Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

UNIT: 1 – V



Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer



Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56


Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University


67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5



3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education

127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233


5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4


UNIT – I 7 .

8 .

Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Lesson 2. In. The need.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. Jainism and their educational implication. 9 . During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Lesson 5. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. and Jain system of education. Lesson 4. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. discusses the regional educational development in India. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3.

10 . Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.2 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .2 Aims of Jain system of Education Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.6 Education during British Era Curriculum of Jain system of Education Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.5.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.5 Jain system of education 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.6.1 Buddhist system of Education 1.1.

describe the Jain system of Education 4.1. you will be able to: 1. in morals and in the intellect”.1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. British system of education presented the modern western model. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.6. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. in opinion.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. Education in India.1.1. but English in taste. 1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.1.1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. India.8 1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. Indian in blood and colour. both present and future.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.7 1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. 1.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. “a class of persons. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. 1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.6. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. has a long past history starting in vedic education.9 1. Muslim and British periods.1. That 12 .3.1. The history of education passed through Buddhist. elucidate the education during British Era.

It was not merely intellectual. Individual Teaching. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. 13. with grants of land or money. Forests as Centres of Education. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. 10. Method of Instruction. Teacher as Parents. Role of Travel in Education. managed entirely by Brahmans. 12. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. High Status of Teachers. as it is generally considered to be at present. and to agriculture and trade. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Residential Schools. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. followed by explanation by the teacher. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. 13 .knowledge was real. The immediate aim of education. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. 8. the monitorial plan was followed. 14. from eternal to immorality 2. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Where pupils were many. Education was a private affair of the people. Curriculum. questioning by the pupil. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. generally. 5. to light. however. Education of Moral. individually. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. religious and spiritual. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Pupils were taught. not en masse by the class method. 16. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. It was also moral. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. No State Control on Education. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. if they thought fit to do so. Religious and Spiritual. Immediate Aim Vocational. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 4. Method of Study. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. 3. 11. from darkness. There was. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. 6. Free and Accessible. 9. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7.

It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. 2. It was suited to the needs of the society.3. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony.1. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. They were very cordial and intimate. It was freely available to all those who wanted. 1. studied Vedas. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised.17. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . lived a life of celebacy. Wide-Spread Education in Women.

partaking of food at prohibited times. After attaining the age of 20. Right activity 5. taking things without being offered. the handicapped. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. Right memory 8. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles.1. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. Right thought 3.C. Consequently. 15 . had the right to receive education. in which. dressed himself in yellow clothes. medium of Pali. watching dances or listening to music. use of intoxicating things. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. killing of any living being. 1. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. the student had his head shaved of all hair. I take Refuge to Dharma. etc. Right endeavour 7. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Right speech 4. the most significant of which were the following 1. the student remained in a state of Shramana. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. use of cosmetics. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Education was imparted through the.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. Right contemplation 1.4. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. disease and death of the human beings. It was denied only to the ill. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. every class in society. I take Refuge to Sangh. 2. Right means of livelihood 6. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. except the Chandals. he was qualified to become a monk. which included abstaining from theft. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Right knowledge 2.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. impure conduct. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form.

. nature. bodily gestures.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. It comprehended education in writing. animal husbandry. a continuous change creating 16 . education was impart in art. Even at this stage. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. etc. handicrafts. approach. On this occasion. depth and range. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. 7. Hence. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. of clothes. As reality is becoming. 4. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. Initially. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. etc. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. cottage industries. it is regarded as true”. medicine. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. beg for alms. along with education in script writing. archery. 2. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. objectives of human life. 5. nothing is of any permanent consequence. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. Life is in a flux. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. so long as it successfully does so. therefore. elephant lore. control over sensuous activities.4. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. archery. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. meaning. military science. wear three items. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. geology. etc. be considered the aim of education It. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. Later on. and. aspirations and. knowledge of reviving the dead. eat food thrice a day. the presence of the monks was essential. has no metaphysical value for life. women occupied a position inferior to men. 6. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. the science of taming and training animals. 1. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. arithmetic and religious discussion. agriculture. however. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. commerce. These are called later Buddhist schools. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. changing the goals. assumptions. a change is not only total but also perpetual. magic. 8. 3. Whatever its nature and extent. After this ritual. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls.3. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1.

Jainism insists 17 . twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. however. goes to Vardhaman. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects.1.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. such as. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. i.e. However. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. In fact. and to give it a shape that it has today. whatever works are true and good. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. it is much older than the latter. Validity is effective and consequences. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. therefore. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Write Eight fold path . Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. Education must. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. Its chief feature.5. 5. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. its pessimistic outlook on and peculiar situations.

b) Right knowledge. 6. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. it has a foot in both the words. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. 7. and is to be redeemed and liberated. 10. more stress on individual aims. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. and believe in happiness to all.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. 8. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. 2. Hence. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. They are: a) Not to injure. 3. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. 1. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. d) To lead a celibate life. c) Right conduct.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. 1. Development of personality as an individual. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. but on both. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 18 . There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. 2. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. thought and deed. As such. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim.5. 9. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. b) Not utter falsehood. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. c) Not to steal. e) To renounce the world. rather than the interpretation of the universe. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma.1. 4. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. 5. 3.

Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. success and love. 4. 2. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. education must be action based and ideally oriented. Jiva is essentially karmic. that would be socially desirable. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. 8. practised and not only aspired for.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. here and now.4. Hence. What are Triratnas ? . 3. 5. education should develop sense of discrimination.5. 1. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . therefore. and should bring happiness to all. 19 .3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. Teaching must develop these faculties. 3. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. 1. Belief in transmigration of soul. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. 2. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Teaching should be social and tolerant.

“A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. with rally and rout. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.6.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. 1. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.6. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). 2.6. primary 20 . they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India.1. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. 1. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. 1. 1953). public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. North West Province and Punjab. Bombay. science.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. and not for life. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. Madras. To set up separate departments of. However.1. philosophy and literature of Europe. 1.6.

6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 .K.6.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944.6. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. 1. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. The universities dominated the secondary education. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. secondary education became a step towards university. namely. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners.6. Later on. • Universal free primary education. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. In 1882. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. At that time M. 1. 1. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. • Secondary education. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. self-respecting and was neglected. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. at the primary level. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). To ensure qualitative improvement. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. 10. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. The objective of education was to provide 22 . What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. all children are to have a common curriculum. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9.At the primary stage (6-11 years). During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want.1. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. After this stage. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry.

2.1. followed by explanation by the teacher. Right speech. etc. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Right knowledge. 2. a. Right activity. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. geology. During the Buddhist period. 23 . It was suited to the needs of the society. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. questioning by the pupil. the science of taming and training animals. establishment of universities. Right means of livelihood. 6. military science. Right contemplation. and discussion between the teacher and the of European literature.. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools.1. 4. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. 1. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. 5. education was impart in art. Right thought. The immediate aim of education. 1. The system of education was well-organised. b. Right endeavour. Right memory. 3. arithmetic and religious discussion. handicrafts. 3. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. 4. archery. along with education in script writing. science and English language.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

1882. 24 .1. a. Ltd. 8. Sargent report 12.7. J. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.K. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Y. (1984). (2007). Development of Educational System in India. 10. Y. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 9. a. Hence. Improvement of Literature. Ltd. (2009). b. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education.C. R. 1937 1.K. Sharma. b. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Right knowledge. c. and Nath. 11. more stress on individual aims. (2005). Right faith. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. History of Indian Education System. J. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Right conduct.C. Aggarwal. Singh. Development of personality as an individual.

2.4 National Policy on Education 1.4 1.8 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.1 1.1 University Education Commission 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.3 Kothari Commission 1.3.7 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.2. The 25 .2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.6 1.3.LESSON 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.3.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.

you will be able to: 1. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. girls and women education besides primary. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3.2. explosion of enrolment. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education.conditions of the teachers.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. 2. New Educational Policy. standard of teaching. examination system. medical and legal education. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Post-graduate 26 . Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3. curriculum. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. technological engineering. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. 1986 1. technical. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. vocational education. diversification of courses of studies. 1. National Council for Women’s Education 5. National Board of Teacher Education 10. Kothari (1964-66) 8. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. S.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. 1. expansion of vocational.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. There had been vast institutional expansion.2. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. analyse the progress of education in free India.2. secondary and higher education. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4.

The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29.2.teaching. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. research et. 4. 1986.3.3. 2. However. 1. 1966. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission.S. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. Therefore. Education is the key to our allround development. 1952. in January 1985. accumulated over the years. 3. the chairman of University Grants commission. A. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. 1. quality. quantity. Government of India. material and spiritual.3. National System of Education. Kothari. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. Education for Equality. D.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23.2. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. utility and financial outlay.2. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. Finally. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. A meaningfully Partnership. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. 1. Problems of access. The Essence and Role of Education. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. the New National Policy on Education.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.

The UNESCO Report. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life.2. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. the concepts of work experience. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. attitudes. 28 . Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools.” Thus. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. By working with hands. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. the minorities and the handicapped. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. It can train practical aptitudes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Thus. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations.

the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. Besides. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. the Commission. “The aim of these colleges. According to. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. “It may be described. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. co-ordinations. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 ." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. it will conduce self. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. The Radhakrishnan Commission. The Education Commission. With adequate planning. As such. In 1955. if he wishes. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations.” the Kothari Commission mentioned.” The Mudaliar Commission.

need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work.. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education.ot her. raising the special facilities.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. the semester and credit system. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. With a view to relating education to the life. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. for quality of life in the rural areas. In addition. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . Therefore. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). admission requirements to vocational courses. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. the rigid streaming of courses. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. The Central Advisory Board of Education. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. Subsequently. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. etc. the.

Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. etc. manual work resulting in either goods or services. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject.2. The Father of Nation. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. meaningful. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed..5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. meaningful. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. 1. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. aimed at this goal. felt that education should be centred around a craft. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. which offer scientific. technological courses including Agriculture. The wave of Basic Education.defined S UP W as “purposive. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. preferably spinning and weaving. According to committee. who conceived the System of Basic Education. which are useful to the community. In short.and the world of work. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. giving importance to productivity in the national development. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. which swept the country for over two decades. Commerce. 31 .

From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Health and Hygiene 2. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Work practice. The teachers should make use of. Clothing 5. locally available materials and tools. 3. Culture and recreation 6. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Productive 2. as far as possible. Experimentation with materials. Shelter 4. Community work and social service. 2. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Some Hints to Teachers 1. The criterion for selection of activities should thus.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. be that the work involved is: 1. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. Educative and 3. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. so that it is educational in essence. tools and techniques and 3. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Food 3. 4. 32 .

adoption of a a locality for its improvement. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. the local community should be actively associated. removal of illiteracy. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. slum clearance. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. It can become an instrument to build character. inculcate a faith. 6. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility.5.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past.2. 1. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. improve discipline. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. Education through work The SUPW should. Community Service In-1972. To make education more realistic. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. Merits of the Programme 1. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. as far as possible. Productive Work 33 . the concept of Community Service has been visualised. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Check on educated unemployed 4. etc. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience.

In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. if not productive.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. AICTE was set up in year 4. The community. offering first aid. traffic control. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. skills and better future for the children.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. should involve itself in the educational effort. Define SUPW 34 . the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. helping the adults-in productive work. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. in turn. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5.

manual work resulting in either goods or services.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.2. which are useful to the community. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Dr. f. b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Write short note on SUPW. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. 1. 35 . c. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. d.1. meaningful. 3. 6.2. e. 1952 3. 1.2. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. 2. a. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Radhakrishnan 2. 1955 4.

Rao. Anupama.H. J. : Sharma. 36 .2.P. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. and Rao. P. (2007). B. and Nath. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.K. R. Amala. V. History and Problems of Indian Education. Y. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.K. History of Education. Singh.C. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. (2009). History of Indian Education System. New Delhi: A.D.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. A.K.1.(2005). Development of Educational System in India. Y. (2005). Ltd. (2007).P..

7 1. Besides the English version.3. containing 395 articles. directive principles and duties of citizens. assuring its citizens of justice. procedures. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.8 1.3. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.3.6 1.3.4 1. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.5 1. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.3.369 words in the English language version. equality.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.3.3. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.1 1.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. there is an official Hindi translation.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 Significance of DPSP 1. Being the supreme law of the country. it came into effect on January 26.3. for a total of 117.3. 37 . establishing the structure.3.3. democratic republic.2 1.9 1.3. 1949. 1950. and liberty.

you will be able to: 1. 1. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. administrative.3. According to the constitution.3. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. spread over a period of 2 years. legal and environmental. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. economic. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 2. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. 1947. 3. 1950. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. After many deliberations and some modifications. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. 38 . Through them. 4. The Assembly met. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented.3. with Dr. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the Drafting Committee was appointed.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. in sessions open to public. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. 1947. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. Two days later. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. understand our Indian constitution. for 166 days. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. political. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. 1.In the August 14. learn the role of central and state government on education. 1. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. social. Dr. On August 29. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. embodied in Part IV of the constitution.

