect to method of teaching. halo-effect. may also discredit them. lack of objectivity etc. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. it s a common experience that subjectivity. not meant to be assessed in the examinations.. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education.

a part of internal assessment. Spot valuation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 153 . Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.develop true love for education. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. List any two merits of examination. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. etc. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . re-numbering of answer scripts. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Question Books may be developed in all schools. revaluation. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. may be introduced. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. . 4. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers.

say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. The students can take any course offered in any department.3. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. 3. It is complicated.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure.5. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. he is given extra credit points.2. In actual practice.5.2. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. In this system. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. Every paper is treated equal. Their interests. skills are given importance. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. attitudes. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . The new scheme of assessment. When a person chooses to work extra. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .2.

or as a 4 credit course.2. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. poor. Groupism is encouraged.poor. In the new system. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. An example is a seminar. only the total credits to be earned is specified.5. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. v. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. This system reduces comparison of marks.good. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester.discipline. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. These weightages are called credits.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. While designing syllabus. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. courses can have weightages defined. 3. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4.

of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. 3. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency.5. 3. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.5. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.2. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners.5. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment.2. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.2. 156 . However. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. 3.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. .3. In the hierarchy. However. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.2. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . What is the reason for introducing grade system? .7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Therefore. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. List any four new evaluation procedures. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.5. 6. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. recruitment.2. There are no proper procedures for selection.

1. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. in contrast. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. etc. qualifications. books are followed. library books. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. complaints and compliments.. interpersonal relationships and so on. inspecting the class-room teaching.. playgrounds. finding out the adequacy of. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. being realised as two different functions. submitting of the inspection reports. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner.6.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. requirements. wherever necessary. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. They are. staff. finding out whether the prescribed text. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. Academic inspection.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. of late.qualified personnel. whether the syllabus has been covered. taking up the follow-up programmes. in a sense. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. school buildings. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. disciplinary problems. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. 158 . When they are fully realised. laboratory equipment. 3. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. etc. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance.2.

In the case of departmental candidates.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. or. aptitude. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level.Ed. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors.. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. at least. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. once in five years. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher.2. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. Similarly. 3. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. course in either educational. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. M. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. In the light of these conceptualisation. their professional knowledge. courses. modern. 159 .Ed.. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. Insistence on specialisation in the B.

Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. Grade System. 3.2. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. 3. Administration. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education.2. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. 160 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a. 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. b. 4. b. 3. Instruction. 5. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. 2. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. d.2. c. a. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. a. assessment and Finance.

New 161 .10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. b.4. 7. K. b. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Problems of Education in India. (2004). Open book examinations. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Question banks. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. b. K. a. c. R and Sharma. History and Problems of Education in India. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. (2002).2. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Educational Reforms. a. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. S. a. 3. Multiple sets of question paper. 5. (2005).a part of internal assessment. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Vaidya.

8 3.3. 5.3.3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.3.5 3.9 3.1 3. 4.3.10 3.6 3. 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. you will be able to: 1.3 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities. identify the needs of rural India and social. impact of Higher Secondary Education. 162 . 3.LESSON 3.3.7 3.3.3. 2.3.2 3.4 3.

e. i. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. The. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses .g. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education.. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. 2. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates..3. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. 8 years of general education.3. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. 10 years of general Secondary Education. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . University Education. the Banaras Sanskrit College. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. The Calcutta Madras. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. Similar is the case with some other States. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1.specialisation programmes 3. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. in Andhra Pradesh. Commission emphasised to continue.. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. etc.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i.e. e. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. Consequent on the recommendations. and 3 years of First Degree Course.

habits of hard work and develop . It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. to prepare. Provision for transfer of credits to students. However.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.a sense of dignity of labour. 6.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4.confidence in students. 8.3. and. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. 7. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. 10. who desire to change from one stream to another. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. educational channels. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. social. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. economical and political. 5. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. cultural and economic development of the country. historical. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . to imbibe. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. 5) to help for the social. b. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. 3. is also a plus point . The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 .

Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . 1. The General Educational Spectrum. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. and. Sociologically it is undesirable. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. 3. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X.national integration.3. international understanding. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. cooperativeness. on one hand.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. and that required to enter the tertiary level. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Psychologically. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. at the other. etc.. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. Philosophically it is not the conception. democratic living. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. social justice. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. cultural and' religious tolerance. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. to develop national character.

fish culture. Commerce and other disciplines. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. 166 . Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. the rural areas have suffered very much. Biology. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Science. vegetable growing. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. horticulture. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. technical. All these need for an. In our country. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. Agriculture is the main occupation. 2. physics or mathematics. 3. and vocations based on dairy-farming. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. In the vocational spectrum. commerce. such as Agriculture. medical plants. chemistry.— tube-wells. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. professional. technological. industrial agricultural production is growing.3. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. rural health. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. India is a land of villages. educational and cultural services. commerce. or other machinery. In the matter of language.

In this it may be concluded. and the needs. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. There had been favourable reaction from the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. and 5.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. In this way. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses.3. 3. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. the local resources available. etc. In time. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. interests and aptitudes of the students. social justice..etc. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. 4. can be ensured. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education.

3. a. (2001). Dash. Vocational Sepctrum.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. to imbibe. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. (2007). to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. Mohanty.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. New Delhi : 168 . a. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. N. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. General Educational Spectrum and b.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. objectives. we studied the history.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Calcutta University Commission 2. 3. 3. J. S. J.a sense of dignity of labour. b.C. Modern Trends in Indian Education. habits of hard work and develop .3. 2.K. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. a.3.3. 3.3. (2008). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Ltd. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). B. b. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.

1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4.3 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3. social and 169 .1 3. but the lighting of a fire”.4.9 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.10 3. Education contributes to human development.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.2 3.4.12 3.13 3.4.4.4.6 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.LESSON 3.8 3.4.4.4.7 3.4.5 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.11 3.4.4.4.4.4.

a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. although we have miles to go. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. These courses were. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. community and nation is universally acknowledged. 3. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. For the first time in the history of India. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. Education . There is a close connection between education and development. 3. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. Dr.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. Home Economics. particularly 170 . A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. The relevance of women’s education to social. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. you will be able to: 1. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. In the post —independence period.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. higher education of girls developed immensely. cultural and political development of the individual. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4.4. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century.higher education in particular. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. economic. Teaching and Fine Arts. family. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. Nursing.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states.4. analyze the women and distance education. While women constituted only 9. During the year 1937.

women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.9 27.1 31. 3.T Women University. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.2 22.D.N.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. In the rest of the country. Even today. Kodaikanal. Coimbatore.0 16.9 14.0 32.0 Today. levels and professions. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Yet. we have more than 1200 institutions.4.65 lakhs in 1994-95. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. 3. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.0 43. Mother Teresa Women University.women. out of 9200 and odd colleges. in our country. Mumbai.2 29. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.1 24. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.4. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. In 1950-51. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.4. The idea of women’s education for equality. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .

4.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1 and 14. 3. 2.34 33.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.63 Female % 34. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? . GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.83 47.4.4%) prefer Arts subjects.36 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.17 52.47 65. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.1 respectively. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .56 64. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .46 82.54 12. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.27 89.that of boys.53 34.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .44 35.73 10.66 66. 3.

Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. According to a survey. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. They gave up their studies to enter home life. she will only learn fashion. financial difficulty of the parents. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. promoted and increased. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. irrelevance of the content of education. particularly.4. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. etc. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. In college. 3.hinders the girls from getting higher education. Book banks should be established. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. The major hurdles. 173 . Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Also. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. marriage is a very common I factor. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. distance of the college or university from home. what is the need for higher education for her. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. curriculum not suited to their requirements. and coeducation may spoil her character. Thus. In every third family. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it.

At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. Education. 3. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. There are constraints of time.economic disabilities faced by women. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. It also brings about 174 .8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. resources and socio . which is the most dynamic factor of development. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life.4. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. Geographic distance of educational institutions. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. It is a productive investment. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. and the limitations of the conventional education system. space. It enables to study. Full-time employment.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Empowerment in a nutshell. 3. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.4. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. is the only tool for realising empowerment. Distance education is a boon to women. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously.

The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . empowerment means being assertive. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. The major objectives of women's higher education. on their own. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. legal awareness and economic independence.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. Empowerment is an active. This can be achieved through reflection.4. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. higher learning. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. education of women is of paramount importance. education of women must be given priority in national plans. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. for full development of our human resources. 3. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. Women are partners in development. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity.

Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving.4. which is pending for a long time. The local administration. The educational institutions. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. Reservation for women. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. 3. especially so in the developing countries. who are eager to take up courses. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . has to be implemented at the earliest. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Better opportunities. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. will encourage them to venture new grounds. which had been the sole domain of men.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. Scholarships and concessions for women. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. But their number is small. 176 .

11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent.4. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. capacities etc. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. talents.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3 percent. Australia. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management..000 women in the country. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.8%).9%). Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. especially in developing countries like African countries. But.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. IDP Education. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. Chief Executive. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. engineering and related technologies (16. 3.1%) and architecture and building (38. According to Lindy Hyam. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Also.

Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. (2008). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera.R. Centre for Women’s Studies. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Annakodi.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. SNDT Women’s University. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. (2007). Coimbatore. A. Kodaikanal. 4. 2.4.4. A. Rao. S. Women and Education. (2000). Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Mumbai. R. SNDT Women’s University. 3. a. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Mumbai.4. 3. R. and Suryalatha. 4. Women Education. Rajasthan 5. 3. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development.to the family. 43% 6. Mishra. R. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Women Education. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. and Swain. Mother Teresa Women University. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. create the right attitude towards life. Coimbatore. S.C. (2005). Pattanaikj. individuals and society b. community and the nation. 178 .K.

8 3.3 3.LESSON 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.7 3.6 3. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5.5.5.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.1 3.personality of children in and out of school.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.4 3. They should be trained.5.2 3.5.5 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.11 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5.5.5.5.5.9 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.5.10 3. whole. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.

It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. Lack of physical facilities.5. social and emotional integration. equality and justice. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. understand the training teachers for Primary. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. understanding and strong desire for international peace. Shorter working hours.5. 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. national consciousness. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. and national character. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. international. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. 180 . analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. 5. know the pre service and in service training facilities. you will be able to: 1. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. 4. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 3. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.

If the student teachers are working teachers. Lop-sided curriculum..Ed. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. inservice and extension education programmes.. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Depending on the levels. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. students. who have not been trained earlier. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. it is called the Extension teacher Education. At the diploma level. the secondary teacher education.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . a Diploma course and a Degree course.Less qualified teacher educators. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. the centre. 3. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. higher secondary teacher education.5. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities.Ed. and the collegiate teacher education. (NCERT) New Delhi. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. levels. etc. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. Inadequate training in practical skills. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 .5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. the primary teacher education. it is called the In-service teacher education.5. 3. and M. the state Government. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years.

Write any two problems of Teacher Education? ..Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Expand NCERT 2. Educational teehnology cells. extensio n service. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . state Institutes of Educat ion. collegiate cells. non-formal.5. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Evaluation unit. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . Science Education units. are established. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. etc.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. depart ments etc. Also Guidance Bureaux. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Education cells. 3.

and 183 . through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. despite its vast expansion.Ed.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and .. and so on. laboratories. primary and secondary school teachers. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . should be improved on a top priority basis.. to prescribe conditions for recognition. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary.. to improve curricular programmes.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . to offer consultative services. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. which should include experience in the primary schools too. which help breaking isolation from one another . degree. schools and sister institutions. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . to ensure teacher competence. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. material conditions relating to libraries. audio visual aids.Ed. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre.

has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . etc. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Agriculture. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Induction Courses. Organisation of Content Courses. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. 184 . Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Hence. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content.secondary education.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. whether they should have professional education or. The problem. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. Modern Techniques of Teaching. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. Meanwhile. To meet this exigency. etc. not came up once again. Psychology of Students. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. though no pre-service training. and XII. Workshops. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. Modern Methods of Evaluation. methodology and evaluation.

University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.Ed. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.A. Degree.. M. Courses leading to B. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country... All B Ed. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3..Ed. For re-orienting the teachers.. These facilities are available for regular students.A.D.Ed. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.S.’s for Ph. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.’s are elig ible for M. Ajmer.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.. courses and M. in Education. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Post-Graduates also undergo B. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. (Education) are organized by 185 .5. Pre-service training is for those.. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. State Institutes of Education. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.Ed. training. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. (Education) and M.Ed. Degree and M.. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.Ed.

4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.). 6. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. (Ed. established by tradition and teachers of the past. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .List any two code of conduct for teachers? .A. 3. Hence the employability of M.. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.5. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. and B. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. they should be conscientious . 4.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. of conduct—written or unwritten. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. .A. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. However. 186 . What is the role of ERIC? . (Ed).

Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. b. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. Dearth of new technology of teaching. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. The necessity is however this.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. 3. a. 187 .5. 3.5. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. 6. 3. a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.3. a. 2.5. 3. they should be conscientious. 4. Explain code of conduct for teachers. Shorter working hours.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Bhopal. However. 4. Discuss the problems of teacher education. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 5. b. Ajmer. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 2. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. National Council of Educational Research and Training.

and Teacher Education. B. Tewari. (2009). A.N.5. J. Corporation.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. Teacher Education. Ltd Aggarwal. (2003). New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .3.D. Publication Pvt. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. (2010). Teacher Education. P. Mohanty.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. economic and educational developments. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. the focus is on the school health programmes. In lesson 1. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. communicable diseases and their prevention. Since food is the source of nutrients. preservation of nutrients. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. 191 . If the diet is poor. nutritional deficiency diseases. common ailments of children. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. In lesson 4.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. objectives. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. consuming the right amounts becomes important. objectives. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. The person’s environment is equally important. objectives and role of the physical education. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients.

192 .

9 4.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1.7 4.1.1 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.8 4.e.6 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.4 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important.10 4. mental.2 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody.LESSON 4.1.1.1. physical.11 4.5 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. It is a miniature society. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.1.1.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. emotional and social. 193 .3 4.1.1.

training of teachers and evaluation. content of health education. understand school health programmes 2. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself.. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. know the need for sex education. 4. 8. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health.g.1. To develop healthy health habits among children. 5. 11. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. 2. 7. explain the importance of First aid 5. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. to his family and to the community at large. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 6. e. cleanliness and healthful living. 9. 194 . Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. 10. 4. 4. training in first aid and etc. list the common ailments of children 3.1. To develop certain skills concerning health. To give information regarding health rules. Instruction. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. you will be able to: 1. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1.

