SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. Lesson 5.
. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Lesson 4. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. discusses the regional educational development in India. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. and Jain system of education. The need. Jainism and their educational implication. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. In. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. Lesson 2. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt.
EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD
STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168.3.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.6 Education during British Era 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 22.214.171.124.1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.6.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1 126.96.36.199 Hartog Committee (1929)
.188.8.131.52.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.5 Jain system of education 184.108.40.206.LESSON 1.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 220.127.116.11 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.2 18.104.22.168.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1.5.
1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.1. in morals and in the intellect”. That
. Education in India. The history of education passed through Buddhist. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. both present and future.6.1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.6. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.3. 1. India.1.1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. British system of education presented the modern western model. Muslim and British periods. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. elucidate the education during British Era.1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.1. 1. “a class of persons. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.1.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1. has a long past history starting in vedic education. Indian in blood and colour. you will be able to: 1. in opinion. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.9 1.7 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. but English in taste. describe the Jain system of Education 4.8 1.1.
was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Pupils were taught. Education of Moral. 12. There was. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. the monitorial plan was followed. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Forests as Centres of Education. from darkness. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. Education was a private affair of the people. High Status of Teachers. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. generally. Teacher as Parents. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 11. Where pupils were many. questioning by the pupil. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Residential Schools. if they thought fit to do so. Curriculum. however. 6. not en masse by the class method. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. The immediate aim of education. Free and Accessible. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. 16.
. Role of Travel in Education. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. 5. Individual Teaching. followed by explanation by the teacher. as it is generally considered to be at present. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. individually.knowledge was real. It was also moral. Method of Instruction. 14. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. No State Control on Education. managed entirely by Brahmans. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. Immediate Aim Vocational. 9. 4. 13. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. religious and spiritual. and to agriculture and trade. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. 10. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. 8. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. to light. Method of Study. It was not merely intellectual. 3. from eternal to immorality 2. with grants of land or money. Religious and Spiritual.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It was freely available to all those who wanted. It was suited to the needs of the society. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. lived a life of celebacy. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education?
3. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education?
. 2. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent.3. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. They were very cordial and intimate. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education?
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.17. studied Vedas. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times.
1. Wide-Spread Education in Women. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values.1. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today.
He was then ordained to obey ten rules. etc. partaking of food at prohibited times. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. Right means of livelihood 6. in which. Right activity 5. After attaining the age of 20. Right speech 4. had the right to receive education. every class in society. disease and death of the human beings. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. It was denied only to the ill. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. killing of any living being. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. the student had his head shaved of all hair. Right memory 8. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. watching dances or listening to music. medium of Pali. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. the most significant of which were the following 1. 1. I take Refuge to Dharma. the handicapped. Consequently. I take Refuge to Sangh. use of cosmetics. which included abstaining from theft. Right contemplation 1. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Right endeavour 7. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. dressed himself in yellow clothes.4
BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. taking things without being offered. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. 2. he was qualified to become a monk. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’.4. except the Chandals. impure conduct.1. Right thought 3.
. Right knowledge 2. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form.C. use of intoxicating things. Education was imparted through the. the student remained in a state of Shramana.
giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. so long as it successfully does so. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. arithmetic and religious discussion. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. education was impart in art. magic.4. After this ritual. cottage industries. On this occasion. of clothes. be considered the aim of education It. handicrafts. 1. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. women occupied a position inferior to men. Initially. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. therefore.3. geology. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. 6. approach. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. depth and range. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. 2. meaning. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. it is regarded as true”. a change is not only total but also perpetual. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. 5. elephant lore. These are called later Buddhist schools. military science. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. and. changing the goals. Later on. however. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. aspirations and. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. Even at this stage. 3. As reality is becoming. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. eat food thrice a day. etc. Life is in a flux. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. archery. beg for alms. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. nature. etc. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. bodily gestures. Whatever its nature and extent. 8. objectives of human life. 7. agriculture. wear three items. etc. control over sensuous activities. animal husbandry.. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. It comprehended education in writing. medicine. along with education in script writing. has no metaphysical value for life. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. the science of taming and training animals. commerce. nothing is of any permanent consequence. a continuous change creating
. knowledge of reviving the dead. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. the presence of the monks was essential. 4. assumptions. Hence. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. archery. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore.