Liking wage etc. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. The State shall endeavour to secure. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Article 39A. Article 42. make effective provision for securing the right to work. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. in particular. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. That the health and strength of workers. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Minimising inequalities of opportunities.government. men and women. Appropriate concentration of wealth. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Right to work. Equal pay for both sex. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. old age. and in other cases of undeserved want. Article 43. Organisation of village panchayat. Minimising inequalities in status. sickness and disablement. Condition for dignity of children. Article 40. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. on the basis of equal opportunity. and shall. Protecting health of the workers. Article 41. provide free legal aid.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Equal justice and free legal aid. No abuse of children. for workers. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. 39 . The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. The State shall. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Protecting children from exploitation.

agricultural. See also Article 21A). Article 48. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Article 48A. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. in particular. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. [declared by or under law made by 40 . Article 44. by suitable legislation or in any other way. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. a living wage. to all workers. Participation of workers in management of industries. in particular. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 45. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Note: Subs. Article 43A. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. The State shall take steps. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Article 46. work. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. The State shall endeavour to provide. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. 2002 for “45. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. and. in particular. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Article 47. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Article 49. (Original Article 45. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. industrial or otherwise. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people.

Separation of judiciary from executive. Promotion of international peace and security. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. from spoliation. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. 2. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Article-21A Right to Education. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . 1. Article 51. disfigurement. removal. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. disposal or export.3. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Article 50. as the case may be. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. may be law determine”. Article 45 .Parliament] to be of national importance. destruction. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. 2002.

Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. 7. 6. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. race. 8. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. caste. his guardian has given his consent thereto. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. if such person is a minor. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish.” 42 . and shall protect them. ii. in particular. from justice and all forms of exploitations. 2002. 4. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. language or any of them”. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. 5. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. and. 3. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. iii. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes.

43 . The central government determines targets and promotes education. for its vocabulary. Educational Reforms From time to time. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. and by drawing. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. wherever necessary or desirable.3. the forms.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country.9. 2. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. & 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions.

Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . The following pilot projects. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. So that they may work well. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states.. Production of suitable for children and adults f. 6. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. So as to encourage education on right lines.3. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. 7. By starting these projects. to achieve the desired ends. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. 5. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Local bodies and private enterprise. 4. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. 8. All India Council of Medical Science. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). etc. private agencies etc. the state governments. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities.

The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. 4. 3. handicapped. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. research. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. 12. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Material concerning nation-wide interests.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned.3. 11. are published by it. education for women. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. training and statistics. 1. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. books. 1. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. reports etc. etc. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. The 45 . is the state responsibility. 9. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 10. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2.

3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 1. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? .3. Article 46 4.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Write short notes on a.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Explain Directive principles 2. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 21A c. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. 46 . Article 45 b. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. 5. articles in the Directive principles. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 1.

“The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. 3. a. b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Article 45 . are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The Directive Principles of State Policy. Article 46 5. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Article-21A Right to Education. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 2002.3. a. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. may be law determine”. b. Clearing House function 9. 1. Development of Hindi Language 6. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. a. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b.5. 2002. Ambedkar 2. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Dr. Describe the educational role of State Government. 47 . embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Article 29 and 30 7. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 4.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”.

(2004). N. (2007). S. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society.3. Bhatia. L.1. B. Education in Emerging Indian Society. K. Dash. Ghosh. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. (2008). Education in Emerging Indian Society. S.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. K and Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 48 . Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. (2009).

4.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.7 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1. Christianity. Jainism. Students should be 49 .4.2 1.4. religious education should be broad based.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.1 Why Moral Education 1. Islam.3.4.4. Buddhism etc.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3.1 Moral education 1.4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.6 1.4.5 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.

The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. Thus. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. beauty and goodness so that 50 .” Education broadens human outlook. India' can produce men of character. "In A multireligious society like ours. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. 1. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong.4. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. you will be able to: 1. As result of which. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. religious education and the concept of secularism.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.D.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. integrity. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. In the complicated and complex society of today. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion..and dedication.4.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. duty-consciousness. According to E. state meaning and need for moral education 1. know the position of religious education in our country 3. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon.

According to Article 22.” From the above. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. No religious tax can be imposed on them. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. Children attend these organizations. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose.3. They thought that any kind of narrow. In short. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. realizes God in himself. As our country is a country of diverse religions. As a matter of fact. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. through religious practices and 51 . our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. Hence. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. Thus. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. 1. According to Article 19. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. if not regularly. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes.4.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. Viewing the defects of religious education.3. castes and creeds. religion and democracy are same. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August.4. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. rancour. 1. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. all citizens are free to follow any creed. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. it is clear that the State has no religion.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. 1947 we achieved our freedom. at least occasionally.

If unreleased. moral and spiritual values. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. He also learns about social. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. It is religious education. It helps to modify habits attitudes. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. when he becomes an adult. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. aggressive. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Good education. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. for the development of the individual and the society. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual.teachings. and what is evil. temperament etc. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. one fully developed. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels.. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. which can mould. which help him for the development of his character. As a result of which. intellectual and physical faculties of children. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. what is done and what is not done etc.

Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. which is the basic need of a democratic life. 53 . religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. 1. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society.4. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. Therefore. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. 2. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world.3. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. If we open the pages of history.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. 3. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. towards the society. This should not be allowed to happen. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and.

churches and mosques 7.5. fellow-feeling. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Life histories of great persons of the world.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . stories of moral greatness. For this. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. 9. 11. they should be discussed in the right earnest. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Since all religions have virtues. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. therefore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write Article 22 2. Gurudwara as.4. examples of patriotism. 10. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.

the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Self sacrifice. They will play their role effectively. Asvada (Control of palate). 4. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Moral education. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. 6. 2. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. 4. 3. The content of the curriculum. 5. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 3.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Patriotism. Without moral values. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Non-injury. 1. 8. Cultivation of emotions. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Purity. Satyam (truth). Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. students. 7. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Service to others. 5. 7. “Let all be happy and free from disease. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 1. 55 .4. let men see well of one another. in the home. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. is that which develops moral values. 6. Fearlessness.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Aparigarha (Non. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 8. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. the methods of teaching.4. 2.acquisitiveness). therefore. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations.

1. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Good manners. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. 3. Good temper. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Asatyam (Non-thieving). minutes in the morning for group singing. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. loyalty and self-sacrifice. 2. 56 . Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Discipline. religions may be included in the syllabus. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). 10. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . In the school programme. National unity and Spiritual values. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. 3. Unity of mankind. Efficiency. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Sharivashram (Physical work). Integrity. 4. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Secondary Stage 1.9. discipline. 11.4. Simple texts and stories concerning different.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee.

General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. 5. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. should form a normal part of school programme. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. love of humanity. 3. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 2. patriotism and self-discipline.4. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In other words. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . Silent meditation should be encouraged. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 57 . University Stage 1. 5. In this connection. 4. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education.

aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully.4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. a. 1. For this. b.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. Training of Character 3. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. a. Discuss the aims of Religious education. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. 2. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development.4. 2. 58 . Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. b. In short. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. minutes in the morning for group singing. The School Assembly should be held for a few. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 4.4.1. 1959 5. a. 1. Sri Prakasa 6 .

59 . New Delhi : Siddiqui. New Delhi: A.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Theory and Principles of Education. (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. L.C.P. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2004). Bhatia. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2008). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.H. Pahuja. N. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2003). B. P.4.H.1. K. (2008). J. Ltd. M. Publishing Corporation. K and Narang C. Anmol Publications Pvt. Dash.

but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.12 1.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.2 1.4 1. 60 .13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5.1 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.7 1. Although.5.5.e.6 1. disparities between provinces/States.5.5. i..8 1.5.5 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.10 1.3 1. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5.

They therefore. work hard towards this end. 6. know the education suited to different environments.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Selfishness of the regional political leaders.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. 61 . The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region.1.5. 1. you will be able to: 1. for example. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. roads. 1. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 1. energy.5. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. This leads to separatist movements. 3. 2. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. understand the regional educational development in India 3. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.5. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. 4.5. 7. waters. etc. Accordingly. 8. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. they take appropriate measures. 5. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.

Tight security arrangements should be made.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. 3.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. while others remained educationally backward. some States became educationally far advanced. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. 2. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. • Separate States (of course viable States). The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. and. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . education as a fundamental human right was recognized. Secularism. on the basis of regional development may be formed. Therefore. some average.5. 62 . • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. 4.

” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. Guwahati. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans.5. Regional Centres of IGNOU. These projects are in various stages of implementation. etc. academic buildings. NERIST.14. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. library buildings. Itanagar. NIT. approved proposals worth Rs. However. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. 63 . administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. Even in each State. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. Central Universities of Assam. Jammu and Kashmir. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. while some States like Bihar. After the attainment of independence.After the Planning Process has originated. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. and provision of informal education to enable those. since its inception in 1998-99.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.84 crore was released in 2005-06. scholarships. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Out of this. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. Mizoram. Rs.g. In the Central sector.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. the State Governments. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. Tezpur. 1. Silchar. remained under developed.480.. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. the Union Government.392. Nagaland and NEHU. etc. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. Funds amounting to Rs. books.

the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.5. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). A provision of Rs. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.501. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.05 crore and Rs.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. 64 . Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. Moreover. During 2003-04. Government expenditure on education.57 crore and Rs. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.500. too.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.187. Out of this an amount of Rs. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.40. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Tezpur University. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.261.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.8 per cent in 05).

A similar trend is seen for medical institutions.5. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. telecom. engineering and R&D. Tamil Nadu. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). Moreover. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. for instance. Karnataka. notes the study. 1. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). Andhra Pradesh. English. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. pharma. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. Kerala and Gujarat. too. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. health services and welfare of the citizen population. The Chandigarh Administration. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. too. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. for which 16 sites. too. Medical education. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Listing the positives. Karnataka. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. To add to the woes.

while the former does not. The working hours of educational institutions. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. the teaching methods. Of course. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. taking the average in the middle. The living conditions. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. and so on. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. For a learner living in a rural area. life-oriented and environment slanted. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. Then education become realistic and idealistic. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life.year. In the same manner. even actually looking at the watch. Hence it is called as need-based. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. the interests. when he will not be sure of time.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. the working days: an academic . which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. in which the learners live. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. 66 . the curricular subjects. the vocations. which a non-tribal person cannot do. the socio-physical conditions. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. the needs. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends.

10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . 67 . There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. 2. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.5. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. to suit education to different environments? 1.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.5.

C. 68 . Education Scenario in India. (2001). New Delhi: Anmol Publications. during the British rule. a.5. Giridhar. Education in Developmental Arena. Dubey. R. some of areas which were under the native rulers. (2002). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.2. (2008). New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.N.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. some States have become more developed than others b. Salim. (2001). New Delhi: Authors press. A. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.K. 60% 1. and Nair. S.H.G. remained undeveloped 3. Educational Development in India. S.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. school community and mass media. 71 . Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. National Integration. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. community development. semi literate and illiterates. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people.

1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook Implications of Socialism in Education Main features of Socialism 2.8 2.6.4 2.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.7 2.LESSON IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.6 Education for Secularism 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.5.1 2.1.9 2.1.2 2.1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.3 2.

The students may be associated with the management of the school. socialism and secularism 2. Democracy thus means power of the people. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Abraham Lincoln.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality.1. In the matter of admitting students in schools. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’.2. colour or wealth.1. 3) Provision of Manual Work. understand the concept of democracy. you will be able to: 1. 2. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. socialistic and secular state. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 73 .3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. socialism and secularism 2.1. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. This is the political aspect of democracy. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. there should be made no distinction of caste. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. creed. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group.1.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. for the people by the people”. 2. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission.

Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. There are different brands of socialism.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression.1. it soon spread all over the world. declamation contest etc. 11) Student Parliament. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. debates. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia.. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. 12) Visits to Legislatures. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. may be planned. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. Democracy means 2. 2.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. 74 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses.1. the prince and the peasant. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. free from exploitation. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. Under it. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. service and cooperation.5. stationary and uniforms to the needy students.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. the wealthy and the poor. none high”. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 2. 2) Socialism aims at equality.5. 2. 7) Special facilities for girls.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.1. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. but on the path of non-violence. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 75 . 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. oppression and disparity.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.

“India is a secular-country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. secularism is being propagated. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children.1. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. Everyone says.” In every political and educational corner. "which seeks the development of physical. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. According to Holydake. 11) State schools. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. 5. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. 76 . Write any two main features of socialism.

Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation.6. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact.1. “Webster further says.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is.opposed to religious education. That is why. 5) It implies tolerance. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. 2. people have narrow mindedness. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. A large number of people is uneducated. 9) It stress free inquiry. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. liberty. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. In this type of prevailing situations. There is need of making the people open minded. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. fraternity.1. should be independent of religion. 77 . Equality. people started believing in regionalism. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. the belief that the state morals. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. 8) It believes in co-existence.6. During the recent past. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. education etc. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. 2) It permits freedom of religion. Moral values have to be imbibed. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. 3) It permits freedom of worship.

