BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

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UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Jainism and their educational implication. Lesson 4. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. The need. and Jain system of education. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. discusses the regional educational development in India. 9 .HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Lesson 5. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Lesson 2. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. In.

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5.LESSON 1.6.1.6.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1.1.5.6.1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1 1.1.1.1.6.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1.1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.6 Education during British Era 1.1.1.4.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.5.3.4.2 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .5.5 Jain system of education 1.1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.6.1.3.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.

7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. has a long past history starting in vedic education.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. British system of education presented the modern western model. but English in taste.8 1.1.1. 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. The history of education passed through Buddhist. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.1.7 1. Muslim and British periods. 1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. That 12 .1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Indian in blood and colour.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. describe the Jain system of Education 4. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. in morals and in the intellect”. both present and future.1.1.1.6. Education in India.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. you will be able to: 1.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.6. elucidate the education during British Era. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.3.1.9 1. India. “a class of persons. 1. in opinion.1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.1.

Pupils were taught. 11. Method of Instruction. There was. with grants of land or money. as it is generally considered to be at present. 4. however. 13. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. managed entirely by Brahmans. 5. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. individually. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. the monitorial plan was followed. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 8. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. 10. generally. Forests as Centres of Education. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Method of Study. religious and spiritual. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Teacher as Parents. not en masse by the class method. Education of Moral. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 16. if they thought fit to do so. to light. followed by explanation by the teacher. from darkness. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. The immediate aim of education. No State Control on Education. questioning by the pupil. Religious and Spiritual. Residential Schools. and to agriculture and trade. from eternal to immorality 2. Where pupils were many. Immediate Aim Vocational. 12. Free and Accessible. 13 . The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. It was also moral.knowledge was real. Education was a private affair of the people. It was not merely intellectual. Role of Travel in Education. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. 14. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. 9. High Status of Teachers. Individual Teaching. Curriculum. 6. 3.

It was suited to the needs of the society.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1. lived a life of celebacy. studied Vedas. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3.3. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. 2. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India.17. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. They were very cordial and intimate. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Wide-Spread Education in Women. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . It was freely available to all those who wanted. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? .1.

Right thought 3. Right endeavour 7. 1. Right knowledge 2. the student remained in a state of Shramana.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B.1. Consequently. etc. watching dances or listening to music. use of cosmetics. Right memory 8. dressed himself in yellow clothes. It was denied only to the ill. 2. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. After attaining the age of 20. except the Chandals. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. Right means of livelihood 6.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. the handicapped. which included abstaining from theft. Right activity 5. Education was imparted through the. medium of Pali. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. I take Refuge to Dharma. killing of any living being.C. the student had his head shaved of all hair. Buddha was concerned about the suffering.4. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. use of intoxicating things. 15 . Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. he was qualified to become a monk. Right contemplation 1. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. had the right to receive education. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. partaking of food at prohibited times. the most significant of which were the following 1. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. every class in society. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Right speech 4. impure conduct. in which. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. disease and death of the human beings. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. I take Refuge to Sangh. taking things without being offered.

7. After this ritual. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. therefore. of clothes. cottage industries. it is regarded as true”.3. nature. medicine. magic. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. 1. etc. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. Initially. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. 2. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. These are called later Buddhist schools. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. beg for alms. and. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. agriculture. As reality is becoming. knowledge of reviving the dead. along with education in script writing. archery. Whatever its nature and extent. 4. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’.4. archery. assumptions. 6. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. so long as it successfully does so. 3. however. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. the presence of the monks was essential.. geology. a continuous change creating 16 . arithmetic and religious discussion. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. control over sensuous activities. has no metaphysical value for life. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. handicrafts. wear three items. a change is not only total but also perpetual. Even at this stage. meaning. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. On this occasion. women occupied a position inferior to men. 5. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. Hence. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. objectives of human life. etc. education was impart in art. commerce. nothing is of any permanent consequence. changing the goals. depth and range. animal husbandry. It comprehended education in writing. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. elephant lore. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. Later on. approach. eat food thrice a day. bodily gestures. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. etc. aspirations and. 8. be considered the aim of education It. the science of taming and training animals. Life is in a flux. military science.

5. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Write Eight fold path . such as.new and peculiar situations.5. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. goes to Vardhaman. In fact. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. it is much older than the latter. its pessimistic outlook on life. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. i. however. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Validity is effective and consequences. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. whatever works are true and good. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. Education must. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and to give it a shape that it has today. therefore. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. 1. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. Jainism insists 17 .5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects.. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself.e.1. Its chief feature. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. However.

b) Right knowledge. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. 5. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. 2. 10. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. They are: a) Not to injure. rather than the interpretation of the universe. 4. 3. Development of personality as an individual. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 18 . e) To renounce the world. 2. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. and is to be redeemed and liberated. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. c) Not to steal. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. 1. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. more stress on individual aims. it has a foot in both the words. 6. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Hence. 8. 1. c) Right conduct. d) To lead a celibate life. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter.5. 9. thought and deed. 3. As such. and believe in happiness to all.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1. 7. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. but on both. b) Not utter falsehood.

What are Triratnas ? . Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. 1. 3. 2.4. 19 . success and love. Teaching must develop these faculties. that would be socially desirable. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? .4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. education should develop sense of discrimination. Teaching should be social and tolerant. practised and not only aspired for. Jiva is essentially karmic.5. 8.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. education must be action based and ideally oriented. Hence. here and now. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 4.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 2. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. and should bring happiness to all. 1. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. therefore. Belief in transmigration of soul. 5.

North West Province and Punjab. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854).6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. science. 1953).4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools.6. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler.6.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. with rally and rout. and not for life. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.1. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. 1. primary 20 . Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. 1. 1.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. 1. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods.6. 2. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. Bombay.1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. To set up separate departments of. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. philosophy and literature of Europe. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. However. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. Madras.6.

general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. • Universal free primary education. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. At that time M.education was neglected.6. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). they named these schools as polytechnic schools. In 1882. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. To ensure qualitative improvement. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. • Secondary education. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. 1. Later on.6. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. 1. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. self-respecting and competent. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. namely. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. 1. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. secondary education became a step towards university.6. The universities dominated the secondary education.K. at the primary level. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men.

children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. The objective of education was to provide 22 .At the primary stage (6-11 years). The report suggested development of adult education scheme. After this stage. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire.1. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . all children are to have a common curriculum. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9.

1. Right thought. etc. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 4. Right contemplation. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. During the Buddhist period. 2. arithmetic and religious discussion. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 23 . archery. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. The system of education was well-organised. Right speech. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. questioning by the pupil. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. Right knowledge.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Right endeavour. 6. Right activity. b. 5. 3. 2.. Right means of livelihood. handicrafts. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. followed by explanation by the teacher. science and English language.education of European literature. along with education in script writing. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined.1. military science. Right memory. It was suited to the needs of the society. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. establishment of universities. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. the science of taming and training animals. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. The immediate aim of education. 1. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. 4. education was impart in art. 1. geology. a. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. 3.

R. 11. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Singh. more stress on individual aims. 10. a. J. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science.7. Ltd. Sharma. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. History of Indian Education System. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). Right knowledge. (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Right conduct. J.K. Right faith.C. 8. b. and Nath.1. 1937 1. c. Sargent report 12. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 1882. Y.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.K. 24 . Hence. Development of personality as an individual. Aggarwal. Ltd. a. (1984). Y. (2009). Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Improvement of Literature. 9.C. b. Development of Educational System in India.

2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2.2.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.3 Kothari Commission 1.2.3.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.1 1.2.3.4 1.7 1.2.9 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.2.2.2.2.3.5 1.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.8 1.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.3.2.2 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.6 1.1 University Education Commission 1.LESSON 1. The 25 .

Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. New Educational Policy.2. standard of teaching. diversification of courses of studies. 1. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. Post-graduate 26 . National Board of Teacher Education 10. Kothari (1964-66) 8. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. medical and legal education. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. 2. 1986 1. vocational education. you will be able to: 1. expansion of vocational. National Council for Women’s Education 5. analyse the progress of education in free India. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. curriculum. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. 1. S. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.conditions of the teachers. girls and women education besides primary.3. examination system. There had been vast institutional expansion.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education.2. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. technological engineering. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. technical. secondary and higher education. explosion of enrolment. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan.

1. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. research et. 3.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. utility and financial outlay. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. material and spiritual. The Essence and Role of Education. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29.2. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. Therefore. the New National Policy on Education. 2. Education for Equality. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. D. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. in January 1985. A.3. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education.3. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . Education is the key to our allround development.3.S. 1952. quantity. 1966. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. the chairman of University Grants commission. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.2. A meaningfully Partnership. 4.teaching. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. Finally. National System of Education.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. quality. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. Problems of access. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. Government of India. 1.2. 1. 1986. Kothari. accumulated over the years. However. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the concepts of work experience. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. 28 . It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. It can train practical aptitudes. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. attitudes. the minorities and the handicapped. Thus. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child.2. By working with hands. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. The UNESCO Report.” Thus. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. “It may be described." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. if he wishes. the Commission. In 1955. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. According to. it will conduce self. The Radhakrishnan Commission.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. The Education Commission. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 .” The Mudaliar Commission. Besides. With adequate planning. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. co-ordinations.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. As such. “The aim of these colleges.

the. etc. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. Therefore. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. In addition. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work.. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. Subsequently.ot her. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. With a view to relating education to the life. The Central Advisory Board of Education. raising the special facilities. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. the semester and credit system. for quality of life in the rural areas. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. the rigid streaming of courses. admission requirements to vocational courses.

aimed at this goal. 31 . manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”.and the world of work. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. technological courses including Agriculture. In short. giving importance to productivity in the national development. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. preferably spinning and weaving. According to committee. The Father of Nation. who conceived the System of Basic Education. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. felt that education should be centred around a craft. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education.. which offer scientific. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. which swept the country for over two decades. etc. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. meaningful. Commerce. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. manual work resulting in either goods or services. 1. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. The wave of Basic Education. which are useful to the community. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. meaningful. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence.defined S UP W as “purposive. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions.2. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf.

Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. be that the work involved is: 1. as far as possible. Health and Hygiene 2. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Work practice. tools and techniques and 3. Educative and 3. 2. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. 3. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Community work and social service. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Food 3. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. 32 . Shelter 4.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. so that it is educational in essence. Productive 2. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Clothing 5. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. The teachers should make use of. Experimentation with materials. locally available materials and tools. Culture and recreation 6. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. 4.

Community Service In-1972. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. slum clearance. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. 6. Productive Work 33 . It can become an instrument to build character.5. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. inculcate a faith. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. the local community should be actively associated.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Merits of the Programme 1. improve discipline. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. 1. Education through work The SUPW should. etc. To make education more realistic. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor.2. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. as far as possible. removal of illiteracy. Check on educated unemployed 4. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility.

The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. AICTE was set up in year 4. The community. skills and better future for the children.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Define SUPW 34 . helping the adults in festivals and Functions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. helping the adults-in productive work. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. traffic control. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. etc. if not productive. offering first aid. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. in turn. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. should involve itself in the educational effort.

Dr. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. meaningful.2. 35 .8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5.2.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. which are useful to the community. Radhakrishnan 2. 1955 4. 1. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 3. 2. 1952 3. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. c. 6. e.2. 1. d.1. Write short note on SUPW. a. manual work resulting in either goods or services. f.

Anupama. Development of Educational System in India. J. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. History of Education. and Rao.K. 36 . New Delhi : Shipra Publications. V.2. : Sharma. Amala.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.1..K. (2009). B.D.P. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt.H. Rao. New Delhi: A. P.(2005). Y. Publishing Corporation.K. R. History and Problems of Indian Education. and Nath. History of Indian Education System. (2005). A.P. Ltd. (2007). Singh. (2007).C. Y.

establishing the structure. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. Being the supreme law of the country. procedures.369 words in the English language version.3. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. and liberty. equality.3.3. it came into effect on January 26.3. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. for a total of 117.3.5 1.7 1.3.2 1.1 Significance of DPSP 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. there is an official Hindi translation.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.3. containing 395 articles. assuring its citizens of justice. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.3.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. 37 . democratic republic. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. 1949. 1950.3. Besides the English version.1 1.4 1.8 1.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.3.9 1. directive principles and duties of citizens.3.3. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3.6 1.

the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. 1. 1947. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. Dr. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. social. embodied in Part IV of the constitution.3. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. you will be able to: 1. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. political. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. in sessions open to public. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution.3.In the August 14. learn the role of central and state government on education. 1. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. 4. On August 29. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. 1. 3. After many deliberations and some modifications. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1950. legal and environmental. 38 . The Assembly met.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. for 166 days. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. Through them. According to the constitution. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. with Dr. economic. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. understand our Indian constitution. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature.3. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. spread over a period of 2 years. Two days later.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. 1947 meeting of the Assembly.3. administrative. the Drafting Committee was appointed. 1947.