(v) safety education.. The surroundings of schools should be clean. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. 5. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. 2. excusing late. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. play festivals. There should be regular water supply. (xii) smoking education etc. 3. typhoid. (iv) co mmunicable diseases.C. suitable furniture. (vi) nutrition education. First aid facilities should be made readily available. proper doors and windows. cleanliness weeks. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. The flooring should not be damp. The school buildings should be spacious. as described below 1. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. ( iii) sanit at io n. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. 4. (ii) communit y healt h. Triple Antigen Vaccination. B. etc. “Play-for-all” programmes. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. direct lighting. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. There should be good drainage facilities. organisation of school health days. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. minimizing the travelling distance. is imperative. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . vaccination. 2. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. B. (viii) first aid. Arranging better transportation facilities. (xl) mental health.coming or absence. Vaccination for small pox.G.4. inoculation against cholera. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided.. (x) choice aid use of health services and products.1. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings.

insect stings. D. sports and games in the interest of their health. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. etc. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious.. and other accidents.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. fractures. scalds. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. if epidemic is wide-spread. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. bleeding. drowning. fainting (epileptic fit). • Find out the cases. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. • Take nutritious food. • Have adequate rest and sleep. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. isolate and notify. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. • When sleeping in groups. wounds. dislocations. • Keep all rooms clean. C. cuts. burns. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. 196 . • Close the schools. poisons. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage.

polio. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. They are: i) The incubation stage. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. backache. water or bodily contact. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. 4. chicken pox. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. These diseases are called communicable diseases.1. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. headache. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. tuberculosis. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. fever. which are – cold. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage.. 2. So they easily get illnesses.1. measles etc. Once these germs get into the body. 4. Mention the school health programmes. List out the Health curriculum 3. cough. pain in the joints. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . There are three stages in any communicable disease. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. asthma.

Measles . The virus is present in the secretions of throat. cough and fever. eating food which is not clean. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. sugar and water. The following are the common communicable diseases. This is caused by cold virus. etc. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Some suffer cold due to allergy. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. unhygienic living conditions. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Ear Infections . Diarrhoea . The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Important salts and water are lost in this process. head-ache and cough. unhygienic bottle feeding. After three or four days of fever. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. The child may have fever. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added.It is caused by measles virus.This disease is caused by bacteria. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Mumps . Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. 198 . Scabies . The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Common Cold . Children catch cold from persons having cold. Throat is affected. Tonsilitis . Cold is usually accompanied by running nose.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Hence it is called a killer disease. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. The symptoms include cold. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Others make the children very weak.When a child suffers from scabies. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure.

the child may die. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings.• • • • Chicken Pox . As the disease progresses. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Expand DPT .Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. Diphtheria . The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. Enlist the common ailments of children. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. 5. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Shortly. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. raised pink spots appear on head. the child is not able to breathe. What are communicable diseases? 6. By scratching he causes secondary infections. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. The child may also have diarrhoea. Typhoid . These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. It begins with fever. If proper treatment is not given. face and waist.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. separate. 199 .

Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. 2. and Community Work and Social Service. and films. 4. bleeding. etc. snakebites. scorpion stings.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. 5. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. Wounds .Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. so-called sex books and periodicals. Sprains .4.1. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. 200 . Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. exciting and body-oriented. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. fiction. drowning.g.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. sprains. swelling. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. 3. It has its rightful place in education too.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. it is a subject of art. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. fainting. bruises. It is both biological and psychological.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Cuts and Bruises . Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. eye injury. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. head injury. simple fractures. 4. sprains. cuts.1. dislocation. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. wounds. Drowning . man-woman behaviours. Sex is popular. In such cases. films and jokes.

Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. they would be treading the path of sure doom. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. In today's liberal and interactive society. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. The values of life. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. the school. in their ignorance. In secondary schools. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. 3. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. celibacy are age. 2. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. We can arm people with knowledge about sex.old values. sex education is being recommended in schools. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life.. Hence. B. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. health. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. Should the boys and girls. but preserve them from disaster and disease. The home. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. try experimenting with their bodies. the religious organisations. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught.

offering sex education as a part of their curricula. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. when the courses are already overloaded. What are the major components of Sex Education. common ailments of children.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. there will no crisis in its implementation. the school health programmes. C. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. first aid and sex education. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. hence. 4. communicable diseases and their prevention. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. Teacher education institutions are. 202 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Mention the food nutrients 2. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. 209 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4.

you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. Let us talk about each of these aspects.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .4. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s.2. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . minerals. 210 . Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.2. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. If you look at the definition carefully. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected.

In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier.6. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. moderate or heavy work. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. for example. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex).g. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. Preferences/customs are also important. In other words. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . There is no point. 4. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. the social and religious practices of that region. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. sex. it is also specific to a given activity level . Even within given States there is considerable variation.2. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. These are: region where the person resides and income. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. People in the east of our country prefer rice. In the case of adults. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately.g. construction labourer). This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals.one in the morning and the other at night. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet.sedentary. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. activity level and physiological stress. A balanced diet is specific firstly. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. dosa are typical of the south.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. paratha and poori.

try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. however. Including these 212 . This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. customs. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. As income increases. These determine the acceptability of foods. One must. however. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Judicious selection of food is. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. Having more money. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. taboos related to food may play an important role. Even among flesh foods. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. for example. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. However. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. fat and sugar tend to increase. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. nuts and dry fruits. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. income plays a vital role. vegetables and fruits. while another may hate them. If you think of your own religious group. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. Among the social factors. however. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. as important for the rich as for the poor. As you read this discussion. In addition to these. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese.planning the diet. One person may be fond of milk products. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like.

eggs . green leaves. meat. For this. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. over-eating or under.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. fruits. List out any two healthy food habits. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. if the teachers have good food habits. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. but they should be thrown away. 17.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 213 . Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 8. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. mouth. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. Define balanced diet.eating is hazardous. etc. 8) Walk a while after eating.

Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. preservation of nutrients. Night blindness. In fact. d.2. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Keratomalacia 3. Discuss good food habits. Beri Beri 4. c. a. Explain food nutrients 4. Vitamin D 5.2. 4. 4. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . e. When the diet is inadequate.2. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Corneal xerosis. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2.4. b. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. good nutrition is essential for good health.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Bitot’s spots. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Conjuctival xerosis. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life.

mouth. Food and Nutrition Education. b. Hands. A Text Book of Foods. Nutrition Science. R. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. 7.2. Food should be consumed after eating well. (2009).6. R. a. a . 4.N. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. (2008). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.C. b. (2005). P. (2004). Health and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . Sri Lakshmi B. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . Food and Nutrition Education. 8. Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. S. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. minerals.M. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. (2008). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Chopra.

6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.3.LESSON 4.3.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3.4 4.3.9 4.3.3.3.11 4.6.1 4.6.3.1 Impact on social development 4.3 4.3.2 4.6.10 4.7 4.3 Impact on Education 4.5 4.3.12 4.3.3.13 4.3.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.8 4. 216 .3.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.

aims at providing the younger generation. 217 . 4. and the consequences of these processes.3. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. his societ y and the world. the stress is. There is some difference. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. characteristics and changes for himself.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. It is not sex education. his family.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. understand the importance of small family norm 5. state the meaning. It is a much wider co ncept. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. therefore.3. objectives and need for population education 2. describe the impact of population growth on social. family planning and sex education etc. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. Whenever we talk of sex education. community. the causes of population change. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. population characteristics.4. Population Education. 4. economic and educational development 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1.3. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population.

