Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

UNIT: 1 – V



Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer



Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56


Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University


67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5



3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education

127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233


5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4


UNIT – I 7 .

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The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Lesson 4. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Jainism and their educational implication. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. The need. Lesson 5. 9 . regional imbalances and variations in different environment.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. In. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. discusses the regional educational development in India. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. Lesson 2. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. and Jain system of education.

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1 1.5 Jain system of education Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.LESSON Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.6 Education during British Era 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.6.4 Buddhist system of Education Aims of Jain system of Education Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.5.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1.

Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.8 1. India.6.3. Education in India. has a long past history starting in vedic education. both present and future. 1.9 1. elucidate the education during British Era.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.1.1. Indian in blood and colour.1. Muslim and British periods. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. you will be able to: 1. in morals and in the intellect”. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. in opinion. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.1. but English in taste.1.1.1. 1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.7 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. “a class of persons.1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. That 12 . British system of education presented the modern western model. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. The history of education passed through Buddhist.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. describe the Jain system of Education 4.6. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.

No State Control on Education. from darkness. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. however. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. Role of Travel in Education. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. Where pupils were many. 5. It was not merely intellectual. individually. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. 13 . 16. with grants of land or money. The immediate aim of education. as it is generally considered to be at present. generally. Method of Instruction. 13. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. the monitorial plan was followed. to light. It was also moral. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. 10. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. 14. if they thought fit to do so. High Status of Teachers. 8.knowledge was real. Education of Moral. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. and to agriculture and trade. 6. Individual Teaching. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. 4. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Teacher as Parents. Pupils were taught. Free and Accessible. Education was a private affair of the people. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. 11. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Forests as Centres of Education. Religious and Spiritual. religious and spiritual. Immediate Aim Vocational. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 9. questioning by the pupil. not en masse by the class method. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Residential Schools. There was. followed by explanation by the teacher. from eternal to immorality 2. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. 12. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. 3. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Curriculum. managed entirely by Brahmans. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Method of Study.

What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? .2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. It was freely available to all those who wanted.1. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. They were very cordial and intimate. 2. lived a life of celebacy. studied Vedas.3. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. 1. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. It was suited to the needs of the society. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Wide-Spread Education in Women. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India.17. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection.

15 . Education was imparted through the. Right contemplation 1. impure conduct. Right thought 3. Right means of livelihood 6. Right endeavour 7. the most significant of which were the following 1.C.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. partaking of food at prohibited times. Right knowledge 2. Right memory 8. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. use of intoxicating things.4. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. It was denied only to the ill. dressed himself in yellow clothes. medium of Pali. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. except the Chandals. the handicapped. taking things without being offered. After attaining the age of 20.1. every class in society. Consequently. 2. Right speech 4. killing of any living being. the student had his head shaved of all hair. the student remained in a state of Shramana. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. which included abstaining from theft. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. in which. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. watching dances or listening to music. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. disease and death of the human beings. he was qualified to become a monk. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. I take Refuge to Dharma. 1. Right activity 5. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. etc. use of cosmetics. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. had the right to receive education. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. I take Refuge to Sangh. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education.

7. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. along with education in script writing. Life is in a flux. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. archery. eat food thrice a day. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. archery. 6. 5. These are called later Buddhist schools. a continuous change creating 16 . the presence of the monks was essential. cottage industries. women occupied a position inferior to men. so long as it successfully does so. it is regarded as true”. knowledge of reviving the dead. be considered the aim of education It. Hence. Even at this stage. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. After this ritual. has no metaphysical value for life. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. etc. agriculture. 4. changing the goals. 3. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. On this occasion. control over sensuous activities. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. a change is not only total but also perpetual. of clothes. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. Later on. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. Whatever its nature and extent. bodily gestures. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. nothing is of any permanent consequence. Initially. beg for alms. and.4. 1. arithmetic and religious discussion. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. wear three items. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. etc. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. approach. commerce. nature. animal husbandry. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. 2. objectives of human life. magic. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life.3. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. It comprehended education in writing. depth and range. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. geology. assumptions. elephant lore. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. handicrafts. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. military science.. etc. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. As reality is becoming. education was impart in art. meaning. however. therefore. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. medicine. aspirations and. the science of taming and training animals. 8.

i. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. whatever works are true and good. goes to Vardhaman. 1. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. 5. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. However.5. its pessimistic outlook on life. In fact. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. Jainism insists 17 . Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. and to give it a shape that it has today. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. however.. therefore. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed.1.e. Its chief feature. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Write Eight fold path . is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Education must. such as. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. it is much older than the latter. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. Validity is effective and and peculiar situations.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching.

5. Hence. 3. b) Right knowledge. 18 . 7. d) To lead a celibate life. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. 9. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. 3. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. b) Not utter falsehood. They are: a) Not to injure. 2. and believe in happiness to all. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. 8. but on both. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage.1. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 2. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. thought and deed. 6. more stress on individual aims.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. 1. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. As such. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. rather than the interpretation of the universe. c) Not to steal. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. e) To renounce the world. 10. 1. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. and is to be redeemed and liberated. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma.5. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. c) Right conduct. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. 4. Development of personality as an individual. it has a foot in both the words. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect.

Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. Teaching must develop these faculties. here and now.5. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. success and love. 4. therefore. What are Triratnas ? . 1.4. practised and not only aspired for. 2.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 5. 8. Jiva is essentially karmic. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. 3. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . 3. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. education must be action based and ideally oriented. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Hence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. 19 . education should develop sense of discrimination. that would be socially desirable. Belief in transmigration of soul.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. and should bring happiness to all. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Teaching should be social and tolerant. 2. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue.

However. 2. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.6. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. Bombay.1. 1. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. with rally and rout. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. Madras. and not for life.1. primary 20 . The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. 1.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service.6. 1.6. 1. science. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. To set up separate departments of.6. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. 1953). North West Province and Punjab. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. philosophy and literature of Europe.

godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. To ensure qualitative improvement. In 1882. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). • Secondary education. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was was neglected. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. 1.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). At that time M. Later on. • Universal free primary education. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. 1. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 .6. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. 1.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. namely. at the primary level. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. The universities dominated the secondary education.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India.6.K. secondary education became a step towards university.6. self-respecting and competent. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially.

The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9.1. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions.At the primary stage (6-11 years). all children are to have a common curriculum. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. 10. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . After this stage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire.

23 . The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. geology. military science. along with education in script writing. 3. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools.1. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. 4. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. science and English language. Right endeavour. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. Right knowledge. 2. It was suited to the needs of the society. Right means of livelihood. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The system of education was well-organised. followed by explanation by the teacher. During the Buddhist period. The immediate aim of education. a. 1. 6. 5. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. Right activity. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. 2. the science of taming and training animals. b. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Right thought. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil.1. arithmetic and religious discussion. questioning by the pupil. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. establishment of of European literature. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. 1. 3.. 4. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. Right speech. handicrafts. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. archery. education was impart in art. Right contemplation. etc. Right memory.

b. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Development of personality as an individual. 9. Aggarwal. Right faith. (2005).1.K. 10. Improvement of Literature. Y. History of Indian Education System.C. Right knowledge. Sharma. Sargent report 12. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. J. Singh. (2009). Hence. Ltd. R. Y. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva.C. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. 24 . Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. 1882. c. J. (1984). Development of Educational System in India.K. Right conduct. 11. a.7. more stress on individual aims. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. 1937 1. b. and Nath. (2007).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. a. 8. Ltd.

3 Kothari Commission 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.2.1 University Education Commission 1.2.8 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.LESSON 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2 1.1 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.6 1.9 1.2. The 25 .2.4 National Policy on Education 1.

medical and legal education. technological engineering.2. expansion of vocational. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. vocational education. standard of teaching. National Council for Women’s Education 5. 1986 1. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. New Educational Policy. secondary and higher education.conditions of the teachers.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. 2. diversification of courses of studies. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. girls and women education besides primary. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. National Board of Teacher Education 10. Post-graduate 26 . Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1. 1. There had been vast institutional expansion.2. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. you will be able to: 1. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. explosion of enrolment.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. technical. analyse the progress of education in free India. curriculum.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. examination system. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2.2. S. Kothari (1964-66) 8.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3.

assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. in January 1985. Kothari. 1.3. 1.teaching. accumulated over the years. 1966. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. A. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. A meaningfully Partnership. 1986. utility and financial outlay. The national system of education envisages common educational structure.3. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. research et. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. quantity. D. 1952. 2. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. the New National Policy on Education. However.2. 4. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. National System of Education. Education for Equality.S. The Essence and Role of Education. the chairman of University Grants commission. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. material and spiritual.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. Finally.2. 3. 1. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. Education is the key to our allround development.3.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. Problems of access. quality. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. Government of India.2. Therefore.

By working with hands.2. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. The UNESCO Report. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. the minorities and the handicapped. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. attitudes. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1.” Thus. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. the concepts of work experience. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Thus. It can train practical aptitudes. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 28 .of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women.

the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . With adequate planning. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. “It may be described. “The aim of these colleges.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. In 1955. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. According to. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. co-ordinations. As such. The Radhakrishnan Commission. the Commission. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. The Education Commission." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X.” the Kothari Commission mentioned.” The Mudaliar Commission.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. Besides. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. it will conduce self. if he wishes.

determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further.. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. raising the special facilities. the semester and credit system. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. etc. Therefore. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. for quality of life in the rural areas. In addition. the. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. With a view to relating education to the life. The Central Advisory Board of Education.ot her. the rigid streaming of courses. Subsequently. admission requirements to vocational courses.

NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. who conceived the System of Basic Education. meaningful.2.. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. which are useful to the community.defined S UP W as “purposive. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. manual work resulting in either goods or services. preferably spinning and weaving. 1. felt that education should be centred around a craft. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. The Father of Nation. In short. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji.and the world of work. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. aimed at this goal. meaningful. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. which offer scientific. technological courses including Agriculture. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. 31 . For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. which swept the country for over two decades. Commerce. According to committee. etc. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. The wave of Basic Education. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. giving importance to productivity in the national development.

Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Shelter 4. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Clothing 5. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. The teachers should make use of. 3. Experimentation with materials. so that it is educational in essence. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Productive 2. Educative and 3. 2. 4. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. be that the work involved is: 1. Community work and social service. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. locally available materials and tools. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Culture and recreation 6.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. as far as possible. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. Health and Hygiene 2. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Food 3. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. 32 . tools and techniques and 3. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Work practice. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1.

Reduction of gap in work and education 2. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject.5. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Community Service In-1972. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. To make education more realistic. Education through work The SUPW should. 6. inculcate a faith. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. 1. Check on educated unemployed 4. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. improve discipline. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. as far as possible. removal of illiteracy. slum clearance.2. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. It can become an instrument to build character. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Productive Work 33 . The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. etc. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Merits of the Programme 1. the local community should be actively associated. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Such activities may include projects of village uplift.

Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. should involve itself in the educational effort. offering first aid.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. traffic control. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. helping the adults-in productive work. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . in turn.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. The community. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. AICTE was set up in year 4. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. Define SUPW 34 . etc. skills and better future for the children. if not productive. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods.

1. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. meaningful.2. 1955 4. 35 .7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. c. manual work resulting in either goods or services. Radhakrishnan 2. f. 1952 3.2. Dr. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.2. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 1. 3. d. 6. e. b. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. 2. 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Write short note on SUPW. which are useful to the community.

New Delhi: A.(2005).D. History and Problems of Indian Education. Ltd. Amala. B. and Rao. Y. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Anupama. 36 .P. : Sharma. (2005). Development of Educational System in India. Publishing Corporation. R.H. J. Singh.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.C. History of Indian Education System.P.K. P. (2007). (2007). (2009). and Nath. History of Education. V.1.. A. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.2.K. Y.K. Rao.

It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.369 words in the English language version.5 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.8 1. establishing the structure. assuring its citizens of justice. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. directive principles and duties of citizens. there is an official Hindi translation.7 1.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.1 1.3.3. containing 395 articles. Besides the English version. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. procedures. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.1 Significance of DPSP and liberty.3.3. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. 1949.2 1. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. it came into effect on January 26.3. Being the supreme law of the country. equality. democratic republic. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. 1950.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3. 37 .6 1.3.9 1.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.4 1.3. for a total of 117.

economic. 1. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. legal and environmental. After many deliberations and some modifications. Through them.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. 1947.3. understand our Indian constitution. 3. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. for 166 days. the Drafting Committee was appointed. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. learn the role of central and state government on education.In the August 14. 1. spread over a period of 2 years. social. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. you will be able to: 1. 1947. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented.3. The Assembly met. Dr. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. On August 29. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 1. Two days later. in sessions open to public. 1950. 2. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. political. 4. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. According to the constitution.3. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.3. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. with Dr. administrative. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. 38 .