Equal justice and free legal aid. Article 41. in particular. Organisation of village panchayat. and in other cases of undeserved want. and shall. The State shall endeavour to secure. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. for workers. men and women. Liking wage etc. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. sickness and disablement. 39 . within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Right to work. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Article 42. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Equal pay for both sex. Article 43. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Condition for dignity of children. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice.government. make effective provision for securing the right to work. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. The State shall. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. That the health and strength of workers. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Protecting children from exploitation. provide free legal aid. No abuse of children. Appropriate concentration of wealth. on the basis of equal opportunity. Article 40. Protecting health of the workers. Minimising inequalities in status. Article 39A. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. old age.

Uniform civil code for the citizens. Article 43A. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. in particular. Article 46. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. a living wage. The State shall endeavour to provide. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. The State shall take steps. Article 44. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Article 47. and. in particular. See also Article 21A). Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Article 48. agricultural. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. [declared by or under law made by 40 . in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. work. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. to all workers. Article 48A. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Article 45. Article 49. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Note: Subs. in particular. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. industrial or otherwise. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Participation of workers in management of industries. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. (Original Article 45. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. 2002 for “45. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. by suitable legislation or in any other way.

as the case may be. Article 51. 2002. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.3. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. Article 45 . Article 50. disfigurement.Parliament] to be of national importance. Separation of judiciary from executive. may be law determine”. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. from spoliation. 1. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Promotion of international peace and security. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article-21A Right to Education. 2. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. disposal or export. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. destruction. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. removal. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

language or any of them”. and shall protect them. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. from justice and all forms of exploitations. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. 2002. his guardian has given his consent thereto. iii. 3. 8. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. 7. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. 5. ii. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. 4. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language.” 42 . if such person is a minor. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. and. 6. in particular. race. caste.

Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies.9.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. 43 . & 1. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. for its vocabulary. wherever necessary or desirable. Educational Reforms From time to time. the forms. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The central government determines targets and promotes education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Article 351 gives importance to 6. and by drawing.

etc. private agencies etc. the state governments. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction.3. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Local bodies and private enterprise. 8. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. to achieve the desired ends. Production of suitable for children and adults f. By starting these projects. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. 7. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. 5. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. So that they may work well. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. All India Council of Medical Science. 6. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). The following pilot projects. 4. So as to encourage education on right lines..

6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. 1. Material concerning nation-wide interests. books. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. research. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. 12. 11. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. 10. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. 3. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 1. training and statistics. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 4. handicapped. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. education for women. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. reports etc.3. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. is the state responsibility. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. The 45 . Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. etc. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. 9. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. are published by it.

Article 21A c. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.3. 5. Explain Directive principles 2. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Write short notes on a. articles in the Directive principles. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Article 46 4. Article 45 b. 1. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? .recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 46 . Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 1.

Development of Hindi Language 6. b. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Article-21A Right to Education. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. 2002. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. a. Article 45 . may be law determine”. Describe the educational role of State Government. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Clearing House function 9. 3. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. 4. Dr. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.3. Article 46 5. 1. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.5. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. a. Article 29 and 30 7. 47 . The Directive Principles of State Policy. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Ambedkar 2. 2002. a.

10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. L. (2008). Education in Emerging Indian Society.3.1. K and Narang C. N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. K. (2009). (2007). B. 48 . New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. S. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Ghosh. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Bhatia. S. Dash. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2004).

LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1. Christianity. religious education should be broad based.4.4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.4.4.4.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4. Islam.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.4. Students should be 49 .9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2 1.1 Why Moral Education 1.1 1.3. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.4.4.3.4.4.4.7 1.4 Moral education 1.8 1.3.5 1. Jainism. Buddhism etc.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.6 1.4.

India' can produce men of character. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment.. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. you will be able to: 1.4. integrity. "In A multireligious society like ours. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. 1. According to E. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. know the position of religious education in our country 3.4. religious education and the concept of secularism. state meaning and need for moral education 1. In the complicated and complex society of today.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Thus. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. duty-consciousness. enumerate the aims of religious education 4.” Education broadens human outlook.D. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. beauty and goodness so that 50 . Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life.and dedication. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. As result of which. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). understand the relationship between religion and education 2.

"In view of the provision in the Constitution. at least occasionally. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. 1. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. if not regularly. Thus.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. all citizens are free to follow any creed. They thought that any kind of narrow.3.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. In short.4. No religious tax can be imposed on them. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. through religious practices and 51 . As a matter of fact. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. Children attend these organizations. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. realizes God in himself. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. According to Article 19. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education.” From the above. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. 1947 we achieved our freedom. religion and democracy are same. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. Hence. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. Viewing the defects of religious education. it is clear that the State has no religion.3. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. 1. castes and creeds. According to Article 22.4. As our country is a country of diverse religions. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. rancour.

As a result of which. which help him for the development of his character. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society.. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. Good education. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. which can mould. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. for the development of the individual and the society. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. what is done and what is not done etc.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. aggressive.teachings. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. He also learns about social. It helps to modify habits attitudes. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. and what is evil. moral and spiritual values. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). It is religious education. temperament etc. If unreleased. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. one fully developed. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. intellectual and physical faculties of children. when he becomes an adult. and other impulses are often denied direct expression.

1. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. 3. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. This should not be allowed to happen. 2. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Therefore. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. towards the society. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. which is the basic need of a democratic life. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum.4. 53 . This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. If we open the pages of history. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual.3. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life.

Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. 9. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Gurudwara as. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. stories of moral greatness. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. For this. Write Article 22 2. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. churches and mosques 7.5. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. examples of patriotism. 11. therefore. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4. Life histories of great persons of the world. fellow-feeling.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Since all religions have virtues.

6. let men see well of one another. 5. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. in the home. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 7. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). They will play their role effectively. Purity. is that which develops moral values. Satyam (truth). 2. 3. 6. 4. 5. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. 2. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Moral education. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our.4.4. Self sacrifice. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 3. Fearlessness. Aparigarha (Non. “Let all be happy and free from disease. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 8. The content of the curriculum. Cultivation of emotions. 55 .of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. 4. Service to others. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Asvada (Control of palate). It they learn what morality is in their early years. Without moral values. the methods of teaching. 8. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1.acquisitiveness). Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. students. Non-injury. Patriotism. 7. 1. therefore. Ahimsa (Non-violence). 1. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Swadeshi (Patriotism).

The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Asatyam (Non-thieving). The School Assembly should be held for a few. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Unity of mankind. Integrity. 11.4. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Sharivashram (Physical work). Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. loyalty and self-sacrifice. religions may be included in the syllabus. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation.9. Community singing should also be encouraged 2.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. 56 . National unity and Spiritual values. 2. Good temper. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Secondary Stage 1. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. minutes in the morning for group singing. 10. Discipline. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. 1. Efficiency. 3. Simple texts and stories concerning different. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . 4. discipline. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. In the school programme. Good manners. 3.

5. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. In other words. University Stage 1. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.4. 3. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . patriotism and self-discipline. should form a normal part of school programme. Silent meditation should be encouraged. 5. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. In this connection. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. 2. 4. love of humanity. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. 57 . General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education.

4. Discuss the aims of Religious education. minutes in the morning for group singing. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other.4. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. 58 .9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Sri Prakasa 6 . Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b.4. Training of Character 3. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. a. b. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 1.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. a. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. 2. b. the. 4. a. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. 1. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. 1959 5.1. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. The School Assembly should be held for a few. For this. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. In short. 2. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.

K. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2008). 59 . Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ltd. P.C.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. B. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.P. Pahuja.1. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.4.H. Publishing Corporation. K and Narang C. M. (2008). New Delhi : Siddiqui. (2004). Dash. L. N. Bhatia. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. N.H. Anmol Publications Pvt. J. New Delhi: A. (2003).

5 1.5.5.5.11 1.5.9 1.12 1. 60 .5.2 1.e.4 1.5.5. Although. i.8 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.3 1.5.10 1.7 1.6 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan..5. disparities between provinces/States.1 1.5.

Neglect of the region by the Central Government. This leads to separatist movements. you will be able to: 1. 2. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 7. energy. they take appropriate measures. 6. They therefore. for example.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. understand the regional educational development in India 3. 1. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. know the education suited to different environments.5.5.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 8. 1. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. etc. 4.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. roads. 3. 1. 5. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. Accordingly. 61 . waters. work hard towards this end. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence.1. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.5.5.

some average. 62 . • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. and. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. 4. Therefore. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. Secularism. 3. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. • Separate States (of course viable States). while others remained educationally backward. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. on the basis of regional development may be formed. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. some States became educationally far advanced. 2.5. Tight security arrangements should be made.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions.

Guwahati. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. Nagaland and NEHU.g. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Even in each State. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes.14. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development.392.480. After the attainment of independence. In the Central sector. 1. etc.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. etc. Silchar. Jammu and Kashmir. Regional Centres of IGNOU. the Union Government. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. library buildings. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. books. However. the State Governments. 63 . Out of this. Funds amounting to Rs.. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. academic buildings. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. approved proposals worth Rs. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. Itanagar.5. Mizoram.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. remained under developed.84 crore was released in 2005-06. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. NERIST. and provision of informal education to enable those. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. NIT. Rs. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. Tezpur. scholarships.After the Planning Process has originated. while some States like Bihar. since its inception in 1998-99.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Central Universities of Assam. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. These projects are in various stages of implementation.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities.

With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.57 crore and Rs. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.8 per cent in 05).40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Government expenditure on education. During 2003-04. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Out of this an amount of Rs. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. Moreover. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.501.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.05 crore and Rs. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.40.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. A provision of Rs. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Tezpur University. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.5. too.187.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.261. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.500. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. 64 . there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.

engineering and R&D. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. Karnataka. too. 1. too. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. Andhra Pradesh. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. too. Kerala and Gujarat. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. English. for instance. Listing the positives. for which 16 sites. Tamil Nadu. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. Medical education. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. notes the study. The Chandigarh Administration. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. Karnataka. health services and welfare of the citizen population. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. To add to the woes. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. telecom. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Moreover.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . pharma.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions.5.

the teaching methods.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. while the former does not. The living conditions. Then education become realistic and idealistic. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. even actually looking at the watch. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. the socio-physical conditions. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. the vocations. The working hours of educational institutions. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. life-oriented and environment slanted. Of course. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. In the same manner. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. the curricular subjects. the interests. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. the needs. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. 66 . Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. For a learner living in a rural area. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. taking the average in the middle. and so on. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends.year. when he will not be sure of time. Hence it is called as need-based. in which the learners live. which a non-tribal person cannot do. the working days: an academic .

Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .5.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.5. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. 67 . to suit education to different environments? 1. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

Educational Development in India. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. Education in Developmental Arena. Giridhar. and Nair. Dubey. Salim.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. a. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. remained undeveloped 3. (2008). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. during the British rule. C.N.2. S.K. R. (2001). S. some States have become more developed than others b. 68 .H. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. (2001). (2002). 60% 1. Education Scenario in India.5. A.G. some of areas which were under the native rulers. New Delhi: Authors press.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. school community and mass media. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. 71 . The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. National Integration.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. secularism and democracy through Indian education. community development. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development.

2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.1.9 2.1.1.1.LESSON 2.4 2.5.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.3 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1.1.7 2.1.6.1.6. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.8 2.6.1.1.1.1 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.6 Education for Secularism 2.5.2 2.1.

socialistic and secular state. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.2.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. In the matter of admitting students in schools.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. 2. Abraham Lincoln. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. The students may be associated with the management of the school. 2. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. 5) Encouragement to Group Work.1. Democracy thus means power of the people. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. understand the concept of democracy. socialism and secularism 2. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.1. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.1. you will be able to: 1.1. there should be made no distinction of caste. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. 73 . This is the political aspect of democracy. for the people by the people”. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. 3) Provision of Manual Work. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. colour or wealth. creed. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. socialism and secularism 2.

Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. declamation contest etc. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. There are different brands of socialism. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. may be planned. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. 12) Visits to Legislatures. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. 74 . Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. 2. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. it soon spread all over the world. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. debates.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 11) Student Parliament. Democracy means 2.

service and cooperation. 2. none high”. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 75 . 2) Socialism aims at equality. Under it.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. free from exploitation. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.5. 2.1. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. oppression and disparity. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. but on the path of non-violence.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 7) Special facilities for girls. the employer and the employee are all on the same level.1. the prince and the peasant. the wealthy and the poor.5.

12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. secularism is being propagated.1. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. 2. 5. Everyone says. 11) State schools. “India is a secular-country. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 76 . The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. According to Holydake.” In every political and educational corner. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two main features of socialism. "which seeks the development of physical. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students.

In this type of prevailing situations. Equality. the belief that the state morals. 2. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. That is why. Moral values have to be imbibed. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. 5) It implies tolerance. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. 2) It permits freedom of religion. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life.1. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state.6. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. There is need of making the people open minded. During the recent past.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. 77 . national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. “Webster further says.1.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. people have narrow mindedness. 9) It stress free inquiry. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. fraternity. 8) It believes in co-existence. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights.opposed to religious education. 3) It permits freedom of worship. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. A large number of people is uneducated.6. should be independent of religion. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. liberty. education etc. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. people started believing in regionalism. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity.

The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. While doing so. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles.6. There should be some internal checking of the material being. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. The very sight of the building. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. In the hands of such teachers. In the celebration of each such function.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution.1. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . that the central string of all religions is one. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. Patiala. tours and trips may be organized. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. students belonging to different religions should be associated. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. Religious Education. No doubt. 2. education.presented by the students in the gathering. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. 1) Moral Education. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based.