5. 1. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. therefore. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. i. However. however. and to give it a shape that it has today. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. Write Eight fold path . goes to Vardhaman. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. it is much older than the latter. Its chief feature. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education?
1.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals?
6. In fact. Validity is effective and consequences.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. such as. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Education must.new and peculiar situations.e. its pessimistic outlook on life. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. whatever works are true and good.1. Jainism insists
. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
As such. Hence. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. 9. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. c) Not to steal. They are: a) Not to injure.5. 1. 5. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. d) To lead a celibate life. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. it has a foot in both the words. e) To renounce the world. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. Self-realisation as jiva is divine.
. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. thought and deed. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. b) Right knowledge. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 10. 7. but on both. more stress on individual aims. 3. 2. b) Not utter falsehood. rather than the interpretation of the universe. 2. c) Right conduct.1. 1. Development of personality as an individual. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. 8. and is to be redeemed and liberated. 3. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. restoring the ideal character of the jiva.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. 4. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. 6. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. and believe in happiness to all.
8. that would be socially desirable. Belief in transmigration of soul. therefore. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. education should develop sense of discrimination.4. Teaching should be social and tolerant. 2. Teaching must develop these faculties.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. education must be action based and ideally oriented.
‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. practised and not only aspired for.5. Jiva is essentially karmic. What are Triratnas ?
Knowledge is through senses and meditation. 1. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world.
1. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
1. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education?
. here and now.5. and should bring happiness to all. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. 5. success and love.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
1. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Hence. 3. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 3.
1. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.6. 1. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. North West Province and Punjab. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time.6. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. primary
. 1953). Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). 1. with rally and rout. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler.1. 2. and not for life. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods.1.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. science. 1. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.6. Madras.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. philosophy and literature of Europe.6.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. Bombay. To set up separate departments of. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools.
and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929)
Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant.K.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. In 1882. 1. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. Later on. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. 1.6. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement.education was neglected. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). self-respecting and competent. at the primary level. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested.6. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. • Secondary education. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. The universities dominated the secondary education. secondary education became a step towards university. At that time M. • Universal free primary education. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. namely. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. To ensure qualitative improvement. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. Then the prevalent education was anti-national.6. 1. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. The broad outlines of the report are as follows:
. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools.
Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year
1.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The objective of education was to provide
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. After this stage. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission?
12. all children are to have a common curriculum. The report suggested development of adult education scheme.At the primary stage (6-11 years). What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813?
. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. 10.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial.
5. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. etc. 3. 2.
. Right contemplation. archery. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4.education of European literature. arithmetic and religious discussion. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. 1. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. The system of education was well-organised.1. followed by explanation by the teacher.
1.1. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Right knowledge. a. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. along with education in script writing. The immediate aim of education. Right speech. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 2. education was impart in art. military science. Right activity. questioning by the pupil. establishment of universities. Right thought. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. During the Buddhist period. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. handicrafts. 4. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. the science of taming and training animals. 3. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. Right means of livelihood. Right endeavour. Right memory. 6. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. It was suited to the needs of the society. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. science and English language. geology.. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools.
Development of personality as an individual. Hence. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.K. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Ltd. History of Indian Education System. (2007). R. c. Right knowledge. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Y. a. Right conduct. 1882. a. J. 11. Aggarwal. and Nath. (2009).1.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Right faith. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.C.
. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Development of Educational System in India.7. 10. 8. Improvement of Literature. Y. Singh. 9. (1984). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Sharma. more stress on individual aims. Ltd. 1937 1. (2005).K. Sargent report 12.C. J. b. b. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
2.3 Kothari Commission 1.9 1.7 22.214.171.124.5 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.8 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2 126.96.36.199.2
THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA
STRUCTURE 1.3.6 1.2.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.4 National Policy on Education 1.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1.1 University Education Commission 1.2.1 1.3. The
.2.3.LESSON 1.2.4 1.2.2.
expansion of vocational. Kothari (1964-66) 8. 2. National Board of Teacher Education 10. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. analyse the progress of education in free India. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. 1. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. secondary and higher education.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. examination system. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. vocational education. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. diversification of courses of studies.2.3. standard of teaching. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. medical and legal education. Post-graduate
. 1. National Council for Women’s Education 5. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11.2.2. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. explosion of enrolment.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES
The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. you will be able to: 1. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. technological engineering. girls and women education besides primary. S. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. There had been vast institutional expansion. New Educational Policy. 1986
1. technical. curriculum. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7.conditions of the teachers. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4.
A. quantity. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986.3. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.2. A meaningfully Partnership.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. material and spiritual.3. Finally. The Essence and Role of Education.3. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. 2. All possible efforts will be made on the removal
. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. D. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. Therefore. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. Kothari. Education for Equality. 3. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. the chairman of University Grants commission. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. research et. Education is the key to our allround development.S. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1.2. quality.2. accumulated over the years.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. 4. in January 1985. 1952. the New National Policy on Education.teaching. Government of India. 1986. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. However. 1. 1966.
1. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. Problems of access. National System of Education. utility and financial outlay. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation.” Thus. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. attitudes. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work.
.2. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. By working with hands. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year
1. Thus. It can train practical aptitudes. the concepts of work experience. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. The UNESCO Report. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. the minorities and the handicapped.
According to. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. The Education Commission. co-ordinations.” the Kothari Commission mentioned.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation.” The Mudaliar Commission. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. Besides. “It may be described. As such. if he wishes. In 1955.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. the Commission. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the
. With adequate planning. it will conduce self. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. The Radhakrishnan Commission. “The aim of these colleges.
highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. raising the special facilities. the rigid streaming of courses. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. Therefore. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. T h is Co mmit t ee
. for quality of life in the rural areas. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. the semester and credit system. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future.ot her. the. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation.. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. The Central Advisory Board of Education. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. admission requirements to vocational courses. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. In addition. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. etc. Subsequently. With a view to relating education to the life. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated.
Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken..2. meaningful. In short. manual work resulting in either goods or services. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. etc. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. According to committee. who conceived the System of Basic Education. giving importance to productivity in the national development. meaningful. felt that education should be centred around a craft. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. which swept the country for over two decades.and the world of work. 1. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji.
. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. preferably spinning and weaving. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Commerce.defined S UP W as “purposive. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. which offer scientific. technological courses including Agriculture. The wave of Basic Education. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. The Father of Nation. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. aimed at this goal. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. which are useful to the community. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum.
Community work and social service. Shelter 4. Food 3. The teachers should make use of. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Experimentation with materials. Work practice. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom.
Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. 3. 2. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. locally available materials and tools. Productive 2. Health and Hygiene 2. 4. Educative and 3. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Culture and recreation 6. Some Hints to Teachers 1.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. as far as possible. Clothing 5. so that it is educational in essence. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. be that the work involved is: 1.
. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. tools and techniques and 3.
adoption of a a locality for its improvement. 1. Check on educated unemployed 4.2. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. Community Service In-1972. as far as possible. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. removal of illiteracy. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. It can become an instrument to build character. Merits of the Programme 1. improve discipline.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. inculcate a faith. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. Productive Work
. Education through work The SUPW should. slum clearance. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. 6. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. etc. To make education more realistic. the local community should be actively associated. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter.5.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. etc. if not productive.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. AICTE was set up in year 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. in turn. skills and better future for the children. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. should involve itself in the educational effort. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. Define SUPW
. traffic control. What are the work areas in SUPW
6. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. helping the adults-in productive work. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The community. offering first aid. helping the adults in festivals and Functions.
7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. f.
. meaningful. Radhakrishnan 2. d.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India.2. 1952 3. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. 1955 4. Dr. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. b.
1. Write short note on SUPW. a. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.2. e. 2.1.
1.2. manual work resulting in either goods or services.9
ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. which are useful to the community. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. 3. c.