3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well.4. Define Population Education 2. the society. the nation and the world.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . the family. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. List out any two objectives of Population Education.3. 4. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.

The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. 4. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. 4. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. With the larger families. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. Family is considered as a social unit.6. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. economic and educational development of the country. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. When the family is small. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. 219 .Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. the family programmes are also handicapped. which will not be possible without population control. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed.3. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. Every second two thousand children are being born. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom.3.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. health and happiness of its citizens.

6. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index..e. Many students herded in a small room. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. i. toilets. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. heavy intern I migration etc. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. 4.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. In developing countries. there is an inverse relationship between population and development.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. in cinema halls and theatres. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. facility for drinking water.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth.6. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. 4. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. lack of proper health care. unemployment. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils.3. pollution of the environment. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. teacher index. organization index and material index. in buses and trains. and so on. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. The gulf between them is widening further. Swollen cities. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’.3. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. in parks and other places of public gatherings. 220 .

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. There would be very few audiovisual aids. Regional Language. can be taken up.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. bar graphs etc. Hindi and English. 221 .3. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. less budget for education.. reproduction. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. essays. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. thus. family planning etc. even text books would be in short supply. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. There would be poor library facilities. Social Studies Statistics on population education. blank verses etc. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. and laboratory equipments. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. less space facilities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. can be studied in science and health education.

Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. 12. Bihar. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. China. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. 3. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. 11. 13. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data).8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. 7. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 10. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. United States of America.3. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 15. 4. Uttar Pradesh. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 14.4. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Canada. Children with the help of parents. They may arrange them as per average density of population. 2. Brazil. causes of deaths etc. West Bengal. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . 8. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Children may compare two families. deaths. 5. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 9. area and average density of population.

Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.be opened in their schools.3. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. age at marriage. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. 17. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Comparing life in various respects in two families. 16. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. 18. The question. preferences for sex. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. we have no right to stop 223 . values and role children etc.

and the child survival components of the news: program. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. at varying places in different regions. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. The Family Welfare Program. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. continued . should be overcome at the intellectual levels. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. however. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. especially the expansion of child immunization services .sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.4-6. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. “He who is responsible for population growth.to emphasize family planning services. which education can only do. 4. Since the program's inception. More than 45 years ago.their entry into the world”. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.were implemented 224 .10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.3.. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. on an overall basis.

The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. Therefore. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. reliance on local women as community health workers. In October 1997. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. men. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995.earlier than the safe motherhood components. At these meetings. and the World Conference on Women. In April 1996. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. a focus on health promotion. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. and nominal fees for services. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. Local programs vary in their approaches. the community appears willing to pay for services. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. Moreover. expansion of services to unmarried women.

3. Its main purposes are to create awareness. 226 . 4. involving the community. What are the goals of RCH? 4.3.emphasizing the needs of the client. family. community. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. economic and educational development 4.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. nation and the world. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. 1997). Describe the impact of population growth on social.

China. 6. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. a. less budget for education. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. b. Brazil. a. population characteristics. b. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. a. United States of America. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. area and average density of population. bar graphs. 227 . his family. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Canada. 3. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. 5. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. 4. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. characteristics and changes for himself. less space facilities.3. his society and the world. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. 7. the causes of population change.4. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population.” 2. and the consequences of these processes.

K. Ltd. Jayapoorni. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). Kantikar. Bhende. (2002). 228 . Modern Problems of Education. N. T. Centre for Women’s Studies. (2004). Coimbatore. Udaiveer.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. (1992).3. Principles of Population Studies. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.4. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Ltd. Reddy. Changing attitudes to Education in India. A. V. (2005). “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development.

4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.7 4.6 4.LESSON 4.2 Major games 4.10 4.4.4.4.1 4.9 4.11 19.4 4.5 4.3 4.3 Indigenous games 4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .8.1 Minor games 4.2 4.4.4.4 Lead up games 4.4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.4.4.4.8.8.4.8.4.4.4.

” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. perseverance. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. understand the importance of Physical Education 4.4. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. mental alertness. which forms its most valuable assets. you will be able to: 1. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country.4. the youth of the country. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. as it should 230 . 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. classify the different types of games.4. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.4. The concept of physical education has been made broader.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. moral fitness and emotional fitness. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. full records of physical activities should be maintained. social fitness. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. leadership and balance in defect. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. 4. team spirit.

mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. leadership. Every individual is a part of society. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. team spirit. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. They are inseparably united together. They go hand in hand. To be more precise. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. obedience to rules. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. The educational efforts at home. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Therefore. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end.

ment al. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. 4. mo ral. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. H. “Physical education does neither train up the soul.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. Physical exercises.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.” Montaigue writes. game and sports.” The Secondary Education Commission.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. Just like Education. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. Buck has observed that 232 . physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. a sound health. nor body but the whole man. Rousseau states. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind.4. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. C.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. pleasing manners. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. Regarding the significance of physical education.

coordinative abilities. elegance.” 4. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. speed.4. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. happiness. we must exercise the whole human being.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief.a properly directed physical education should result in health. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. endurance. resourcefulness and smartness. strength.” In brief. Froebel says. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. flexibility and power. 233 . Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. initiative. etc. “If we wish to develop the whole being. efficiency and character. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.

This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Every age has its artists.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. they may form gangs. While wars. If no opportunity is provided to the students. 234 (i) (ii) . in greater or lesser degree. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. these fundamental things have always been present. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. its adherents and its enemies. poetry and painting. should help in the spiritual development of the student. including all racial groups and historical ages. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. systems of government. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Tournaments foster this sentiment. plagues and famines.

B. self. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour.sacrifice. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. etc.\ to develop perseverance. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. obedience. Write any two importance of Physical Education. to develop tolerance. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. 2. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. bravery and interest in games and sports. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. 235 . Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. 3. respect for rules.

15. Posture screening should be done. Haag. and readmission after they have recovered.4.4. 2. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Be self-confident. Act as a leader. injuries among pupils should be made. Emergency care procedures should be followed. and. 9.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. . teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 4. At least now its importance should be duly recognized.H. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 5. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Be in the uniform. 236 1. 7. 14. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. is essential. 13.4. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. defects.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Usually parents. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Be sportive. Be punctual. 16. 8. 4. 11. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Inform health principles. 10. students. Always keep the whistle ready. Keep the field ready for the activities. 12. 3. 6. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Be well-prepared.

Such inst incts as imitation. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. As such they are well enjoyed by children. 2. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play.4. chasing. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. their development is handicapped. Indigenous games. 4. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. 4.8. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. the play. 237 . 4. Moreover. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. 1. less equipment and less expense. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. frolic and jo y.4. Lead up games. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. 3.

Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. skipping. stopping. Tennis. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag.With a very few rules. dribbling. with implements or without implements. the number of players and substitutes.. Shuttle Badminton. Cricket. hitting. For each game the rules are many. On lawns. 238 . Ball Badminton. Dodging. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Soft Ball. Volley Ball. Except a few games. driving. Hockey. Kabaddy etc. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Throwing. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. They are played for a shorter duration. over ball pass Relay. on sea-shore. the play equipment. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Hopping. benefit in playing minor games. the games can be modified according to convenience. couple tag. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. boosting. The dimension of the posts and nets. finding the partner. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. zig zag relay.8. pitching. women take part most of the games. spiking. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Jump the stick clay and so on.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. While many of them are played in the open playfields. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games.4. catching. heading. wherever the kids assemble. snatching the kerchief. under ball pass Relay. on mountain tops and on river beds. Tennikoit. some of them are played indoors. bowling etc. 4. Khokho. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Jumping. muffling. Basket Ball. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. on hard courts. trapping. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. These games require varied skills such as running. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles.

4. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.4. 7. 4. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.8. While observing the players in action.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. All the fundamental tactics. Kho-kho. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. On occasions like marriage.4. death. Games may be classified as 6. these games being popular. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. birth. and .8. they are in existence. They have an abundant social value. An example for indigenous game is 8. For example. festivals connected with religion and public functions. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. List out some major games.

4. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. c. d. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose.4. b. 3.4. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Minor and Major 240 .4. 4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. a. aims and objectives and need of physical education. 2. b. a. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. 4. to secure physical health b. 5. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education.4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. a. 3. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. to develop physical stamina. Posture screening should be done. b. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. a. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.

Krishna murthy. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Basket Ball. (2008). Shuttle Badminton. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Khokho 8. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Aggarwal. Hockey. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.6. Cricket. J. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Foot-ball. Tennikoit. Ltd. Soft Ball. Kabaddy 7. J. Volley Ball. Physical Education and Sports. Mohanty. Handbook of Physical Education. 4. J.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews.K. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2009). New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.C. Tennis. Health. Ball Badminton. 241 . Khokho. G. (2008).4. (2005).

12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5.3 4.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.6 4.5.5.4 4.9 4.5.1 Natural Environment 4.LESSON 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.11 4.5.5.8 4.5.1 4.5.2 Manmade Environment 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.5.7 4.10 4.5.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.2 4.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment . Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.5.

Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Essential knowledge about the Environment. Participation. 5. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. 4. 243 . 4. it covers the following elements: 1. Details are given below: I. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Knowledge. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. 3. Awareness. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. social. list out the types of environment 3. you will able to: 1.5. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4.5. 2. 4. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. population explosion and resource depletion could be. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. Evaluation Ability.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Attitude. role of teacher in environmental conservation. Broadly. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.educat ion for the environment. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. The best place to start such learning is school. political. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. economic. 3. Skills. education about the environment and education through the environment.5. 6. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. 2. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. aesthetic and educational factors.

its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. 244 . • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. 2. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. • Biological magnification E. D. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen.B. F. Oxidants Other pollutants. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. heat sink and wind flow in cities. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. a. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population.

The pill ii. Abortion iv. economic. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. 2. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical.3. Family planning ii. B. 3. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Intrauterine device iii. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Socio-economic measures. Birth control through education b. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Control of population growth a. 4. The human ecosystem II. III. Persuasion: i. c. 2. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Use of medical science i. Sterilisation. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Environmental Education. 246 . Water pollution abatement. e) Recycling. 2. (UNESCO. Planning human intervention on the natural processes.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Air pollution abatement ii. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1983). 3. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

Any constituent or condition of the environment.other components of the environment. a. -other. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. A change in one brings about a change in the other.5.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . b. Biological environment The biological environment. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. to his needs. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific.4.5. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. 4.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. way is called environmental or ecological factor. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. They interact with each. animals and other organisms (biotic). He modifies according”. These are biotic components.5.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.5. fax agricultural apparatus. telex.5. includes the plants. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.5. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions.

change in climate may be added. river systems. excellent recreation sites. air pollutants from industries. ozone layer deplet ion. need for conservation. alternate sources of energy. acid rain. preserving the watersheds. population. windmills. ozone depletion. trees reducing noise pollution. nuclear energy. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. over exploitation of ground water. importance of nitrogen cycle. role of trees in building economy. maintaining the ecological diversity. sources of pollut ion. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. History The rise and fall. food chain and food-web. mineral survey. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. evolution. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . desertification 248 . use of pesticides. reasons. are the topics which may be taught in History. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. wars and hazards of war. t heir role in preventing pollution. balance of nature. etc. noise pollution. extinction of species. supplying timber for various uses. sources. greenhouse effect. industrial survey. social studies.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. need for bio-diversity. industrial pollut io n. noise control. biogas plants. relation between population and pollution. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. effects. explosion deforestation. effects o f CFC. natural way of controlling pests.. use of medicinal plants. etc. preventing siltation of dams. water scarcity. (ii) Air pollution. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. nuclear warfare. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. of civilizations. solar cookers.

7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 2. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Peepal and Tulsi. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. 11. 7. 9. 4. 12. aims and scope. Organising conferences. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. 8. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Developing awareness about environmental issues. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 14. 6. animal and plants. 3. 4. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’.5. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. group discussions and seminars. Providing. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 249 .may be inc ded in Geography. 10. 13. 5. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes.

or form a car pool for everyday travel. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. all these can cause serious pollution. especially plastics. Don’t burn any waste.Send their waste oil. used oils down the drain. Use public transport wherever it is possible. World Environmental falls on 250 . 5. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Reuse carrier bags. it will cause pollution. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Never put any left over chemicals. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 6. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. If it is done. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden.

their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. values and habits. Harmony with the nature . rather than conquest and mastery. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. concern for others). minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. diversity and stability. To provide reference materials for children’s use.). To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry.mat erials. and 251 .5. To provide materials needed for practical work. potable water. Social responsibilit y (common good. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. dest roying nat ural habitats. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. nuclear wars.. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. etc. prevention of irretrievable loss of species.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. Concern for species. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. (cleanliness. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. The groups may exchange. loss of bio-diversity. depletion of ozone. developing desirable attitudes. etc. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. Conservation of natural resources. orderliness and beauty).4. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . CFCs. Att itudes of balance towards nature. viz. deforestation. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. To arrange for visiting speakers. To arrange visits or expeditions. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem.

5. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. 4. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills.5. 4. preserving natural cycles. 4. 8. 252 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.5.

To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Environmental Education. S. Kuldeep. b. new problems from science and technology.5.K. Modern Problems of Education. importance of nitrogen cycle. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . Social responsibilit y (common good. Knowledge. b.K. (2004). Ltd. a. concern for others). population. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Providing. over exploitation of ground water. group discussions and seminars. To provide materials needed for practical work. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. b. 8. reasons. Environmental Education. a. June 5 7. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. a. 3. sources of pollution. (2007). T. Nanda. 4. (ii) Air pollution. 5. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Education for values. Udaiveer. Rapid population growth. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion.2.K. b. Organising conferences. Y. a. (2007). New Delhi : Sharma. (1997). sources. 6. water scarcity. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. acid rain. S. explosion deforestation. Awareness. relat ion between population and pollution.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Authors Press. Ltd.\ 4. Environment and Human Rights. Anmol Publications Pvt.K. greenhouse effect.. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. ozone layer deplet ion. air pollutants from industries. effects.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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“The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. It is self-realisation. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. Spiritual Development. the emancipation of spirit. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. man is essentially a moral being. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. According to Rusk'. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. inviolable and hence holy life” In short.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism.1.” 5.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. The universe is regarded as a thought process. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . Therefore. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. should be universal in nature. Universal Education. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. in fact. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. moral. Education according to idealism.our life.3. Education must contribute to development of culture. enrichment and transmission of culture. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. promote and transmit it to rising generation.

4. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . Mathematics etc.1. Learning through reading. Learning through imitation. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection.” He is thus. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. 3. a spiritual guide for the child. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. He sets the environment in which education takes place. Learning through discussion. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. So health. should be there. friend and guide. the school is a garden. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming.the spiritual qualities of mankind. hygiene. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. Ethics. Science. Herbert advocated instruction method. According to Frobel. affecting (feeling). Learning through lecturing.3. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. It considers teacher as. and collation (striving) should find due place. According to idealism. an indispensable necessity. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. For intellectual development. For this no particular method has been suggested. The plant can grow. so subjects like Religion. 5. 2. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1.1. Learning through questioning. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. no doubt.3.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. Philosophy. subjects like Languages. So cognition (knowing). Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. 5. History. He carries the child from darkness to light.” 5. So he should embody. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. However.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types.

It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. formal lessons or examinations. time tables. text books. Perfection of Human Machine. 5. In the words of Ross.perfection and beauty.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. 5. 2.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.1. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. "Education should make 263 • . whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. curricula. Ross explains.preservation.

rational harmoniously balanced. Botany etc Language. Naturalistic curriculum. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. • 5. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Arithmetic. There is no place for religious and moral education.1. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Therefore. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. “Education finds its purpose. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. education should develop the child into Joyous. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. subjects like history. It emphasises physical and health education 5. therefore. Chemistry.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. useful and mature child. In all. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. It is based on the psychology of the child. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. 4. 264 . • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. It stresses basic sciences. Zoology. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Education should.4.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. is based on the nature of the child. Literature. Biology.

1. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. It discards all rigid. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . 2. Heuristic method. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Learning through observation. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. 3.4. Rousseau says.4. a supplier of materials and opportunities.1. 4.1.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. In the . 5. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. a provider of an ideal environment. Learning through experience. Here the emphasis is on the individual method.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.5. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. he should be taught by experience alone. Learning by doing. the stage. Dalton Plan. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers.

intellectual. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Subjects. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. 5.absolutism of idealism.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. 5.1. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. is true. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. History. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. All Round Development of an Individual. Continuous Growth. of human personality is in terms of his physical. social and moral aspects. The aim of educational development.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Social Science. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Vocational and 266 .1.5. Geography. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Social Efficiency. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Physical training. Agriculture. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. diversified and flexible. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Personal Social Adjustment. Sciences. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons.5. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education.

1. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. activities and experience should be integrated properly.5. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.1. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. should find proper place. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. The subjects. He must be trained. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.” 5. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. a senior partner and a sincere guide. 5. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. a teacher occupies an important position.5. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Technical Education. alert and resourceful.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Learning by Doing. He has to be active.

Biography Philosophy. 5. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Sex Education. It favours child-centered. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Astrology. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Study of Subjects like Language. Chemistry. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Satisfaction of individual and social needs.1. Mathematics. Population Education. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. rich and happy. History. literary or humanistic education. Psychology. scientific and psychological education. Biology. 3. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. 4. Education is preparation for a complete living. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. specific.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Art. 5.1. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. 2. 3. liberal. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind.1.6.6. Crafts. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Music and Dance. Geography are unnecessary 268 . The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. 5. intellectual. Literature. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. practical. 4.5. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. 2.

3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.1. certainly and clearly. easily and pleasantly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.6.6.5.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .

a. Education according to pragmatism. Universal Education 2. Learning through questioning. Agriculture.7 LET US SUM UP We have. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. a. Self preservation & Self expression 4. naturalism. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization.1. has no end other than growth.5. 5. Geography. History. 5. Experimentation d. Sciences. c.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. pragmatism and realism. in this lesson.1. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Social Science. & curriculum. a. Languages. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Learning through discussion.1. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. b. 6. d. Tours / Excursion e. Self Realisation b. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Vocational and Technical Education. Rousseau 5. 5. Learning through experience b. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. e.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Learning through reading. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. 3. Child centered c. Physical training. Learning through imitation. Learning through lecturing.

10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Publishing corporation. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Pahuja. N. (2007). P.5. New Delhi : A. New Delhi : Bhatia. 271 . New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Ltd. K. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. L. (2004). O. P. Foundations of Education.P.P. Anmol Publications Pvt.1. (2007).H. Theory and Principles of Education. Narang C. R. of Pathak. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. (2003).

3 Methods of teaching 5.2.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2.2 5.4.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2.2.4 Views about teacher 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .2.1 Aims of Education 5.2.5.1 Aims of Education 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2.2.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2.2.2.2.2.4 Views about teacher 5.3.2.5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.3.4.1 5.2 Curriculum 5.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.3.LESSON 5.4.2.3 Methods of Teaching 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.4.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.3.4.5.2.3.3.2 Curriculum 5.

4 Role of the teacher 5. Tagore was a poet.2. content and methods. 2. you will able to: 1. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.2. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.6 5. 3. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.2.2. mind and spirit. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.5. Gandhiji was primarily a social.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.8 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. economic and political reconstruction in our country. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2.2.2. an artist.5. 5. 273 .2.7 5. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. 5. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.

He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. 5. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. 274 . mind and soul of children He further observed. strength of mind.supporting. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. self-restraint and service of humanity. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education.3. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. nor the gross animals body. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. "I attach more. In the words of Gandhiji. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. His scheme of education is life centred. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. 'Man is neither mere intellect. it is education of life. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality." Dignity of Labour.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. righteousness.2. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. through life and for life. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. It really provides opportunity for character building.

Mother-tongue. "Development of the moral character. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . General Sciences. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Individual and Social Aims. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Drawing and Hindustani. the realization of the ultimate reality. gardening. 5. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Only good individual forms a better society. Art. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education.2. metal work. wood work.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Music. According to Gandhi.3. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies.Training for Leadership. leather work have been suggested.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development .

The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. men of 276 . Basic education is other wise known as 4. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.2.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.3. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. proficient.3. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.trained. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2.

He also advocates freedom for the child. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. That is why.3. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.2. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. 3. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . He has an experimental approach towards life 2. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education.knowledge. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. Education must be child centered. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. 5.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.K. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. he was a true Vedantist 5. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. Gandhi in 1937. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He believed in the oneness of humanity. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. • Cult of non-violence. He was deadly against untouchability.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . • Education should involve manual work. 5.2. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. He was a true patriot.4. • Ideal of citizenship.” Like all other ideals.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.2.3.2. 5.

2. Chemistry. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. stronger in power than ever before. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. them solve problems of day to day life. could help in forging unity among all. Zoology. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. It should help.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. wider in range. That way only. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Botany. Music. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. etc." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5.4. International Understanding. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. sentiment. (vi) Philosophy. deeper in. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners.Language and Literature . Tagore said. It should help the learner have good physique. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. he said. Geography.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. International understanding. Religion and Psychology. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Therefore. "Mankind must realise a unity. Dance. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. 279 . complete manhood could be attained. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. the more dedicated and devoted. Civics.

He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.” He further says. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. In 1921.4. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. 5. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.4. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity." 5. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child.2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. 280 . His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.2.2.4. Activity Method Heuristic Method. Tagore rightly says. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. 5.

Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. It is open to all irrespective of country. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. race. 9. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. 10. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. 281 .g.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10.

Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge.” 5. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Book learning.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all.2. 2. man making. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Concept of Education. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life." He was against the theoretical type of education.5.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. 4. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. 3. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. According to him. Education should make a person self-reliant. He believed in to learning or selflearning. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Education for strong Moral Character. Purity of thought. Education for Self-reliance.5. Freedom. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education for Self-realization. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking.2. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. work and deeds come out of it.

5. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. philosopher and guide to the students He. And above all. Religion.5. 5.2. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. 5. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. The teacher should be the facilitator.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. That will serve the purpose of education fully.the learners on different students in the discussion.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Swami. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching.5. Secondly he wanted Science. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. Of course. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Education for Physical Development. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things.2. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. 6. engineering and technical subjects. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. 283 .2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . 5. A physically strong person is the need of the society.5. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Thirdly he wished that games. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. Discussion Method.2. Philosophy and Theology.

2. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. ears and eyes. 5. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers.2. naturalist. 12.6 LET US SUM UP We have. Gandhiji as a Idealist. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. Write short notes on Basic education. 3. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. Their educational ideas. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. We have seen that Tagore. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. in this lesson. 5. of course. and pragmatist . Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. legs. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore.Substantiate your answer. 2. 284 .

5. Basic education. Nai Talim 4. Self realization. Cult of non-violence. b. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. d. Activity Method d. Debate and Discussion Method. Activity Method b. metal work. f. 11.4. Heuristic Method. Technique of Correlation 6. 3.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. wood work. c. 8. leather work have been suggested. 9. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Discussion Method 285 . Self-Study b. Teaching while Walking b. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Education should involve manual work. Meditation and concentration c. 2.2. Learning by Doing c. a. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. 10. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. 1937 7. a. 5. 5. c. Explain Vishwabharathi. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. gardening. Ideal of citizenship. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. a. e. a.

Foundations of Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Dhiman. (2007). K and Narang C. New Delhi : Aggarwal. J. New Delhi : A.P.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash.5. 286 . L. P. (2007). (2002). N. O. B. Publishing Corporation. (2003). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. P. C.H. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Theory and Principles of Education. (2004). Pahuja. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. Ltd. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.2. N. on Bhatia. Anmol Publications Pvt.

2 5.4 5.3.3.8 5.3.3.3.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.11 5.3.3.9 5.3.3.3.5 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.1 5. In this lesson.6 5.LESSON 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.7 5.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .10 5.

3. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. Both the processes are integrated. the plateau area and 288 . in the form of new experience. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. present behaviour may be modified. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. is a means to the process. in Russia or in Japan. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. maintained or eliminated. Then in a big country like India. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. state the meaning of curriculum 2. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3.3. in fact . Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. you will be able to: 1.under the direction of the school. Curriculum is intimately related to education.3. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. In it.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. it is identical wit h socializat ion. In the words of Kerney and Cook. the desert area. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. the plain area. Since the demands.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static.S. From the latter point of view. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.A. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. 5. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. curriculum signifies situations for learning. new behaviour may be acquired. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. living in the hilly area.. While education is learning. While education is a process. there is a large number of communities. curriculum. In the former sense. A g o o d curricu lu m. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. in the U.

too. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. democratic and socialistic country. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. 5. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar.3. Besides craft. customs and needs.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. and 289 . Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. However. environment. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. Again. the learning capacity of children. according to modern trends in the educational process. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. In fact . (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. studying therein. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. From a slave-country we became secular. irrespective of their needs and environment. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. therefore. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. it is. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. It must differ from locality and from society to society. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. differs from individual to individual.

National Integration. Vocational Efficiency. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. etc. which may or may not be attained. unsatisfactory. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. They are achievable. social.. etc. They are visionary goals e. They may be ultimate or proximate. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. Self Realisation. social. aesthetic and spiritual development. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. etc. they depend on the political. aims. The word “Curere” means 2. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. So it is inadequate. tangible. 290 .. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. moral.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. emotional. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. Goals of Secondary Education. e. 3. remote or immediate. specific. 1.g.. in instructional objectives. Knowledge Objective. individual or Social and so on. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical..g. uninspiring and unscientific. Understanding Objective. of classroom.3.g. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process.. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. 5. They speak of immediate purposes of education. Goals of Primary Education. unambiguous and functional. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . eg. Application Objective. They speak of perfect goals. general or specific. 4. e.

“In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. heavy fire. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.” 291 . “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. needs. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others.5. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. capacities. According to Crow and Crow. in the class rooms. abilities. Raymont rightly says. but it includes the totality of experiences. educationists. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. on the playing fields. Crow and Crow remarks. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. finding them very interesting and captivating.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. The interests. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. The old and prevalent curriculum is under.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced.3. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects.

” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. mental. time in a useful manner. tendencies. They often waste it or rather kill it. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. moral. Due to these variations and differences. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. urges. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. aptitudes. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. capacities and abilities. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests.

phased preparation. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. To ensure success of the process. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. 293 . infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. development of professional capability at all levels. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. 2. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. organized. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. 3. administrative programme need be planned.curricular. Similarly.

5.3. 1937 19. library. workshop. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. a.3. Run. 11. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. 18.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Relation with Life c. in the class room. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. Child Centred Education b.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. laboratory. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . principles of curriculum construction.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. 5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 10. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. 17. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning.3. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. 12. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation.

S. New Delhi : Authorspress.5. S.S. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. N. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi : Isha Books. P. (2007).12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Bhalla. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. 295 . Innovations in Education. D. Lakshmi. (2007).3. and Sarita Kumari. (2007).K. Curriculum and Instruction. Curriculum Development. (2001).

7.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.6.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4.4.4.1 5.6.3 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .7.LESSON 5.4.5 5.8 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4.4.4.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.4.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.4.4.7.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4.4.10 5.7.9 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.2 5.

know the importance of science education. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . honesty. We mean curiosity. you will be able to: 1.during the second half of this century. explain the concept of scientific attitude. 5. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking.5.4. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. newer and newer industries started growing.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. 2.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. open-mindedness. superstition or emotion. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. Gradually. in the economic reconstruction of society. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student.4. 3. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. 297 .side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. 5. tolerance for the opinions of others.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. 4.

6. 5. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 6. Through newspapers. stipends and appreciations in various ways. 2. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 2. Schemes of teaching science. 5. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. Central science workshop. as well as of the society. seminars and symposiums. 5. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Selection for science education.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Promotion of science clubs. 7. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 5. 4. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Love for truth enhances. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Devotion towards nature increases. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Through examinations. 3.4. Organisation of science fairs.So that. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people.4. Thinking and memory develops. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 4. 3. After such experience and training. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Principles are formulated. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO.

It is. should provide opportunities to. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. objectivity. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. After presenting the problem.4. 5.needs and conditions.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. therefore.6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. They experience natural phenomenon. each child to “enquiry skill building”. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. They ask many questions about the objects they see. Enquiry teaching is. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. For laboratory and workshop techniques. In the inquiry approach. essential that teachers. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.4. 7. Training of science teachers. Write any two advantages of Science Education. They encounter many social events as they grow. sex or religion. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other.

Giving less directions. 2.Herma Wouk. to ask questions and experience things. . test. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. Evidence. stern pursuit of accurate data. Social sciences. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 4. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 3.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. if they like. . 6. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 300 . 5. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. commands or orders.4. 5. 3.books. Appreciating pupils ideas. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues.4. It requires consistent thinking. 5. Adopting creative models of teaching.

5. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. These include open mindedness. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. To achieve this we should understand what it means. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. neighbourhood. (Vaidya 2007). For instance.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. practiced. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. therefore should be unbiased and objective. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. school and society at large. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.(Smith 2008). Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. it must be encouraged.4. of vast resources running waste. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . friends. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. keen observation. and emphasized during the learning process . open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions.7. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. to develop among the learners. critical thinking and suspended judgments. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. The students observation. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society.

understanding and logic. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. think and work it”. The intention to respect another’s point of view. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. intuition or wishful thinking”. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. 2007). Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. he studies all aspects of it. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. or superstitions.4. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. rumor. 302 .pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. In considering a situation or a problem. 5. (Das.7. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.

They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.4. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.7. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.7. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.4. • 5. but to begin only after careful planning. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. 5. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly.

it must be encourages. 5. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. 304 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.4.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. Adopting creative models of teaching. objectivity. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. 2. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. a.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13.S. 5. a.4. N. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.B (2008).10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. 3.5. b. b. Rao. a. M. Vaidya. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. b. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. (2008). S. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 16. 4. Yadav. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. D. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.4. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Planning of activities 5. 5. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Wide reading b.4. (2006). a. Love for truth enhances. 305 . Proper example of the teacher c. Study of superstitions d. Reflections on Scientific attitude. (2000).

5.1 5.4 5.LESSON 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. state the concept.9 5.5. you will be able to: 1.3 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5.5.5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5.10 5.5.7 5. objectives and characteristics.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5.2 5.6 5.5.11 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5. actively.5 5.8 5. 306 . areas of institutional planning. 2.5.5.

the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. 5. in the task of educational planning. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. teachers and students is not lost sight of. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. • To make institutional planning more successful. • to make planning development-oriented. and each student are regarded as separate entities. • to involve teachers and school administrators.3. Institution should be regarded as the unit. and. each teacher. State and national levels from below. and every student in the process of educational planning. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning.5. every parent. 5. every teacher. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. executive as well as public. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. and supplement planning from above.5. which become the bases for further planning at the district.

having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. it becomes the basis for school inspection.5. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. Examinations. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. Classwork. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. approved after making necessary modifications. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. (2) Co. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. Syllabus. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. Co-curricular activities.5. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. 5. council and. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. and Personnel services. which will be discussed in the general. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion.curricular Activities. 308 .• implemented. etc.

Undertaking remedial instruction services. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. 3. scientific and historical excursions. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Courts. Celebrating of national and international festivals. etc. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. 2. Conducting of educational. 1.No. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . etc. Improving the internal assessment. Organisation of class-room libraries. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Preparation of models. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. etc. Organisation of Students’ Association. etc. Fair distribution of syllabi. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Editing the school magazine. Organising play-for-all programmes.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Equipping of laboratory and library. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. charts and apparatus. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. hobby-centres. Organisation of Pupils. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Running science clubs. Preparation of instructional material.

The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. parent-teacher associations. etc. teacher-teacher. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. students’ associations. teacherinspector. administrator-pupil. which are divided as the in. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. headmasters associations. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. pupil310 . pupils. teacher-pupil. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace.5.” The human relationships in. teacher-State. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. administrator-supervisor. and solidarity. and —pupil-pupil. teacher-managing body. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. co-operation. involving mainly human materials. ii. teachers. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. parents. understanding.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. Administrator-State. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. science teachers’ associations. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. administrator-administrator. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school.5. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe.

social sciences and other disciplines.5. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. to carry out. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”.State. etc. teacher-parent. and to serve. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. control. 311 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Good. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. It is also being modernized to become a technique. to accomplish. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. organisation. According to C. It covers personnel and material management. teacher-community leader. supervision and superintendence. pupil-community leader. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. To administer means to manage. pupil-parent. organisation and management. administrator. pupil-inspector.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. V. now-a-days. superintendence. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. supervision. to attend. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. pupil-non-official functionaries. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer.

Better Human Relationships . without this the efficacy will be handicapped.Any good management will always have good public relations. Communication .The manager should take his subordinates into confidence.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. 8. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. Cost-Benefit Analysis .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. If the cost benefit ratio is less. Decision Making . He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. He should be an artist in human relationships. Those. Liasion with the Public . He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 9. Worker Participation . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. who occupy the managerial positions. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. 11. 10.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. 4.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. it is not worth-while. Economic Management . 6. The relationship should change from master. 3.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. 5. This is the latest democratic trend in management.Management should be efficient and economical 312 .Of all the approaches. Socio-Scientific Approach .This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. If it is more. Democratic Management .Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. 13.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees.The manager should have leadership traits. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . Leadership . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. 12. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. Rapport between the Management and Employees . It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. Motiviation . low. 2. 7.

Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance .10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. objective. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. to improve the quality of education it provides. 19. 5.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. 313 . Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. enrichment of curricula. 5. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. 14. improvement of teaching methods.g.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. 18. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Wastage and duplication should be avoided.too.These two are. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and cooperative performance should be ensured.5. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning.

Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. b. 2. S. (2001). APH Publishing Corporation. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. Educational Administration. b. e. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. H. Syllabus.5. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. NUEPA.5. f. and Personnel services.5. (1995).11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Classwork. a. a. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. (2003). b. Communication 5. In group and Out group 5. Co-curricular activities. d. it becomes the basis for school inspection.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Decision Making b. Examinations. Instruction.K. a. Leadership c. Motiviation d. 314 . Singh. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. 4. Fundamental of Educational Management. c. Tarachand and Prakash. R. a.M.

Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Healthy Food Habit 4.2 Nutritional deficiencies. Economic 315 .Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.1 Primary Education : Education for all.Article 45 . Code of conduct for teachers.1 Gurukula system of education. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Preservation of nutrients. First Aid. Examination reforms. School.I. 2. Inspection and Supervision 3. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.5 Regional Educational Development in India .1 School Health Programme. nutritional requirement. Balanced diet.1 Inculcation of Socialism.teachers should have : 1. Communicable diseases .5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . New evaluation procedures. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. Buddhist and Jain system of education.4 India's Secular Policy . wastage and Stagnation 3.Preventive measures.Religious and Modern Education 1. social Impact 3.Pre-service and In-services facilities. women education and teacher education in India. Sex-education 4.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Common ailments of Children. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.3 Directive Principles . population education. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.CORE PAPER .Imbalances and Variations in different environment. higher education. Realized the problems of school education. 1. 4. Community and Mass Media 2.3 Educational Influences of Home. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. physical education and environmental education 5.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.

Ram S.S. (1999) Culture. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Taneja V.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. (2005) Foundations of Education.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Delhi : University Publications 2.N. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. 5. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Curriculum and national goals . New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms.1 Idealism.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Tagore 5.K.K. Naturalism and Pragmatism . (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. T. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.4 4. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. and Human Development. R. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. Prof. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. Ghanta R. 316 . curriculum and teacher's role 5. Saraswathi T. and Sharma R. Mishra. Realism.K. New Delhi: NCERT 3.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. 7. (2004) Problems of Education in India.N. Hemchand. Socialization. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Mahatma Gandhi.4. Pandy V. and Mohanty R. REFERENCE 1. Sharma.R. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.C.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.Aim. and Dash B. B.K.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles .

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