1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Secularism 9. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. No doubt. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . The term secularism was first used by 8.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. 2. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. The word “Seculum” means 7.

How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2.1. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 4. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Respect of Individual Personality. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. d.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. creed. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. Tuition free education b. 3. b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Abraham Lincoln.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic.1. Power of the people 2. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. The students may be associated with the management of the school. In the matter of admitting students in schools. George Jacob Holydake 80 . the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Socialism aims at equality. Equal Opportunities for Admission. colour or wealth. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 5. c. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. b. a. there should be made no distinction of caste. 4. This present age 7. for the people and the people”. a. a. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. Since socialism stands for equality. 2. 3. 6. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. Socialism aims at social justice. 5. Provision of Manual Work. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. secularist and socialistic attitude among students.

Bhatia. the belief that the state morals. B. should be independent of religion. Dash. b. It permits freedom of religion. J. (2005). Mohanty. L. Ltd. K. (2004). (2007). New Delhi : Pahuja.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. education etc. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 81 . New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ltd. (2003). It treats all religions on an equal footing. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. a. N. J. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. a. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Modern Trends in Indian Education.C. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. 10. K and Narang C. Anmol Publications Pvt. b. P. (2008). Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2.1. N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society.” 9. Theory and Principles of Education.8.

2.2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.9 2.8 2.6.2.6.2.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .10 2.2.4 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.5.2.2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2.2.2.2 2.1 2.3 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.LESSON 2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.5.7 2.2.

aims and objectives of the school. therefore. understandings. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. skills. 83 . The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. as workers. A teacher is first and foremost. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. as learners. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. social and moral aspects. as citizens. mental. development. 2.2. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. emotional. a r e 1. 2. application.2. moral. 3. who are placed in his custody. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. social. you will be able to: 1. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. as it is t he aim o f modern education. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It involves physical. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. and 4. as persons. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge.generation to another. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children.an instructor of school children. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. The developmental roles of children.

Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. morally. He is to become an active member. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. morally. emotionally. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. intellectually. The students live. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. social and emotional health. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. 1.All education should lead to better behavioural development. 2. a part of their day in 84 . As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. 2. Teacher as a Citizen Next. The following are some of such roles described in brief. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society.2. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. motivated. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. member of his community at the outset. physically fit for socially efficient. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. He has to look after their physical. 3. and aesthetically to become. mentally. culturally confident. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. socially. experiences and acceptance. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. inquisitive. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. mental. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. economically effective. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative.

photographic clubs. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. fine art associations. Dr. They will be spending with their parents. languages and religions. science club. List out the role of teachers towards community development . It 85 .5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. and most of hours. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.the school being under the custody of teachers. 4. solve them.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. faiths. activities of the society into which he is born. Unless. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. creeds.2. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. India is a land of many castes. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties.

Nehruji has explained this as. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. c. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. this integration of the Indian people. social studies.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. folklore and teaching of social studies. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. narrow-minded provincial.” Regarding the role of education. the citizens of the Republic of India. with straight backs and look up at the skies. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. stand up straight. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities.5. Radhakrishnan. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. 1. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that .” 2. It should broaden the outlook. and make into one strong national unit. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. the study of language and literature. should be emphasised. b. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . Let us. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. poems. Sampurnanand remarked.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man.2. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity.is. therefore. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. national anthem and other national songs. The only process is the process of education. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. ‘We should not become parochial. a.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. At the primary stage the importance of stories.

Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. militar y training like the NCC. 87 . It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. 5. t he st udent s and t he community. 2.different social sciences. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. 10. 4. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Celebrations of National Days. symposia. 7. National Days—January 26. Textbooks. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. languages and literature. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Reverence of National Flag. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Uniform for School Children. 3. 9. Co-Curricular Activities. Taking Pledge. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. tours. ACC. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. Singing of National Anthem. dramatics and youth festivals. debates. Student Camps. sports. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. and picnics. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. educational excursions. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Scouts and Guides. 6. 8. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved.

14.2. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. ways of thinking and doing things. Admissions to schools. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India.5. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. language. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. colour. 2. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. 88 . ii. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. Admissions. Students Exchange and Tours. Open-Air Dramas. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. 13. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. iv. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. 16. Recognition of Institutions. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Educational and Travel Documentaries. v. flora and fauna. region or religion. School Projects. iii.11. 12. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. 15. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery.

Define National Integration 3. 2. irrespective of national boundaries. Community dinners. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. ix.vi. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. viii. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. camps. cultures and races on equal bases. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. vii.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings.

Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. often in connection with anniversaries.F. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes.” 2.friendships between children of different countries. and the healthy development.2.. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. 2. Organising of debates and. 3. Therefore. Dr. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. In a very real sense. 4. 2. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. 6. therefore. Strong has observed.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. Radhakrishnan states. C.6.6. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. that war.2. 5. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. the international level. This.e. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. patriotism is not enough. Teachers 90 . if it happens. of his body and mind. (c) fairly tales. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.as important as that of a national citizenship. (b) stories of children of other lands.

They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Impartial in their Treatment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 .should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. a German. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. an Englishman. Russian. They should not be propagandists.” Well Informed About World Situations. Indian and American. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts.

2. Wide Spread Frustration . they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. It does not prepare students for life. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. Chronic Poverty . It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties.Another major. 3. majority of people are. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. As the school is but a miniature society. there is wide spread frustration among all people. 4. 5. Devaluation of Values . These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. leading to. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. the education function can be carried. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . which results in agitation and aggression language.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. If this is done. 2. and help the students to over .2. Defects of the educational System . understand and indiscipline: 1.

In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. 3. 4. 2.2. sympathy and good will among the nations. community development. 93 .democratic nature. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. love. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. co-operation. etc. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. fellow feeling. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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magazines and daily newspapers should be provided.3. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Crow and Crow write. Then came newspapers. Emphasising this thing. “All the citizens of the community. 2.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. During the course of time. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. He taught his students orally. Hence. led to the printing of books. art galleries. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. the invention of the printing press.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. periodicals. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. Define community.V. Museums. Now internet is being used. To make them achieve their aim. books. Moreover. are increasingly used in education. In fact.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

social studies. current affairs and other areas. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. It enlightens public opinion. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. Thus. politics. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Important happening inventions. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded.classroom teachers. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. dram appreciation. 101 . 2. In collaboration with the experts. “Listening participation” in current history. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Reynolds. Thus. for the teacher through school broadcasts. 2.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R.6. It is also an important source of entertainment. Effective means of presenting music. music. languages. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science.G. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Students listen various talks. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. A lot of work by way of pre. Various talks. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. the place of importance. art. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. In the emphasis is on sound. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. the teacher still occupies.3. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. rather than on picture. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries.telecast.

Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. at play. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. Making learning an open system. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. plays. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. at any place. style. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. fol classical music. projects or creative activities. Team-teaching demonstrations. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. 3. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. at recreational centers. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. Participation of local teachers and pupils. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. speech. development of lessons. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. travel talks. Before presenting the programme. 5. School concerts. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. at drawing room. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. 4. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. informal and non-formal education. audibility and presentability. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. mathematics. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. 102 . Educational radio excels through dramatisation. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. At present.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4.4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.1 2.4.4.4.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4 Non formal educational system 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.4.4.7 2.3.3.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.LESSON 2.4.4.6 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.3.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.4.4.2 2.4.4.4.8 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.3.5 2.4.4.4.

9. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. it was mostly. 4. 4. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. 3. open school.4. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. 2. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Education organised by some agency. Education.4. To realize this objective of education. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. compare formal and non formal system of education. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. School is.3. 2. 2. say the Government or the private enterprise. In ancient time in India.4. 8. 110 . As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. open university. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 2. 3. the mass media et. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. the family. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education.. 5. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. Education associated with a degree or certificate. his mental alertness.2. the most important agency of formal education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. imparted at the residence of the teacher. 2.4. starting and ending at -a particular age. you will be able to: 1. 7. the community.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. the learner are acquainted. 6. the temple.

such as a high school or secondary school. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. as well as vocational education and training. 2. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling.4. depending on the jurisdiction. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. also called tertiary. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. third stage. or academic degrees. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. diplomas. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. Through early formal education. Concepts of proportion. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Some education systems have separate middle schools.3. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Higher Education: Higher education.4. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. capacity. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. structured education. or post secondary education.2.a secondary education. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. In general.3. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. the elements of language are first learned.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start.

Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped.which will help for nation's development. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. 2. 3. late beginners etc.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. What are levels of formal educational system? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. and remote dwellers. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. is an important agency of formal education. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. 4. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Agencies can be classified as 2. children with disabilities. 2.

. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. adding up to a true learning society.formal education. Adiseshiah. systematic. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. i. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. It unlocks the doors of development plans.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. admissions. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. open learning. However. one could say that non-formal education is an active.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. According to Malcolm A. Non-formal education includes adult education. to help themselves. continuing education and on the job oriented education. It is much more responsive to needs and change. It is functional. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education.learning client take some learning objectives. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. Therefore. Thus. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. It is deliberate. “Non-formal education should 113 .e. planned. it has its own valid claim to reality. systematic.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. etc. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. staffed. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. place of instruction.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. adults as well as children. until 1970 it had not been defined. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Open university. it is a more effective tool for rural development. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. curriculum. financially supported life formal education.

1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. international understanding.renewal. the Ideas of citizenship. Flexibility in various aspects of education. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. To help industrial workers to better their skills.S. To develop in the student. age. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills.learning pattern. curriculum.S. evaluation etc.4. 114 . are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. admissions. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.be marketable and vocationalised. It should lay emphasis on the self. i. Covering life span of an individual. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. 7. national integration. 2. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. 5.4. exploring. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. modes of teaching. Part-time education. 4. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. Lawrence.” According to H. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth.e.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. co-curricular activities. socialism. 3. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. 6. place of education. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge.4. self. 2.” 2.4. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. Preparation for future needs. Process of sharing. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved.

2. 2. Technical. 9. school dropouts. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 10. 3.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 6.4. 5. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives.4. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. in villages and those who live in towns. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. • 2. Eradication of adult literacy.4. working adults. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. Universalisation of primary education. 5. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. publication and information dissemination. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. Senior Secondary. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 4. 4. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 3.4. 7. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 8. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. To offer Secondary. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. 115 .

It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. farm. 2. centres of correspondence education. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. open space.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. All-round development i. To better qualifications. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. training centres in factories. Institutions for formal education. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. 4. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute.. 2. Radio and television. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. effective in modern societal context. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. etc.4.2. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . Again.4. self-employment iii. etc. 3. factory. Therefore.full time to learners – can be home. library. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. public libraries. To make if. others are formal and informal. if organised in isolation.4. To increase knowledge and 2. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. . List out any two aims of non formal education. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. radio. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. 6. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Define non formal education. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Teaching to face teaching. 117 .6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Face Contact programmes. Written tests. Lecturing T. institution. Essay Assignments and short answer questions.V. Correspondence lesson. . Give examples of non formal education? .

School 3. Primary level.4. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. 5. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. 2. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.4. The school. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. a. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. the college and the university come under this category. a. b. Higher Secondary level and University level. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. Pre-school level. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education.” 6. Open School. Open University. 7. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Secondary level. Formal and Non Formal 2. 2.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.4. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. 4. 3. adults as well as children. b. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 4. 118 . systematic. 2.2.

New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education in Emerging India. N. (2005). New Delhi : 119 . (2004). K. Anmol Publications Pvt. Dash. J. (2007). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Bhatia. (2008). S.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.4. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. L. (2003). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Theory and Principles of Education. Gupta. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.2. Pahuja. B. K and Narang C. Mohanty. N. P. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ltd. J. (2008).C.

2 Philosophy of Open University 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.3.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.7 2.3.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.4 Need for Open University 2.5.5.5.6 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.4 Open University 2.1 2.5.4.3.5.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.4.LESSON 2.3.5.5.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5.5.4.2 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5.5.4.5.4.3 Objectives of Open University 2.5.5 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.

explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education.3. However. 2.5. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. This knowledge may be in political field. know the need and objectives of open university. farmers. give the meaning. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. economic field or such other fields. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. characteristics of open university 4.5. It is a continuous process.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. labourers and half educated individuals. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.5. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . you will be able to: 1. 2. Thus. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. For them. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. 2. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. Under these circumstances.5.2. Any person. continuing education is a boon. It is a lifelong process. industries.

Persons engaged in health services. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened.5. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education.3. deteriorating to his character and personality. Block Development Officers. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas.directly related to his job. After the achievement of independence. For them too continuing education is essential. Cinema. if he gets opportunity to develop them. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. cultured and progressive.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. On the other hand. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. On the other hand. Doctors. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. 2. Radio. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. are also contributing their might for the purpose. T. Thus. Throughout the country. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. Radio and T. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature.literate person. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening.V.V.