K. (2005). R.
. P. History of Education. : Sharma.P. Singh. (2009). New Delhi : Shipra Publications.(2005). Anupama. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.P. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Y. A.2.. Amala. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. Publishing Corporation.K.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.C.D. J. History of Indian Education System. (2007). New Delhi: A. B. V. Development of Educational System in India. and Rao.K. History and Problems of Indian Education. Ltd.1. and Nath. Rao. Y. (2007).H.
EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION
STRUCTURE 1.1 1.3. directive principles and duties of citizens. containing 395 articles.6 1. Besides the English version. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.3. 1950.2 1. there is an official Hindi translation.5 1.369 words in the English language version.
.7 1.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.4 1.3.9 1. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. establishing the structure.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. it came into effect on January 26. assuring its citizens of justice.3.3. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3.3.3. 1949.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. equality.8 1. for a total of 117.3. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.1 Significance of DPSP 1. and liberty.3.3. procedures. democratic republic. Being the supreme law of the country.3.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
you will be able to: 1. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. for 166 days. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. Dr.3. After many deliberations and some modifications. 1. in sessions open to public. On August 29. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. political. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.3. economic. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. administrative. with Dr. understand our Indian constitution. The Assembly met. the Drafting Committee was appointed.3.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. legal and environmental. Two days later. 4. 1. 3. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. 1947. social. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. learn the role of central and state government on education. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. 1947. Through them. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. spread over a period of 2 years. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. According to the constitution. 1950. 1. 2. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee.In the August 14.
.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. embodied in Part IV of the constitution.3. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution.
Organisation of village panchayat. That the health and strength of workers. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Article 40. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. The State shall. men and women. Equal pay for both sex. old age. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Liking wage etc.
. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Minimising inequalities in status. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Protecting children from exploitation. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. provide free legal aid. and shall. and in other cases of undeserved want. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. make effective provision for securing the right to work. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Article 39A. for workers. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. Condition for dignity of children. Equal justice and free legal aid. in particular. Article 43. on the basis of equal opportunity. Right to work. No abuse of children. Article 41.government. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. sickness and disablement. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Article 42. The State shall endeavour to secure. Protecting health of the workers.
The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. industrial or otherwise. Article 43A. Article 48A. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Note: Subs. in particular. in particular. The State shall endeavour to provide. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. agricultural. Article 45. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. to all workers. See also Article 21A). 2002 for “45. in particular. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Uniform civil code for the citizens. a living wage. Article 49. and. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. [declared by or under law made by
. Article 48. Participation of workers in management of industries. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Article 47. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Article 44. work. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. The State shall take steps. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 46. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. (Original Article 45. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. by suitable legislation or in any other way.
Article 51. Article 50. 2. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. may be law determine”. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. as the case may be.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. 2002.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood
. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy?
1. from spoliation. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002.Parliament] to be of national importance. Separation of judiciary from executive. destruction. 1.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. removal. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. Article-21A Right to Education. disposal or export. disfigurement. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. Promotion of international peace and security. Article 45 .
“The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. and shall protect them. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. iii. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. 4. 5. 7.
8. race. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. 2002. in particular.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. language or any of them”. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. 6. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. ii. 3. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or.”
. if such person is a minor. from justice and all forms of exploitations. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. and. his guardian has given his consent thereto. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. caste.
style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Write Article 21 A and Article 45?
4. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. The central government determines targets and promotes education. Article 351 gives importance to 6. the forms. wherever necessary or desirable.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION
1. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. and by drawing. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. &
1. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country.9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language.3.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Educational Reforms From time to time. for its vocabulary.
So that they may work well. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas
. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states.3. By starting these projects. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. 5. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). 6. etc.. All India Council of Medical Science. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. 8. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. 7. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. private agencies etc. Local bodies and private enterprise. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Production of suitable for children and adults f. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. So as to encourage education on right lines. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. the state governments. The following pilot projects. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. to achieve the desired ends. 4. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc.
for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. The
. training and statistics.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. are published by it. is the state responsibility.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. 11. etc. books. 3. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. handicapped. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside.3. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. reports etc. 9. education for women. research. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. 10. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. 1. 1. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 12. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. 4. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world.