How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. that the central string of all religions is one. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. There should be some internal checking of the material being. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based.6.1. While doing so.presented by the students in the gathering. students belonging to different religions should be associated. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Patiala. No doubt. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. 2. In the hands of such teachers. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. Religious Education. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. 1) Moral Education. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. The very sight of the building. education. In the celebration of each such function. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. tours and trips may be organized.

Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. The word “Seculum” means 7. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. 2. The term secularism was first used by 8.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Secularism 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 LET US SUM UP 79 .personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. No doubt. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students.

creed. a. 4. for the people and the people”. b. 3. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 6. Equal Opportunities for Admission. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Socialism aims at social justice. a. 4. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. 5. Respect of Individual Personality. George Jacob Holydake 80 . d. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. a. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Power of the people 2. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society.1. The students may be associated with the management of the school. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Since socialism stands for equality. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. there should be made no distinction of caste. b. Abraham Lincoln. Socialism aims at equality. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. colour or wealth. c. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. The two can move only in the consonance with each other.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. This present age 7. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. Tuition free education b. 5. 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What are the implications of socialism on education 2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2.1. Provision of Manual Work.

L. the belief that the state morals. P. B. Ltd. Anmol Publications Pvt.” 9. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. 10. K.1. should be independent of religion. K and Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2008). It permits freedom of religion. (2005). Ltd. education etc. 81 . J. (2004).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Mohanty. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. b.C.8. It treats all religions on an equal footing. (2007). School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Bhatia. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. J. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. N. a. b. Dash. a. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Pahuja. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2003). N. Theory and Principles of Education.

5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.10 2.2.9 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.LESSON Role of Teachers in International understanding Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.3 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration Role of education in developing National Integration 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.8 2.7 2.1 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.2 2.

2. who are placed in his custody. as persons. understandings. you will be able to: 1.2. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. 2. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. aims and objectives of the school. 2. as learners. The developmental roles of children. skills. A teacher is first and instructor of school children. emotional. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. moral. and 4. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. as workers.2. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. application.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. 83 . development. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. social. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. as citizens. a r e 1. as it is t he aim o f modern education. social and moral aspects. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. therefore. It involves physical. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. mental. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental.generation to another. Children are the potential wealth of a nation.

socially. social and emotional health. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. 3. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a.All education should lead to better behavioural development. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. 2. He has to look after their physical. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. economically effective. inquisitive. The following are some of such roles described in brief. morally.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a.2. motivated. 2. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. intellectually. experiences and acceptance. 1. mentally. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. The students live. a part of their day in 84 . Teacher as a Citizen Next. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. member of his community at the outset. emotionally. culturally confident. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. physically fit for socially efficient. morally. and aesthetically to become. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. He is to become an active member. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. mental.

2. They will be spending with their parents. faiths.the school being under the custody of teachers. It 85 . Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. solve them. 4.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. and most of hours. activities of the society into which he is born. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. photographic clubs. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. List out the role of teachers towards community development . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. languages and religions. Unless. creeds. Dr. fine art associations. India is a land of many castes. 2. science club. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened.

Sampurnanand remarked. therefore.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. Let us. It should broaden the outlook. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. folklore and teaching of social studies. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. the citizens of the Republic of India. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. ‘We should not become parochial. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. stand up straight. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation.5.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. c. this integration of the Indian people. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. social studies. The only process is the process of education. Radhakrishnan. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. poems.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration.” Regarding the role of education.” 2. Nehruji has explained this as. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. At the primary stage the importance of stories. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. narrow-minded provincial.2. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. b. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . national anthem and other national songs. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. and make into one strong national unit. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. should be emphasised. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . a. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. the study of language and literature. with straight backs and look up at the skies. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things.

Taking Pledge. languages and literature. and picnics. 4. 10. sports. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. symposia. dramatics and youth festivals. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country.different social sciences. 8. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. National Days—January 26. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. 87 . t he st udent s and t he community. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. 6. 9. 2. Singing of National Anthem. 7. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Reverence of National Flag. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. 5. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Co-Curricular Activities. Student Camps. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. debates. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. tours. educational excursions. Scouts and Guides. Celebrations of National Days. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Textbooks. militar y training like the NCC. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. ACC. 3. Uniform for School Children.

Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 2. 13. region or religion. Admissions. iii. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. Open-Air Dramas. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country.11. 16. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and .5. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. Admissions to schools. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. flora and fauna. 15. iv. 88 . School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. 14. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. v. Educational and Travel Documentaries. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Students Exchange and Tours. School Projects. 12. Recognition of Institutions. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. colour. ways of thinking and doing things. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. ii. language.2.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. viii. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students.2. Community dinners. camps. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. ix. irrespective of national boundaries. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . vii. cultures and races on equal bases.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 2. Define National Integration 3. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably

“We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. Organising of debates and. 5. therefore.” 2. patriotism is not enough. This. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries.2. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it.6.F.. Radhakrishnan states. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. (c) fairly tales. 4. Teachers 90 .friendships between children of different countries. 2. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. 2. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. Dr. In a very real important as that of a national citizenship. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. 3. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. C.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. the international level.2. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. and the healthy development. that war. often in connection with anniversaries. (b) stories of children of other lands.e.6. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. Strong has observed. of his body and mind. if it happens. 6. Therefore.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism.

a German. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. Indian and American. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Russian. They should not be propagandists.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts.” Well Informed About World Situations. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. an Englishman. Impartial in their Treatment.

and help the students to over . Defects of the educational System . These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.2. 2. majority of people are. there is wide spread frustration among all people.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. Devaluation of Values . Soon after they leave their educational institutions. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .2.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. understand and indiscipline: 1.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. leading to.Another major. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. It does not prepare students for life.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . Chronic Poverty . 4. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. As the school is but a miniature society. which results in agitation and aggression language.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. the education function can be carried. 3. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. 5. Wide Spread Frustration . If this is done. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies.

etc. 2. 2. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. 4. fellow feeling. community development. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. sympathy and good will among the nations. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development.democratic nature.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. List out six characteristics of a good teacher.2. 3. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. List out the factors causing social tension in schools .2. 93 . co-operation. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. love. 5. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System


Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.


STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency Functions and role of schools in the society Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency Radio as an agency of education Television as an agency of education Press as a medium of education Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”. IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.

9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.

16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together. MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.




1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society


2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.


“All the citizens of the community. books. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Moreover. In fact. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. periodicals. Emphasising this thing. Crow and Crow write.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. led to the printing of books. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Museums. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Hence. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. 2. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. Now internet is being used.V. Then came newspapers. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. art galleries. During the course of time. Define community. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. He taught his students orally. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times.3. are increasingly used in education. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. To make them achieve their aim. the invention of the printing press. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children.

It enlightens public opinion.classroom teachers. the place of importance. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. In the emphasis is on sound. Reynolds. A lot of work by way of pre. languages. 101 . current affairs and other areas. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. dram appreciation.6. Students listen various talks. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world.G. rather than on picture. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense.3. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. social studies. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. the teacher still occupies. 2. politics. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Important happening inventions. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Thus. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. music. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. for the teacher through school broadcasts. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Effective means of presenting music. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. “Listening participation” in current history. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. art. 2. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication.telecast. Various talks. In collaboration with the experts. It is also an important source of entertainment. Thus. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools.

since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. at any place. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. School concerts. mathematics. development of lessons. informal and non-formal education. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. At present. Making learning an open system. 3. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. audibility and presentability. style. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Participation of local teachers and pupils. 102 . at drawing room. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. Before presenting the programme. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. travel talks. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. 4. speech. fol classical music. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. plays. 5. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. at play. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Team-teaching demonstrations. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. projects or creative activities. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. at recreational centers.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.


Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.


For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.


Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.

2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.

Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.1 2.4.4 Non formal educational system Limitations of formal education 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.8 2.4.LESSON Advantages of formal education 2.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .3.

Education organised by some agency. you will be able to: 1. the family. starting and ending at -a particular age. the mass media et. 2. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 4. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. Education. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. 3. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. the temple. his mental alertness. 8. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. the community.2.4.. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. open school. imparted at the residence of the teacher. 4. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. 6. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 9.4. open university. To realize this objective of education.4. the learner are acquainted. School is. it was mostly.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. In ancient time in India.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 7. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. 5.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. compare formal and non formal system of education. 2. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. 3. 110 . Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. the most important agency of formal education. say the Government or the private enterprise.3. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 2. 2.4.

the elements of language are first learned.3. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . as well as vocational education and training. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. also called tertiary. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. In general. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. or academic degrees. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. diplomas. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six.4. Higher Education: Higher education. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Some education systems have separate middle schools. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. structured education. capacity. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . such as a high school or secondary school.3. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society.2. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. 2.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. third stage. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. depending on the jurisdiction. or post secondary education. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence.4. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Concepts of proportion.a secondary education. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Through early formal education.

4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. is an important agency of formal education. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. What are levels of formal educational system? .4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. 2.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. late beginners etc. 3. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. children with disabilities.4. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. Agencies can be classified as 2. 2. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Write any two characteristics of formal education? .which will help for nation's development.4. 4. and remote dwellers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 .

learning client take some learning objectives. staffed. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. it has its own valid claim to reality.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. Open university. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. it is a more effective tool for rural development. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. It unlocks the doors of development plans. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Therefore. However.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. adding up to a true learning society. “Non-formal education should 113 . to help themselves.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. until 1970 it had not been defined. financially supported life formal education. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. curriculum. open learning.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. Non-formal education includes adult education.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. systematic.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. admissions. It is functional.e. planned.formal education. According to Malcolm A. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. systematic. one could say that non-formal education is an active. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. continuing education and on the job oriented education. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. place of instruction. Adiseshiah. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. i.. It is much more responsive to needs and change. It is deliberate. Thus.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. adults as well as children. etc. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word.

Process of sharing. place of education.S. age.learning pattern.” 2. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. curriculum. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. To help industrial workers to better their skills. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. Part-time education. international understanding. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.4. exploring.4. It should lay emphasis on the self.renewal. marketable and vocationalised. the Ideas of citizenship. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. Lawrence. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. 6. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. national integration. Flexibility in various aspects of education. admissions. evaluation etc. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge.e. self. 4. 5. 7.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. 3.4. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. 114 .S. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. 2. Covering life span of an individual.” According to H. 2. To develop in the student.4. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. Preparation for future needs. co-curricular activities. modes of teaching. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. socialism. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status.

2. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society.4. 5. To offer Secondary.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. working adults. • 2.4. 8. Universalisation of primary education. in villages and those who live in towns.4.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Technical. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. Eradication of adult literacy. 3. 9. 5. 3. Senior Secondary. 4. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 2. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. 6. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. 115 . Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. publication and information dissemination. 10.4. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. Meeting the omissions of formal education. 4. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. school dropouts. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 7.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners.

farm.. 2. 2. To make if. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. 3. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. training centres in factories. etc. self-employment iii. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . 4. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras.2.full time to learners – can be home. effective in modern societal context. factory. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. Therefore. Radio and television.4.4. centres of correspondence education. public libraries. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. library. open space.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. Institutions for formal education. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. if organised in isolation. To better qualifications. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. Again. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. All-round development i. etc.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. To increase knowledge and 2. others are formal and informal. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education.4. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college .

Lecturing T. Written tests. Teaching to face teaching. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. . Face Contact programmes. radio. Give examples of non formal education? . 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Correspondence lesson. List out any two aims of non formal education. Define non formal education. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.V. institution. 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. . 117 .

Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution.2. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. systematic. 4. 3. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. b. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. 118 . Formal and Non Formal 2. 5. Primary level. Open School.” 6. 4. 7. b. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.4. Secondary level. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. the college and the university come under this category. School 3. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Pre-school level. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. a.4. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. The school. Higher Secondary level and University level.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. 2. 2. Open University.4. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. 2. adults as well as children. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

New Delhi : 119 . New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.C. S. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.4. Bhatia. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2003). K. Gupta. Mohanty. Ltd. (2008). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Pahuja. L. (2007). K and Narang C.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Theory and Principles of Education. P.2. J. (2005). Ltd. Dash. B. N. J. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education in Emerging India. N. (2004). 2.LESSON 2.2 2.4.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business Philosophy of Open University 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.4 Need for Open University 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.5.1 2.5 Objectives of Open University 2.5.7 Open University 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults

But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. For them.5. farmers. 2. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. you will be able to: 1. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. continuing education is a boon. give the meaning.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. know the need and objectives of open university. Any person. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other.5. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. 2. It is a continuous process. labourers and half educated individuals. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education.2. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . industries. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It is a lifelong process. This knowledge may be in political field. Thus. characteristics of open university 4. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. However. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. economic field or such other fields. Under these circumstances.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. understand the meaning of continuing education 2.5. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically.3.5.

A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened.directly related to his job.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. 2. cultured and progressive. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Throughout the country.V. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. if he gets opportunity to develop them.3.literate person. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas.V. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. For them too continuing education is essential. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. deteriorating to his character and personality. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Cinema. Radio and T. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. Thus. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. After the achievement of independence. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening.5. Doctors. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. T. are also contributing their might for the purpose. On the other hand. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. Block Development Officers. Persons engaged in health services. On the other hand. Radio.