(2) basic religious matters.3. (7) folk songs. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. we have not been able to achieve our targets. 6. 5. (16) liking. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases.5. (17) modern international and national events. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. (9) fundamentals of philosophy.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. 3. These books are not very useful. 2. habits of people of other lands. Inspite of the great efforts. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (4) the fundamentals of economics.V. (10) first aid. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (14) information about bringing up young children. especially women. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely.3. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. and Radio. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. 123 . Of course. 4. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements.. (13) psychology of child behaviour. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. 2. (1) ancient history. 2. 7.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1.5. (8) psychology of adults. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (6) folk stories. (15) music.

It also attempts to pr ovide equality. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . lack of time etc.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. NLM was launched in the year 2. attendance restrict ion.4.5. of educational opportunities. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e .5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2.

Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. No one is too old or too late to learn. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. 2.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 3. 2. 4.5. its education is not class room based but home based.unobserved. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. the higher the degree of openness. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it makes use of educational techno logy. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. but 125 . T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. e. b.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world.4. Which was the first open university in India? . Education is not a once for-all process. and in teaching. 5. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. d. c. IGNOU was established in the year 6.

1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n.4. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 4. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. 4.who did not get it. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. supplementing the existing provision. 2.4.5. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. 3. it a ims at wider and hig her. 2. Mo re o ver. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 2. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 126 . or who realised too late that they need it. 2.5. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 6. cho ice o f co ur ses. 3. 5. annu al wr it t en examinat io n.

learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated.2. 2. 8. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 6.4. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. 4. 5. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . 8. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. cha ng e t heir life compet ence.5. 1. a state or nation. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual.5. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Therefore. Every day. Self instructional materials. Correspondence tuition. 3. 127 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Laboratory works.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. List out any four methods of Open University? . The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. 2. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. In the present day world. 7. Tutor Comments. a society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. semi – literates. you have learnt the concept. school drop outs. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n .

6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. 6. a. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates.5. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. agricultural and industrial workers.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 9. Explain the objectives. 8. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. b. b. Broad casting lectures c.ambitious learners. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. aspirants for continuing education. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 1988. 2. 7. 3. 1985. 2. 8. 7. P r int med ia b. unskilled workers and other professionals. its education is not class room based but home based. 4. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. a. 128 . need and characteristics of Open University. youth. (2) basic religious matters. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. a. which may include house wives. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. d. (4) the fundamentals of economics. cho ic e o f co u r ses. (1) ancient history. Television Lessons. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification.5.

2.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.S. Reddy. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K and Narang C. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. L.K. S. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Udaiveer.. R. (2001). Ltd. (2004). Modern Problems of Education. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. K. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. (2004). Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. 129 . (2007).5.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

examination. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. the education of women. Training teachers for all levels of education. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. Examination reform. its causes and remedial measures. In Lesson 2. which may claim the attention of those concerned. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. and teacher education. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. wastage and stagnation.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. 133 . pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. All which is the need of the hour. The problems pertaining to the aim of education.

134 .

9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.2 EFA – How? 3.1.3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1 EFA – For whom? 3.1.5 3.1.1.1. 135 .1.2 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1.1 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.1.7 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3.6 3.3 New initiatives. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.8 3.1.LESSON 3.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.4 3.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.

Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. (EOI) 2. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. On the other hand. Eradication of Illiteracy. may be political.1. “The State shall 136 . Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). understands the country. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). economic or cultural. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. 2.3. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. education received added importance and significance. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. Continuing Education (CE) 1. social. Therefore. you will be able to: 1. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development.1. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. 3. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. therefore.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. directed that. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education.

Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. Three Stages for Universalization. 137 . Due to the adoption of democratic system. Universalization of Retention. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Therefore. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Continuing Education (CE). The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Universalization of Enrolment. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. the national Government under. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. 3. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. rights and responsibilities. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. After the attainment of independence.endeavour to provide. It enables the parents to send their children to School. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education.

We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. Write Article 45. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. educational enterprise.1. 3. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. UNESCO Bulletin states. This target had to be revised to 1970. later to 1988. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. present and future. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. 1995 (for upper primary stage). we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. then to 1976. Therefore.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. 1990.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. It is safe to assure. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools.3. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. 138 . So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India.

3. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. the art of preparing fruit-juice. In order to make the programme of education for all community. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Disabled. 5. creed.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. 6. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. 8. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. The Social Education. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. rural areas. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Education of Girls. problem of literacy. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. By undertaking survey. adolescent and adult. 11. etc. Education of the Impaired. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). Apart from primary education. nutrition education and sports and games. 3. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. 12. NAEP. 10.3. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). 9. slum areas. Early childhood education should be streamlined.1. FELF. Emphasis must be given on health education. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. sex. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. and Women’s education programme should be improved. their enrolment and retention. Jams and Jellies. 139 . their social economic status and occupations. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme.

Expand MLL and SSA . SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.1. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.1.3. Wastage and Stagnation.e.3.3 NEW INITIATIVES. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. 3. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.

(a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. Social Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .first stage of education. School Factors . Personal Factors . Familial Factors . it is considered as wastage.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.

can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. . Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. .occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Define Wastage. 7. 142 .

The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.The following factors. rural or urban 3. They are described hereunder :1. school or society.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Personal Factors .The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. Societal Factors . Family Factors . relating to home. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .3.1. School Factors . in his home.

stationary. Define Stagnation? 9. 144 . mid-day meals.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. uniforms. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. etc. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

3.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1. Universalization of Enrolment c. 6. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.. “The State shall endeavour to provide. b. 2. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. 4. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. a. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. a. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Universalization of Provision b. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. 4. directed that. a.” 3. Hartog Committee.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. improvement of curriculum. Universalization of Retention 2. 145 .1. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc.3.1. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. 3. 3. therefore.

Personal Factor b. b. Familial Factors c. T. Sharma. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Crescent Publishing Corporation. introduce graded curriculum. Hemchand. S.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2008).N. 9. Problems of Elementary Education.K.1. (2007). improve examination system. School Factors d. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. 3. New Delhi: 146 . a. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Social Factors 8.K. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. (2001). S. a.7. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.

5 New evaluation procedures 3.2.5.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2.2.4.2.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.1 Problems of examination 3.5.4.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2.LESSON 3.1 3.5.3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2.2.5.4.7 Let us sum up 147 .2.5.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2.2.2 Grade System 3.6.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.5.3.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2 3.2.7 Open book examination 3.2.5.2.4 Question banks 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.

it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. but on the other.9 3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.2. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .2. 3. suggest the new evaluation procedures. 3.2. Besides. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3.2. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.8 3. 3.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.2.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2. you will be able to: 1.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. 3. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .

If the students are in sufficient number.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. schools for them wherever necessary. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. etc. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. roadside Romeoism. hostel facilities. etc. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. 3. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened.. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. The following steps should be taken up. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. waiting rooms for girl students.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. They develop secondary sex characteristics. which the educational authorities have to face.3. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. etc. 149 . They may cause problems relating to discipline. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex.2.

4. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. teachers.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. appointment of paper-setters. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. public interested in education. assessment and Finance. conduct of internal examinations. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. It is considered as a major sub-system. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. public administrators and statesmen. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. 3. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.2. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. the examination system has an important role to play. 150 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Instruction.

validity and practicability. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. etc. etc. tabulators. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively.2. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. establishing reliability. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. examiners.4.printing and distribution of question papers. scrutinizers. values. announcement of results. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. introducing objective-based testing. etc. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. etc. 3.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. invigilators. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. training of examiners. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. etc. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 .

They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. 3) With respect to method of teaching.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. which they are expected to study. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. takes the place of comprehensive learning. Vagaries in making. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally.. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording.. lack of objectivity etc. 3. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. stereotyped questions. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. Rote memorisation. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. not meant to be assessed in the examinations.4. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. Subjects. 7) In connection with the question papers.2. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education.. 2) From the angle of content of education. halo-effect. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. do not appeal to the students and parents. it s a common experience that subjectivity. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. 152 . The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. may also discredit them. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education.

may be introduced. revaluation. etc. List any two merits of examination.a part of internal assessment. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations.develop true love for education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. re-numbering of answer scripts. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students..Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. . Spot valuation. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. 153 . Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques.

attitudes.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. In actual practice. Their interests. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. 3. skills are given importance. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.5. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. It is complicated. he is given extra credit points. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests.3. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.2. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. Every paper is treated equal. The students can take any course offered in any department. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination.2.2.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. In this system.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. When a person chooses to work extra. The new scheme of assessment. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper.5. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .

While designing syllabus. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. v.poor. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. Groupism is encouraged.good. poor. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. This system reduces comparison of marks. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. 3. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. only the total credits to be earned is specified. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper.5.discipline. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. These weightages are called credits. courses can have weightages defined. or as a 4 credit course.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . An example is a seminar. In the new system.2.

with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. 3.5.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. 3. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education.5.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. 156 . If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.2.2. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.2.5. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. 3.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. However. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners.

Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Therefore. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. However.3. 6. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. . and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. recruitment. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . There are no proper procedures for selection. In the hierarchy. List any four new evaluation procedures. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.2. 3.2. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

taking up the follow-up programmes.. finding out the adequacy of. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. etc. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. of late. wherever necessary.. inspecting the class-room teaching. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. qualifications. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. They are. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. laboratory equipment. in a sense. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools.qualified personnel. playgrounds. finding out whether the prescribed text. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. books are followed. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. school buildings. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. disciplinary problems. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. whether the syllabus has been covered. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. being realised as two different functions. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. 3. staff. etc. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. requirements. submitting of the inspection reports. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. complaints and compliments. interpersonal relationships and so on. When they are fully realised. in contrast. Academic inspection.6. library books. 158 .2.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. 1.

courses. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. aptitude. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. In the case of departmental candidates.Ed. 3. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. 159 . M. their professional knowledge.2. course in either educational. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field.Ed. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. once in five years. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors.. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. at least. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. or. Insistence on specialisation in the B. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. In the light of these conceptualisation. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. Similarly.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions.. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. modern. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life.

a. Administration. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. examination reforms and supervision and inspection.2. b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Grade System. 3.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Instruction. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. 3. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. a. 4. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. 2. 160 .2. b. 3. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. d. assessment and Finance.2. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. 5. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. a. b. c.

3. b. (2004). c. Multiple sets of question paper. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. a. (2005). Open book examinations. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Educational Reforms. R and Sharma. Problems of Education in India.a part of internal assessment. 7. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Vaidya. (2002). a. a. Question banks. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.4. History and Problems of Education in India. S. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. 5. b.2. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. b. New 161 . Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. K. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. K.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma.

3 3. 3.5 3.7 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3.8 3.3. 4.10 3.3.3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. 5. you will be able to: 1. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.9 3. 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra. identify the needs of rural India and social.6 3.3.1 3.4 3.3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. 162 .1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3.3.3.3. 2.3.2 3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.LESSON 3.3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.

Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. The Calcutta Madras. University Education. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. Similar is the case with some other States.g.3. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. in Andhra Pradesh. 2. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. 10 years of general Secondary Education.e.3. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. Commission emphasised to continue.e. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. i. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.. e. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. the Banaras Sanskrit College. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses .. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. and 3 years of First Degree Course.. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. etc. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course.. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. 8 years of general education. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines.specialisation programmes 3. The. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. Consequent on the recommendations.

to prepare. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved .so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. 5) to help for the social. educational channels. and. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. who desire to change from one stream to another.a sense of dignity of labour. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . However. habits of hard work and develop . to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. cultural and economic development of the country. to imbibe. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. 10. 8. 3. historical. 5. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. is also a plus point . economical and political.3. Provision for transfer of credits to students. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. social. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . 7.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a.confidence in students. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. 6. b. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal.

because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. cultural and' religious tolerance. The General Educational Spectrum.3.national integration. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . and. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. Sociologically it is undesirable. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. Psychologically. to develop national character. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. international understanding. social justice. etc. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. Philosophically it is not the conception. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. 3. cooperativeness. at the other. on one hand. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. democratic living. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. and that required to enter the tertiary level. 1.. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities.

professional. 166 . the rural areas have suffered very much. chemistry. fish culture. India is a land of villages. rural health. or other machinery. and vocations based on dairy-farming. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. All these need for an. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. horticulture. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. technological. Commerce and other disciplines. 2. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Science. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. vegetable growing. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. such as Agriculture. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. industrial agricultural production is growing. physics or mathematics. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. educational and cultural services. Agriculture is the main occupation. In the matter of language. In our country. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. commerce.— tube-wells. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. 3. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced.3. technical. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. medical plants. commerce. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. In the vocational spectrum. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. Biology.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-.

Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. 4. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. and 5. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . social justice. interests and aptitudes of the students.etc. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2.. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. the local resources available. There had been favourable reaction from the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this way. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. In time.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. can be ensured.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. 3. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. In this it may be concluded. etc. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. and the needs. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all.3.

3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Dash.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. habits of hard work and develop . Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. we studied the history. General Educational Spectrum and b. J. N. (2001). 3. 2.K. b. b. (2008). Ltd.3. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. Calcutta University Commission 2.3. a. J.3. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. 3.a sense of dignity of labour. Mohanty. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.C. (2007). B.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. S. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. 3. Vocational Sepctrum. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. 3. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. objectives. to imbibe. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. New Delhi : 168 . (2005). a. a. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.