Article 40. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. old age. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. for workers. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. sickness and disablement. provide free legal aid. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. Condition for dignity of children. men and women. Article 39A. Protecting children from exploitation. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. and shall. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. on the basis of equal opportunity. Right to work. Organisation of village panchayat. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. in particular. make effective provision for securing the right to work. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Article 41. That the health and strength of workers. Article 43. The State shall endeavour to secure.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. and in other cases of undeserved want. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. Liking wage etc. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. No abuse of children. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Protecting health of the workers. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Minimising inequalities in status. The State shall. Appropriate concentration of wealth.government. 39 . Article 42. Equal pay for both sex. Equal justice and free legal aid.

Article 48A. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. to all workers. The State shall endeavour to provide. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. by suitable legislation or in any other way. Article 45. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. The State shall take steps. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Article 47. and. 2002 for “45. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 48. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Article 46. in particular. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. work. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. a living wage. Article 49. Article 44. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Note: Subs. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Participation of workers in management of industries. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. (Original Article 45. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. industrial or otherwise. agricultural. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Article 43A. See also Article 21A). and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. [declared by or under law made by 40 . in particular. in suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health.

Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002.3.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. Article 45 . Article 50. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. Article-21A Right to Education. 2002. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. 1. disposal or export. may be law determine”. 2. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. disfigurement. as the case may be. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.Parliament] to be of national importance. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. destruction. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. from spoliation. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. removal. Separation of judiciary from executive. Promotion of international peace and security.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. Article 51.

his guardian has given his consent thereto. in particular. language or any of them”. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act.” 42 . Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. 4. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. 2002. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. caste. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. from justice and all forms of exploitations. 5. race. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. and. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. if such person is a minor. 6. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 8. 3. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. 7. and shall protect them. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. iii. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. ii.

& 1. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.9. and by drawing. for its vocabulary. The central government determines targets and promotes education. 43 . style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. wherever necessary or desirable. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . 2. the forms. Educational Reforms From time to time. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. Article 351 gives importance to 6.3.

The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b.. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. the state governments. Production of suitable for children and adults f. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. etc. By starting these projects. The following pilot projects. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. 6. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. 7. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. All India Council of Medical Science. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. 4. So as to encourage education on right lines. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Local bodies and private enterprise. 8. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. So that they may work well. to achieve the desired ends. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education.3. private agencies etc. 5. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring).

It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. education for women. handicapped. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. etc. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 1. The 45 . Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. 9. 4. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. 1. 12. 3. Material concerning nation-wide interests. books. training and statistics. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. is the state responsibility. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. research. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. reports etc. 11. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned.3. 10. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. are published by it. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries.

Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Explain Directive principles 2. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Article 45 b. Write short notes on a. 1.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. articles in the Directive principles. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. 46 .7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9.3. Article 21A c. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Article 46 4. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government.3. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45.

embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. b. 2002. 47 . Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. a. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. The Directive Principles of State Policy.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 4. 1.3. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. a. Describe the educational role of State Government. Article 45 . Article 29 and 30 7. b. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. may be law determine”. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Clearing House function 9. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. a. Article 46 5. Article-21A Right to Education.5. Dr. 2002. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Development of Hindi Language 6.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Ambedkar 2. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 3.

Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Bhatia. Dash. S. (2008). New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. (2007). New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. 48 . Education in Emerging Indian Society.1. L. K. N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. (2009). K and Narang C. B.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2004). S. Ghosh.

The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.4.4.5 1.6 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.1 Why Moral Education 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.1 1.4 Moral education What Constitutes Moral Education 1. Jainism.4.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1. religious education should be broad based. Buddhism etc.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4. Students should be 49 .4.4.4. Islam.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4. Christianity.7 1.

and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. know the position of religious education in our country 3.” Education broadens human outlook. state meaning and need for moral education 1. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. religious education and the concept of secularism. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. Thus.4.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. According to E. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. As result of which. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong.and dedication. you will be able to: 1.. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.4. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. "In A multireligious society like ours. beauty and goodness so that 50 . In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66).3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. 1.D. integrity. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. India' can produce men of character. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. duty-consciousness. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. In the complicated and complex society of today.

our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. As our country is a country of diverse religions. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. through religious practices and 51 . They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. Viewing the defects of religious education. According to Article 22. 1. Hence. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy.” From the above. No religious tax can be imposed on them. In short. Thus. Children attend these organizations. if not regularly. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. castes and creeds.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. all citizens are free to follow any creed. As a matter of fact. They thought that any kind of narrow. rancour.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. it is clear that the State has no religion. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education.3. 1. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society.4. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. According to Article 19. 1947 we achieved our freedom. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. at least occasionally. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged.3. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. realizes God in himself. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. religion and democracy are same. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate.4.

aggressive. As a result of which. It helps to modify habits attitudes. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. for the development of the individual and the society. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. and what is evil. He also learns about social.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. Good education. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. what is done and what is not done etc. which help him for the development of his character. It is religious education. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. when he becomes an adult. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way.. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. temperament etc. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good.teachings. which can mould. one fully developed. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . intellectual and physical faculties of children. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. If unreleased. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. moral and spiritual values.

1. This should not be allowed to happen. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. 3. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. If we open the pages of history. 53 . which is the basic need of a democratic life. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society.3. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly.4. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. 2.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. towards the society. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. Therefore. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. therefore. stories of moral greatness. 11. Gurudwara as. Life histories of great persons of the world. they should be discussed in the right earnest. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. churches and mosques 7. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.5. Since all religions have virtues. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Write Article 22 2. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. examples of patriotism. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. For this. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 10.4. fellow-feeling. 9.

Cultivation of emotions. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). 6. Asvada (Control of palate). they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Swadeshi (Patriotism). 1. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 1. Service to others. the methods of teaching. 7. Satyam (truth). Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. The content of the curriculum. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. therefore. It they learn what morality is in their early years. 4. Aparigarha (Non.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. They will play their role effectively. Self sacrifice. 8. 7.acquisitiveness). Purity. students. 5. 8.4. 5. 2. Patriotism. in the home. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. 6.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 3. Non-injury. is that which develops moral values. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Without moral values. Moral education. 2. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. 55 . Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. let men see well of one another. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. “Let all be happy and free from disease. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Brahmacharya (celebacy). the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 4. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. 3. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Fearlessness.4.

Simple texts and stories concerning different. Efficiency. loyalty and self-sacrifice. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. 1. Unity of mankind. Asatyam (Non-thieving). Integrity. 2. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Secondary Stage 1. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History.9. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction.4. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Good temper. In the school programme. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Good manners. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Sharivashram (Physical work). The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). 4. The School Assembly should be held for a few. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 11. 10. religions may be included in the syllabus. minutes in the morning for group singing. 56 . National unity and Spiritual values. 3. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. discipline. 3. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Discipline. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5.

5. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. 4. 2. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. should form a normal part of school programme. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . patriotism and self-discipline. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. University Stage 1. 5.4. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. 57 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. In this connection. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. love of humanity. In other words. Silent meditation should be encouraged. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

1. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. Discuss the aims of Religious education. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. 2. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. 1. b. For this.4. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.4. a. 4. In short. 1. 2. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. the. b. 58 .8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. a.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Training of Character 3. 1959 5. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. a. Sri Prakasa 6 .4. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. The School Assembly should be held for a few. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. minutes in the morning for group singing.

L.1. Anmol Publications Pvt. P. (2007). J.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Pahuja. Publishing Corporation.H. New Delhi : Siddiqui. New Delhi: A. (2008). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.4. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. 59 . (2008). Bhatia. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Dash. M. Theory and Principles of Education.H. K and Narang C. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.P. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. N. Ltd. B. (2003). K. (2004).C. N.

2 1.5. Although.9 1.6 1. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5..11 1.3 1.5.7 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.1 1.5.12 1.5 1.4 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.5.10 1.5.e. disparities between provinces/States.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. 1.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1. 60 . i.

roads. 8. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. know the education suited to different environments. This leads to separatist movements. 3. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. 6.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. 61 .3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics.5. 5. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. work hard towards this end. 1. Accordingly. 2. they take appropriate measures.5. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. for example.5. 1. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. understand the regional educational development in India 3. etc. 7.1. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. energy.5. waters. you will be able to: 1. 4. They therefore. 1. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence.

4. 2.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. Tight security arrangements should be made. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . and.5. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. while others remained educationally backward. • Separate States (of course viable States). on the basis of regional development may be formed. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. Secularism. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. some average. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. some States became educationally far advanced. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. 62 . 3. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. Therefore. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets.

Itanagar. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. NERIST.392. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. Out of this. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. and provision of informal education to enable those. while some States like Bihar.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. Mizoram. Tezpur. Funds amounting to Rs. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. 1. In the Central sector.. scholarships. the State Governments. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments.After the Planning Process has originated. After the attainment of independence.84 crore was released in 2005-06. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. Guwahati.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. Nagaland and NEHU. approved proposals worth Rs. These projects are in various stages of implementation. Even in each State.480. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. etc. Rs. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. 63 . in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. Central Universities of Assam. since its inception in 1998-99. Jammu and Kashmir.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. etc. Silchar. Regional Centres of IGNOU. remained under developed. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. However. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. academic buildings.5. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. library buildings. books.g. the Union Government. NIT.14.

8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.187. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.501. A provision of Rs.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).261.8 per cent in 05). is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. 64 .57 crore and Rs.40. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. During 2003-04. Out of this an amount of Rs. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. Tezpur University.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). Source: National Portal Content Management Team. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.5. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. Government expenditure on education. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.500. Moreover. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. too.05 crore and Rs.

is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. too. for instance. for which 16 sites. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). Moreover. notes the study. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). is very low compared to Southern and western parts. engineering and R&D. Listing the positives. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Tamil Nadu. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Andhra Pradesh. Medical education. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. Karnataka. too. Karnataka. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. The Chandigarh Administration. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. pharma. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra.5. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. too. To add to the woes. 1. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. English. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Kerala and Gujarat.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. telecom.

which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. the vocations. taking the average in the middle. the interests. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. when he will not be sure of time. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. 66 .people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the working days: an academic . In the same manner. the socio-physical conditions. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. The working hours of educational institutions. the teaching methods.year. The living conditions. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. the needs. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. Hence it is called as need-based. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. in which the learners live. Of course. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. while the former does not. the curricular subjects. life-oriented and environment slanted. For a learner living in a rural area. Then education become realistic and idealistic. and so on. even actually looking at the watch. which a non-tribal person cannot do. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only.

5. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.5.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1.5. 2.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. 2.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. to suit education to different environments? 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 67 . Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.

R. Educational Development in India. (2008). and Nair. Education in Developmental Arena. (2001).13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. some States have become more developed than others b. Education Scenario in India. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. Salim. 68 . A.N. (2001).H. Giridhar. Dubey. remained undeveloped 3. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. C.2. some of areas which were under the native rulers. a. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.G. New Delhi: Authors press. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 60% 1.K. during the British rule.5. (2002). S.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. school community and mass media. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. secularism and democracy through Indian education. 71 . The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. National Integration. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. community development. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Present situation of Secularism in India Education for Secularism 2.1.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.2 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1 Main features of Socialism 2.9 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.LESSON Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1.1 2.1.7 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4 2.6.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.

analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy.1. Democracy thus means power of the people. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. there should be made no distinction of caste. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. you will be able to: 1. socialistic and secular state. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. 3) Provision of Manual Work. 2. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. socialism and secularism 2.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.2.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. socialism and secularism 2. for the people by the people”. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.1.1. understand the concept of democracy. Abraham Lincoln. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. 73 . colour or wealth. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. The students may be associated with the management of the school. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 2. creed. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. In the matter of admitting students in schools. This is the political aspect of democracy.1. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and.

2.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. declamation contest etc. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. 11) Student Parliament. 12) Visits to Legislatures. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. There are different brands of socialism. may be planned. it soon spread all over the world. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. debates. 74 . Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. Democracy means 2.

“Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. oppression and disparity. the wealthy and the poor. 7) Special facilities for girls. Under it.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 2. the prince and the peasant. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. free from exploitation. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 2. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. but on the path of non-violence. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.5.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society.1. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. service and cooperation. 2) Socialism aims at equality.5. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses.1. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 75 . none high”.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools.

"which seeks the development of physical. 11) State schools. Everyone says. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. Write any two main features of socialism. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. According to Holydake. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. “India is a secular-country. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States.” In every political and educational corner. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. secularism is being propagated. 76 . 5. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children.1. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.

Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. people started believing in regionalism. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. the belief that the state morals. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. 8) It believes in co-existence. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing.6. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. There is need of making the people open minded. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas.1. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 5) It implies tolerance. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.6. education etc. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. people have narrow mindedness. 2. 77 . In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. fraternity. liberty.1. “Webster further says. 3) It permits freedom of worship. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. During the recent past.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. Moral values have to be imbibed. Equality. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines.opposed to religious education. 9) It stress free inquiry. That is why. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. A large number of people is uneducated. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. should be independent of religion. In this type of prevailing situations.

the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. education. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. that the central string of all religions is one. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 .presented by the students in the gathering. The students may be taken to different centers of religions.6. The very sight of the building. Religious Education. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. While doing so. In the hands of such teachers. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations.1. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. 2. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. 1) Moral Education. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. tours and trips may be organized. In the celebration of each such function. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. No doubt. students belonging to different religions should be associated. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. Patiala. There should be some internal checking of the material being. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other.