The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (7) folk songs. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (10) first aid.5. (14) information about bringing up young children. 3. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. 5. (2) basic religious matters. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (8) psychology of adults. (17) modern international and national events. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (13) psychology of child behaviour. and Radio. (15) music. (6) folk stories. (1) ancient history. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy.V. 123 . (16) liking.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely.3. 6. These books are not very useful. habits of people of other lands. 7. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. (4) the fundamentals of economics. Of course. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. especially women. 2.3.5. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. 2. 2. 4.. Inspite of the great efforts. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. we have not been able to achieve our targets.

The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc.5. attendance restrict ion. It also attempts to pr ovide equality.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. lack of time etc. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e .5. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. 2. NLM was launched in the year 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. of educational opportunities.

2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. d. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . 5. e. c.4. but 125 . The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. Education is not a once for-all process.5. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. No one is too old or too late to learn.unobserved. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 4. 2. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. 2. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. its education is not class room based but home based. and in teaching. IGNOU was established in the year 6. Which was the first open university in India? . b. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. the higher the degree of openness.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. 3. it makes use of educational techno logy.

4. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. 3. Mo re o ver. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 4. 2. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 2. it a ims at wider and hig her. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. cho ice o f co ur ses. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education.who did not get it. 5. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. 3. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. 2. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. 2. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. 6. supplementing the existing provision. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities.5. annu al wr it t en examinat io n.5. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. or who realised too late that they need it. 126 .4.4.

Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 4. Correspondence tuition. you have learnt the concept.5.4. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. 8. Tutor Comments. 127 . B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. List out any four methods of Open University? . 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. 3. 2. 1. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Every day. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . school drop outs. 7. 2. 8.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. a society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Therefore. a state or nation. 6. semi – literates. Self instructional t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Laboratory works. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living.5. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. In the present day world.2.

128 . Broad casting lectures c. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 2. which may include house wives. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. unskilled workers and other professionals. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. a. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 6. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 2. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. (1) ancient history. cho ic e o f co u r ses. 3. 7. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 8. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals.5. 1985. Explain the objectives. Television Lessons.5. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 9. b. aspirants for continuing education. 4. (2) basic religious matters. a. 8. youth. need and characteristics of Open University. P r int med ia b.ambitious learners. a. b. 7. 1988. its education is not class room based but home based. d. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. agricultural and industrial workers.

S. Recent trends in Non Formal Education.. R. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. L. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Modern Problems of Education. (2007).5. (2004).K. K and Narang C. (2001). Reddy. K. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. S. (2004). Ltd. Udaiveer. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. 129 .2.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. wastage and stagnation. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. 133 . All which is the need of the hour. its causes and remedial measures. which may claim the attention of those concerned. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. the education of women. Examination reform. and teacher education. examination.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. Training teachers for all levels of education. In Lesson 2.

134 .

1.1.LESSON 3.3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1.8 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1.2 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation. 135 .3.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.7 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.3 New initiatives.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1.1 3.1 EFA – For whom? 3.6 3.1.2 EFA – How? 3.3.

education received added importance and significance. understands the country. Continuing Education (CE) 1. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development.3. Eradication of Illiteracy. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. may be political.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. you will be able to: 1. On the other hand. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. economic or cultural. 2.1. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. 3. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). directed that. Therefore. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. (EOI) 2. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. social. “The State shall 136 . Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE).1. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. therefore. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education.

endeavour to provide. 137 . Continuing Education (CE). Even then we have not yet achieved the target. rights and responsibilities. Universalization of Enrolment. It enables the parents to send their children to School. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. 3. Due to the adoption of democratic system. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. the national Government under. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Three Stages for Universalization. After the attainment of independence. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Universalization of Retention.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Therefore. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child.

all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education.1. UNESCO Bulletin states. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. educational enterprise. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. present and future. Therefore. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. 1995 (for upper primary stage).CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is safe to assure. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. then to 1976. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. 1990. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. 138 . We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. later to 1988.3. This target had to be revised to 1970.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. Write Article 45. 3.

Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. etc. FELF. problem of literacy. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. rural areas. 8. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Early childhood education should be streamlined. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. 12. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. 139 .3. Education of the Impaired. Disabled. The Social Education. the art of preparing fruit-juice.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. sex. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. 3. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. 10. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. In order to make the programme of education for all community. and Women’s education programme should be improved. their social economic status and occupations. their enrolment and retention. adolescent and adult. Education of Girls. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. Emphasis must be given on health education. By undertaking survey.1. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Apart from primary education. Jams and Jellies. 5. 3. 11. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). nutrition education and sports and games. creed. NAEP. 6. 9. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. slum areas. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women.

Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.e. 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Expand MLL and SSA . SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 .3 NEW INITIATIVES. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.1. 4.1. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Wastage and Stagnation.3. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3.

first stage of education. Social Factors . Familial Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. School Factors . Personal Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. it is considered as wastage. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.

Define Wastage.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 7. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 142 . .

The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. They are described hereunder :1. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.The following factors. Family Factors .5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. rural or urban 3. School Factors .The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . in his home.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.3. relating to home. Societal Factors . school or society.1. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. Personal Factors . It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.

uniforms. 144 . mid-day meals. etc. stationary. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. Define Stagnation? 9. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books.

6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. improvement of curriculum. Universalization of Provision b. “The State shall endeavour to provide.1. 145 . Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. 2.1. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. a. directed that.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1.3. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Minimum Levels of Learning b.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Hartog Committee. b. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. 4. 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education.1. Universalization of Retention 2. therefore. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Universalization of Enrolment c. 3. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. a. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment.” 3. 3. 6. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. a..

Familial Factors c. Personal Factor b. Sharma. Crescent Publishing Corporation. S. (2007). a. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. a. improve examination system. S. introduce graded curriculum. 9. (2008). Hemchand.1.K. (2001). 3.K. Problems of Elementary Education. b. School Factors d. T.N.7. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. New Delhi: 146 . New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Social Factors 8. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.

2.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education Merits and demerits of examination SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE Problems of examination 3.7 Open book examination 3.2.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.1 Advantages of Co-education Grade System 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.4.7 Let us sum up 147 .5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.6 Inspection and Supervision Question banks 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.LESSON New evaluation procedures 3.2 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper Choice Based Credit System 3.5.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.

3.2. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .3. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. 3. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.9 3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.2. you will be able to: 1. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.2. 4. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. but on the other.2.2.8 3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. Besides.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. suggest the new evaluation procedures. 3. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. 3. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.

3. roadside Romeoism. hostel facilities. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. etc. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. etc. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools.2. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. schools for them wherever necessary. The following steps should be taken up. etc. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. which the educational authorities have to face..3. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. If the students are in sufficient number. waiting rooms for girl students. They develop secondary sex characteristics. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. They may cause problems relating to discipline. 149 . They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions.

2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. 3. public administrators and statesmen. public interested in education. Instruction. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.4. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. conduct of internal examinations. 150 . Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. It is considered as a major sub-system. teachers. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. appointment of paper-setters. With the mass growth of educational enterprise.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country.2. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. assessment and Finance. the examination system has an important role to play.

announcement of results. etc. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. training of examiners. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom.4.2. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. establishing reliability. etc. etc. scrutinizers. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. introducing objective-based testing. invigilators. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. etc.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. tabulators. examiners. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. validity and practicability. values. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 .printing and distribution of question papers. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. etc. 3. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. reducing the domination of knowledge objective.

The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. lack of objectivity etc. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. which they are expected to study.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. halo-effect. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. it s a common experience that subjectivity. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. 7) In connection with the question papers.. may also discredit them.. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. 3. Rote memorisation. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. do not appeal to the students and parents. takes the place of comprehensive learning. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc.2. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made.. 152 . Vagaries in making. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. 3) With respect to method of teaching.4.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. 2) From the angle of content of education. Subjects. stereotyped questions. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed.

Oral and practical tests may be taken as . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.develop true love for education. 4. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. re-numbering of answer scripts. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. . Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Question Books may be developed in all schools. revaluation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Spot valuation. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions..a part of internal assessment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. may be introduced. List any two merits of examination. 153 . etc. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests.

Every paper is treated equal. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times.5.2. In this system. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. It is complicated. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .5. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. he is given extra credit points. 3. attitudes. When a person chooses to work extra. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. Their interests. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. In actual practice.3. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. The students can take any course offered in any department. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3.2. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.2. skills are given importance. The new scheme of assessment. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there.

or as a 4 credit course. This system reduces comparison of marks.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development.5. courses can have weightages defined. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal.2. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. While designing syllabus. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. 3. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. only the total credits to be earned is specified. These weightages are called credits. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. An example is a seminar. In the new system.good.poor. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. poor. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Groupism is encouraged. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses.discipline. v.

credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.2.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. 156 .5.5. However. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.2. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. the need for re-evaluation should not arise.5.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. 3.2. 3. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. 3.

5. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. recruitment. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. Therefore. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. 3.2.3. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. There are no proper procedures for selection. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. In the hierarchy.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. However. . 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. List any four new evaluation procedures. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning.6. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. Academic inspection. 158 . complaints and compliments. finding out whether the prescribed text. disciplinary problems. They are.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. finding out the adequacy of. taking up the follow-up programmes. submitting of the inspection reports. whether the syllabus has been covered. playgrounds. interpersonal relationships and so on. inspecting the class-room teaching. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. school buildings. 3.2. wherever necessary. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making.qualified personnel. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. 1. requirements.. laboratory equipment.. library books. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. of late. staff. When they are fully realised. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. in contrast. being realised as two different functions. etc. books are followed. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. in a sense. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. qualifications. etc. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance.

Ed. M. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. at least. once in five years. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well.. modern.2. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. 159 . bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. In the case of departmental candidates. Insistence on specialisation in the B. or. courses. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made.Ed. their professional knowledge. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. 3. course in either educational. aptitude. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life.. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. In the light of these conceptualisation. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. Similarly.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Grade System. c. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. 3. Administration. d. assessment and Finance. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 4. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper.2. 3. b. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. 3. a. 3. 160 . Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. examination reforms and supervision and inspection.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. Instruction. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. b. 3. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. a. 5. b.2. a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2.

7. a. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. b. Vaidya.2. (2004). 3. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. b. Problems of Education in India. a. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . (2002). Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. New 161 . 5. Educational Reforms. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Open book examinations. R and Sharma. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma.a part of internal assessment. S. Multiple sets of question paper. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.4. K. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. K. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. a. Question banks. History and Problems of Education in India. (2005). Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. b. c.

3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3.LESSON 3.3.3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3.9 3.8 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.4 3.5 3. 2. identify the needs of rural India and social. 5. 4.3.3 3. 3.3. you will be able to: 1. 162 . impact of Higher Secondary Education. 3.1 3.6 3.10 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.

3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. Commission emphasised to continue. The. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. 10 years of general Secondary Education.3. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. Similar is the case with some other States. i.specialisation programmes 3. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. e. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. and 3 years of First Degree Course.. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. etc. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. The Calcutta Madras. in Andhra Pradesh.e. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. University Education. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates.e. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 .3.. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. the Banaras Sanskrit College... Consequent on the recommendations. 2. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. 8 years of general education. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education.g.

confidence in students.a sense of dignity of labour. and. Provision for transfer of credits to students. to prepare.3. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . economical and political. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. is also a plus point . it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. who desire to change from one stream to another. to imbibe. 5. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. educational channels. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. 5) to help for the social. b. 3. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. historical.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. 10. However. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. 8. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . social. 7. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. habits of hard work and develop . cultural and economic development of the country. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical.

on one hand. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. cooperativeness. 1. Philosophically it is not the conception.national integration.. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Psychologically. and that required to enter the tertiary level. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. 3.3. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. at the other. social justice. and. to develop national character.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. The General Educational Spectrum. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . Sociologically it is undesirable. international understanding.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. democratic living. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. cultural and' religious tolerance. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. etc. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission.

It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. educational and cultural services. 166 . For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. Commerce and other disciplines. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. India is a land of villages. medical plants. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses.3. technical. Biology. rural health. In our country. 2.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. and vocations based on dairy-farming. 3. such as Agriculture. vegetable growing. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. In the matter of language. technological. Science. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. the rural areas have suffered very much. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. chemistry. horticulture. physics or mathematics. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. commerce. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. commerce. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. Agriculture is the main occupation. industrial agricultural production is growing. or other machinery.— tube-wells. In the vocational spectrum. professional. fish culture. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. All these need for an. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations.

In this it may be concluded. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. In time. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. 3. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging.. etc. and 5.. In this way. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. interests and aptitudes of the students. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. 4. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. and the needs. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the local resources available.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . There had been favourable reaction from the students. can be ensured.3. social justice. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all.etc.

2.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. B.C. 3. Mohanty.3.3. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Dash. b. (2007). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. to imbibe.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. a. J. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.3.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. J. objectives.a sense of dignity of labour. 3. (2008). habits of hard work and develop . What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. a.3. General Educational Spectrum and b. S. a. we studied the history. 3. New Delhi : 168 . N. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. Vocational Sepctrum. (2005). Education in the Emerging Indian Society.3. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. b. Calcutta University Commission 2. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.K. (2001). Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education.