5 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.13 3.10 3.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.4.12 3.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.1 3.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.4. Education contributes to human development.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4. social and 169 . but the lighting of a fire”.8 3.11 3.4.9 3.4.4.4.4.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.3 3.4.7 3.2 3.LESSON 3.6 3.

higher education of girls developed immensely.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Home Economics. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. Dr.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. Teaching and Fine Arts. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. There is a close connection between education and development. family. Education . you will be able to: 1. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. community and nation is universally acknowledged. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. cultural and political development of the individual. During the year 1937. although we have miles to go. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. economic. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. The relevance of women’s education to social. While women constituted only 9.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877.higher education in particular.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development.4. analyze the women and distance education. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. These courses were. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. particularly 170 . 3. 3.4. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. In the post —independence period. Nursing. For the first time in the history of India.

Yet.1 24.65 lakhs in 1994-95.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Mumbai. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.0 16.0 Today. out of 9200 and odd colleges. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.0 32.9 27.N.0 43. in our country. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. 3. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . In 1950-51. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. Mother Teresa Women University.1 31.D. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.4. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.4. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. In the rest of the country.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.4.9 14. levels and professions. Even today.women.2 29. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Kodaikanal. Coimbatore.T Women University. we have more than 1200 institutions.2 22. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. The idea of women’s education for equality. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. 3.

63 Female % 34.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .that of boys.4.4.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.56 64.27 89.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.36 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4.47 65.4%) prefer Arts subjects. 2. 3.53 34. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .54 12.34 33.44 35.73 10.17 52.1 and 14. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.66 66.83 47. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .46 82. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. 3.1 respectively.

In every third family. 3. 173 . Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. The major hurdles. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. They gave up their studies to enter home life. she will only learn fashion. and coeducation may spoil her character. particularly. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. In college. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education.4. Book banks should be established. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. financial difficulty of the parents. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. irrelevance of the content of education. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. According to a survey. marriage is a very common I factor.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. etc. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. distance of the college or university from home. Thus. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters.hinders the girls from getting higher education. Also. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. promoted and increased. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. what is the need for higher education for her. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. curriculum not suited to their requirements. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities.

It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. There are constraints of time. Distance education is a boon to women. 3. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment.4. is the only tool for realising empowerment. Empowerment in a nutshell. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. and the limitations of the conventional education system. Geographic distance of educational institutions. resources and socio . It also brings about 174 . space.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. which is the most dynamic factor of development. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. 3. It enables to study. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation.economic disabilities faced by women. Full-time employment.4. Education.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. It is a productive investment. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges.

Women are partners in development. education of women is of paramount importance. The major objectives of women's higher education.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. for full development of our human resources. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. on their own. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. education of women must be given priority in national plans.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. legal awareness and economic independence. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life.4. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. Empowerment is an active. This can be achieved through reflection. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. 3. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . empowerment means being assertive. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. higher learning.

The educational institutions. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . which had been the sole domain of men. Scholarships and concessions for women. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. has to be implemented at the earliest. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. who are eager to take up courses. 3. Reservation for women. which is pending for a long time. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. But their number is small. will encourage them to venture new grounds. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. especially so in the developing countries. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. 176 . through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. The local administration. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Better opportunities.4. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community.

talents.8%). Australia.000 women in the country.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem..1%) and architecture and building (38. capacities etc. IDP Education. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.3 percent. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. 3. engineering and related technologies (16. But. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. Chief Executive.4. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. especially in developing countries like African countries. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Also. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. According to Lindy Hyam.9%). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century.

Rao. and Suryalatha.to the family.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. and Swain.4.4. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Mumbai. Annakodi. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.R. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Pattanaikj. Mishra. 178 . create the right attitude towards life. Women and Education. (2008).K. 2. S. Women Education. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. 3.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. R.C. (2000). Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Kodaikanal. Centre for Women’s Studies. Coimbatore. 3. Rajasthan 5. R. SNDT Women’s University. Women Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. individuals and society b. 4.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Mother Teresa Women University. SNDT Women’s University. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. R. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. (2007). Mumbai.4. S. Coimbatore. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. 43% 6. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. A. a. A. 4. (2005). 3. community and the nation.

5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.5.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5.11 3.9 3.7 3.4 3.5.5.LESSON 3.5. whole.5 3.2 3.6 3.5.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. They should be trained. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5.personality of children in and out of school.10 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5.3 3.1 3. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .8 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.

After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. 3.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. Shorter working hours. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. you will be able to: 1.5. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Lack of physical facilities. understanding and strong desire for international peace. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. Dearth of new technology of teaching. equality and justice. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals.5. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. 5. 180 . know the pre service and in service training facilities. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. 4. national consciousness. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. 3. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. understand the training teachers for Primary. and national character. international. social and emotional integration.

Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. 3. who have not been trained earlier.5. (NCERT) New Delhi. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years .5. the secondary teacher education. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels.Ed. a Diploma course and a Degree course. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors.. 3. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. levels.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Lop-sided curriculum. and the collegiate teacher education.Ed. If the student teachers are working teachers. the centre. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . it is called the In-service teacher education. etc. Depending on the levels. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. higher secondary teacher education. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. the state Government. the primary teacher education. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training.. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. and M. it is called the Extension teacher Education. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. inservice and extension education programmes. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. students.Less qualified teacher educators. Inadequate training in practical skills. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. At the diploma level. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. are established. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Science Education units. Educational teehnology cells. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . depart ments etc. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . extensio n service.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Expand NCERT 2. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 .5. etc. state Institutes of Educat ion. Education cells. Also Guidance Bureaux. non-formal.. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . Evaluation unit. collegiate cells.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training.

All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards.Ed..• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . to ensure teacher competence. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. which should include experience in the primary schools too. to prescribe conditions for recognition.Ed. and 183 . a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. to improve curricular programmes. material conditions relating to libraries. schools and sister institutions. which help breaking isolation from one another . through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. and so on. laboratories. should be improved on a top priority basis. despite its vast expansion. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . primary and secondary school teachers. audio visual aids.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities ... degree. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . to offer consultative services.

Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. To meet this exigency. Meanwhile.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Workshops. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. Hence. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. whether they should have professional education or. Modern Techniques of Teaching. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. methodology and evaluation. and XII. etc. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Agriculture. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. not came up once again. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. The problem. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. though no pre-service training. 184 . (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. etc. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Organisation of Content Courses. Induction Courses. Psychology of Students. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training.secondary education. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. Modern Methods of Evaluation.

For re-orienting the teachers.’s are elig ible for M. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. (Education) and M.D. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.Ed.Ed. Pre-service training is for those. M. Degree and M...A. All B Ed. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.Ed. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . training. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. These facilities are available for regular students.. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier..A. 3.5. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.S. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.Ed. (Education) are organized by 185 . Ajmer. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. in Education.. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.Ed. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.. Post-Graduates also undergo B. State Institutes of Education. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. courses and M.Ed.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.’s for Ph. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Degree. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. Courses leading to B.

List any two code of conduct for teachers? . Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . (Ed.. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. 186 . 3. 4. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.).A. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. they should be conscientious . established by tradition and teachers of the past. What is the role of ERIC? . 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 6. (Ed). 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. Hence the employability of M. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. of conduct—written or unwritten. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. 5. . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .5.A. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. However. and B. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession.

However. 5. National Council of Educational Research and Training. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Dearth of new technology of teaching.3. a. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 2. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. they should be conscientious. 3. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the problems of teacher education. 3. Explain code of conduct for teachers. b. Ajmer. b. 3. Shorter working hours.5. a. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. 6. 187 . 3.5. a. 2. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. Bhopal. 4. 4.5.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. The necessity is however this. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

(2009). A. Teacher Education.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. J. (2010). B. Corporation. Mohanty. and Teacher Education. Publication Pvt. P. Ltd Aggarwal. Teacher Education. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .5.3.N. Tewari. (2003). New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House.D.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

preservation of nutrients. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. If the diet is poor. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. nutritional deficiency diseases. communicable diseases and their prevention.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. consuming the right amounts becomes important. economic and educational developments. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. common ailments of children. objectives and role of the physical education. The person’s environment is equally important. In lesson 1. 191 . the focus is on the school health programmes. Since food is the source of nutrients. objectives. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. objectives. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. In lesson 4.

192 .

3 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.1.8 4.5 4.1.e.1.11 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1.1.10 4.2 4. mental. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.LESSON 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important. for giving health education to the children under its custody.1.4 4.1.1.1. physical.9 4. emotional and social.1.1.7 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. 193 .1. It is a miniature society.6 4.

understand school health programmes 2. explain the importance of First aid 5. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. know the need for sex education. cleanliness and healthful living.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. 8. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. To develop healthy health habits among children. 3. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools.1. 10.1. Instruction. 4. content of health education. training of teachers and evaluation. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. 4. list the common ailments of children 3.. 194 . 9. training in first aid and etc. To develop certain skills concerning health. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 7. 4. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. 5. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. 2. To give information regarding health rules. 6.g. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. e. you will be able to: 1. to his family and to the community at large. 11.

Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. First aid facilities should be made readily available. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. 2. direct lighting.C. (xii) smoking education etc. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. play festivals. is imperative. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. The school buildings should be spacious. (xl) mental health.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. “Play-for-all” programmes. typhoid..1.G. as described below 1. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. 3. The flooring should not be damp. Triple Antigen Vaccination. (vi) nutrition education. excusing late. cleanliness weeks. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. (viii) first aid. organisation of school health days. (v) safety education. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. 4. 2. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . minimizing the travelling distance. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. Arranging better transportation facilities. ( iii) sanit at io n. etc. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. B.. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. There should be regular water supply.coming or absence. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. B. Vaccination for small pox. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. (ii) communit y healt h.4. suitable furniture. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. inoculation against cholera. vaccination. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. 5. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. There should be good drainage facilities. The surroundings of schools should be clean. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. proper doors and windows.

drowning. etc. • Close the schools. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. fractures. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. • Have adequate rest and sleep. cuts.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • Find out the cases. wounds. if epidemic is wide-spread. sports and games in the interest of their health. dislocations. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. poisons. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. 196 . fainting (epileptic fit). C. insect stings. D. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. and other accidents. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. • When sleeping in groups. • Keep all rooms clean. isolate and notify. bleeding. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes.. scalds. • Take nutritious food. burns.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. chicken pox. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school.. polio. So they easily get illnesses. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. 4. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. backache. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases.1. Mention the school health programmes. List out the Health curriculum 3. There are three stages in any communicable disease. pain in the joints. headache. These diseases are called communicable diseases. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. which are – cold. They are: i) The incubation stage. fever. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. tuberculosis. 4. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. Once these germs get into the body. measles etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . They have less resistence to diseases than adults. 2. water or bodily contact.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. cough. asthma. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people.

Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. sugar and water. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. The following are the common communicable diseases.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Common Cold . nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Diarrhoea . Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. cough and fever. Hence liquid diet is recommended. etc. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. unhygienic living conditions. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. head-ache and cough.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Mumps . The symptoms include cold. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness.When a child suffers from scabies. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. unhygienic bottle feeding. After three or four days of fever.It is caused by measles virus. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Ear Infections . Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Important salts and water are lost in this process. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Scabies .This disease is caused by bacteria. Others make the children very weak. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. The child may have fever. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Hence it is called a killer disease. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Throat is affected. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Tonsilitis . Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. 198 . Children catch cold from persons having cold. Measles . Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. eating food which is not clean. This is caused by cold virus.

5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. the child may die. If proper treatment is not given. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. By scratching he causes secondary infections. separate. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. raised pink spots appear on head.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. The child may also have diarrhoea. It begins with fever. Typhoid . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Diphtheria . Expand DPT . A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable.• • • • Chicken Pox . The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. the child is not able to breathe. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. What are communicable diseases? 6. Shortly.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. As the disease progresses. 199 . Enlist the common ailments of children. face and waist. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless.

Drowning . so-called sex books and periodicals. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. cuts. bleeding. drowning. swelling. exciting and body-oriented. 4. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. 2. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. In such cases.1.g. 3.4. sprains. Cuts and Bruises . Sprains . Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. It is both biological and psychological. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. scorpion stings. fiction. and Community Work and Social Service. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. Wounds . It has its rightful place in education too.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. wounds.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. snakebites. simple fractures. sprains. eye injury. and films. Sex is popular. 4. bruises.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. 200 . Sex is but an integral part of human personality. etc. 5. head injury. man-woman behaviours. films and jokes.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. fainting.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. dislocation.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. it is a subject of art. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water.1.

it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. 3. try experimenting with their bodies. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. but preserve them from disaster and disease. In today's liberal and interactive society.. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. In secondary schools. 2. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. the school. Should the boys and girls. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. the religious organisations. B. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. The home.old values. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. health. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. they would be treading the path of sure doom. in their ignorance. sex education is being recommended in schools. celibacy are age. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . And here is where some protests would be inevitable. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. Hence. The values of life. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge.