2. The word “Seculum” means 7. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . Define Secularism 9. The term secularism was first used by 8. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. No doubt.

Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. Tuition free education b. 5. 6. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. colour or wealth. creed. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. The students may be associated with the management of the school. d. 4.1. a. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. for the people and the people”. Socialism aims at equality. George Jacob Holydake 80 . a.1. c. 2. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Respect of Individual Personality. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Abraham Lincoln. b. 5.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Socialism aims at social justice. In the matter of admitting students in schools. b. Provision of Manual Work. 3. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. a. Equal Opportunities for Admission. 4. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. 3. there should be made no distinction of caste. This present age 7. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Since socialism stands for equality. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. Power of the people 2. What are the implications of socialism on education 2.

K. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Ltd.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. a. a. 81 . J. education etc. Mohanty. Theory and Principles of Education. Dash. Ltd. b. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. (2008). Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J. Bhatia. It treats all religions on an equal footing. (2003). (2007).1. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. b. N. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. P. It permits freedom of religion. K and Narang C.” 9. B. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2004).C. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2005). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. 10. N. New Delhi : Pahuja. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.8. L. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. the belief that the state morals. should be independent of religion.

8 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.9 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.3 2.2.2 knowledge and experience of one 82 .LESSON 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.6.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.1 2.

as learners. social. aims and objectives of the school. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. 2. It involves physical. as workers. therefore. social and moral aspects. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. 3. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. as persons. development. 2. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2.generation to another. mental. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values.2. 83 . as it is t he aim o f modern education. skills. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. emotional. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. application.2. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. A teacher is first and foremost. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental instructor of school children. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. and 4. who are placed in his custody. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. moral. The developmental roles of children. as citizens. you will be able to: 1. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. a r e 1. understandings.

2. socially. experiences and acceptance. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. inquisitive. morally.2. member of his community at the outset. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. physically fit for socially efficient. a part of their day in 84 . any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. and aesthetically to become. motivated. He has to look after their physical. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. He is to become an active member. mental. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. teacher has to play the role of a citizen.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. emotionally. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. culturally confident. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. Teacher as a Citizen Next. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. The following are some of such roles described in brief. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers.All education should lead to better behavioural development. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. mentally. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. economically effective. social and emotional health. intellectually. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. 2. morally. 1. 3. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. The students live.

2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. 2. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. languages and religions. creeds. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. photographic clubs. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. India is a land of many castes. 4. List out the role of teachers towards community development . there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. They will be spending with their parents. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. and most of hours. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward.the school being under the custody of teachers. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. activities of the society into which he is born. science club. It 85 . Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. solve them. Unless.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. faiths. Dr. fine art associations.

narrow-minded provincial. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. c. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. national anthem and other national songs. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. the citizens of the Republic of India.2. At the primary stage the importance of stories. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . ‘We should not become parochial. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration.” 2. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. poems. and make into one strong national unit. Nehruji has explained this as. a. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. this integration of the Indian people. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 .” Regarding the role of education. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. b. the study of language and literature. with straight backs and look up at the skies. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. Sampurnanand remarked. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. stand up Let us. folklore and teaching of social studies. It should broaden the outlook. social studies. 1. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. therefore. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. Radhakrishnan.5.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. The only process is the process of education.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. should be emphasised.

educational excursions. Textbooks. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Singing of National Anthem. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. sports. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. ACC. 9. 5.different social sciences. dramatics and youth festivals. and picnics. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. 7. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. 6. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Scouts and Guides. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. National Days—January 26. Student Camps. 4. militar y training like the NCC. 10. 3. symposia. Taking Pledge. tours. debates. 87 . 8. Co-Curricular Activities. t he st udent s and t he community. Celebrations of National Days. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Uniform for School Children. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Reverence of National Flag. 2. languages and literature.

15. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery.2. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. flora and fauna. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc.11.5. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. ii. language. Students Exchange and Tours. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. iv. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. 14. v. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Admissions. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. 16. 12. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. 13. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Recognition of Institutions. ways of thinking and doing things. School Projects. colour. iii. Open-Air Dramas. region or religion. Educational and Travel Documentaries. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. 88 . Admissions to schools. 2.

camps. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. irrespective of national boundaries. Define National Integration 3. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. vii. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 .6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. ix. viii. cultures and races on equal bases. 2. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students.2. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Community dinners. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes :

(d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. This. Therefore. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. important as that of a national citizenship.friendships between children of different countries. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. therefore. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. 2.e. 5. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen..” 2.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. (c) fairly tales. Teachers 90 . and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.2. Dr.F.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. and the healthy development. 3. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. of his body and mind. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 6. that war. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .6. Organising of debates and. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. Radhakrishnan states. if it happens. often in connection with anniversaries. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. C. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. patriotism is not enough. In a very real sense. 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.6. Strong has observed. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. the international level. (b) stories of children of other lands.

and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . Russian. Indian and American. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. They should not be propagandists. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. a German. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. an Englishman. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race.” Well Informed About World Situations.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Impartial in their Treatment. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.

which results in agitation and aggression language. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties.2. 5.Another major.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. If this is done. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. It does not prepare students for life. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them.2. and help the students to over . Devaluation of Values . 2. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . the education function can be carried. Chronic Poverty .Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. there is wide spread frustration among all people. majority of people are. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. Defects of the educational System . Wide Spread Frustration . students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. As the school is but a miniature society. 4.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. understand and indiscipline: 1. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. leading to. 3. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies.

4. community development.democratic nature. 2. sympathy and good will among the nations. List out the factors causing social tension in schools .9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding.2. 2. 5. love. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. co-operation. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. fellow feeling. 3. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. 2.2. 93 .

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System


Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.


STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency Functions and role of schools in the society Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency Radio as an agency of education Television as an agency of education Press as a medium of education Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”. IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.

9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.

16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together. MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.




1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society


2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.


education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. Now internet is being used. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Emphasising this thing. periodicals. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. In fact.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. Moreover. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Museums. Hence. Crow and Crow write. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . are increasingly used in education. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. “All the citizens of the community. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. He taught his students orally. To make them achieve their aim. art galleries. Then came newspapers.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. 2. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. During the course of time.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual.V. the invention of the printing press. citizens and school leaders must co-operate.3. Define community. led to the printing of books. books. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

Important happening inventions. Effective means of presenting music. dram appreciation. languages.3. Various talks. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. 2. In the emphasis is on sound. Students listen various talks.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. the teacher still occupies. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. politics. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. current affairs and other areas. art. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Thus.6. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. “Listening participation” in current history. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. the place of importance. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. It is also an important source of entertainment. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. A lot of work by way of pre. 101 . Reynolds. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. It stimulates curiosity and interests. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. music. rather than on picture. social studies.telecast. In collaboration with the experts. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. It enlightens public opinion. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries.G. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. 2. Thus. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers.classroom teachers.

at any place. at recreational centers. 5. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. audibility and presentability. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. plays. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. speech. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. 3. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. At present. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. Participation of local teachers and pupils. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Making learning an open system. 4. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. informal and non-formal education. development of lessons. style. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. at play. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. mathematics. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. fol classical music. at drawing room. 102 . School concerts. travel talks. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. Before presenting the programme. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. Team-teaching demonstrations.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. projects or creative activities.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.


Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.


For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.


Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.

2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.

Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4 Limitations of formal education 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.LESSON 2.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4 Non formal educational system 2.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.7 2.4.5 2.8 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education Advantages of formal education Aims of Non formal education 2.2 2.2 Levels of formal education system Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.4.

enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education.4. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. 2. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. it was mostly. starting and ending at -a particular age.4. 6. 3. 5.. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. 4.3.2. the most important agency of formal education. the temple. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. imparted at the residence of the teacher.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. compare formal and non formal system of education.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. In ancient time in India. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. open school. 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. 9. the learner are acquainted. 2. 8.4. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. To realize this objective of education. his mental alertness. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. Education. 2. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. you will be able to: 1. 3. open university.4. Education associated with a degree or certificate. the family. 4. say the Government or the private enterprise. 2. School is. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. the mass media et. Education organised by some agency. 110 . Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 7. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. the community.

depending on the jurisdiction. Higher Education: Higher education. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. as well as vocational education and training.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Some education systems have separate middle schools. or post secondary education. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. or academic degrees. Through early formal education. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. 2. diplomas. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling.4. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. third stage. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. such as a high school or secondary school. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . In general.a secondary education. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. structured education.4.3.3. also called tertiary. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. capacity. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years.2. the elements of language are first learned. Concepts of proportion. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen.

Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. and remote dwellers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.which will help for nation's development. What are levels of formal educational system? .4. 4. 2.3. children with disabilities. Agencies can be classified as 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. is an important agency of formal education.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. late beginners etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . 2.4. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. 3. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Write any two characteristics of formal education? .

However. Therefore. it is a more effective tool for rural development.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. it has its own valid claim to reality. It is much more responsive to needs and change. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. curriculum. adding up to a true learning society. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. It is deliberate.formal education. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. staffed.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief..” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. i. adults as well as children. until 1970 it had not been defined. Adiseshiah. financially supported life formal education.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. admissions. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. place of instruction. It unlocks the doors of development plans. Thus. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. to help themselves. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. etc. “Non-formal education should 113 . work and the opportunity to put learning to use. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Non-formal education includes adult education.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. open learning.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. systematic. According to Malcolm A. systematic. It is functional.learning client take some learning objectives. planned. continuing education and on the job oriented education.e. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. Open university. one could say that non-formal education is an active.

5. modes of teaching. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. To develop in the student. 114 . Lawrence. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. self.” According to H. Part-time education. 2.4. exploring. evaluation etc. international understanding. Covering life span of an individual. It should lay emphasis on the self. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. place of education. 7. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.4.S. Process of sharing. 2. curriculum. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge.e. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. 6. socialism.renewal. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. admissions. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. age. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other marketable and vocationalised.” 2. To help industrial workers to better their skills. Flexibility in various aspects of education.4.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. national integration. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. 4. Preparation for future needs. co-curricular activities. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved.4. 3. the Ideas of citizenship.learning pattern. i.S.

2. 8. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. 5. 4. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 7. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. Meeting the omissions of formal education. 10. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 2. 3.4. in villages and those who live in towns. Senior Secondary. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. Technical.4. 115 . housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 9. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. working adults. 4. Eradication of adult literacy. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. Universalisation of primary education. 6.4. 5.4. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. school dropouts. publication and information dissemination. • 2. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. 3. To offer Secondary. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners.

non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute.4. Therefore. etc. To make if. To better qualifications. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education.full time to learners – can be home. public libraries. training centres in factories.2. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. etc. self-employment iii. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. centres of correspondence education. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. 2. library.4. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. open space. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. All-round development i.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. 3. To increase knowledge and 2. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. others are formal and informal. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. Radio and television. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 .4. factory. farm. 2. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . effective in modern societal context. Again.. Institutions for formal education. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. 4. if organised in isolation.

period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. 6. Written tests. institution. Define non formal education. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Lecturing T. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two aims of non formal education. Face Contact programmes. .V. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. radio. Give examples of non formal education? . 117 . 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Teaching to face teaching. . 7. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Correspondence lesson.

Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. The school. Pre-school level.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Primary level. systematic. a.4. 2. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Open School. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. a. 2. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. b. 118 . Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 4. 3. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. 7. adults as well as children. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. b.4. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Open University.” 6. Higher Secondary level and University level.4. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Secondary level. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. the college and the university come under this category. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. 4. 5. Formal and Non Formal 2.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal.2. 2. School 3.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

K and Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. J. Theory and Principles of Education.4. (2003). Gupta. N. Education in Emerging India. L. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2005). P. (2007). (2004). New Delhi : 119 .9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Ltd. K. Pahuja. Dash. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.2. Ltd. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.C. Bhatia. Anmol Publications Pvt. S. N. (2008). J. (2008). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. B. Mohanty. Agencies of continuing education 2.5.4 Open University 2.5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System Objectives of Open University 2.5.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.3.4 Need for Open University Philosophy of Open University 2.2 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.3.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5 2.5.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.6 2.4.1 2.

Education is for refinement and enlightenment. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other.3. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. Under these circumstances. It is a lifelong process. However. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. characteristics of open university 4.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. This knowledge may be in political field. give the meaning. 2.5. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. 2. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. 2.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. farmers. For them. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. know the need and objectives of open university.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. economic field or such other fields.5. It is a continuous process. labourers and half educated individuals.5. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. continuing education is a boon. understand the meaning of continuing education 2.5.2. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. Any person. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. Thus. you will be able to: 1. industries.

V. Radio. 2. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas.directly related to his job. Block Development Officers. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. Cinema. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education.literate person. cultured and progressive. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. On the other hand. if he gets opportunity to develop them. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. After the achievement of independence. Radio and T. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks.5. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education.3. For them too continuing education is essential.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Persons engaged in health services. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Doctors. are also contributing their might for the purpose. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Thus. T. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. deteriorating to his character and personality. Throughout the country.V. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. On the other hand.