LESSON 3.8 3.7 3.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge. Faculty wise enrolment 3.4.11 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.4.2 3. Education contributes to human development.4.9 3.12 3.10 3.13 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail. 3. but the lighting of a fire”. 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. social and 169 .4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.3 3.

analyze the women and distance education.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. During the year 1937. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2.4. The relevance of women’s education to social. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5.4. higher education of girls developed immensely. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. Nursing.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. economic.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. 3. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. While women constituted only 9. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. In the post —independence period. Education . particularly 170 . although we have miles to go. cultural and political development of the individual. 3. Dr. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. you will be able to: 1. For the first time in the history of India.higher education in particular. family. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. community and nation is universally acknowledged.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. There is a close connection between education and development. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. Home Economics. These courses were. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. Teaching and Fine Arts. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend.

women.0 43. levels and professions.4. Coimbatore.9 27.2 29.4.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. in our country.4.D. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.0 32. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. In 1950-51.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.2 22. The idea of women’s education for equality. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Mother Teresa Women University. Yet.9 14. we have more than 1200 institutions. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.1 31. 3.N. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.0 16. out of 9200 and odd colleges. Even today. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. In the rest of the country.0 Today.65 lakhs in 1994-95. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).T Women University.1 24. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . Kodaikanal. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. 3. Mumbai.

2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.56 64.63 Female % 34.46 82.27 89.4.44 35. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.1 respectively.1 and 14.66 66.4.54 12.73 10.53 34. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? . 3.17 52. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . 3.4%) prefer Arts subjects. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.that of boys.36 3.34 33. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2.83 47.4. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .47 65.

173 . Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education.4. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. what is the need for higher education for her. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. 3. curriculum not suited to their requirements. In every third family. According to a survey. financial difficulty of the parents. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. etc.hinders the girls from getting higher education. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. Also. and coeducation may spoil her character. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. The major hurdles. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. distance of the college or university from home. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. They gave up their studies to enter home life.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. she will only learn fashion. promoted and increased. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. In college. marriage is a very common I factor. particularly. Book banks should be established. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. irrelevance of the content of education. Thus.

economic disabilities faced by women. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Empowerment in a nutshell. 3. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. resources and socio . which is the most dynamic factor of development. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. It also brings about 174 . Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. It enables to study. space. Geographic distance of educational institutions.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. Education. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Full-time employment.4. and the limitations of the conventional education system.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Distance education is a boon to women. There are constraints of time.4. It is a productive investment. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. is the only tool for realising empowerment. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. 3.

Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . higher learning. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. on their own. for full development of our human resources.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. 3. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. This can be achieved through reflection. empowerment means being assertive. The major objectives of women's higher education.4. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. legal awareness and economic independence. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. Women are partners in development. Empowerment is an active. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. education of women must be given priority in national plans. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. education of women is of paramount importance.

which had been the sole domain of men. which is pending for a long time. Reservation for women. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Better opportunities. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. The local administration.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. will encourage them to venture new grounds. The educational institutions.4. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. especially so in the developing countries. Scholarships and concessions for women. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. who are eager to take up courses. 176 . 3. But their number is small. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. has to be implemented at the earliest. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard.

engineering and related technologies (16. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. talents.1%) and architecture and building (38. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). IDP Education. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. capacities etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. Chief Executive.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Also. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 .4. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. But. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. Australia. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. especially in developing countries like African countries. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities.000 women in the country. According to Lindy Hyam.8%). Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3 percent.9%).11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century.

Annakodi. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. R. 3. 4. A. R. (2000). Coimbatore. S. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Coimbatore. A.R. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. 43% 6.4. Pattanaikj. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development.K. Tirupathy and Banasthali the family. Mumbai.4.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Women and Education. Mother Teresa Women University. 3. Women Education. Centre for Women’s Studies. (2008). SNDT Women’s University. 4. community and the nation. Women Education. Mishra. Mumbai. individuals and society b. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. a. Rao. and Swain. and Suryalatha. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. S. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. R.C. 178 .13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3.4. 3. (2007). Rajasthan 5. (2005). 2. Kodaikanal. create the right attitude towards life. SNDT Women’s University. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.

They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5.2 3.5.5.personality of children in and out of school.5.9 3.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.4 3. whole.LESSON 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.1 3.5.11 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.6 3.8 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.7 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5 3. so as to enable them to acquire 179 . so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. They should be trained.5.5.3 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.

analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. 4. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. national consciousness. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction.5. Lack of physical facilities. and national character. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels.5. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. know the pre service and in service training facilities. understand the training teachers for Primary. Shorter working hours. international. understanding and strong desire for international peace. equality and justice.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. you will be able to: 1. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. 3. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. 180 . Dearth of new technology of teaching. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. social and emotional integration. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. 3. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education.

and M. 3. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education.. If the student teachers are working teachers. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors.. it is called the In-service teacher education. the centre. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. (NCERT) New Delhi.Ed. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . the secondary teacher education. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. etc. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. a Diploma course and a Degree course. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B.Less qualified teacher educators. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. levels. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service.Ed. students. who have not been trained earlier. 3. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training.5. Lop-sided curriculum. the primary teacher education. higher secondary teacher education. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. the state Government. inservice and extension education programmes. At the diploma level. Inadequate training in practical skills. Depending on the levels.5. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. it is called the Extension teacher Education. and the collegiate teacher education. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education.

Education cells. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . non-formal. Educational teehnology cells. Evaluation unit. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Science Education units. collegiate cells. 3. state Institutes of Educat ion. extensio n service. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. are established. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 .6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Expand NCERT 2. depart ments etc. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory .5. Also Guidance Bureaux.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. etc.

the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . to improve curricular programmes.Ed. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. to ensure teacher competence. primary and secondary school teachers. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . which help breaking isolation from one another .. to offer consultative services. and so on. despite its vast expansion.Ed. which should include experience in the primary schools too. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. to prescribe conditions for recognition. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary.. schools and sister institutions. should be improved on a top priority basis. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. laboratories.. and 183 . material conditions relating to libraries. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . audio visual aids.

Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. though no pre-service training. Modern Methods of Evaluation. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education.secondary education. methodology and evaluation. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. 184 . the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. and XII. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. etc.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. not came up once again. Modern Techniques of Teaching. whether they should have professional education or. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. Workshops. Agriculture. To meet this exigency. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Psychology of Students. The problem. Meanwhile. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. etc. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Organisation of Content Courses. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. Hence. Induction Courses.

’s are elig ible for M. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. 3. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. M. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education..5.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.Ed. training.. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. in Education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.Ed. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.’s for Ph. State Institutes of Education.Ed.S. Pre-service training is for those.. Post-Graduates also undergo B.Ed. (Education) are organized by 185 . University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . These facilities are available for regular students.. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. Degree. courses and M.A. Courses leading to B. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates..7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.Ed.Ed. All B Ed. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. Ajmer.D. For re-orienting the teachers. (Education) and M. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.A. Degree and M..

as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession.. . 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. 6. established by tradition and teachers of the past. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. (Ed). 5. 4. (Ed. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .some Faculties of Education of some Universities. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and .List any two code of conduct for teachers? . However. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. they should be conscientious . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. Hence the employability of M..). and B.5. 3.A. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. 186 .A. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. What is the role of ERIC? . of conduct—written or unwritten. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them.

Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. Dearth of new technology of teaching.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. Bhopal. Discuss the problems of teacher education. 6.5. they should be conscientious. 3. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations.5. Explain code of conduct for teachers. The necessity is however this. 3. National Council of Educational Research and Training. 2. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Shorter working hours. 5. a.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 3. 2. 4. b. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. However. Ajmer. a.5. 3. a. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. b. 187 . 4. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training.3. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.

Teacher Education. (2009). New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . P. A. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House.3.5. Corporation. Ltd Aggarwal.N.D. and Teacher Education. Publication Pvt. Teacher Education. (2010). B. (2003).12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. J. Mohanty. Tewari.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

common ailments of children. the focus is on the school health programmes. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. nutritional deficiency diseases. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. communicable diseases and their prevention. The person’s environment is equally important. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. Since food is the source of nutrients. objectives. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. If the diet is poor. In lesson 4. consuming the right amounts becomes important.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. preservation of nutrients. 191 . objectives and role of the physical education. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. economic and educational developments. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. In lesson 1. objectives.

192 .

1.9 4.1.11 4.1.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. physical.1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.1.7 4.4 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.e.8 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1 4. for giving health education to the children under its custody. 4.1.LESSON 4. emotional and social.10 4. 193 . It is a miniature society.2 4.1. mental.3 4.5 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important.

194 . To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. know the need for sex education. you will be able to: 1. e. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. training of teachers and evaluation. To develop healthy health habits among children. 4. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 6. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 4. cleanliness and healthful living. 3. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. 8. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health.1. To give information regarding health rules. To develop certain skills concerning health. 11. 2. 9.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. explain the importance of First aid 5. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. 10.1. 7. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. Instruction. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases.g.. 4. training in first aid and etc. understand school health programmes 2. to his family and to the community at large. list the common ailments of children 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. 5. content of health education. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases.

2. play festivals. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. (vi) nutrition education. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. (v) safety education. Vaccination for small pox. is imperative. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. B. Arranging better transportation facilities. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . etc. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. (xii) smoking education etc. The surroundings of schools should be clean. 3. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. typhoid. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. Toilet rooms should be amply provided.1. cleanliness weeks. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. First aid facilities should be made readily available. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. The flooring should not be damp. 2. direct lighting.coming or absence.4. B. proper doors and windows.. organisation of school health days. 4.C. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. excusing late.. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. inoculation against cholera. Triple Antigen Vaccination. There should be regular water supply. (viii) first aid. There should be good drainage facilities. suitable furniture. (xl) mental health. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. “Play-for-all” programmes. 5. ( iii) sanit at io n. (ii) communit y healt h. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. The school buildings should be spacious. minimizing the travelling distance.G. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. vaccination. as described below 1. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided.

• Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. • Have adequate rest and sleep. D. fractures. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Close the schools. fainting (epileptic fit). etc. drowning. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. • Keep all rooms clean. bleeding. dislocations. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. cuts. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. if epidemic is wide-spread. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. 196 . poisons. burns.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. wounds. • When sleeping in groups. scalds. • Take nutritious food. sports and games in the interest of their health. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms.. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. insect stings. • Find out the cases. C. isolate and notify. and other accidents.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. which are – cold. measles etc. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. water or bodily contact.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. So they easily get illnesses. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. 2. 4. These diseases are called communicable diseases.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air.1. backache. chicken pox. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. There are three stages in any communicable disease. fever. They are: i) The incubation stage.. pain in the joints. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. polio. tuberculosis. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Once these germs get into the body. headache. cough. asthma. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. List out the Health curriculum 3. Mention the school health programmes. 4.

198 . Diarrhoea .This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Common Cold . Others make the children very weak. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. This is caused by cold virus. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow.This disease is caused by bacteria. sugar and water. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. head-ache and cough. etc. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. After three or four days of fever. Measles . The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. The symptoms include cold. Ear Infections . nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. The child may have fever. The following are the common communicable diseases. Throat is affected. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Tonsilitis .is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately.It is caused by measles virus. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage.When a child suffers from scabies. unhygienic living conditions. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Hence it is called a killer disease. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Mumps .It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Scabies . unhygienic bottle feeding. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Hence liquid diet is recommended. cough and fever.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Some suffer cold due to allergy. eating food which is not clean. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief.

The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days.• • • • Chicken Pox . It begins with fever.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. face and waist. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Diphtheria . Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. Expand DPT . As the disease progresses. Shortly. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. raised pink spots appear on head. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. Typhoid . the child is not able to breathe. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. Enlist the common ailments of children. the child may die. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are communicable diseases? 6. If proper treatment is not given. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. separate. 5. By scratching he causes secondary infections. 199 . The child may also have diarrhoea.

sprains. sprains.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. Drowning . drowning. and films. scorpion stings.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. eye injury.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. exciting and body-oriented. dislocation. bleeding. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. man-woman behaviours. In such cases. bruises. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. fainting. 2.g. it is a subject of art.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. 3. It is both biological and psychological. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. 5. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency.1. head injury. swelling. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. 4. cuts. so-called sex books and periodicals.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. fiction. Wounds . etc. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. snakebites.4.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. 200 . wounds. It has its rightful place in education too. Sex is popular.1. Sprains . films and jokes.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Cuts and Bruises . 4. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. simple fractures. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. and Community Work and Social Service. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex.

have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. try experimenting with their bodies. they would be treading the path of sure doom. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. Hence.. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. sex education is being recommended in schools. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. In today's liberal and interactive society. The to give sex education to the young. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. the religious organisations. celibacy are age. the school. B. In secondary schools. but preserve them from disaster and disease. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. 2.old values. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. The values of life. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. 3. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. in their ignorance. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. Should the boys and girls.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. health. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS.