1) 2) 3) as a separate course. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. there will no crisis in its implementation. hence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. first aid and sex education. common ailments of children. 4. 202 .9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. when the courses are already overloaded. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. the school health programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. communicable diseases and their prevention. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised.1. What are the major components of Sex Education. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. C. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. Teacher education institutions are.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Mention the food nutrients 2. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. 209 . What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

210 . But how do we select these foods? The major aim. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . Let us talk about each of these aspects.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. If you look at the definition carefully. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.2.2. minerals. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods.4. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s.

In other words. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals .g. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. sex. Even within given States there is considerable variation.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. A balanced diet is specific firstly. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. 4. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex).sedentary. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. activity level and physiological stress. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems.g. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. There is no point.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal.6. for example. paratha and poori. dosa are typical of the south. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. In the case of adults.one in the morning and the other at night. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . the social and religious practices of that region. moderate or heavy work. construction labourer). These are: region where the person resides and income. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first.2. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. People in the east of our country prefer rice. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. Preferences/customs are also important. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. it is also specific to a given activity level .

One person may be fond of milk products. nuts and dry fruits. One must. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. customs. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. Among the social factors. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. taboos related to food may play an important role. for example. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. As you read this discussion. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. vegetables and fruits. However. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem.planning the diet. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. fat and sugar tend to increase. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. Judicious selection of food is. In addition to these. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Including these 212 . If you think of your own religious group. however. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. Even among flesh foods. however. As income increases. income plays a vital role. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. These determine the acceptability of foods. while another may hate them. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. Having more money. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. as important for the rich as for the poor. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. however.

10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed .milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. meat.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . over-eating or under. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. green leaves. fruits. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 17. if the teachers have good food habits. For this. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. mouth. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished.eating is hazardous. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. Define balanced diet. List out any two healthy food habits. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. but they should be thrown away. 8) Walk a while after eating. 8. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. 213 . eggs .

Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. c. Explain food nutrients 4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.2. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. a. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. In fact.4. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. e. When the diet is inadequate.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. d. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. 4. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3.2. Night blindness. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Discuss good food habits. Bitot’s spots. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Corneal xerosis.2. Keratomalacia 3.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Conjuctival xerosis. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. preservation of nutrients. 4. good nutrition is essential for good health. Vitamin D 5. Beri Beri 4. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease.

b. (2004). Hands. Sri Lakshmi B. a . Chopra. (2008). Nutrition Science. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . minerals. mouth. Food and Nutrition Education. 8.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru.N. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Food and Nutrition Education. S. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. a. R. 7. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s .M. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. 4.2. (2008).C. Nutrition and Dietetics. b. Food should be consumed after eating well. A Text Book of Foods.6. (2005). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Health and Nutrition Education. (2009). R. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. P.

13 4.12 4.5 4.LESSON 4.3.6.6.3 Impact on Education 4.3.3.8 4.3 4.3.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.7 4.4 4.3.1 4.3. 216 .3.1 Impact on social development 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.3.11 4.6.2 4.3.3.3.9 4.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.10 4.3.3.3.

3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. the stress is. the causes of population change.3. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. Population Education. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. economic and educational development 3. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. Whenever we talk of sex education. It is not sex education. state the meaning. community.3. characteristics and changes for himself. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. family planning and sex education etc. describe the impact of population growth on social.4. population characteristics. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. There is some difference. 4. 217 .1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood.3. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. It is a much wider co ncept. his family. understand the importance of small family norm 5. his societ y and the world. aims at providing the younger generation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. and the consequences of these processes.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. objectives and need for population education 2. therefore. 4.

Define Population Education 2. the society. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. the nation and the world. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.3. the family.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .

Family is considered as a social unit. the family programmes are also handicapped. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. 4. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. economic and educational development of the country. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. health and happiness of its citizens. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Every second two thousand children are being born.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. 219 . When the family is small. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development.6. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. With the larger families. which will not be possible without population control. 4.3.3. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems.

They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.3. lack of proper health care. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. In developing countries.6.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. The gulf between them is widening further. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. Swollen cities.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. in buses and trains. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. i. facility for drinking water. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. there is an inverse relationship between population and development.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. pollution of the environment. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. in cinema halls and theatres. 4. in parks and other places of public gatherings. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. and so on. 4. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. teacher index.6.3. heavy intern I migration etc. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher.e. organization index and material index. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. unemployment. toilets. Many students herded in a small room. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. 220 .

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. family planning etc. There would be poor library facilities. essays.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. and laboratory equipments. can be taken up. Hindi and English. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. even text books would be in short supply. 221 . less budget for education. thus. Social Studies Statistics on population education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies.3. reproduction. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. can be studied in science and health education. There would be very few audiovisual aids. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. blank verses etc. Regional Language. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. bar graphs etc. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility.. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. less space facilities.

15. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Bihar. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. 9. Children with the help of parents. 5. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. 2. 12. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. deaths. They may arrange them as per average density of population. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. 14. 4. 13. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 11. United States of America. Uttar Pradesh. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). causes of deaths etc. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths.4.3. 8. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. West Bengal. 7. China. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Brazil. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. Children may compare two families. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Canada. area and average density of population. 10. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. 3.

It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. preferences for sex. 16. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. values and role children etc.be opened in their schools. 17. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. we have no right to stop 223 . one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. 18. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. The question.3.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. age at marriage. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. Comparing life in various respects in two families. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.4-6. continued ..were implemented 224 .4 births per woman in mid-1990s. especially the expansion of child immunization services .their entry into the world”.3. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. however. on an overall basis. “He who is responsible for population growth. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. The Family Welfare Program. at varying places in different regions.to emphasize family planning services. 4. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. which education can only do. More than 45 years ago. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. and the child survival components of the news: program. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. Since the program's inception. the total fertility rate decreased from 6.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.

and nominal fees for services. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. At these meetings. a focus on health promotion. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. men. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. and the World Conference on Women. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. the community appears willing to pay for services. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. Moreover. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Therefore. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. In April 1996. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . In October 1997. Local programs vary in their approaches. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. reliance on local women as community health workers. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. expansion of services to unmarried women.earlier than the safe motherhood components. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding.

3.3. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process.emphasizing the needs of the client. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the goals of RCH? 4.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. 226 . family. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. involving the community. community. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. Its main purposes are to create awareness. nation and the world. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. economic and educational development 4. Describe the impact of population growth on social. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. 1997).

b. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. Brazil. less budget for education.3. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. less space facilities. a. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. the causes of population change. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. United States of America. China. bar graphs. Canada. 6. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. 4. and the consequences of these processes. a. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. population characteristics. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. 3. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. area and average density of population. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. characteristics and changes for himself. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. a. his society and the world. 5.4. b. 7. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers.” 2. his family. 227 . increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

Modern Problems of Education. (2005). New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. T.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. V. J. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. N.3.4. (2002). Udaiveer. Reddy. (2005). Kantikar. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Principles of Population Studies. A. Jayapoorni. Bhende. (2004). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Coimbatore. Modern Trends in Indian Education. 228 . (1992). Changing attitudes to Education in India. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Centre for Women’s Studies.K. Ltd.

2 4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.8.5 4.7 4.4.4.4.4 4.10 4.4.4.4.4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.2 Major games 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4.4.11 19.LESSON 4.4.3 Indigenous games 4.9 4.4.8.4.4 Lead up games 4.4.4.4.3 4.8.8.6 4.1 4.1 Minor games 4.

Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. which forms its most valuable assets.4. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. full records of physical activities should be maintained. 4. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. moral fitness and emotional fitness. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. 4. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. The concept of physical education has been made broader.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. classify the different types of games.4.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. as it should 230 . state the meaning of Physical Education 2. leadership and balance in defect.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. social fitness. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”.4. perseverance. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications.4. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. team spirit. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. mental alertness. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. the youth of the country.

Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. team spirit. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. obedience to rules. Every individual is a part of society. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. They are inseparably united together. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. leadership. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. They go hand in hand. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Therefore. The educational efforts at home. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. To be more precise. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only.

There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences.” Montaigue writes. pleasing manners. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. ment al.” The Secondary Education Commission. 4. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. mo ral.4. H. game and sports.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. nor body but the whole man. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. Rousseau states.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. Regarding the significance of physical education. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. a sound health. Just like Education. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. C. Buck has observed that 232 .” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. Physical exercises.

physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. endurance. initiative.a properly directed physical education should result in health. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. resourcefulness and smartness. flexibility and power.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief.” 4.4. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. elegance. efficiency and character. Froebel says. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. “If we wish to develop the whole being. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. happiness. speed. 233 . Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. we must exercise the whole human being. etc. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems.” In brief. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. coordinative abilities. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. strength. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life.

Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. poetry and painting. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Tournaments foster this sentiment. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. should help in the spiritual development of the student. its adherents and its enemies. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. 234 (i) (ii) . they may form gangs.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. If no opportunity is provided to the students. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. plagues and famines. Every age has its artists. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. in greater or lesser degree. systems of government. While wars. these fundamental things have always been present. including all racial groups and historical ages.

bravery and interest in games and sports. etc. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. 3. self. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. 235 . obedience. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to develop tolerance. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . Write any two importance of Physical Education. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.sacrifice. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education.\ to develop perseverance. B.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. 2. respect for rules.

12. 4. 14. Be self-confident. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. 5. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. 236 1. Be in the uniform. 13. Keep the field ready for the activities. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Always keep the whistle ready. 4.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. At least now its importance should be duly recognized.4. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 3. injuries among pupils should be made. 7. and readmission after they have recovered. Act as a leader.H. 2. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Be sportive. . Emergency care procedures should be followed.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 9. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 15. Inform health principles. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 16. Haag. 6. 8. Usually parents. 10. defects.4.4. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. students. Be well-prepared. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. 11. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Posture screening should be done. is essential. and. Be punctual. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.

Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 1.8. 4. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games.4. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. their development is handicapped.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. the play. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. less equipment and less expense.4. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. Moreover.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. Such inst incts as imitation. Indigenous games. frolic and jo y. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. 2. 4. chasing. 4. Lead up games. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. 237 .

over ball pass Relay. Except a few games. Shuttle Badminton. heading. on sea-shore. women take part most of the games. Basket Ball. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. the games can be modified according to convenience. Tennikoit. wherever the kids assemble. on hard courts.. some of them are played indoors. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. 4. Ball Badminton. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. zig zag relay. Soft Ball. Throwing. While many of them are played in the open playfields. On lawns. hitting. These games require varied skills such as running.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. muffling. Jump the stick clay and so on. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Khokho. the play equipment. Cricket.With a very few rules. stopping. on mountain tops and on river beds. Hopping. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Jumping. trapping.4. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. bowling etc. 238 . catching. under ball pass Relay. driving. The dimension of the posts and nets. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools.8. pitching. benefit in playing minor games. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Hockey. boosting. Dodging. snatching the kerchief. Kabaddy etc. For each game the rules are many. couple tag. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. with implements or without implements. They are played for a shorter duration. finding the partner. the number of players and substitutes. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. skipping. dribbling. spiking. Volley Ball. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Tennis.

They have an abundant social value. Kho-kho.4. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.8. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 .4. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. and . For example. festivals connected with religion and public functions.4. List out some major games. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. While observing the players in action. 4. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one.8. An example for indigenous game is 8. Games may be classified as 6. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. On occasions like marriage. these games being popular. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. they are in existence. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. All the fundamental tactics. birth. death. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil.

c.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Minor and Major 240 . It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. 4. a. 5. b.4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.4. d. to secure physical health b. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. b. 2. to develop physical stamina. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. 4. 3. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 2. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. Posture screening should be done. a. a.4. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. 4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Briefly discuss the different types of games. 3. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. 4. b. aims and objectives and need of physical education. physically and emotionally fit and alert. a. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose.4.

New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005).C. 4. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. Soft Ball. Cricket. Volley Ball.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. J. Khokho. G.4. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Shuttle Badminton. Ltd. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Basket Ball. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Mohanty. Krishna murthy. 241 . Health. (2009).K. Tennis. Kabaddy 7. Aggarwal. Foot-ball. Tennikoit. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2008). Physical Education and Sports. Handbook of Physical Education. Khokho 8.6. Hockey. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. J. (2008). Ball Badminton.

5.5.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.5.10 4.1 Natural Environment 4.5.2 4.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.4 4.5.2 Manmade Environment 4.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.9 4.1 4.5.11 4.5.6 4.5.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .3 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.8 4.LESSON 4.5.7 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.

To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Attitude. The best place to start such learning is school. 4.5. 2. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. aesthetic and educational factors.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Awareness. Skills. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. Knowledge. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. social. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. 4. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. 3. 3. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. it covers the following elements: 1. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. 2.educat ion for the environment. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. Broadly. economic.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. education about the environment and education through the environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. role of teacher in environmental conservation. political. Details are given below: I. list out the types of environment 3. you will able to: 1. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. 243 .5. population explosion and resource depletion could be. 6. Participation. Essential knowledge about the Environment. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Evaluation Ability. 5.

their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. • Biological magnification E. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. F. a. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. D. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen.B. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. 244 . Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Oxidants Other pollutants. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. heat sink and wind flow in cities. 2. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality.