(12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (6) folk stories. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. and Radio. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. These books are not very useful. (16) liking. (13) psychology of child behaviour. (17) modern international and national events. (1) ancient history. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. Of course.5. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. (10) first aid. 2.3. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons.5. (14) information about bringing up young children. 123 . 2. 5. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. (2) basic religious matters. (15) music.. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories.3. 6. 7. (7) folk songs. (8) psychology of adults. especially women. habits of people of other lands. 2. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. we have not been able to achieve our targets. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. Inspite of the great efforts. 4. 3. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge.V.

1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.5.4. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. attendance restrict ion. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. NLM was launched in the year 2. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . lack of time etc. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. of educational opportunities. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. It also attempts to pr ovide equality.

IGNOU was established in the year 6. it makes use of educational techno logy. but 125 . An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. 5. and in teaching. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. d. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. 3. 4. Education is not a once for-all process.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1.unobserved.4. b. its education is not class room based but home based. e. No one is too old or too late to learn. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. Which was the first open university in India? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. 2. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. c. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning.5. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. 2. the higher the degree of openness. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system.

1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. 4. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. supplementing the existing provision. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 6.who did not get it.5.5. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. cho ice o f co ur ses. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 2. who were deprived of t he same earlier. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 3.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 5. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. Mo re o ver. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books.4. it a ims at wider and hig her. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 2. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 4. 2.4. 2. or who realised too late that they need it. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 126 . 3. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n.

5. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will.2. 4. 8. you have learnt the concept. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. semi – literates. 5. a society. Self instructional materials. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. List out any four methods of Open University? .5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Every day. Laboratory works. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates.5. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . 8. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. 3. In the present day world. 2. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. Correspondence tuition. a state or nation. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . 7. Therefore. school drop outs. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 127 . s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Tutor Comments. 6. 2.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons.

6. b. Broad casting lectures c. 7. d. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 1988. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.5. (2) basic religious matters. 128 . Explain the objectives. 2. 1985. unskilled workers and other professionals.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. a. b. 4. a. 2. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 7. 8. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. cho ic e o f co u r ses.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. a. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. its education is not class room based but home based. (1) ancient history.5. need and characteristics of Open University. agricultural and industrial workers. youth. which may include house wives. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. Television Lessons. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. aspirants for continuing education. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 8. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates.ambitious learners. 9. P r int med ia b.

Reddy. Modern Problems of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). R. Recent trends in Non Formal Education.. Udaiveer. K and Narang C. (2001).2. S. (2004). (2004). New Delhi: Rajat Publication. 129 .S. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. L.K.5.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. K. Ltd.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. examination. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. All which is the need of the hour. the education of women.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. its causes and remedial measures. which may claim the attention of those concerned. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. wastage and stagnation. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. In Lesson 2. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. 133 . Training teachers for all levels of education. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. and teacher education. Examination reform.

134 .

3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.1.6 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.LESSON EFA – For whom? 3.1.8 3.7 3.5 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.4 3.2 EFA – How? 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1.1.2 3.3. 135 . They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.1.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.1 3.3 New initiatives.

1. 3. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. you will be able to: 1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). social. Continuing Education (CE) 1. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. On the other hand. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. understands the country. economic or cultural.1. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. may be political. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. education received added importance and significance. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. therefore. “The State shall 136 . understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. (EOI) 2. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. 2. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development.3.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. Eradication of Illiteracy. directed that. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. Therefore. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures.

the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Therefore. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . After the attainment of independence. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. 3. Due to the adoption of democratic system. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child.endeavour to provide. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. 137 . Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Universalization of Enrolment. the national Government under. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Continuing Education (CE). rights and responsibilities. Three Stages for Universalization. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. It enables the parents to send their children to School. Universalization of Retention.

for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. Therefore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 138 . While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. 1990.3. This target had to be revised to 1970.1. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. UNESCO Bulletin states.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. 1995 (for upper primary stage). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. present and future. then to 1976. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. educational enterprise. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. 3. later to 1988. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. It is safe to assure. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. Write Article 45.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need.

creed. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. problem of literacy. 3. 3. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. NAEP. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. 10. rural areas. Early childhood education should be streamlined.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. 9. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. etc. adolescent and adult. By undertaking survey. 12.1. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. 11. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. their enrolment and retention. slum areas. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. 139 . sex. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Apart from primary education. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. Education of the Impaired. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). 8. Education of Girls. The Social Education. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Jams and Jellies. 6. nutrition education and sports and games. In order to make the programme of education for all community. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children.3. their social economic status and occupations.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. Emphasis must be given on health education. 5. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). and Women’s education programme should be improved. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. FELF. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Disabled.

1. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.e. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.3.3. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Expand MLL and SSA . According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.1. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. 3. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Wastage and Stagnation.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.

The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Social Factors .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. School Factors . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. Familial Factors .first stage of education.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. it is considered as wastage. Personal Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.

can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Define Wastage.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. 142 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. . 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. Personal Factors . It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. School Factors . in his home. relating to home.The following factors. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. school or society.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. rural or urban 3. They are described hereunder :1. Societal Factors . Family Factors .3.1.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. mid-day meals. etc. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. uniforms.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. 144 . —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. Define Stagnation? 9. stationary. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? .

for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. 3. 2. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Universalization of Enrolment c. 6. a.1. “The State shall endeavour to provide. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. b. a. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. directed that. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA.1. a. therefore. Hartog Committee. 145 . Universalization of Provision b.” 3.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. 4. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. Minimum Levels of Learning b.1. improvement of curriculum. 4. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA.. 3. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Universalization of Retention 2. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.3. 3. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.

School Factors d. a. 3. T. b. (2007). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Crescent Publishing Corporation.7. Social Factors 8. S. a. Hemchand. (2008). New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Sharma.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.K. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations.1. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Problems of Elementary Education. Personal Factor b. S. introduce graded curriculum. Familial Factors c. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 9. (2001).K. improve examination system. New Delhi: 146 .N.

1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection Grade System 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.1 Open book examination 3.3.4 The problem of reform of Examination Choice Based Credit System 3.LESSON 3.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts Merits and demerits of examination 3.5 New evaluation procedures Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.5.7 Let us sum up 147 . Modern reforms of examination 3.2.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4 Question banks 3.2 3.1 Problems of examination 3.5.

2. 3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.8 3. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.2.2. 3. 4.2.2. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. suggest the new evaluation procedures.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. but on the other.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . Besides. you will be able to: 1. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.9 3.3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. 3.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.

schools for them wherever necessary.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. roadside Romeoism. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances.2. etc. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. waiting rooms for girl students. etc. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. If the students are in sufficient number. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. The following steps should be taken up. which the educational authorities have to face. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. 149 . 3. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. They develop secondary sex characteristics. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. They may cause problems relating to discipline.3. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. etc. hostel facilities. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age.

The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. appointment of paper-setters. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. the examination system has an important role to play. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. teachers.4. 3.2. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is considered as a major sub-system. 150 . so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2. the net-work of examination system has also become vast.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. Instruction.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. assessment and Finance.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. public administrators and statesmen. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. public interested in education. conduct of internal examinations. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them.

etc. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. introducing objective-based testing. tabulators. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. establishing reliability. etc.4. etc. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. 3. values. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. announcement of results. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. etc. etc. scrutinizers. validity and practicability.printing and distribution of question papers.2. invigilators. examiners. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. training of examiners.

.. 152 .2. Vagaries in making. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education.4. Rote memorisation. 3) With respect to method of teaching. stereotyped questions. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. 3. Subjects. it s a common experience that subjectivity. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. halo-effect. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. 7) In connection with the question papers. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. do not appeal to the students and parents. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. which they are expected to study. 2) From the angle of content of education. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. may also discredit them. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc.. lack of objectivity etc. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. takes the place of comprehensive learning. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording.

Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests.a part of internal assessment. re-numbering of answer scripts. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. may be introduced. etc. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. revaluation. Spot valuation. 4. List any two merits of examination. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.. . What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers.develop true love for education. 153 . and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately.

skills are given importance.2. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. 3. It is complicated.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. Every paper is treated equal. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. The new scheme of assessment.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. attitudes. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. he is given extra credit points. In actual practice. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. In this system. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .3. Their interests. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. The students can take any course offered in any department. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. When a person chooses to work extra.

• To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. only the total credits to be earned is specified. Groupism is encouraged. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. instead of specifying number of paper/courses.discipline. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4.2.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120.poor.5.good. 3. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. These weightages are called credits. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. While designing syllabus. courses can have weightages defined. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. In the new system. poor. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. This system reduces comparison of marks. v. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. or as a 4 credit course. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. An example is a seminar. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 .

It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.5. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. 156 . However.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment.5. 3. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.2.2. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.5. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. 3. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.2. 3. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.

Therefore.5. recruitment. 3. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.2. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships.3. There are no proper procedures for selection. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. 6. In the hierarchy. However. List any four new evaluation procedures. . there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately.2. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . What is the reason for introducing grade system? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.

it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. submitting of the inspection reports. They are. in a sense. school buildings. finding out the adequacy of.. staff. library books. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. inspecting the class-room teaching.. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. being realised as two different functions.2. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. interpersonal relationships and so on. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. qualifications. 3.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. of late. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. Academic inspection. complaints and compliments. in contrast. playgrounds. finding out whether the prescribed text. 1. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. 158 . taking up the follow-up programmes. etc. whether the syllabus has been covered. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected.6. disciplinary problems. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner.qualified personnel. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. When they are fully realised. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. laboratory equipment. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. wherever necessary. etc. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. books are followed. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. requirements.

Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. In the light of these conceptualisation. their professional knowledge. aptitude. M. at least.2. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. or. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. courses. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. 159 . In the case of departmental candidates.. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life.Ed. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. 3. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. once in five years.Ed. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. Insistence on specialisation in the B. Similarly.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. modern. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. course in either educational. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors.. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher.

It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. 3. a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 160 . 2. 3.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Administration.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. Grade System. d. a. Instruction. 5. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. b. assessment and Finance. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2.2. 4. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper.2. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education.2. c. a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 3.

a. a. (2005). b. History and Problems of Education in India.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. 5. Question banks. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. New 161 . 3.4. Open book examinations. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . S. Problems of Education in India. Multiple sets of question paper. (2004). Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. c. Educational Reforms. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Vaidya. 7. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment.2. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. b. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. (2002). K.a part of internal assessment. b. K. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. a. R and Sharma. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.

3.3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3. 2. you will be able to: 1.7 3. 3.8 3.6 Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3.3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. 4.3.5 3.4 3.3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. analyze the general and vocational spectra.LESSON 3.3.2 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.10 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. identify the needs of rural India and social. 3.9 3.3. 5.1 3. 162 .

and 3 years of First Degree Course.. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country.e. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta.g.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage.3. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. 2.. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. the Banaras Sanskrit College. 10 years of general Secondary Education. University Education. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. Similar is the case with some other States. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education.3.e. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. Commission emphasised to continue. 8 years of general education.. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. The Calcutta Madras. The..specialisation programmes 3. e. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. Consequent on the recommendations. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. i. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . etc. in Andhra Pradesh. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education.

to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. social. to imbibe. economical and political. 6. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. historical. 7. is also a plus point . 3.confidence in students. Provision for transfer of credits to students. 5. b. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. to prepare. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. 5) to help for the social. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. 10.a sense of dignity of labour. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. who desire to change from one stream to another. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . cultural and economic development of the country. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . habits of hard work and develop . educational channels. However.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. 8. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. and. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage.3.

Here the choice of subjects is provided for. 3. to develop national character.national integration. etc. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. at the other. 1. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. international understanding. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students.. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Sociologically it is undesirable.3. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. and that required to enter the tertiary level. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. on one hand. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. Philosophically it is not the conception. social justice. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. cultural and' religious tolerance. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . and. Psychologically. cooperativeness. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. democratic living.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. The General Educational Spectrum.

For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. technical. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. rural health. industrial agricultural production is growing.— tube-wells. All these need for an. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. medical plants. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. In the matter of language. horticulture. India is a land of villages. fish culture. technological. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. the rural areas have suffered very much. physics or mathematics. 2. In our country.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. commerce.3. 3. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. professional. vegetable growing. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Science. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. In the vocational spectrum. and vocations based on dairy-farming. educational and cultural—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. Commerce and other disciplines. chemistry. Biology. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. or other machinery. Agriculture is the main occupation. such as Agriculture. 166 . commerce. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers.

3. There had been favourable reaction from the students. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3.etc. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. can be ensured. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. In this it may be concluded. and the needs. 4. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses.. and 5. social justice. interests and aptitudes of the students. In this way. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . the local resources available.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? .3. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. In time. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2.

Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.a sense of dignity of labour. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 2. Mohanty.3.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. General Educational Spectrum and b. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. S. New Delhi : 168 . Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education.C. a.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2008). 3. to imbibe. we studied the history.3. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. Vocational Sepctrum. (2005). What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4.3. b. Calcutta University Commission 2. Dash. Anmol Publications Pvt. B. (2007).10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. J.3. b. Modern Trends in Indian Education. 3.3. N. habits of hard work and develop . to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ltd. a. objectives. 3. J.K. a. 3. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.