202 . Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. there will no crisis in its implementation. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. Teacher education institutions are. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. 4. the school health programmes. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. common ailments of children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. C. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others.1. when the courses are already overloaded. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. communicable diseases and their prevention. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. first aid and sex education. hence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the major components of Sex Education.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.



SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.


STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.


4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:


Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.


Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy


Mention the food nutrients 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 209 . Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.2. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.4. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . minerals. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Let us talk about each of these aspects. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. 210 . C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. If you look at the definition carefully. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.2.

This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. activity level and physiological stress. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns.2. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. Rice or rice preparations such as idli.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. In the case of adults. it is also specific to a given activity level . where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet.g. In other in the morning and the other at night. for example. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet.g. There is no point. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. People in the east of our country prefer rice. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. the social and religious practices of that region. Even within given States there is considerable variation. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). A balanced diet is specific firstly. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. These are: region where the person resides and income. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. moderate or heavy work. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). sex. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age.sedentary. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . 4. paratha and poori. dosa are typical of the south.6. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . construction labourer). The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. Preferences/customs are also important.

As income increases. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. vegetables and fruits. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. nuts and dry fruits. However. for example. Judicious selection of food is. Including these 212 . Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. taboos related to food may play an important role. as important for the rich as for the poor. These determine the acceptability of foods. Even among flesh foods. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. fat and sugar tend to increase. Among the social factors. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. however. Having more money.planning the diet. If you think of your own religious group. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. however. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. customs. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. One person may be fond of milk products. while another may hate them. however. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. In addition to these. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. As you read this discussion. income plays a vital role. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. One must. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese.

17. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. mouth. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. For this. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. etc. List out any two healthy food habits. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. fruits. meat. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too.eating is hazardous. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . but they should be thrown away. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. over-eating or under. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. if the teachers have good food habits. eggs . Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 8. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 8) Walk a while after eating. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. green leaves. Define balanced diet. 213 .

A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. preservation of nutrients. 4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Night blindness. When the diet is inadequate. Bitot’s spots. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2.2. Keratomalacia 3. In fact. good nutrition is essential for good health. Beri Beri 4. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. c.4. a. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . e. b. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Conjuctival xerosis. Vitamin D 5. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. 4. Corneal xerosis.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. d.2. Discuss good food habits.2. Explain food nutrients 4.

4. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. b. 8. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. A Text Book of Foods. (2009).M. Food and Nutrition Education. (2005). Food and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. a . minerals.C. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . (2008).N. Hands.6. (2004). mouth. (2008). Sri Lakshmi B. Food should be consumed after eating well. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. a. P. R.2. Nutrition Science. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. S. 7. Nutrition and Dietetics. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . Health and Nutrition Education. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. R. Chopra.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. b.

6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.6.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.12 4.3.9 4.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings. 4.1 4.3.7 4.10 4.3 Impact on Education 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3. 216 .3.3.LESSON 4.11 4.3.3.

economic and educational development 3. understand the importance of small family norm 5.3. aims at providing the younger generation. objectives and need for population education 2. 217 . and the consequences of these processes. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. There is some difference. population characteristics. his societ y and the world. Whenever we talk of sex education.3. the causes of population change. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. characteristics and changes for himself. his family. the stress is. It is a much wider co ncept. state the meaning. describe the impact of population growth on social.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. community. It is not sex education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. 4. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. family planning and sex education etc.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. Population Education.3. 4. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. you will be able to: 1. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control.4. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. therefore.

2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . the family. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Population Education 2. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. the nation and the world. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the society. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 4. List out any two objectives of Population Education.3.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3.4.

They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. With the larger families. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. economic and educational development of the country. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. health and happiness of its citizens.3. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. 4. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. the family programmes are also handicapped. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. which will not be possible without population control. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. 219 . Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Family is considered as a social unit.3. When the family is small. Every second two thousand children are being born. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. 4. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom.6. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.

” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. in buses and trains. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. in cinema halls and theatres.6. 220 . facility for drinking water. Many students herded in a small room.. The gulf between them is widening further. unemployment. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio.3.e. i. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. 4. lack of proper health care. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends.3. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher.6. In developing countries. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. in parks and other places of public gatherings. toilets. heavy intern I migration etc. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. pollution of the environment. organization index and material index. teacher index. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. 4. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. and so on. Swollen cities.

thus. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. and laboratory equipments. reproduction. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. There would be poor library facilities. blank verses etc. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. family planning etc.3.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Regional Language. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. less space facilities.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. There would be very few audiovisual aids. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. less budget for education. can be studied in science and health education. even text books would be in short supply. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Social Studies Statistics on population education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hindi and English. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. 221 . A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. essays. bar graphs etc. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. can be taken up.

5. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Bihar. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Uttar Pradesh. 2. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. United States of America. deaths.4. Children with the help of parents. 4. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). area and average density of population. West Bengal. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. China. 13. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 9. Canada. 12. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. 8. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. 3. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population.3. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. 11. 10. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Brazil. Children may compare two families. 14. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. causes of deaths etc. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 7. 15. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1.

17. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. values and role children etc. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important.3. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. we have no right to stop 223 . Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. opened in their schools.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. 16. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. preferences for sex. The question. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. age at marriage. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. Comparing life in various respects in two families.

need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). and the child survival components of the news: program. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.their entry into the world”. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. the total fertility rate decreased from 6.3.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3.4-6. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. which education can only do. on an overall basis.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. however. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. continued . especially the expansion of child immunization services . The Family Welfare Program. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. at varying places in different regions. emphasize family planning services. “He who is responsible for population growth.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.were implemented 224 . More than 45 years ago. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. Since the program's inception.

women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. reliance on local women as community health workers. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. Moreover. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Local programs vary in their approaches. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . a focus on health promotion. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. men. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. and the World Conference on Women. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. In April 1996. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. At these meetings. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. Therefore.earlier than the safe motherhood components. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. expansion of services to unmarried women. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. In October 1997. and nominal fees for services. the community appears willing to pay for services. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free.

What are the goals of RCH? 4.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. Describe the impact of population growth on social.emphasizing the needs of the client. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. involving the community. 3. 1997). community. nation and the world. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. 4. economic and educational development 4. family. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future.3. Its main purposes are to create awareness.3. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 226 . The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion.

Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. characteristics and changes for himself.4. 227 .3. b. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. United States of America. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. bar graphs. a. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. 5. 6. Canada. population characteristics.” 2. less budget for education. 3. less space facilities. Brazil. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. and the consequences of these processes. his family. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. a. 7. his society and the world. area and average density of population. 4. b. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. China. a. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. the causes of population change.

N. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Bhende.4. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Principles of Population Studies. (1992). (2002).K. Modern Problems of Education. Kantikar. Jayapoorni. (2005). T. V. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Centre for Women’s Studies. Udaiveer. Reddy. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Coimbatore. Modern Trends in Indian Education. J. (2004).3. A.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Ltd. 228 . (2005).

10 4.11 19.4.4 Lead up games 4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.3 Indigenous games 4.4.1 4.4.2 Major games 4.1 Minor games 4.8.4.LESSON 4.3 4.4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.8.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4.4 4.5 4.8.2

The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. The concept of physical education has been made broader. 4. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. perseverance. the youth of the country. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. classify the different types of games. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. team spirit.4. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. social fitness.4. you will be able to: 1. as it should 230 . “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. which forms its most valuable assets. 4. full records of physical activities should be maintained. leadership and balance in defect.4. mental alertness. moral fitness and emotional fitness.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country.4.

obedience to rules. leadership. The educational efforts at home. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. team spirit. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. They go hand in hand.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Therefore. They are inseparably united together. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. To be more precise. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Every individual is a part of society. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion.

Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal.” Montaigue writes. Rousseau states. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. a sound health. Regarding the significance of physical education. Buck has observed that 232 . There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. Physical exercises. Just like Education. C. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers.” The Secondary Education Commission. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.4. nor body but the whole man. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. ment al. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. H. 4.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. pleasing manners. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. game and sports.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. mo ral.

elegance. resourcefulness and smartness. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. coordinative abilities. strength.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. speed. etc.” In brief. happiness. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. “If we wish to develop the whole being. flexibility and power. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. efficiency and character.” 4.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society.a properly directed physical education should result in health. endurance. 233 . initiative. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility.4. we must exercise the whole human being. Froebel says. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance.

Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. these fundamental things have always been present. Tournaments foster this sentiment. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. poetry and painting. should help in the spiritual development of the student. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. systems of government. Every age has its artists. plagues and famines. they may form gangs. including all racial groups and historical ages. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. 234 (i) (ii) . While wars. in greater or lesser degree. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. its adherents and its enemies. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities.

235 . to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. Write any two importance of Physical Education. self. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. obedience. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. respect for rules.\ to develop perseverance. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. to develop tolerance. B. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. etc.sacrifice. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. 3. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. bravery and interest in games and sports.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination .

4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Inform health principles. and readmission after they have recovered. and. 12. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Haag. Be in the uniform. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students.4. 11. 7. Posture screening should be done. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. is essential. Usually parents. Be self-confident. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. 2. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 14. 9.4. defects. 13. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Be well-prepared. Be punctual. Keep the field ready for the activities. 10.4. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. . 6. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 236 1. injuries among pupils should be made. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. students.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Always keep the whistle ready. 8. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 16. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 3. Be sportive. Act as a leader.H. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 15. 4. 5. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential.

1. Such inst incts as imitation. less equipment and less expense.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. the play. 3. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. 4.8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. frolic and jo y. Lead up games. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. 2.4. 237 . 4. Moreover. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. chasing. 4. their development is handicapped. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.4. Indigenous games.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

under ball pass Relay. zig zag relay. finding the partner. Tennikoit. couple tag. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Soft Ball. 238 . Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. the play equipment. muffling. dribbling. snatching the kerchief. bowling etc. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Basket Ball. women take part most of the games. 4. on sea-shore. the games can be modified according to convenience. Volley Ball. skipping. Khokho. Throwing. Jump the stick clay and so on. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. wherever the kids assemble.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Cricket. the number of players and substitutes. On lawns. hitting.With a very few rules. Except a few games. Ball Badminton.8. While many of them are played in the open playfields. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. driving. Dodging. Jumping. stopping. Shuttle Badminton. on mountain tops and on river beds. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Hopping. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. They are played for a shorter duration. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. boosting. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. some of them are played indoors. on hard courts.. Tennis. trapping. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. These games require varied skills such as running. Kabaddy etc.4. over ball pass Relay. The dimension of the posts and nets. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. with implements or without implements. pitching. heading. benefit in playing minor games. Hockey. For each game the rules are many. spiking. catching.

Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. birth. All the fundamental tactics. List out some major games. On occasions like marriage.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. and . Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. 4. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. For example. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. Games may be classified as 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games.4. They have an abundant social value. these games being popular. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . While observing the players in action. 7. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. festivals connected with religion and public functions. death.8. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Kho-kho. they are in existence.8.4. An example for indigenous game is 8.

4. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. 4. to develop physical stamina. 2. Briefly discuss the different types of games. 4. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 4. Posture screening should be done. a.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. a. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. 3. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Minor and Major 240 . d. 3. b. a. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. b. b. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. 5.4. aims and objectives and need of physical education. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. c. physically and emotionally fit and alert. 2.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. to secure physical health b. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must.4.4. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. a.

Soft Ball. (2005). Khokho 8. Mohanty. Ball Badminton. Tennis.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. J. Tennikoit. (2008). Ltd. J. 4. Health. 241 . Handbook of Physical Education.6. Shuttle Badminton.4. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Hockey. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Physical Education and Sports. Foot-ball. Cricket. Krishna murthy. J. Kabaddy 7.K.C. Aggarwal. Volley Ball. (2008). (2009). New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. G. Basket Ball. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Khokho. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.

5.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.6 4.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.4 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.11 4.5.1 4.5.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .10 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.LESSON 4.5.9 4.1 Natural Environment 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.3 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.

educat ion for the environment.5. 2. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Knowledge. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Participation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. education about the environment and education through the environment. 4.5. Broadly. social. list out the types of environment 3. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. aesthetic and educational factors. Essential knowledge about the Environment.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. economic. Awareness. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. Skills. Attitude. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. 6. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. political. 5. 243 . Details are given below: I. population explosion and resource depletion could be. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.5. 3. you will able to: 1. 2. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. 4. role of teacher in environmental conservation. it covers the following elements: 1. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. Evaluation Ability. 4. 3. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. The best place to start such learning is school. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems.

2. heat sink and wind flow in cities. 244 .B. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. F. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Oxidants Other pollutants. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. • Biological magnification E. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. a. D. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C.

The pill ii. Intrauterine device iii. The human ecosystem II. B. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Family planning ii. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . 3. 2. Abortion iv. Persuasion: i. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Use of medical science i. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. 2. Socio-economic measures. economic. Control of population growth a. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. 4. c. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Sterilisation. III. Birth control through education b.3.