Use of medical science i. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. 2. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. B. III. Control of population growth a. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. 3. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Abortion iv. Persuasion: i. economic. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. 2. Family planning ii. Birth control through education b. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Socio-economic measures. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Intrauterine device iii. Sterilisation. 4. The pill ii. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. The human ecosystem II. c.3.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. (UNESCO. 246 . 3. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. e) Recycling. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Define Environmental Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Water pollution abatement. 1983). 2.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Air pollution abatement ii. 3. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. includes the plants. way is called environmental or ecological factor.5. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.5.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain.4. telex. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. 4. to his needs. a. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . animals and other organisms (biotic). Any constituent or condition of the environment.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. These are biotic components. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. Biological environment The biological environment. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions.other components of the environment. He modifies according”. -other. fax agricultural apparatus. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.5. They interact with each. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. b. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.5.5. A change in one brings about a change in the other.5.

sources of pollut ion. reasons. industrial pollut io n. social studies. sources. over exploitation of ground water. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . change in climate may be added. maintaining the ecological diversity. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. balance of nature. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. of civilizations. History The rise and fall. food chain and food-web. noise pollution. explosion deforestation. population. evolution. wars and hazards of war. biogas plants. need for bio-diversity.. solar cookers. use of pesticides. alternate sources of energy. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. excellent recreation sites. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. trees reducing noise pollution. preventing siltation of dams. ozone depletion. mineral survey. supplying timber for various uses. industrial survey. water scarcity. windmills. nuclear energy. are the topics which may be taught in History. ozone layer deplet ion. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. t heir role in preventing pollution. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. desertification 248 . harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. use of medicinal plants. nuclear warfare. etc. effects. importance of nitrogen cycle. acid rain. preserving the watersheds. role of trees in building economy. noise control. (ii) Air pollution. natural way of controlling pests. effects o f CFC. river systems. need for conservation. etc. extinction of species.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. relation between population and pollution. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. greenhouse effect. air pollutants from industries.

Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Organising conferences. aims and scope. 2. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 5. 12. 7. 4. Providing. 249 . 14. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. animal and plants.5. 10.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 3. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. group discussions and seminars. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. 4. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 9. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 13. 11. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 8.may be inc ded in Geography. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 6. Peepal and Tulsi. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education.

used oils down the drain. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. or form a car pool for everyday travel. especially plastics. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. all these can cause serious pollution. Never put any left over chemicals. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Don’t burn any waste. 6. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. 5. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. World Environmental falls on 250 .Send their waste oil. it will cause pollution. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Reuse carrier bags. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. If it is done.

To arrange for visiting speakers. Conservation of natural resources. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. dest roying nat ural habitats. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. etc. nuclear wars. developing desirable attitudes. deforestation. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. diversity and stability. Att itudes of balance towards nature. To provide materials needed for practical work. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry.). According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. orderliness and beauty). The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. CFCs. (cleanliness. values and habits.mat erials. depletion of ozone. To arrange visits or expeditions. and 251 . Harmony with the nature .8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. viz. loss of bio-diversity. Social responsibilit y (common good. rather than conquest and mastery. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. concern for others). Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. The groups may exchange.5. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Concern for species. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. etc.. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil.4. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. potable water. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources.

5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.5. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. 4.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. 252 . It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. 4. 8.5. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. preserving natural cycles. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4.

(2007). Rapid population growth. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. June 5 7. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 4. greenhouse effect. b.\ 4. sources of pollution. ozone layer deplet ion. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Social responsibilit y (common good. effects. water scarcity. population. Environment and Human Rights.K. over exploitation of ground water. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Education for values. Providing. Awareness. Kuldeep.2. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Nanda.5. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. b. a. b. (1997). 3. Y. concern for others). Environmental Education. reasons. sources. Modern Problems of Education. air pollutants from industries.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. a. Organising conferences. (2004). specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. acid rain. (2007). Ltd. a. group discussions and seminars. 6. Environmental Education.K. Anmol Publications Pvt. Knowledge. (ii) Air pollution. relat ion between population and pollution. a.. b. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . importance of nitrogen cycle. Udaiveer. new problems from science and technology. 5. Ltd. 8. S. S. explosion deforestation. New Delhi : Authors Press.K. Publications Pvt. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. To provide materials needed for practical work. T.K. New Delhi : Sharma.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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Education must contribute to development of culture. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. It is self-realisation. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. man is essentially a moral being. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. Spiritual Development. enrichment and transmission of culture. Education according to idealism. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 .our life. According to Rusk'. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. Therefore. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. the emancipation of spirit.1. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality.” 5. should be universal in nature. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. moral. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. in fact. Universal Education. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man.3.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. The universe is regarded as a thought process.

while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. should be there. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. So he should embody. He sets the environment in which education takes place. 4. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. no doubt. Herbert advocated instruction method. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Science.1. hygiene. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. However. It considers teacher as. friend and guide.1. History.” He is thus. For intellectual development. 2. Learning through questioning. so subjects like Religion.” 5. Learning through reading. Mathematics etc. Ethics. Philosophy. For this no particular method has been suggested. 5. and collation (striving) should find due place.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. 5. the school is a garden. According to Frobel. Learning through lecturing. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. a spiritual guide for the child. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. subjects like Languages. 3. an indispensable necessity. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. Learning through imitation.the spiritual qualities of mankind. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked.3.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . According to idealism. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant.3. He carries the child from darkness to light. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. Learning through discussion. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. affecting (feeling). So cognition (knowing). So health.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. The plant can grow. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man.

1.perfection and beauty. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. formal lessons or examinations. In the words of Ross. 2. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.preservation. curricula. 5. "Education should make 263 • . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. time tables. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. Perfection of Human Machine. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms.1.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. text books. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.4. 5. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. Ross explains.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.

Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. subjects like history. It is based on the psychology of the child.1. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. education should develop the child into Joyous. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. useful and mature child. Biology. It emphasises physical and health education 5.4. 264 . The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Zoology. There is no place for religious and moral education. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. is based on the nature of the child. Arithmetic. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. therefore. In all.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Therefore. • 5. Chemistry. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. rational harmoniously balanced. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. It stresses basic sciences. 4. Botany etc Language. Naturalistic curriculum. Education also aims at helping the individual t. “Education finds its purpose. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Education should. Literature. geography should also be included in the curriculum.

Rousseau says. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. It discards all rigid. 2. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Learning through observation.1. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy.1. he should be taught by experience alone. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. a supplier of materials and opportunities. 5. Learning by doing.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. 3. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. 4. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Learning through experience.5. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.4. a provider of an ideal environment. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. In the . 5. Dalton Plan. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Heuristic method.4. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . the stage.

of human personality is in terms of his physical. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Personal Social Adjustment. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. intellectual.5. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. History. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. 5. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Geography. Social Science.1. social and moral aspects. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Vocational and 266 .1. Physical training. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Continuous Growth. Sciences.absolutism of idealism. 5. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Subjects. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Agriculture. diversified and flexible. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously.5. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Social Efficiency. The aim of educational development.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. is true. All Round Development of an Individual.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. a senior partner and a sincere guide.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching.5. activities and experience should be integrated properly.5. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism.1. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Learning by Doing. He has to be active. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.Technical Education. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. The subjects. a teacher occupies an important position. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. He must be trained. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. should find proper place. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. 5.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. alert and resourceful.” 5.

1.6. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things.1. Education is preparation for a complete living.5. The basic tenets of realism are 1.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Biology. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. 2.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. 5. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. specific. Sex Education. 3. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. 4. 5. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Astrology.6. literary or humanistic education. Biography Philosophy. scientific and psychological education. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. 2. intellectual. practical. Population Education. Art. Literature. 3. It favours child-centered. Mathematics. History. Geography are unnecessary 268 .1.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. 5. liberal. Psychology. Music and Dance. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Study of Subjects like Language. Crafts. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. rich and happy. Chemistry. 4.

6.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5.1.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.6. easily and pleasantly.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. certainly and clearly.

Geography. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Experimentation d. Learning through reading. a. Rousseau 5. Self Realisation b. Physical training. Learning through questioning.1. e. 5. c. Learning through imitation. has no end other than growth. d. Tours / Excursion e. History. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. 6. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Social Science. Learning through discussion. 5. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. 3. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. naturalism. pragmatism and realism. Learning through lecturing. a. Universal Education 2. Vocational and Technical Education. Learning through experience b. & curriculum.5. Demonstration and Observation 270 . in this lesson. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Languages. 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Sciences.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Education according to pragmatism. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3.1. Agriculture. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Child centered c.1. a. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. b.

L. New Delhi : Bhatia. New Delhi : A. O.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. N. (2003). Anmol Publications Pvt. of Pathak. P.H. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2004). Pahuja.5. Publishing corporation. (2007). Narang C. 271 .P. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. R. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education.P. K. (2007). Ltd. Theory and Principles of Education.1. P.

5.3.2.4.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.1 Aims of Education 5.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2.2.2.2 Curriculum 5.2.4.4 Views about teacher 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2.3 Methods of teaching 5.3.2.2.2.5.2.4.1 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2 Curriculum 5.2 5.4.3.2.4.3.2.3. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.3.5.4 Views about teacher 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.2.2.2.1 Aims of Education 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2.3 Methods of teaching 272 .5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2.3 Methods of Teaching 5.LESSON 5.

273 .7 5.2. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. economic and political reconstruction in our country. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. content and methods. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.2. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.5. 3.4 Role of the teacher 5. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2.8 5.2. an artist. 2.6 5.2.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. you will able to: 1. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. Gandhiji was primarily a social. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. 5.5.2. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. Tagore was a poet.2. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. 5. mind and spirit.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.

nor the gross animals body. self-restraint and service of humanity." Dignity of Labour. righteousness. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. mind and soul of children He further observed. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. 5. "I attach more. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. it is education of life. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. In the words of Gandhiji. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. His scheme of education is life centred. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. It really provides opportunity for character building. through life and for life.supporting. strength of mind. 274 .2. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education.3. 'Man is neither mere intellect. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words.

Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving.Training for Leadership. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. Art. General Sciences.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self.3. According to Gandhi.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. leather work have been suggested. Drawing and Hindustani. the realization of the ultimate reality. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Only good individual forms a better society. gardening. development of the whole all were directed: towards.2. Individual and Social Aims. metal work. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. 5. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. wood work. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Music. "Development of the moral character. Mother-tongue.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. men of 276 . What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.3. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. proficient. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Basic education is other wise known as 4.trained. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.3.2. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.

faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots.2. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He also advocates freedom for the child. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. 3.knowledge. That is why. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. 5.3.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Education must be child centered. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education.

K. He believed in the oneness of humanity. 5. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. He was deadly against untouchability. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.3. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2.2.2. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.” Like all other ideals. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.4. He was a true patriot. 5. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. he was a true Vedantist 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. • Ideal of citizenship. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. • Education should involve manual work. • Cult of non-violence. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. Gandhi in 1937.

Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. etc. International understanding. Chemistry. sentiment. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. (vi) Philosophy. International Understanding. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Zoology. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. Religion and Psychology. wider in range. Botany. them solve problems of day to day life. Civics. Music. "Mankind must realise a unity. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Tagore said.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. the more dedicated and devoted. complete manhood could be attained.2.4. he said. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination.Language and Literature . General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Therefore. 279 .2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Dance. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. It should help. That way only. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. It should help the learner have good physique. Geography. could help in forging unity among all. stronger in power than ever before. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. deeper in.

it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.2. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.4. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. 5.2. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.4. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. 280 . Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. 5.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. Tagore rightly says. In 1921.” He further says. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.2. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.4.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones." 5. Activity Method Heuristic Method. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.

Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. race. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. 10. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. It is open to all irrespective of country. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. 9. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9.Shanthiniketan has open spaces.g. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. 281 .

5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. Concept of Education. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. Education should make a person self-reliant. 3. Freedom. 4. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.5. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Purity of thought.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only.5. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Education for strong Moral Character.2.2. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all." He was against the theoretical type of education. Education for Self-realization. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. 2. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. According to him. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Book learning. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. man making.” 5. He believed in to learning or selflearning. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. work and deeds come out of it. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Education for Self-reliance.

That will serve the purpose of education fully. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . engineering and technical subjects. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching.the learners on different students in the discussion.5. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. And above all. 6. The teacher should be the facilitator.2. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. 5.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Discussion Method. Philosophy and Theology. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. 283 .5. 5. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things.2. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.5.5. Secondly he wanted Science. Swami. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Education for Physical Development.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. A physically strong person is the need of the society. Of course.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Every individual should be trained for concentration. philosopher and guide to the students He. Religion. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Thirdly he wished that games. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion.2. 5.

Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. legs. in this lesson.2. 2.6 LET US SUM UP We have. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. Write short notes on Basic education.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. Their educational ideas. Gandhiji as a Idealist. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. 5. naturalist. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 12. We have seen that Tagore.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. of course.Substantiate your answer. 3.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. ears and eyes. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. 284 .2. and pragmatist .

1937 7. a. Self realization. Self-Study b. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. a. leather work have been suggested. 9. Technique of Correlation 6. Discussion Method 285 . Learning by Doing c. a. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Education should involve manual work. 2. 11. c.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 5. Activity Method d.4. c. 10. Heuristic Method. Explain Vishwabharathi. a. Meditation and concentration c. d. Teaching while Walking b. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. metal work. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. wood work. 8. Ideal of citizenship. Nai Talim 4. 5. Debate and Discussion Method. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Activity Method b. b. gardening. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Cult of non-violence. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. 5. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. 3.2. Basic education. f. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. e.