4.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.8 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.6 3.12 3. social and 169 .14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings Education contributes to human development.4.9 3.LESSON 3.3 3.11 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4.4.10 3.4.13 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.7 3. but the lighting of a fire”.

Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. These courses were. although we have miles to go. economic. family. While women constituted only 9. For the first time in the history of India. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. particularly 170 .higher education in particular. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. There is a close connection between education and development. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. Home Economics. In the post —independence period.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades.4. The relevance of women’s education to social. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. During the year 1937. analyze the women and distance education.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Education .3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. you will be able to: 1. 3. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. 3. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. Nursing. Dr.4. community and nation is universally acknowledged. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. cultural and political development of the individual. higher education of girls developed immensely. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. Teaching and Fine Arts.

Mother Teresa Women University. Kodaikanal. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.0 16.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.4.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Even today.4. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . out of 9200 and odd colleges.2 22. 3.65 lakhs in 1994-95. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.0 32. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. levels and professions.2 29. we have more than 1200 institutions.9 27. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. Coimbatore. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Mumbai.0 43. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. in our country.1 31.N. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.T Women University. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.4. 3. In the rest of the country. In 1950-51. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.1 24. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.9 14. Yet.0 Today. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). The idea of women’s education for equality.women.D. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.

27 89.53 34.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.46 82.83 47. 3.1 respectively. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.4%) prefer Arts subjects.4.1 and 14.36 3. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.44 35.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.34 33.47 65. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . 2.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.that of boys.66 66.4.63 Female % 34.4. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.73 10.54 12. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .56 64. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.17 52.

Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. curriculum not suited to their requirements. Thus. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. she will only learn fashion. 3.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. Also. Book banks should be established. distance of the college or university from home. etc. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. marriage is a very common I factor. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. In every third family. 173 . 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. irrelevance of the content of education. particularly. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law.4. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. They gave up their studies to enter home life. promoted and increased. The major hurdles. what is the need for higher education for her. and coeducation may spoil her character. In college. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. According to a survey.hinders the girls from getting higher education. financial difficulty of the parents. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized.

Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. It is a productive investment.4. resources and socio . 3. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.economic disabilities faced by women. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. space. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Geographic distance of educational institutions. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. It also brings about 174 . It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Full-time employment. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. 3. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Education. It enables to study. is the only tool for realising empowerment. and the limitations of the conventional education system. There are constraints of time. Empowerment in a nutshell. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Distance education is a boon to women.4.

on their own. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . The major objectives of women's higher education. Women are partners in development. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. legal awareness and economic independence.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. education of women is of paramount importance.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. This can be achieved through reflection. empowerment means being assertive. education of women must be given priority in national plans. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. Empowerment is an active. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. for full development of our human resources. 3.4. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. higher learning. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities.

Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. which had been the sole domain of men.4. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. which is pending for a long time. has to be implemented at the earliest. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. 3. Scholarships and concessions for women. especially so in the developing countries. Reservation for women. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. who are eager to take up courses. But their number is small.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. The local administration. Better opportunities. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. The educational institutions. will encourage them to venture new grounds.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. 176 . Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women.

The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. talents.8%).4. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs.1%) and architecture and building (38. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. engineering and related technologies (16.000 women in the country. IDP Education..Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. Also. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. Chief Executive. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. According to Lindy Hyam. Australia. capacities etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.9%). Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 .3 percent. But. especially in developing countries like African countries. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

(2007). SNDT Women’s University. Annakodi. create the right attitude towards life. Mother Teresa Women University. 3. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. individuals and society b. and Suryalatha. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development.C. 43% 6. 4. SNDT Women’s University. (2005). R. Mishra. R.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. S. 3. Mumbai. Rajasthan 5. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. the family. Kodaikanal. Coimbatore. 3. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. A. (2000).4. 4. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. 178 . and Swain. (2008). Coimbatore.4. R. Pattanaikj. 2.K. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Women and Education. Women Education. Rao. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.4. Women Education. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. community and the nation. S. a.R. Centre for Women’s Studies. A. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.

so as to enable them to acquire 179 .4 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.5.3 3. whole. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5.10 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.2 3.5.personality of children in and out of school.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5.8 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. 3.7 3.5.1 3.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5.5 3.6 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.11 3. They should be trained.5.LESSON 3.

the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. Lack of physical facilities. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. 180 . understand the training teachers for Primary. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. Shorter working hours. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. equality and justice. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. social and emotional integration.5. and national character. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. know the pre service and in service training facilities. 3. 3. national consciousness. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. understanding and strong desire for international peace. 5. Dearth of new technology of teaching. international. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. you will be able to: 1. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. 4.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary level.

5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. 3. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. and the collegiate teacher education. Depending on the levels.5.Ed. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. 3. students. At the diploma level.Ed. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. the primary teacher education. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. and M. Inadequate training in practical skills. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. etc.Less qualified teacher educators. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. the state Government. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. higher secondary teacher education. the centre. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education..4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. If the student teachers are working teachers. a Diploma course and a Degree course. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. who have not been trained earlier. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise.5. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. inservice and extension education programmes. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. levels.. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . Lop-sided curriculum. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. it is called the In-service teacher education. it is called the Extension teacher Education. the secondary teacher education. (NCERT) New Delhi.

state Institutes of Educat ion. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . depart ments etc. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. are established. Expand NCERT 2. Science Education units. Educational teehnology cells. collegiate cells. Also Guidance Bureaux. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. extensio n service. etc.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Evaluation unit. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . non-formal. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 .. 3.5.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Education cells. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

degree. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training .• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. schools and sister institutions. laboratories. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . despite its vast expansion.Ed. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. primary and secondary school teachers.Ed.. audio visual aids. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. to ensure teacher competence. to prescribe conditions for recognition. to offer consultative services. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. should be improved on a top priority basis.. which help breaking isolation from one another . they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. which should include experience in the primary schools too. to improve curricular programmes. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. material conditions relating to libraries. and so on. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed .. and 183 .

to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. The problem. Induction Courses. whether they should have professional education or. Agriculture. Modern Techniques of Teaching. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content.secondary education. Organisation of Content Courses. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. though no pre-service training. 184 . etc. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Hence. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. Psychology of Students. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. and XII. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. etc. not came up once again. To meet this exigency. Meanwhile. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. Modern Methods of Evaluation. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . methodology and evaluation. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Workshops.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission.

. M.Ed. (Education) are organized by 185 . Degree. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Pre-service training is for those. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.’s for Ph.S. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.A. courses and M. Degree and M...Ed.Ed. Post-Graduates also undergo B. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. State Institutes of Education.5..’s are elig ible for M. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. For re-orienting the teachers. Courses leading to B...Ed. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. training. in Education. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. (Education) and M. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.. These facilities are available for regular students. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Ajmer. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.Ed. 3. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. All B Ed. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.D.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Point out two defects in primary teacher training .Ed.A.

of conduct—written or unwritten. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. 186 . 3..8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. and B. established by tradition and teachers of the past..). 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.5.A. However. Hence the employability of M. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and .A. they should be conscientious . 5. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. . 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . 4. 6. (Ed. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. What is the role of ERIC? . (Ed).

a. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. The necessity is however this. 2. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 3.5. b. 4. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. Explain code of conduct for teachers. 187 . b. 3. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Ajmer. 4. Bhopal.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. a.5. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. 3. National Council of Educational Research and Training. 3. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. 2.3. 5.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 6. a. Discuss the problems of teacher education. they should be conscientious. Shorter working hours. However.

Teacher Education.N. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Publication Pvt. (2003). A. B. J. Teacher Education.D. (2009). P. (2010).5. Mohanty.3. Corporation. Ltd Aggarwal. and Teacher Education. Tewari. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

the focus is on the school health programmes. common ailments of children. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. nutritional deficiency diseases. In lesson 4. If the diet is poor. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. Since food is the source of nutrients. 191 . The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. economic and educational developments. communicable diseases and their prevention. objectives. objectives and role of the physical education. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. In lesson 1. consuming the right amounts becomes important. preservation of nutrients. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. objectives. The person’s environment is equally important.

192 .

for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1.1.3 4.5 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.4 4. 193 .12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1.2 4.1. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.8 4. mental.1.1.7 4.e. physical.10 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody. The programmes of school health education are quite important.LESSON 4. It is a miniature society.1.9 4.11 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.6 4. emotional and social.1 They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.

4. 10. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health.g. 8. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. 7. 194 . 6. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. list the common ailments of children 3. 9. To develop certain skills concerning health. training in first aid and etc. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself.1.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. e. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. To give information regarding health rules. 2. explain the importance of First aid 5. 11.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. 4. Instruction. to his family and to the community at large. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. training of teachers and evaluation. understand school health programmes 2. content of health education. 3.1. To develop healthy health habits among children.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5. know the need for sex education.. you will be able to: 1. cleanliness and healthful living. 4.

training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. (vi) nutrition education. 5.C. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided.G.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. Arranging better transportation facilities. (v) safety education. 4. suitable furniture. ( iii) sanit at io n. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. The surroundings of schools should be clean. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. 2.. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. (viii) first aid. is imperative. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. etc. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. The flooring should not be damp. Vaccination for small pox. inoculation against cholera. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. 2. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. as described below 1. Triple Antigen Vaccination.. cleanliness weeks. First aid facilities should be made readily available.coming or absence. The school buildings should be spacious. proper doors and windows. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. typhoid. minimizing the travelling distance. 3. organisation of school health days. (xl) mental health. B. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. There should be regular water supply. excusing late.4. (ii) communit y healt h. direct lighting.1. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. “Play-for-all” programmes. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. There should be good drainage facilities. vaccination. play festivals. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. B. (xii) smoking education etc.

poisons. drowning. bleeding. dislocations. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. etc.. burns. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. wounds. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • Close the schools. • Find out the cases. • When sleeping in groups. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. if epidemic is wide-spread. fractures. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. 196 .• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. and other accidents. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. D. • Have adequate rest and sleep. fainting (epileptic fit). C. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. isolate and notify. cuts. • Keep all rooms clean. scalds. • Take nutritious food. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. sports and games in the interest of their health. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. insect stings.

1. asthma.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention the school health programmes.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. Once these germs get into the body. These diseases are called communicable diseases. which are – cold. List out the Health curriculum 3. 4. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. pain in the joints.. water or bodily contact. backache. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. polio. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. fever. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . 4. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. There are three stages in any communicable disease. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. So they easily get illnesses. They are: i) The incubation stage. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease.1. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. tuberculosis. cough. headache. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. 2. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. measles etc. chicken pox. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage.

unhygienic living conditions. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Others make the children very weak.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. cough and fever. Children catch cold from persons having passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Scabies . Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. The following are the common communicable diseases. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Hence liquid diet is recommended. head-ache and cough. The symptoms include cold. Tonsilitis . eating food which is not clean. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. unhygienic bottle feeding. 198 . Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. After three or four days of fever. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Diarrhoea . In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. This is caused by cold virus.It is caused by measles virus. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. The child may have fever. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. sugar and water. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Throat is affected. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Common Cold . Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Hence it is called a killer disease. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Mumps .This disease is caused by bacteria. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Measles . Ear Infections . One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. etc.When a child suffers from scabies.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief.

5. By scratching he causes secondary infections. 199 . If proper treatment is not given. Expand DPT . As the disease progresses. Enlist the common ailments of children.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. raised pink spots appear on head. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. separate.• • • • Chicken Pox . the child may die. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. face and waist. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. It begins with fever. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. The child may also have diarrhoea. the child is not able to breathe. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Diphtheria . Typhoid . They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. What are communicable diseases? 6.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Shortly. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless.

Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. man-woman behaviours. In such cases. so-called sex books and periodicals. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. scorpion stings. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. Wounds . films and jokes.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future.1. 5. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. and films. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. bruises. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. 4. cuts. bleeding.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. drowning. 3. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. Drowning .4. It is both biological and psychological.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1.g.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Cuts and Bruises . fainting. It has its rightful place in education too. dislocation. swelling. eye injury.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. 2. sprains.1. sprains.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. exciting and body-oriented. wounds. and Community Work and Social Service. simple fractures.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. 4. it is a subject of art. 200 . fiction. Sprains . head injury. Sex is popular. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. etc. snakebites. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water.

NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. The values of life. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. In secondary schools. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. the religious organisations. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. Should the boys and girls. the school. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. try experimenting with their bodies. B. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. Hence.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. sex education is being recommended in schools. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. The home. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers.old values. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. but preserve them from disaster and disease. 2.. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. they would be treading the path of sure doom. in their ignorance. 3. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. In today's liberal and interactive society. health. celibacy are age. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent to give sex education to the young.

when the courses are already overloaded.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. common ailments of children. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. C. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. there will no crisis in its implementation. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. the school health programmes. Teacher education institutions are. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. 202 . first aid and sex education. communicable diseases and their prevention. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. What are the major components of Sex Education. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. 4. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. hence.1. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.



SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.


STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.


4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:


Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.


Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy


Mention the food nutrients 2. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. 209 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

minerals. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients.4. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied.2. If you look at the definition carefully. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s .6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s.2. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. 210 . Let us talk about each of these aspects. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected.

a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. In other words. There is no point. Preferences/customs are also important. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning.6. construction labourer). A balanced diet is specific firstly. for example. These are: region where the person resides and income. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety.2. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . it is also specific to a given activity level . moderate or heavy work. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. paratha and poori. People in the east of our country prefer rice. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south.g. dosa are typical of the south. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately.g. In the case of adults. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). Those in the west also tend to eat rice. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. activity level and physiological stress. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. the social and religious practices of that in the morning and the other at night. 4. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. Even within given States there is considerable variation. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. sex.

eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. however. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. customs. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. however. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. Even among flesh foods. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. vegetables and fruits. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. If you think of your own religious group. As income increases. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. These determine the acceptability of foods. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. taboos related to food may play an important role. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. however. income plays a vital role. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. In addition to these. Including these 212 . As you read this discussion. One person may be fond of milk products. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. Having more money. for example.planning the diet. fat and sugar tend to increase. while another may hate them. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. as important for the rich as for the poor. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. Among the social factors. Judicious selection of food is. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. However. nuts and dry fruits. One must.

5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. over-eating or under. eggs . 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. green leaves. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 17. but they should be thrown away. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. 8) Walk a while after eating. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. For this. mouth. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. meat.eating is hazardous. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 213 . 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. Define balanced diet. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . etc. 8. if the teachers have good food habits.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. fruits. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two healthy food habits.

Beri Beri 4. e. a. When the diet is inadequate. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Explain food nutrients 4. In fact.2.2. Corneal xerosis. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Vitamin D 5. 4. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. b. d. good nutrition is essential for good health. preservation of nutrients.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.4. Night blindness. Bitot’s spots. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Conjuctival xerosis.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.2. Discuss good food habits. 4. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Keratomalacia 3. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . c.

(2005). a.N. Food and Nutrition Education. a . (2008). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. Nutrition Science. Food and Nutrition Education.6. S. Hands. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.M. (2008). Chopra.2. R. 4. (2004). U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . (2009). R. A Text Book of Foods. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. b.C. Sri Lakshmi B. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . Health and Nutrition Education. b. Food should be consumed after eating well. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. minerals. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. P. mouth.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Nutrition and Dietetics. 7. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. 8. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.

6. 216 .3.2 4.3.8 4.3 4.1 4.3.LESSON 4.3.7 4.10 4.1 Impact on social development 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.6.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.4 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.11 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.9 4.5 Impact on Education 4.3.3.

community. It is a much wider co ncept. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. his family. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. 4. 217 . you will be able to: 1. population characteristics.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. 4. characteristics and changes for himself. objectives and need for population education 2. understand the importance of small family norm 5.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. economic and educational development 3. the causes of population change. his societ y and the world. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. Whenever we talk of sex education. family planning and sex education etc. the stress is. Population Education. It is not sex education.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.3. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. There is some difference. state the meaning.3. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. aims at providing the younger generation. describe the impact of population growth on social. and the consequences of these processes. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation.4.3. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. therefore.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control.

3. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 4. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. List out any two objectives of Population Education.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. Define Population Education 2.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the family. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. the society.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. the nation and the world.3.

economic and educational development of the country. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. 4. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. With the larger families. Family is considered as a social unit. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. When the family is small.6. the family programmes are also handicapped. 219 . 4. which will not be possible without population control. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. Every second two thousand children are being born. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future.3. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare.3.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. health and happiness of its citizens. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous.

leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. Many students herded in a small room. toilets. and so on. i. pollution of the environment.6. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. in parks and other places of public gatherings. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. organization index and material index. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. 220 . They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. there is an inverse relationship between population and development.. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.3. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too.6. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. heavy intern I migration etc. in cinema halls and theatres. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. In developing countries. unemployment. 4. in buses and trains.e. Swollen cities. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. 4. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends.3.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. facility for drinking water.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. teacher index. The gulf between them is widening further. lack of proper health care.

reproduction. blank verses etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b..7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. bar graphs etc.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. family planning etc. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. even text books would be in short supply. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. Regional Language. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. 221 . thus. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Social Studies Statistics on population education. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. less budget for education. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. Hindi and English. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. There would be poor library facilities. and laboratory equipments. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. can be taken up. There would be very few audiovisual aids. less space facilities. can be studied in science and health education.3. essays.

15. Brazil. 8. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. They may arrange them as per average density of population. 14. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 2. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. 9. Children may compare two families. 13. 7. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Children with the help of parents.3. area and average density of population. 3. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. causes of deaths etc. 4. Canada. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. United States of America. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Bihar. Uttar Pradesh. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. 12. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 11. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. West Bengal.4. 10. 5. China. deaths. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school.

It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. we have no right to stop 223 . Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family opened in their schools. 16. The question. 18. Comparing life in various respects in two families. values and role children etc. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. preferences for sex.3. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. 17. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. age at marriage. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole.

however. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. fertility levels have declined throughout the country.were implemented 224 .to emphasize family planning services.3.. “He who is responsible for population growth.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. especially the expansion of child immunization services . Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage.their entry into the world”. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. The Family Welfare Program. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. on an overall basis. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.4-6. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). at varying places in different regions. continued . is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. More than 45 years ago. and the child survival components of the news: program.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. 4. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. Since the program's inception. which education can only do.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.

However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. men. reliance on local women as community health workers. expansion of services to unmarried women. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. In October 1997. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women.earlier than the safe motherhood components. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. a focus on health promotion. the community appears willing to pay for services. Moreover. and nominal fees for services. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. and the World Conference on Women. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. Therefore. At these meetings. In April 1996. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. Local programs vary in their approaches. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 .

3.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. 226 . 4. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. economic and educational development 4.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank.emphasizing the needs of the client. What are the goals of RCH? 4. nation and the world. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. 1997). family.3. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. community. Its main purposes are to create awareness. involving the community. Describe the impact of population growth on social.

4. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. 4. 7. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.” 2. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. area and average density of population. less budget for education. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. 5. a. his society and the world. a. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. b. population characteristics. and the consequences of these processes. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. United States of America. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. b. China. a. 3. his family. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. characteristics and changes for himself. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. the causes of population change. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Brazil. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 6. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.3. less space facilities. 227 . bar graphs.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Canada.

Modern Trends in Indian Education. 228 . Reddy. N. Kantikar. Udaiveer. Coimbatore. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Modern Problems of Education. (2002). (2004). J.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Jayapoorni. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Ltd. (2005). Ltd.3.4. (1992).K. A. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Principles of Population Studies. Bhende. (2005). V. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. T. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Centre for Women’s Studies.

4.4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE Major games 4.2 4.3 Indigenous games 4.4.10 4.8.3 4.5 4.4.4.LESSON 4.4.4 Lead up games 4.1 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .1 Minor games 4.4 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.9 4.4.7 4.11 19.8.

and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. mental alertness. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. which forms its most valuable assets.4.4. as it should 230 . the youth of the country.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. team spirit. perseverance. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. moral fitness and emotional fitness. full records of physical activities should be maintained.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. social fitness. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.4. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4.4. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. 4. The concept of physical education has been made broader. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. classify the different types of games. leadership and balance in defect. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5.

Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. They go hand in hand. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Therefore. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. obedience to rules. The educational efforts at home.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. leadership. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. They are inseparably united together. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Every individual is a part of society. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. team spirit. To be more precise. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education.

mo ral. Rousseau states. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action.” The Secondary Education Commission. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. nor body but the whole man. 4. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. C. H. Just like Education. Regarding the significance of physical education. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. a sound health. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. Buck has observed that 232 .” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.4. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. ment al. game and sports. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. pleasing manners.” Montaigue writes. Physical exercises. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side.

endurance. happiness. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. we must exercise the whole human being. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. resourcefulness and smartness. Froebel says. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility.” In brief. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems.” 4. elegance. flexibility and power. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. initiative. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. etc. efficiency and character. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments.a properly directed physical education should result in health. speed.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. strength. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. coordinative abilities. 233 . It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.4. “If we wish to develop the whole being.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society.

While wars. 234 (i) (ii) . Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. have come and gone in the long record of mankind.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. including all racial groups and historical ages. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. systems of government. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. should help in the spiritual development of the student. poetry and painting. Tournaments foster this sentiment. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. these fundamental things have always been present. its adherents and its enemies. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. plagues and famines. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Every age has its artists. they may form gangs. If no opportunity is provided to the students. in greater or lesser degree. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work.

Write any two importance of Physical Education. etc. 2. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. respect for rules. self.\ to develop perseverance. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems.sacrifice.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. 3. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. B. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. bravery and interest in games and sports. obedience. 235 . List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. to develop tolerance. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Always keep the whistle ready. 2. and. 7. Be punctual. Be in the uniform.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 4. 9.4. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed.H. Be self-confident. 3.4. Be sportive. defects. 13.4. Be well-prepared. 15. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. 4. 236 1. is essential. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Haag. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. 14. Act as a leader. injuries among pupils should be made.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. . 11. Keep the field ready for the activities. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Inform health principles. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Usually parents. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. and readmission after they have recovered. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Posture screening should be done. 8. 6. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 12. 5. 10. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. 16. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. students.

4. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. 4. Moreover. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. 1. less equipment and less expense. Lead up games. frolic and jo y. their development is handicapped. the play. 4. chasing. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. 4.8. Indigenous games.4. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. 237 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Such inst incts as imitation.

driving. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. muffling. couple tag. women take part most of the games.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Soft Ball. under ball pass Relay. Khokho. On lawns. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. 4. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. While many of them are played in the open playfields. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Tennikoit. hitting. Dodging. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. some of them are played indoors. Hockey. stopping.8. wherever the kids assemble. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. benefit in playing minor games. on sea-shore.. These games require varied skills such as running. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Shuttle Badminton. the games can be modified according to convenience. They are played for a shorter duration. Cricket. 238 . Throwing. pitching. Basket Ball. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. dribbling. The dimension of the posts and nets.With a very few rules. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. boosting. spiking. Jumping. snatching the kerchief. the number of players and substitutes. Jump the stick clay and so on. Volley Ball. For each game the rules are many. with implements or without implements. zig zag relay. Ball Badminton. over ball pass Relay. the play equipment. Tennis. bowling etc. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Kabaddy etc.4. heading. skipping. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. finding the partner. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Hopping. on hard courts. on mountain tops and on river beds. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Except a few games. catching. trapping. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people.

the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. birth. death. Kho-kho.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. they are in existence. While observing the players in action. 7. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. An example for indigenous game is 8.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil.8.8. Games may be classified as 6. and . On occasions like marriage.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. festivals connected with religion and public functions. For example. List out some major games. They have an abundant social value. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 .4. these games being popular. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. All the fundamental tactics. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. 4. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games.

Posture screening should be done. 4. b. d. physically and emotionally fit and alert.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a.4. Minor and Major 240 . Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. a. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. c. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. 4. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. to secure physical health b. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. 4. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. a. to develop physical stamina. 5.4. 3. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. 3.4. b. b. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. aims and objectives and need of physical education. 2.4. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. 2. 4. a.

Tennikoit. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Foot-ball. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Khokho. Physical Education and Sports. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.C. Mohanty. Kabaddy 7. Ball Badminton. Ltd. Handbook of Physical Education. J. Health. Tennis. Khokho 8. Volley Ball. (2008). Cricket.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Hockey. (2005). G. 241 . Modern Trends in Indian Education. Aggarwal. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.4. Basket Ball. J.K. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Shuttle Badminton. Soft Ball. (2009). 4. J. (2008). Krishna murthy.6. 4.2 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.8 4.5.7 4.4 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.1 Natural Environment 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .11 4.5.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.6 4.10 4.9 4.5.3 4.5.5.

Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. education about the environment and education through the environment. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems.5. role of teacher in environmental conservation. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 2. political. 3.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. Attitude. Details are given below: I. Participation. aesthetic and educational factors. 5. 243 . Awareness. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.5. it covers the following elements: 1. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. 2. Broadly. Skills. you will able to: 1. Essential knowledge about the Environment. economic. 4. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4.5. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. population explosion and resource depletion could be. list out the types of environment 3. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. 3. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2.educat ion for the environment. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. Evaluation Ability. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. social. 6. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. The best place to start such learning is school. 4.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Knowledge.

• Biological magnification E. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Oxidants Other pollutants. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. F. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. a. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. 2. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. 244 . heat sink and wind flow in cities.B. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. D. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle.

4. Sterilisation. 3. III. Intrauterine device iii. The human ecosystem II. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Socio-economic measures. c. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Control of population growth a. economic. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. 2. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Birth control through education b. The pill ii. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . B.3. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Family planning ii. 2. Use of medical science i. Abortion iv. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Persuasion: i. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses.

Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Define Environmental Education. Water pollution abatement. 1983). CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. (UNESCO. 246 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 2. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Air pollution abatement ii. e) Recycling. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. 3.