List out the major causes of Environmental problems.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. (UNESCO. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 2. e) Recycling. Air pollution abatement ii. Define Environmental Education. 3. 246 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Water pollution abatement. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. 3. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1983). Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. way is called environmental or ecological factor.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain.5. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. Any constituent or condition of the environment. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.5. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. These are biotic components. to his needs. includes the plants. He modifies according”. Biological environment The biological environment.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.5.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. a. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. telex. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific.other components of the environment. b.5. fax agricultural apparatus. animals and other organisms (biotic). 4.5. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. They interact with each. -other.4.5. A change in one brings about a change in the other.

use of medicinal plants. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. evolution. relation between population and pollution. mineral survey. importance of nitrogen cycle. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. use of pesticides. food chain and food-web. reasons. balance of nature. etc. etc. acid rain. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. biogas plants. explosion deforestation. need for bio-diversity. supplying timber for various uses. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. sources. excellent recreation sites. preventing siltation of dams. sources of pollut ion. alternate sources of energy. over exploitation of ground water. History The rise and fall. change in climate may be added. water scarcity. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . noise pollution. t heir role in preventing pollution. extinction of species.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. of civilizations. greenhouse effect. role of trees in building economy. wars and hazards of war. noise control. effects. maintaining the ecological diversity. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. are the topics which may be taught in History. solar cookers. industrial pollut io n. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. (ii) Air pollution. natural way of controlling pests. social studies. river systems. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. windmills. ozone depletion. effects o f CFC. ozone layer deplet ion. population.. air pollutants from industries. nuclear warfare. need for conservation. trees reducing noise pollution. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. desertification 248 . industrial survey. nuclear energy. preserving the watersheds.

Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 249 . Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene.5. 8.may be inc ded in Geography. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. 3. 4. 13. Organising conferences. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Developing awareness about environmental issues. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 12. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 6. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 9. 10. 4. 5. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 2. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Peepal and Tulsi. group discussions and seminars. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Providing. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 14. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. animal and plants. 11. 7. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. aims and scope.

World Environmental falls on 250 . and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Never put any left over chemicals. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. 5. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. all these can cause serious pollution. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. 6. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. it will cause pollution. used oils down the drain. Don’t burn any waste. Reuse carrier bags. If it is done. especially plastics. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry.Send their waste oil. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so.

mat erials. Conservation of natural resources. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. rather than conquest and mastery.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes.5. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. Concern for species. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. values and habits. and 251 . Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. developing desirable attitudes.). To arrange for visiting speakers. concern for others). Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry.. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. To arrange visits or expeditions. diversity and stability. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. etc. viz. etc. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. depletion of ozone. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. CFCs. deforestation. The groups may exchange. loss of bio-diversity. Harmony with the nature . Att itudes of balance towards nature. (cleanliness. To provide materials needed for practical work. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil.4. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. dest roying nat ural habitats. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. orderliness and beauty). disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . Social responsibilit y (common good. nuclear wars. potable water. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. To discuss the approach to problems or topics.

8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. preserving natural cycles. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.5. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. 4. 252 .5. 4.5.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.

population. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. New Delhi : Sharma. Environmental Education. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.K. sources of pollution. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion.. (1997). (2004). Education for values. Kuldeep. b. ozone layer deplet ion. effects.K. acid rain. (2007). reasons. (ii) Air pollution. Udaiveer. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. 4.K. Organising conferences.2. concern for others).\ 4. 6. a. air pollutants from industries. New Delhi : Authors Press. a. b. Awareness. S. water scarcity. Publications Pvt.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. (2007). over exploitation of ground water. a. Social responsibilit y (common good. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . b. new problems from science and technology. To provide materials needed for practical work. explosion deforestation. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. sources. June 5 7.5. b. Environmental Education. Ltd. Environment and Human Rights. Anmol Publications Pvt. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 5. 3. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Knowledge. S. importance of nitrogen cycle. T. Rapid population growth. group discussions and seminars. Providing. Y. Modern Problems of Education. 8. greenhouse effect. Nanda. relat ion between population and pollution. a. Ltd.K. To provide reference materials for children’s use.

254 .




Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.



STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism Idealism and aims of Education Idealism and Curriculum Idealism and methods of teaching Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism Naturalism and aims of Education Naturalism and Curriculum Naturalism and methods of teaching Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

259 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to

Therefore. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man.our life. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. Universal Education. the emancipation of spirit. Education must contribute to development of culture. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. moral.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. promote and transmit it to rising generation. enrichment and transmission of culture. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. in fact.1. should be universal in nature." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. Spiritual Development. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure.3. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. Education according to idealism. According to Rusk'. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. man is essentially a moral being. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind.” 5. The universe is regarded as a thought process. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. It is self-realisation.

affecting (feeling). For intellectual development. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. subjects like Languages. History. Learning through discussion. So he should embody. He sets the environment in which education takes place.” He is thus. So cognition (knowing). Mathematics etc.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. so subjects like Religion. Herbert advocated instruction method. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . Learning through questioning. The plant can grow. He carries the child from darkness to light. should be there.1. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. According to idealism. So health.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. An idealist teacher is a philosopher.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. 3. an indispensable necessity.the spiritual qualities of mankind. Philosophy. Learning through lecturing.1. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. friend and guide. 5.3. Ethics. the school is a garden. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. However. a spiritual guide for the child. According to Frobel. The teacher serves as a living model for the students.” 5. hygiene. Learning through reading. Learning through imitation. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. 2. 4. no doubt. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. and collation (striving) should find due place. For this no particular method has been suggested. 5. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. Science. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. It considers teacher as.3.

1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self.preservation. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. time tables. text books. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century.1.1. 2. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. "Education should make 263 • . It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. Perfection of Human Machine.4. In the words of Ross. curricula. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. formal lessons or examinations. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Ross explains.perfection and beauty.

It emphasises physical and health education 5. Zoology.1. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. There is no place for religious and moral education.4. It is based on the psychology of the child. Chemistry. Biology.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. rational harmoniously balanced. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. • 5. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. In all. useful and mature child. Therefore. 264 . education should develop the child into Joyous. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Education also aims at helping the individual t. therefore. Education should.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. It stresses basic sciences. 4. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Botany etc Language. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. “Education finds its purpose. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. subjects like history. Literature. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Arithmetic. is based on the nature of the child. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Naturalistic curriculum.

Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. the stage. In the . 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Dalton Plan. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Learning by doing.5. Learning through observation. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Learning through experience. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development.4. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. 5. 5.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Heuristic method. 4. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Here the emphasis is on the individual method.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. a provider of an ideal environment. he should be taught by experience alone.4.1. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. It discards all rigid. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. 3.1. Rousseau says.1. a supplier of materials and opportunities.

The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. All Round Development of an Individual. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Social Science. The aim of educational development. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. is true. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. 5. Social Efficiency.1. Geography. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment.5. Agriculture. Vocational and 266 . According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism.5. of human personality is in terms of his physical. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. intellectual. Physical training. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Subjects.1. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Personal Social Adjustment. diversified and flexible. Sciences. 5. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. The individual has not only to adjust himself. social and moral aspects.absolutism of idealism. History. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Continuous Growth.

1. should find proper place.” 5. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. He must be trained. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Learning by Doing. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism.1.5. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life.Technical Education. He has to be active.5.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. alert and resourceful. a senior partner and a sincere guide.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. 5. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. a teacher occupies an important position. The subjects.

Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. It favours child-centered. Music and Dance. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. practical. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects.1. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things.5.1. liberal. Crafts. History. literary or humanistic education. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. 5. Population Education. Astrology. 2. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. 4. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Literature. Sex Education.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Chemistry. 5. Biology. Geography are unnecessary 268 .2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. scientific and psychological education. Psychology. 2. intellectual. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. 3. specific.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. rich and happy. Biography Philosophy. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable.1. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. 4. Education is preparation for a complete living. 5.6. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. 3. Education must cultivate scientific outlook.6. Study of Subjects like Language. Mathematics. Art.

6.5.6. certainly and clearly. easily and pleasantly. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

3. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Learning through lecturing.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Learning through discussion.1. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Universal Education 2. 5. Agriculture. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Languages. History. Learning through imitation.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Learning through experience b. a. Education according to pragmatism. Physical training. a. Experimentation d. 5.1. Rousseau 5. Geography. naturalism. c. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. pragmatism and realism. has no end other than growth. Learning through reading. in this lesson. Sciences. 6. Self Realisation b. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Vocational and Technical Education. & curriculum. Tours / Excursion e.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Child centered c. 5. Learning through questioning. d. b. Self preservation & Self expression 4. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression.1. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Social Science.5. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. e. a. Demonstration and Observation 270 .

R. 271 . New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.P. of Pathak. P. O. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. (2003).1. (2007). Anmol Publications Pvt. Foundations of Education. Pahuja. Ltd. (2004). P. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Narang C. N. L.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman.5. New Delhi : Bhatia.H. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2007). New Delhi : A. K. Theory and Principles of Education. Publishing corporation.P.

2.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.2.4. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2.2 Curriculum Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.4 Views about teacher 5.1 Aims of Education Aims of Education 5.3.3 Methods of teaching Curriculum 5.3.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.3.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.4 Views about teacher 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist. Aims of Education 5.2.2 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.LESSON 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi Methods of Teaching 5.

According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. mind and spirit. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. economic and political reconstruction in our country.2. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.2. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.2. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.8 5.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. 5.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life.2.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2.6 5.2. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. content and methods. 3. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. 2. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.5.2.2.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. you will able to: 1. Gandhiji was primarily a social. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.5. Tagore was a poet. 5. 273 . political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.7 5.4 Role of the teacher 5. an artist. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.

nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. It really provides opportunity for character building. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. self-restraint and service of humanity.3. mind and soul of children He further observed. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. 5. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. 274 . Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. His scheme of education is life centred. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. righteousness. In the words of Gandhiji. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education." Dignity of Labour. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. "I attach more. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote.supporting. through life and for life. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. it is education of life.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. 'Man is neither mere intellect.2. strength of mind. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. nor the gross animals body. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education.

Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. General Sciences. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Music. "Development of the moral character. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . Art. 5. gardening.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. wood work.2. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Individual and Social Aims. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Drawing and Hindustani. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . According to Gandhi. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy.3. metal work.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. the realization of the ultimate reality. development of the whole all were directed: towards. leather work have been suggested.Training for Leadership. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Mother-tongue. Only good individual forms a better society.

4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.3. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.3. Basic education is other wise known as 4.2. men of 276 .2.trained. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. proficient.

5. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji.knowledge. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. He also advocates freedom for the child. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.3. That is why. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Education must be child centered. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education.2.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.4.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. he was a true Vedantist 5. • Ideal of citizenship. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.2. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.” Like all other ideals. Gandhi in 1937.2.2.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. 5. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. • Cult of non-violence. He was deadly against untouchability.K. He believed in the oneness of humanity. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . 5. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. He was a true patriot. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.3. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. • Education should involve manual work.

etc. It should help. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Botany. 279 . General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. complete manhood could be attained. them solve problems of day to day life. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. deeper in. Music. Civics. "Mankind must realise a unity.Language and Literature . could help in forging unity among all. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. Therefore. Zoology. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. It should help the learner have good physique.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . International Understanding. wider in range. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. That way only.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. the more dedicated and devoted. sentiment.2. Tagore said. stronger in power than ever before.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. International understanding. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners.4. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Geography. Religion and Psychology. Dance. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. he said. Chemistry. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. (vi) Philosophy. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts.

5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.2. 5. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children." 5. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. Tagore rightly says.4. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. 5. In 1921.4. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.4.” He further says. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.2. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. Activity Method Heuristic Method.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. 280 . A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.

Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. race. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. It is open to all irrespective of country. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. 281 . Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. 10. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. 9. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.g. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore.Shanthiniketan has open spaces.

4. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual." He was against the theoretical type of education. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Education for Self-reliance. Concept of Education. Freedom. He believed in to learning or selflearning. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Education for Self-realization. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education should make a person self-reliant. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. Purity of thought. work and deeds come out of it.2. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. Book learning. man making. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. 3. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says.” 5. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . According to him. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life.5.2. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Education for strong Moral Character. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. who possess sweet and amicable tempers.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. 2.5. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace.

5.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. engineering and technical subjects. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. 5. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.5. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching.2. 283 . Only a selfless person can be good teacher. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. That will serve the purpose of education fully. Swami.5. A physically strong person is the need of the society.2. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study.2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. 5. Thirdly he wished that games. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Philosophy and Theology. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Of course.the learners on different students in the discussion. Religion. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.5. Education for Physical Development. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. And above all. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. Secondly he wanted Science. 5. 6. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . The teacher should be the facilitator. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. philosopher and guide to the students He. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. Discussion Method.

We have seen that Tagore.2. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. and pragmatist . Gandhiji as a Idealist. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. 12.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. ears and eyes. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. Their educational ideas. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. in this lesson.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life.2. of course. 2. 284 . broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. 3. legs. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. Write short notes on Basic education. naturalist. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. 5.Substantiate your answer. 5.6 LET US SUM UP We have.

c. Self realization. 3. 10. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. e. Self-Study b. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Activity Method b. 9. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. a. 5. d. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. b. Basic education. 5. Teaching while Walking b. Learning by Doing c. 11. Nai Talim 4. c. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. wood work. Activity Method d. a. gardening. Explain Vishwabharathi. Cult of non-violence. Debate and Discussion Method. leather work have been suggested. Meditation and concentration c. metal work. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12.4. f. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. a. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Technique of Correlation 6. a. 2. 5. Education should involve manual work. Ideal of citizenship. 1937 7. Heuristic Method. 8. Discussion Method 285 .8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2.