L. New Delhi : Aggarwal. N. J. O. P. (2002). 286 . Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Anmol Publications Pvt.H. on Bhatia. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2003).P. (2007). N. Publishing Corporation. P. New Delhi : A.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2004). Ltd. Foundations of Education. C. (2007).5. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. B. Dhiman.2. Theory and Principles of Education. K and Narang C. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Pahuja. K.

8 5.3.3.3.3.10 5.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.9 5.6 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.2 5.LESSON 5.3 5. In this lesson. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.7 5.11 5.3.3.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.4 5.3.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3.3.1 5.5 5.3.

Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . In the words of Kerney and Cook.under the direction of the school. in fact . in Russia or in Japan. there is a large number of communities. it is identical wit h socializat ion. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. Since the demands. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3.3. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. In the former sense. the desert area. 5.. From the latter point of view. 5. maintained or eliminated. curriculum. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. present behaviour may be modified. In it. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. the plateau area and 288 . is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences.S.3. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. curriculum signifies situations for learning. in the U. state the meaning of curriculum 2. A g o o d curricu lu m. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. the plain area. While education is learning. Both the processes are integrated. While education is a process. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child.3. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. living in the hilly area. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. Curriculum is intimately related to education. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. is a means to the process. new behaviour may be acquired.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. Then in a big country like India. in the form of new experience. you will be able to: 1.A. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India.

aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. democratic and socialistic country. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. environment. studying therein. according to modern trends in the educational process. In fact . and 289 . The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. too. differs from individual to individual. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded.3. However. It must differ from locality and from society to society. irrespective of their needs and environment. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. 5. customs and needs.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. it is. Besides craft. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. From a slave-country we became secular. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. therefore. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. the learning capacity of children. Again.

. they depend on the political. individual or Social and so on. 5. Goals of Primary Education. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. social. e. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. moral. They are visionary goals e. Knowledge Objective. Vocational Efficiency. emotional. The word “Curere” means 2. eg. uninspiring and unscientific. aims. unsatisfactory. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. National Integration. They are achievable. etc. 1.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. unambiguous and functional. specific. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. 290 . T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. They may be ultimate or proximate. tangible. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. They speak of perfect goals. Application Objective.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. 4. social. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. which may or may not be attained. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. e. Understanding Objective.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education.g. of classroom.g. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. remote or immediate. So it is inadequate. etc. They speak of immediate purposes of education. Goals of Secondary Education.g. Self Realisation. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . in instructional objectives.. general or specific.. aesthetic and spiritual development. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes.. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. 3. 2.

“Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. in the class rooms. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum.5. educationists. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. Crow and Crow remarks. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. abilities. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. heavy fire. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. needs. but it includes the totality of experiences. The interests. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. on the playing fields. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. According to Crow and Crow.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects.” 291 .” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus.3. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. Raymont rightly says. finding them very interesting and captivating. capacities.

Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. moral. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . capacities and abilities.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. Due to these variations and differences. urges. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. aptitudes. time in a useful manner.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. They often waste it or rather kill it. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. mental. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. tendencies.

infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. organized. development of professional capability at all levels. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. 3.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. administrative programme need be planned. To ensure success of the process. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. Similarly. phased preparation. 293 . H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. 2.curricular. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. a. principles of curriculum construction. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. 5. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. 17. laboratory.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils.3. 1937 19. library. 5. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. Relation with Life c. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. 11. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. workshop. 12. Run. Child Centred Education b. 10. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . 18. in the class room. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.

Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. D.3. New Delhi : Isha Books. Lakshmi. P. S. Curriculum and Instruction. (2007). (2007). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. (2007). New Delhi : Authorspress.S. Bhalla. N. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. and Sarita Kumari.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 295 . Curriculum Development. Innovations in Education. S.K. (2001).5.

9 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.7.10 5.4.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.3 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4.4.4.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4.4.4.LESSON 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.1 5.4.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.6.4.4.2 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.5 5.8 5.4 5.7.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4.7.6.7.

All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. 5. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. 2.4. 4. in the economic reconstruction of society.4. 297 . By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . newer and newer industries started growing. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. Gradually. tolerance for the opinions of others. superstition or emotion. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. honesty. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. We mean curiosity. know the importance of science education. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. open-mindedness.5. you will be able to: 1.during the second half of this century.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. explain the concept of scientific attitude. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. 3.4. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.

teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 3.4. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 7. After such experience and training. stipends and appreciations in various ways. as well as of the society. 2. 6. Thinking and memory develops.4.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. 5. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Central science workshop. Promotion of science clubs. Selection for science education.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Schemes of teaching science. 4. Devotion towards nature increases. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. 5. 5. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. seminars and symposiums. Principles are formulated. 3. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Love for truth enhances. 2. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction.So that. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Through newspapers. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 4. Through examinations. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. 5. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Organisation of science fairs. 6.

The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 .1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. It is. 7. Training of science teachers. In the inquiry approach. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. therefore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. For laboratory and workshop techniques. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.needs and conditions. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind.6. After presenting the problem. They experience natural phenomenon. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. Write any two advantages of Science Education. should provide opportunities to. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. each child to “enquiry skill building”. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Enquiry teaching is. objectivity. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. 5.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other.4. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. They ask many questions about the objects they see. 5. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. They encounter many social events as they grow. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative.4. sex or religion. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. essential that teachers.

Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. test. 5. to ask questions and experience things. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 5. stern pursuit of accurate data.4. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. 6.Herma Wouk. Social sciences. Adopting creative models of teaching. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. 5. Giving less directions.6. Appreciating pupils ideas. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . commands or orders. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. . 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. It requires consistent thinking. if they like. 300 . Evidence. 3.books. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. .2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.4. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook.

and emphasized during the learning process . Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. To achieve this we should understand what it means. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. critical thinking and suspended judgments. therefore should be unbiased and objective. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. it must be encouraged. school and society at large. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”.(Smith 2008). It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. (Vaidya 2007). There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. neighbourhood. For instance. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. practiced. 5. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. friends. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude.4. The students observation. keen observation. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. to develop among the learners.7.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. These include open mindedness. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. of vast resources running waste.

Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. rumor.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. 2007).pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. (Das. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth.4. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. or superstitions. In considering a situation or a problem. understanding and logic. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. think and work it”. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. 5. 302 . they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions.7. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. intuition or wishful thinking”. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. he studies all aspects of it.

Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. 5.7. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity.4. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. • 5. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.4.7. but to begin only after careful planning. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.

List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. practiced and emphasized during the learning process.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.4. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. it must be encourages. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. 304 . The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience.

What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. b. a. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. a. Proper example of the teacher c.4. (2008). Discuss the importance of science education 14. a. 305 . b.4. N. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. New Delhi : Anmol Publications.5. Vaidya.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Yadav. S. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. Wide reading b. a.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Study of superstitions d. 4.S. (2006). 5. 3. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Planning of activities 5. Reflections on Scientific attitude. Love for truth enhances. 16. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. (2000). A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. 5. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. M. objectivity.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools.4. D. Rao. Adopting creative models of teaching.B (2008). the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. The intention to respect another’s point of view. 2. b.

5.5.5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5.6 5.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.3 5. actively.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. objectives and characteristics.5.4 5.7 5.5 5. you will be able to: 1.5.10 5. state the concept.5.1 5. 306 .5.5.5.8 5. 2.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5.9 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.LESSON 5.5.2 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. areas of institutional planning.11 5.5.

• to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . and. • to involve teachers and school administrators. which become the bases for further planning at the district. and supplement planning from above. each teacher. and each student are regarded as separate entities. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. • To make institutional planning more successful. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly.3.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. 5. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. every teacher.5. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. executive as well as public. in the task of educational planning. and every student in the process of educational planning. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. Institution should be regarded as the unit. • to make planning development-oriented. 5. every parent. teachers and students is not lost sight of. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.5. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. State and national levels from below.

which will be discussed in the general. (2) Co.curricular Activities. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. Examinations. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. approved after making necessary modifications. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. 5.5. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. it becomes the basis for school inspection. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. (3) TeachingLearning Aids.5. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. 308 . etc. Classwork.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. council and. Co-curricular activities. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. Syllabus.• implemented. and Personnel services. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning.

Conducting of educational. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. etc. Improving the internal assessment. Organisation of Self-Government Days. etc. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Organisation of Pupils. scientific and historical excursions. etc. charts and apparatus. 1. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching.No. Preparation of audio-visual aids. etc. Organising play-for-all programmes. Organisation of class-room libraries. 2. Courts. Equipping of laboratory and library. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Preparation of instructional material.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. 3. Editing the school magazine. Organisation of Students’ Association. hobby-centres. Running science clubs. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Fair distribution of syllabi. Preparation of models. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

teacher-teacher. headmasters associations. and solidarity. pupil310 .5.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system.5. administrator-administrator. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. science teachers’ associations. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. teacher-pupil. co-operation. and —pupil-pupil. teacherinspector. students’ associations. administrator-supervisor. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. understanding. pupils. parent-teacher associations. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. teacher-State. teachers. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. involving mainly human materials. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher.” The human relationships in. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. which are divided as the in. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. administrator-pupil. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. teacher-managing body. Administrator-State. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. etc. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. parents. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. ii.

" Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. pupil-parent. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. 311 . control. pupil-non-official functionaries. supervision. Good. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. to accomplish.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. social sciences and other disciplines. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. To administer means to manage. etc. V. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. now-a-days. It covers personnel and material management.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. It is also being modernized to become a technique. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. organisation and management. teacher-parent. to carry out. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. pupil-inspector. supervision and superintendence. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. and to serve. administrator. to attend. pupil-community leader. According to C. superintendence. organisation. teacher-community leader.State.

He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. 13. He should be an artist in human relationships. Worker Participation . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. Leadership . The relationship should change from master. Liasion with the Public . It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. Decision Making . Motiviation . who occupy the managerial positions. low. Democratic Management .The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 5. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.Of all the approaches. 12. 4. If it is more. 3.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . 8.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. 9. Economic Management . it is not worth-while. If the cost benefit ratio is less. Cost-Benefit Analysis . Those.Management should be efficient and economical 312 .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.The manager should have leadership traits. 10. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. Rapport between the Management and Employees .There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques.Any good management will always have good public relations. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. This is the latest democratic trend in management. 7. Communication .sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. Socio-Scientific Approach . 6.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. Better Human Relationships . 11. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. 2. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established.

14. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. 313 . Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. improvement of teaching methods. objective. 19.5. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. to improve the quality of education it provides. and cooperative performance should be ensured. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained.5. characteristics and areas of institutional planning.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. 5. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. 5. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. 18. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. Wastage and duplication should be avoided.too. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17.g. enrichment of curricula. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc.These two are. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Examinations. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. 4. R. (2003). Educational Administration.5. Leadership c. Co-curricular activities. d.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Motiviation d. Fundamental of Educational Management. S. a. a. Communication 5. Classwork. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. a. 314 . it becomes the basis for school inspection. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration.5. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. e. In group and Out group 5. Decision Making b. (1995). 2. and Personnel services. Tarachand and Prakash.M. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. c.K.5. a. H. b. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. NUEPA. b. Instruction. (2001). APH Publishing Corporation.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Singh. Syllabus. f. b.

Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. wastage and Stagnation 3.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Healthy Food Habit 4.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. nutritional requirement. New evaluation procedures. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. 1.Pre-service and In-services facilities. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Economic 315 .4 India's Secular Policy . Sex-education 4.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .1 Primary Education : Education for all. population education.teachers should have : 1. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.Article 45 .2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Inspection and Supervision 3. Code of conduct for teachers.1 Gurukula system of education.5 Regional Educational Development in India . Realized the problems of school education. higher education. physical education and environmental education 5. Community and Mass Media 2. First Aid. 4. School.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Examination reforms.2 Nutritional deficiencies.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Preservation of nutrients. social Impact 3. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.1 Inculcation of Socialism. Buddhist and Jain system of education.3 Directive Principles .CORE PAPER . 2.Preventive measures. Communicable diseases . women education and teacher education in India.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.Religious and Modern Education 1.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.1 School Health Programme. Balanced diet.3 Educational Influences of Home.I. Common ailments of Children. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.

Socialization.N. Tagore 5.K. and Human Development. Ghanta R. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. curriculum and teacher's role 5.K. (2004) Problems of Education in India.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Naturalism and Pragmatism . 7. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.C. B. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. and Sharma R. T.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . (2005) Foundations of Education. REFERENCE 1. and Dash B. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Realism. and Mohanty R.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. 5. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.K. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. (1999) Culture. 316 . Sharma. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.K. Mishra.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Mahatma Gandhi. New Delhi: NCERT 3. Kalan Paper Packs 10.N. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.R. Delhi : University Publications 2. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.S. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. Saraswathi T.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Hemchand. Prof.4 4. R. Pandy V. Ram S. Taneja V.Aim.4.1 Idealism. Curriculum and national goals .

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