-other.5.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. to his needs. They interact with each. A change in one brings about a change in the other. b. These are biotic components. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. way is called environmental or ecological factor. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. Any constituent or condition of the environment. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. a. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .5.5. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. fax agricultural apparatus. animals and other organisms (biotic). telex.5. He modifies according”. includes the plants. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.4.5. Biological environment The biological environment.5.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.other components of the environment.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. 4.

greenhouse effect. desertification 248 . mineral survey. trees reducing noise pollution. ozone depletion. History The rise and fall.. natural way of controlling pests. sources. use of medicinal plants. supplying timber for various uses. noise control. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. etc. industrial survey. importance of nitrogen cycle. balance of nature. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. windmills. are the topics which may be taught in History. over exploitation of ground water. etc. effects o f CFC. population. ozone layer deplet ion. river systems.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. preserving the watersheds. food chain and food-web. need for bio-diversity. excellent recreation sites. industrial pollut io n. acid rain. relation between population and pollution. noise pollution. role of trees in building economy. solar cookers. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. need for conservation. maintaining the ecological diversity. biogas plants. sources of pollut ion. water scarcity. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. nuclear warfare. effects. t heir role in preventing pollution. use of pesticides. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . evolution. of civilizations. (ii) Air pollution. social studies. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. nuclear energy. extinction of species. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. air pollutants from industries. alternate sources of energy. reasons. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. explosion deforestation. wars and hazards of war. change in climate may be added. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. preventing siltation of dams.

Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 9. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. 5. 14.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 8. Peepal and Tulsi. 3. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Developing awareness about environmental issues.5. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials.may be inc ded in Geography. group discussions and seminars. 4. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. 13. 249 . Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 2. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. aims and scope. 12. Providing. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 10. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Organising conferences. animal and plants. 4. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 11. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. 6. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. 7.

Use public transport wherever it is possible. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden.Send their waste oil. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Never put any left over chemicals. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Don’t burn any waste. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. all these can cause serious pollution. especially plastics. Reuse carrier bags. World Environmental falls on 250 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. 6. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. it will cause pollution. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. used oils down the drain. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. or form a car pool for everyday travel. If it is done.

values and habits. Social responsibilit y (common good. viz.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. potable water. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. dest roying nat ural habitats. developing desirable attitudes. Att itudes of balance towards nature. To arrange for visiting speakers.. Harmony with the nature . To discuss the approach to problems or topics.). and 251 . orderliness and beauty). depletion of ozone.mat erials. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. diversity and stability. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. nuclear wars. To arrange visits or expeditions. (cleanliness. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. etc. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. concern for others). Concern for species. Conservation of natural resources. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems.4. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. CFCs. etc. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. To provide reference materials for children’s use. To provide materials needed for practical work. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. rather than conquest and mastery. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere.5. The groups may exchange. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. loss of bio-diversity. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. deforestation. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions.

It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. 8. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. 252 . Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.5. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. preserving natural cycles.5.

To provide reference materials for children’s use. T. Environment and Human Rights. Education for values.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. (2007). Ltd. 8.K. Rapid population growth. a. Ltd. greenhouse effect. ozone layer deplet ion. concern for others). Providing. explosion deforestation. Publications Pvt. a.K. (1997).. Social responsibilit y (common good. b. (ii) Air pollution. Udaiveer. a. air pollutants from industries. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Awareness. S. Anmol Publications Pvt. Environmental Education.2. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . importance of trees in the production of oxygen. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. reasons. group discussions and seminars.K. population. 4. b. New Delhi : Authors Press. S. 3. Knowledge. effects. Kuldeep. relat ion between population and pollution. (2004). Organising conferences. water scarcity. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. New Delhi : Sharma.\ 4.5. June 5 7. Nanda. importance of nitrogen cycle. 5. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Environmental Education. new problems from science and technology. Modern Problems of Education. acid rain. a. b. (2007). Y. To provide materials needed for practical work. sources.K. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. over exploitation of ground water. b. sources of pollution. 6.

254 .




Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.



STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism Idealism and aims of Education Idealism and Curriculum Idealism and methods of teaching Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism Naturalism and aims of Education Naturalism and Curriculum Naturalism and methods of teaching Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

259 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to

inviolable and hence holy life” In short. Spiritual Development. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. promote and transmit it to rising generation.our life. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation.” 5.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. should be universal in nature. According to Rusk'. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. man is essentially a moral being.3. moral. enrichment and transmission of culture. Therefore. The universe is regarded as a thought process. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments.1.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. Universal Education. Education must contribute to development of culture. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. in fact. the emancipation of spirit. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. It is self-realisation. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Education according to idealism.

subjects like Languages. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Learning through questioning. 5. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. Learning through discussion. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method.1. Mathematics etc. However. For this no particular method has been suggested. History. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. 2. Herbert advocated instruction method. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. and collation (striving) should find due place. Learning through lecturing. 3. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. an indispensable necessity. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. Learning through imitation. friend and guide.3. Philosophy. Learning through reading. According to Frobel. Ethics. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection.1. affecting (feeling). For intellectual development. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. so subjects like Religion.3. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education.the spiritual qualities of mankind. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . hygiene. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. a spiritual guide for the child. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming.” He is thus. So he should embody. the school is a garden.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. Science. no doubt. The plant can grow. He sets the environment in which education takes place. So health. He carries the child from darkness to light. So cognition (knowing). According to idealism. 4. It considers teacher as.” 5. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. 5. should be there.

2.1.perfection and beauty. "Education should make 263 • . “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self.1.4. Ross explains. Perfection of Human Machine. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. curricula. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. text books. formal lessons or examinations. time tables. In the words of Ross. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.preservation. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. 5.

by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Arithmetic. Therefore. Education also aims at helping the individual t. It stresses basic sciences. 4. Literature. Botany etc Language. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. subjects like history.4. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Zoology.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Biology. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. 264 . Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Naturalistic curriculum. It is based on the psychology of the child. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Chemistry. useful and mature child. • 5. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. therefore. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. “Education finds its purpose. is based on the nature of the child. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. education should develop the child into Joyous.1. Education should. In all. rational harmoniously balanced. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. There is no place for religious and moral education. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that.

5.4.1. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Heuristic method. Dalton Plan. Learning by doing. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. 5. It discards all rigid. 2. a supplier of materials and opportunities. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. In the . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. a provider of an ideal environment. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. the stage. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning.4.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers.1.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy.1. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . he should be taught by experience alone. Learning through experience. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. 3. Rousseau says. Learning through observation.

1. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. is true. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. All Round Development of an Individual. Subjects. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. social and moral aspects. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. 5. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Personal Social Adjustment.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Sciences. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Agriculture.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Social Science. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Vocational and 266 .5. Continuous Growth. 5. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. The aim of educational development. intellectual. Geography. History. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Social Efficiency.absolutism of idealism.1. Physical training.5. diversified and flexible. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life.

Learning by Doing. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .Technical Education. a teacher occupies an important position. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. should find proper place. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. He has to be active. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. a senior partner and a sincere guide. The subjects. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. alert and resourceful. 5.1.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.” 5.5. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. He must be trained.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. Methods of teaching should not be fixed.

5. Psychology. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing.5. Chemistry. Biology. Mathematics. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. literary or humanistic education. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Literature.1. 4. History. 3. 5. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Sex Education. 3. 5. Study of Subjects like Language. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. It favours child-centered. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. 2. Population Education. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Astrology. practical. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable.6. Education is preparation for a complete living. scientific and psychological education.6. 4. intellectual.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Biography Philosophy. Crafts. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism.1. Music and Dance. liberal. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Art. specific. 2. rich and happy. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Geography are unnecessary 268 .1.

1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.6. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. easily and pleasantly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. certainly and clearly. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.

5. Learning through imitation. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss.1. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Social Science. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Self Realisation b. a. 5. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. b. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim.1. a. Rousseau 5. Learning through questioning. Vocational and Technical Education. Learning through experience b. Education according to pragmatism. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. 5.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.7 LET US SUM UP We have. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Languages. Learning through discussion. e. 6. & curriculum. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. 5. Experimentation d. Physical training.1. Tours / Excursion e. Sciences. a. Agriculture. c. Learning through reading. naturalism. History. Geography. Self preservation & Self expression 4. d. Universal Education 2. 3. Child centered c. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. has no end other than growth. pragmatism and realism. Demonstration and Observation 270 . in this lesson. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Learning through lecturing.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1.

New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi : Bhatia.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Ltd. (2004). New Delhi : A. Publishing corporation. O. Pahuja. (2007). K.5. P. Foundations of Education. N. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education.P. (2007).P. Narang C. L. of Pathak.H. Anmol Publications Pvt. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. (2003). Theory and Principles of Education. P.1. R. 271 .

3 Methods of Teaching Views about teacher 5.1 5.4 Views about teacher Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2.1 Aims of Education Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.3 Methods of teaching 272 . Idealist and Pragmatist 5.3.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2 Curriculum 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore Curriculum 5.3. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2 Methods of teaching 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2.

2. 5.5. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.2. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.2. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. you will able to: 1.2.7 5. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. 3. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.5. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. 5.8 5.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.6 5. an artist. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. Tagore was a poet. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.4 Role of the teacher 5.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. 273 . 2.2.2. mind and spirit.2. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. economic and political reconstruction in our country. content and methods. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.2. Gandhiji was primarily a social.

It really provides opportunity for character building. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. 5. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. 274 . the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. His scheme of education is life centred.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education." Dignity of Labour. 'Man is neither mere intellect.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side.2. strength of mind.3. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. nor the gross animals body. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. mind and soul of children He further observed. it is education of life.supporting. "I attach more. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. through life and for life. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. In the words of Gandhiji. self-restraint and service of humanity. righteousness. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education.

Art. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development .the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.3. gardening. development of the whole all were directed: towards. wood work. "Development of the moral character. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. Only good individual forms a better society. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. Mother-tongue. metal work. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. According to Gandhi. the realization of the ultimate reality. leather work have been suggested. General Sciences. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Individual and Social Aims. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner.2.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered.Training for Leadership. Music. Drawing and Hindustani. 5. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations.

The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.2. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.3. men of 276 . Basic education is other wise known as 4. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.trained. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. proficient.3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.

The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. 5. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. 3.knowledge. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots.3. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji.2. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . He also advocates freedom for the child. That is why. Education must be child centered. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. • Ideal of citizenship.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.3.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. • Cult of non-violence. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.2. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.2.K. He was a true patriot. He believed in the oneness of humanity. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. 5. • Education should involve manual work. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.4.” Like all other ideals.2. he was a true Vedantist 5. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. Gandhi in 1937. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. He was deadly against untouchability.

Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Civics. Dance. them solve problems of day to day life." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. wider in range. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. International Understanding. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Chemistry. Religion and Psychology. stronger in power than ever before. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in.4. Botany. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Music. It should help. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. Tagore said. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. That way only. "Mankind must realise a unity. deeper in.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. etc. Geography. sentiment. It should help the learner have good physique. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. he said. Zoology.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. International understanding. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Therefore. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. 279 . Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality.2. (vi) Philosophy. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. could help in forging unity among all. complete manhood could be attained. the more dedicated and devoted.Language and Literature .

Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.2. In 1921. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. Let individualised methods be used for teaching.2. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.4. Activity Method Heuristic Method. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. 5. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.” He further says.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service.4.4. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.2. Only a good learner can be a good teacher." 5. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. 280 . Tagore rightly says. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. 5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.

Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. 9. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. It is open to all irrespective of country. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. race.g. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. 10. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. 281 . Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5.

“Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building." He was against the theoretical type of education. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Concept of Education. Book learning. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Purity of thought.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking.5. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. character forming and assimilation of ideas. man making. Education for Self-reliance. Education for strong Moral Character. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all.2. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. According to him. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Freedom. 2.” 5. 4. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. work and deeds come out of it.2. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 .5. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Education should make a person self-reliant.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. 3. Education for Self-realization. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. The whole beauty of life is linked with it.

with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. 6.5. Of course.5. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. philosopher and guide to the students He. Thirdly he wished that games. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Religion. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.the learners on different students in the discussion. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. 5.2. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. The teacher should be the facilitator. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . 283 . There the teacher provided just guidance to them. Every individual should be trained for concentration. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. 5. engineering and technical subjects.5. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Discussion Method. Philosophy and Theology.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. A physically strong person is the need of the society. Secondly he wanted Science. Swami. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses.2. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion.2.5. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. Education for Physical Development. That will serve the purpose of education fully. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. And above all. 5.

284 .” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. naturalist. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. 5.2.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. ears and eyes. in this lesson.6 LET US SUM UP We have. Their educational ideas. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. Write short notes on Basic education.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. and pragmatist . Gandhiji as a Idealist. We have seen that Tagore. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. 12. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. 5. of course.2. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. legs. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore.Substantiate your answer. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. 3.