O.P. New Delhi : A. Theory and Principles of Education. K and Narang C.H. on Bhatia. P. K. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2003).5. Publishing Corporation.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. Anmol Publications Pvt. P. J. Dhiman. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. L. N. (2004). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. C. New Delhi : Aggarwal. Foundations of Education. Ltd. (2007). N. 286 . Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. (2002). B. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Pahuja.2.

3.11 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3.3. In this lesson.8 5.3.5 5.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .7 5.3.LESSON 5.2 5.6 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3.4 5.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.10 5.9 5.1 5.3.3 5.

in the U. living in the hilly area. curriculum signifies situations for learning.under the direction of the school. In the words of Kerney and Cook. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. From the latter point of view. Then in a big country like India. in the form of new experience. present behaviour may be modified. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. in fact . Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. is a means to the process. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. it is identical wit h socializat ion. you will be able to: 1. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used.3.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. Since the demands. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. curriculum. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. Both the processes are integrated.S. While education is learning. A g o o d curricu lu m. the plateau area and 288 . maintained or eliminated. the desert area. 5. there is a large number of communities.3. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. in Russia or in Japan. In it. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. In the former sense. 5.3. While education is a process. the plain area. Curriculum is intimately related to education. new behaviour may be acquired.. state the meaning of curriculum 2. One is the individual process and the other is the social process.A. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes.

that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. Again. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. However. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. irrespective of their needs and environment. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. 5. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. and 289 .coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. democratic and socialistic country. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. In fact . therefore. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. according to modern trends in the educational process. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment.3. the learning capacity of children. studying therein. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. too. From a slave-country we became secular. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. It must differ from locality and from society to society. environment. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. Besides craft. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. it is. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. differs from individual to individual. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. customs and needs.

aims.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture.g. They may be ultimate or proximate.. tangible. individual or Social and so on. aesthetic and spiritual development. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. They speak of immediate purposes of education. 2. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education.g. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. National Integration.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. which may or may not be attained. 3. remote or immediate. Vocational Efficiency. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. unsatisfactory.. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. they depend on the political. e. Self Realisation. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. etc. 290 . They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. Goals of Primary Education. emotional... 4. etc. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. specific. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. of classroom. Goals of Secondary Education. The word “Curere” means 2.3. social. in instructional objectives. They are visionary goals e. Knowledge Objective. Application Objective. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. moral. They speak of perfect goals. 1. general or specific. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. uninspiring and unscientific. eg. Understanding Objective. social. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. etc. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . 5. e.. They are achievable. unambiguous and functional. So it is inadequate. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery.g.

” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects.5. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum.” 291 .” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. in the class rooms. The interests. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. Raymont rightly says. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. needs. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. capacities. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. abilities. Crow and Crow remarks. educationists. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. on the playing fields. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. heavy fire. finding them very interesting and captivating.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. but it includes the totality of experiences.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization.3. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. According to Crow and Crow.

urges. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. aptitudes. time in a useful manner. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. tendencies. They often waste it or rather kill it. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. Due to these variations and differences. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. moral.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. capacities and abilities. mental. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer.

there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching.curricular. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. organized. administrative programme need be planned. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. 2. Similarly. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. development of professional capability at all levels. 3. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. 293 . reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. phased preparation. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. To ensure success of the process. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives.

Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. 10. 5. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. Child Centred Education b.3. Run. 17. Relation with Life c. 18.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. 5. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. workshop.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. library. 11. principles of curriculum construction. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. in the class room.3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. laboratory.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. 12.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. a. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. 1937 19.

Curriculum and Instruction. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. New Delhi : Isha Books.K. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. New Delhi : Authorspress. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2007). Innovations in Education. (2007). D.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2001). S. Bhalla. N.5. 295 .3.S. and Sarita Kumari. (2007). P. Lakshmi. Curriculum Development. S.

1 5.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.7.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE Scientific Attitude 5.4.5 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.4.LESSON 5.4 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4.4.3 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.6.8 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.9 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.

4. yet real advancement in this area was achieved .3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. 3. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively.5. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. in the economic reconstruction of society. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth .1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. know the importance of science education.during the second half of this century. newer and newer industries started growing.4.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. 297 . honesty. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. 5. 2. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. open-mindedness. tolerance for the opinions of others. superstition or emotion.4. We mean curiosity. 4. you will be able to: 1. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. explain the concept of scientific attitude. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. Gradually. 5.

Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 5. 5. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 3.4. 2. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Thinking and memory develops. 7. as well as of the society. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Promotion of science clubs. 6. 4. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. seminars and symposiums. Organisation of science fairs. 2. Principles are formulated. Schemes of teaching science. Through examinations. After such experience and training. 4.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Love for truth enhances. Central science workshop. stipends and appreciations in various ways. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching.4. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 5. 6. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. 3.So that. 5. Devotion towards nature increases. Through newspapers. Selection for science education.

It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.4. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs.4. sex or religion. They ask many questions about the objects they see. They experience natural phenomenon. therefore. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. They encounter many social events as they grow. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. 5. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. essential that teachers.6. Write any two advantages of Science Education. Training of science teachers. After presenting the problem. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. It is. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 7. objectivity. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. each child to “enquiry skill building”. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. For laboratory and workshop techniques. In the inquiry approach. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. should provide opportunities to. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. Enquiry teaching is. which is essential for developing scientific outlook.needs and conditions.

Evidence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. commands or orders.4. test. stern pursuit of accurate data. Appreciating pupils ideas. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. . to ask questions and experience things. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook.6. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. 2. Giving less directions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. 5. 6.books. Adopting creative models of teaching. Social sciences. 3. It requires consistent thinking.Herma Wouk. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. 5.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. 5. if they like. 300 . .4. 4.

A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. of vast resources running waste.(Smith 2008). (Vaidya 2007). 5. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. and emphasized during the learning process .7. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. practiced. therefore should be unbiased and objective. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. friends. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . These include open mindedness. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. school and society at large.4. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. For instance. critical thinking and suspended judgments. The students observation. neighbourhood. keen observation.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. To achieve this we should understand what it means. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. it must be encouraged. to develop among the learners.

4. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. The intention to respect another’s point of view. (Das. 302 .pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. rumor. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. In considering a situation or a problem. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. think and work it”. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. 2007). An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof.7. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. 5. intuition or wishful thinking”. or superstitions.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. he studies all aspects of it. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. understanding and logic. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes.

5. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.4. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.7. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.7. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. but to begin only after careful planning. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.4. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. • 5.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.

practiced and emphasized during the learning process.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. 5. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. 304 . it must be encourages. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

N. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. (2008). New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. 4. Wide reading b. Adopting creative models of teaching. b. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. M. Proper example of the teacher c. (2000).9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Love for truth enhances. 3.B (2008). Vaidya. (2006). The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. b. a. Study of superstitions d.S.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 16. 5. a. a.4. objectivity. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Rao. Reflections on Scientific attitude.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Planning of activities 5. Discuss the importance of science education 14. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. S. New Delhi : Anmol Publications.4. D.4. 5. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. Yadav. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. 2. a. b. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.5. 305 . 5.7 5.5.1 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population. state the concept.8 5.5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.LESSON 5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.5. actively. 5. objectives and characteristics.5.3 5. you will be able to: 1.5. 306 . areas of institutional planning.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.10 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.9 5.5.4 5.6 5.2 5.5.5 5.5.5.

in the task of educational planning. • to involve teachers and school administrators. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. 5. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. • To make institutional planning more successful. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. • to make planning development-oriented. each teacher. teachers and students is not lost sight of. executive as well as public. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.3. which become the bases for further planning at the district. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. 5. Institution should be regarded as the unit. and every student in the process of educational planning. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. and supplement planning from above. every teacher. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans.5.5. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. and each student are regarded as separate entities. and. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. State and national levels from below. every parent.

5. 5. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5.• implemented. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. it becomes the basis for school inspection. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. 308 . approved after making necessary modifications. etc. Syllabus.curricular Activities. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. Examinations. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. Co-curricular activities. (2) Co. which will be discussed in the general. council and.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan.5. Classwork. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. and Personnel services.

Organisation of Self-Government Days. scientific and historical excursions. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Equipping of laboratory and library. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Improving the internal assessment. charts and apparatus. hobby-centres. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. etc. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Improving the subject competence of teachers.No. Courts.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. etc. Preparation of instructional material. Organising play-for-all programmes. Conducting of educational. Organisation of Students’ Association. Preparation of models. etc. etc. Organisation of class-room libraries. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. etc. 3. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. 1. Editing the school magazine. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Fair distribution of syllabi. 2. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Organisation of Pupils. Running science clubs.

” The human relationships in. Administrator-State. understanding. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships.5. and solidarity. teacher-managing body. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. teacher-State. which are divided as the in. administrator-pupil. parent-teacher associations. science teachers’ associations. pupil310 . etc. teacherinspector. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships.5. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. pupils. teacher-pupil. administrator-administrator. co-operation. students’ associations. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. teacher-teacher. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. parents. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. teachers. involving mainly human materials. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. ii. headmasters associations.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a and out-group relationships are as given below i. administrator-supervisor. and —pupil-pupil.

to accomplish. Give your answer as instructed in each question b." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. It covers personnel and material management. supervision and superintendence. administrator. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. now-a-days. supervision. pupil-community leader. to attend. According to C. teacher-community leader. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. etc. pupil-parent. organisation.State. to carry out. It is also being modernized to become a technique. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. control. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. and to serve. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. social sciences and other disciplines. superintendence. pupil-non-official functionaries. pupil-inspector. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. V.5.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. 311 . teacher-parent. To administer means to manage. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. organisation and management. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. Good.

Decision Making .The manager should have leadership traits. who occupy the managerial positions. If it is more.Any good management will always have good public relations. If the cost benefit ratio is less. Economic Management . Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . 3. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. Socio-Scientific Approach .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. 10. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. it is not worth-while. 9. 5. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. Liasion with the Public . Cost-Benefit Analysis . Better Human Relationships . Motiviation . This is the latest democratic trend in management.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. 6. 7. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Communication .Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 8.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions.Of all the approaches. low. Leadership . He should be an artist in human relationships.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. The relationship should change from master. 11. 12. 4. Democratic Management .This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. 13. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. Those. 2.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. Rapport between the Management and Employees .This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . Worker Participation . it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.

The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. objective. 313 . Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. characteristics and areas of institutional planning.These two are. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . Wastage and duplication should be avoided. 5. 14.too. 5. enrichment of curricula. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too.g.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. 19. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained.5. 18. improvement of teaching methods. to improve the quality of education it provides.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. and cooperative performance should be ensured.

a. 4. and Personnel services.M.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. c. 2.5. Examinations. APH Publishing Corporation. Decision Making b. In group and Out group 5. f. Fundamental of Educational Management. Syllabus. (2003). a. Instruction.K. Educational Administration. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Singh. d. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. (2001). a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. S. (1995). 314 .5.5. Leadership c. R. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. Classwork. b. Motiviation d. b. Communication 5. b. a. e. H. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. NUEPA. Co-curricular activities. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Tarachand and Prakash.

Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Code of conduct for teachers.I. 2.teachers should have : 1. Examination reforms. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. School. Sex-education 4.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Realized the problems of school education. Inspection and Supervision 3. 1. Economic 315 .5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.Article 45 . Balanced diet.2 Nutritional deficiencies.3 Directive Principles . social Impact 3.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Preservation of nutrients.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. 4. Community and Mass Media 2. physical education and environmental education 5. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. New evaluation procedures.3 Educational Influences of Home.5 Regional Educational Development in India . population education.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.1 Inculcation of Socialism.Preventive measures.CORE PAPER . higher education.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. Healthy Food Habit 4. wastage and Stagnation 3.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. nutritional requirement. women education and teacher education in India.1 School Health Programme. Buddhist and Jain system of education.4 India's Secular Policy . UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Communicable diseases .1 Primary Education : Education for all.Pre-service and In-services facilities. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.Religious and Modern Education 1.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . First Aid. Common ailments of Children. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.1 Gurukula system of education.

5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. T. (2005) Foundations of Education. (2004) Problems of Education in India. Taneja V.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Naturalism and Pragmatism . Tagore 5.R.K. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.1 Idealism. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. 7. B.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Socialization.Aim. Saraswathi T. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Delhi : University Publications 2. Sharma. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. Mishra. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. 5.K.K. New Delhi: NCERT 3. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. and Mohanty R. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.4 4. and Human Development.S. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. R. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. REFERENCE 1.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Mahatma Gandhi. Prof.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Hemchand. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.K.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.4. and Sharma R.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Ghanta R. Pandy V.C.N. 316 . and Dash B. Ram S. Curriculum and national goals .N. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Realism. (1999) Culture.