8. 9.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Debate and Discussion Method. Self realization. a. gardening. a. Education should involve manual work. Activity Method b. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. 5. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Learning by Doing c. Nai Talim 4. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. metal work. e. 3. 5. Discussion Method 285 . wood work. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Heuristic Method. 5. Cult of non-violence. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. leather work have been suggested. Meditation and concentration c. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda.4. Explain Vishwabharathi. Self-Study b. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. a. Activity Method d. Teaching while Walking b. a. 10. 2. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. c. f. Basic education. d. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Technique of Correlation 6. b. Ideal of citizenship. 11. 1937 7. c.2.

286 . Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2007). B. Dhiman.H. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. Pahuja. New Delhi : Aggarwal. (2007). L. N. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. on Bhatia. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004). Ltd.2. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. P. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.5.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash.P. K. N. Theory and Principles of Education. Publishing Corporation. C. New Delhi : A. (2003). K and Narang C. P. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Foundations of Education. (2002). O. J.

3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5. In this lesson.5 The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.8 5.3.6 5.2 5.3 5.LESSON 5.9 5.10 5.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.3.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.7 5.1 5.4 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3.3.

maintained or eliminated. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. 5. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan.3. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. there is a large number of communities. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. present behaviour may be modified.A.S.3. new behaviour may be acquired. While education is a process. Curriculum is intimately related to education. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. in fact . 5. Since the demands. in the form of new experience. In it. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. it is identical wit h socializat ion. curriculum signifies situations for learning. curriculum. you will be able to: 1. is a means to the process. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. In the words of Kerney and Cook. the plain area. While education is learning. the desert area. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. In the former sense. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. Then in a big country like India. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. state the meaning of curriculum 2.. the plateau area and 288 . in Russia or in Japan. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. living in the hilly area. Both the processes are integrated.3. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. A g o o d curricu lu m. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. From the latter point of view.under the direction of the school. in the U.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5.

3. From a slave-country we became secular. studying therein. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. differs from individual to individual. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. and 289 . Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. therefore. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. it is. environment. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. customs and needs. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. the learning capacity of children. Again. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. 5. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. too. It must differ from locality and from society to society. In fact . (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. irrespective of their needs and environment. However. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. Besides craft. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. democratic and socialistic country. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. according to modern trends in the educational process. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Goals of Primary Education. uninspiring and unscientific. Goals of Secondary Education. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. unambiguous and functional.3. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. emotional. 5. etc. general or specific. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education.g.. They speak of immediate purposes of education. remote or immediate. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. e. etc. e.. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. 4. They are visionary goals e. National Integration. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. of classroom. Self Realisation. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. Application Objective. in instructional objectives. They are achievable. 1. 2. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. etc.. aesthetic and spiritual development.. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. The word “Curere” means 2. tangible. Knowledge Objective. 290 . individual or Social and so on. moral. which may or may not be attained. social.. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. social. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. They speak of perfect goals. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.g. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. 3.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. specific. eg. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. So it is inadequate.g. Vocational Efficiency. They may be ultimate or proximate. Understanding Objective. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. they depend on the political. unsatisfactory. aims. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical.

educationists.3. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. Crow and Crow remarks.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. abilities.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum.5. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. Raymont rightly says. The interests.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. finding them very interesting and captivating.” 291 . there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. in the class rooms. heavy fire. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. but it includes the totality of experiences. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. According to Crow and Crow. on the playing fields. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. capacities. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. needs.

This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. aptitudes. Due to these variations and differences. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . tendencies. mental. time in a useful manner. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. urges. They often waste it or rather kill it. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. moral. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. capacities and abilities. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future.

curricular. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. Similarly. phased preparation. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. 2. 3. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. To ensure success of the process. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. administrative programme need be planned. organized. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. 293 . Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. development of professional capability at all levels. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials.

9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum.3. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d.3. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. workshop. 12. in the class room. 5. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. Run. laboratory. library. a. Child Centred Education b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. principles of curriculum construction. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. 5.3. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 10. 11. 1937 19. Relation with Life c. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 .11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. 18. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 17.

D. S. Lakshmi. Innovations in Education.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi : Isha Books. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2007).5. and Sarita Kumari. New Delhi : Authorspress. Curriculum and Instruction. Bhalla. Curriculum Development. 295 . New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited.K.3. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. (2001).S. N. P. (2007). S. (2007).

7.4 5.9 5.6.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4.2 5.4.1 5.4.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.5 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.10 5.4.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .6.

superstition or emotion. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age.during the second half of this century.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude.4. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. We mean curiosity. in the economic reconstruction of society. 2. 5. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. know the importance of science education. honesty. newer and newer industries started growing. you will be able to: 1. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. 297 . 4. Gradually. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. tolerance for the opinions of others.5. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. open-mindedness. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. 3. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners.4. explain the concept of scientific attitude.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science.4. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . 5.

2. Schemes of teaching science. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 3.4. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 5. Love for truth enhances.4. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. 4. Through newspapers. Principles are formulated. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . stipends and appreciations in various ways.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. models and scientific instruments for laboratories.So that. Thinking and memory develops. Promotion of science clubs. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. Central science workshop. 2. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 7. as well as of the society. Selection for science education. After such experience and training. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. 5. seminars and symposiums. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. 5. Through examinations. 5. 6. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Devotion towards nature increases. 6. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. 4. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Organisation of science fairs. 3. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work.

Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. Write any two advantages of Science Education. They encounter many social events as they grow. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. In the inquiry approach. 5. should provide opportunities to. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. After presenting the problem.4. 7. Training of science teachers. objectivity. sex or religion. It is. Enquiry teaching is. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . each child to “enquiry skill building”. therefore. 5.6. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They ask many questions about the objects they see. They experience natural phenomenon. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. For laboratory and workshop techniques. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. essential that teachers. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life.needs and conditions.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.

commands or orders. 5.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. 6. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences.6. Adopting creative models of teaching. Social sciences.books. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. 300 . if they like. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? .4. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. 3. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. . Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Evidence. . to ask questions and experience things. test. 2. Appreciating pupils ideas. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. stern pursuit of accurate data. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. It requires consistent thinking.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. 5.Herma Wouk. Giving less directions. 4. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook.

The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen.7. it must be encouraged. friends. keen observation. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. For instance. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. 5. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . To achieve this we should understand what it means. school and society at large. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. to develop among the learners. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. These include open mindedness. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. The students observation. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. therefore should be unbiased and objective.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions.4. see and feel the need of developing this attitude.(Smith 2008). The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. (Vaidya 2007). Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. critical thinking and suspended judgments. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. of vast resources running waste. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. practiced. neighbourhood. and emphasized during the learning process . It is very significant outcome of the process of science education.

(Das. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales.4. In considering a situation or a problem. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. think and work it”. intuition or wishful thinking”. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. understanding and logic. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. The intention to respect another’s point of view.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. rumor. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. 302 . Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups.7. 5. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. 2007). Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. or superstitions. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. he studies all aspects of it. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge.

Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. but to begin only after careful planning. 5. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.4.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. • 5.7. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.4.7. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.

manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. it must be encourages.4.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. 304 . 5.

objectivity.4. 16. Rao. 5. Planning of activities 5. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Yadav. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Study of superstitions d. N. Love for truth enhances. 5.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. a. The intention to respect another’s point of view.B (2008). It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. (2008). a. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Wide reading b.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. Vaidya. a. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude.S. b. S. b. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. M.5. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. Reflections on Scientific attitude. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. a.4. D. Adopting creative models of teaching. (2006). 305 . A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. (2000).4. 3. b. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Discuss the importance of science education 14. 4. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. 2. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. Proper example of the teacher c.

5.5.11 5. 306 .5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5. objectives and characteristics.8 5.5. 2. actively.1 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. you will be able to: 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5.6 5. areas of institutional planning.5 5.4 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. state the concept.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.10 5.LESSON 5.5.2 5.3 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5.

every teacher. teachers and students is not lost sight of. each teacher. executive as well as public.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. which become the bases for further planning at the district. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. • to make planning development-oriented. and every student in the process of educational planning. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 .3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. State and national levels from below. Institution should be regarded as the unit. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n.3. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. • To make institutional planning more successful. every parent. 5. in the task of educational planning. and each student are regarded as separate entities. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. 5. and.5. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. • to involve teachers and school administrators. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.5. and supplement planning from above. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators.

There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. which will be discussed in the general.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. Examinations. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. Classwork. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. council and. approved after making necessary modifications. 5. and Personnel services.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. (2) Co. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers.• implemented. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services.5. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. Co-curricular activities. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. 308 . etc. Syllabus.curricular Activities. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. it becomes the basis for school inspection. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.5.

Fair distribution of syllabi. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Organisation of Students’ Association. Conducting of educational. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. etc. Preparation of audio-visual aids. charts and apparatus. etc. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Preparation of models. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Undertaking remedial instruction services. hobby-centres. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.No.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. etc. Courts. 2. etc. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. 3. Improving the internal assessment. Running science clubs. scientific and historical excursions. Organisation of class-room libraries. Equipping of laboratory and library. Editing the school magazine. Organisation of Pupils. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. 1. Celebrating of national and international festivals. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Organising play-for-all programmes. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. etc. Preparation of instructional material. Improving the subject competence of teachers.

administrator-supervisor. Administrator-State. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers and out-group relationships are as given below i. involving mainly human materials. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. headmasters associations. administrator-pupil. teacher-State. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. pupils. teacher-teacher. parent-teacher associations. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. teacher-managing body. co-operation. students’ associations. science teachers’ associations. and solidarity. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. etc. ii. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. understanding. teachers. which are divided as the in. pupil310 . the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. teacher-pupil. parents. administrator-administrator.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. teacherinspector. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. and —pupil-pupil.” The human relationships in. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships.

supervision and superintendence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is also being modernized to become a technique. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. pupil-parent. superintendence. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. V. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. Good.State. teacher-community leader. pupil-non-official functionaries. According to C. to attend. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. supervision. 311 . organisation and management. It covers personnel and material management.5. etc. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. pupil-community leader. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. control. to accomplish. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. administrator." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. and to serve. now-a-days. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. To administer means to manage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. organisation.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. social sciences and other disciplines. teacher-parent. pupil-inspector. to carry out.

Cost-Benefit Analysis . The relationship should change from master. it is not worth-while. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. He should be an artist in human relationships. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.Of all the approaches.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. 8. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. If the cost benefit ratio is less. Economic Management . 4.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . Communication . it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. Democratic Management . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. 11. 12. 5. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. who occupy the managerial positions. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. low.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. 6.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . Leadership . Socio-Scientific Approach .Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. 2. If it is more. This is the latest democratic trend in management. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. Decision Making . 7. 13. Those. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.Any good management will always have good public relations. Better Human Relationships .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. Worker Participation . Rapport between the Management and Employees . 10. Motiviation . without this the efficacy will be handicapped. 9.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. Liasion with the Public .The manager should have leadership traits. 3.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship .This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established.

There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning.too. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. 5. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. 19. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5.g.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. 14. to improve the quality of education it provides. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. characteristics and areas of institutional planning.5. and cooperative performance should be ensured. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. enrichment of curricula. objective. 313 . improvement of teaching methods. 18. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.These two are.

Decision Making b. a. c. Syllabus. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. and Personnel services.5. NUEPA. (2003). 314 .5. In group and Out group 5. f. (2001). b. d. Motiviation d. H. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. Co-curricular activities. a.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Singh. Educational Administration.M.K. a. Classwork. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. Tarachand and Prakash. 4. Instruction. e.5. Fundamental of Educational Management. a. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. R. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Leadership c. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (1995). b. Examinations. b. S. Communication 5. APH Publishing Corporation. 2.

1 Inculcation of Socialism.3 Educational Influences of Home.Religious and Modern Education 1. 1. 2. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Economic 315 .Pre-service and In-services facilities. Common ailments of Children.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Communicable diseases . higher education.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.1 Gurukula system of education.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. wastage and Stagnation 3. Inspection and Supervision 3.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. 4.3 Directive Principles . physical education and environmental education 5.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. Realized the problems of school education. nutritional requirement. Examination reforms. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. Code of conduct for teachers. School. First Aid.CORE PAPER .4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. population education.4 India's Secular Policy .I.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Balanced diet. social Impact 3.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Buddhist and Jain system of education. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.1 School Health Programme. Preservation of nutrients. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .5 Regional Educational Development in India . UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.Preventive measures.Article 45 .teachers should have : 1. Healthy Food Habit 4.2 Nutritional deficiencies. Sex-education 4. New evaluation procedures. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. women education and teacher education in India.1 Primary Education : Education for all. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. Community and Mass Media 2.

and Human Development.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Tagore 5. and Mohanty R. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Socialization.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. (2004) Problems of Education in India.K. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. (1999) Culture. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Naturalism and Pragmatism . Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.Aim.S. Sharma.K. 316 . (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Pandy V. Realism. Curriculum and national goals . hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. New Delhi: NCERT 3.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Taneja V. Saraswathi T. Ram S. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. REFERENCE 1. Delhi : University Publications 2. T. Mahatma Gandhi.R.K.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. 5.1 Idealism. curriculum and teacher's role 5.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. B. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.4.N.C. 7.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Hemchand. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.4 4. and Dash B. (2005) Foundations of Education. and Sharma R. R. Prof. Mishra.N.K. Ghanta R.

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