8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
1. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India?
8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government?
9. Article 45 b.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Write any two functions of State Government of Education?
. Article 21A c. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. Article 46 4. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3.
.3. Explain Directive principles 2.3. Write short notes on a. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. articles in the Directive principles.
(This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. a.
4.5. 2002. b. b. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Dr. may be law determine”. Article 45 . Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Clearing House function 9. Article-21A Right to Education. 3. Describe the educational role of State Government. Ambedkar 2. Article 29 and 30 7. a. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 2002.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. a. Article 46 5. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. The Directive Principles of State Policy. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.3. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Development of Hindi Language 6. 1. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.
. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.
(2008). B. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Ghosh. (2004).
Bhatia. N.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. K and Narang C. (2007). L. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd.1. (2009). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society.
Dash. K. S. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
2 1.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.8 1.5 1. Jainism.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1.4.3. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.4. Islam.4.4.6 1.4. Students should be
.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4 Moral education 1.1 Why Moral Education 188.8.131.52. Christianity.7 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.4. Buddhism etc.184.108.40.206. religious education should be broad based.1 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION
The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. According to E. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. religious education and the concept of secularism.4.” Education broadens human outlook. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. In the complicated and complex society of today. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. enumerate the aims of religious education 4.4. you will be able to: 1.
1. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life.. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. Thus. India' can produce men of character. duty-consciousness. beauty and goodness so that
. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. state meaning and need for moral education 1. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). As result of which.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education.and dedication. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. know the position of religious education in our country 3. integrity. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong.D. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. "In A multireligious society like ours. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth.
3. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism.4. According to Article 19. realizes God in himself. it is clear that the State has no religion. religion and democracy are same.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. According to Article 22. 1947 we achieved our freedom. at least occasionally. As our country is a country of diverse religions. As a matter of fact. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. No religious tax can be imposed on them. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. castes and creeds. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. Children attend these organizations. rancour. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose.4. 1. Viewing the defects of religious education.” From the above. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs.3. through religious practices and
. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. In short. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. if not regularly. all citizens are free to follow any creed. Thus. Hence. They thought that any kind of narrow. 1.
Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. intellectual and physical faculties of children.. what is done and what is not done etc. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. It is religious education. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. which help him for the development of his character. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. He also learns about social. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. and what is evil. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way.
Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). It helps to modify habits attitudes. Good education. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people
. one fully developed. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. when he becomes an adult. which can mould. aggressive. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. If unreleased.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. for the development of the individual and the society. moral and spiritual values. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. temperament etc.teachings. As a result of which. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character.
The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. which is the basic need of a democratic life. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. This should not be allowed to happen. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. Therefore. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. If we open the pages of history. 1. 3.3. towards the society. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal.4. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. 2. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1.
they should be discussed in the right earnest. 11. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. fellow-feeling. therefore.5. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians
8. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. churches and mosques 7.4. Write Article 22
2. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. stories of moral greatness.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools?
1. Life histories of great persons of the world. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Since all religions have virtues. List out any two aims of religious education?
3. Gurudwara as. examples of patriotism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. For this. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. 10. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry
. 9. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school.
5. “Let all be happy and free from disease. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. 1. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. 8. 4. Non-injury. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. therefore. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Without moral values.4. 6.acquisitiveness). Cultivation of emotions. Aparigarha (Non. 2. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 3. 6. the methods of teaching. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. students. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Asvada (Control of palate). 5. Purity. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow.
. Satyam (truth). Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). It they learn what morality is in their early years. Patriotism.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. 7. in the home. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite.4. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Service to others. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. The content of the curriculum. Moral education. is that which develops moral values. 8. 3. 2. Swadeshi (Patriotism). let men see well of one another. Fearlessness.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 4. Self sacrifice. 7. They will play their role effectively. 1. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption.
Secondary Stage 1. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Integrity. minutes in the morning for group singing. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 .7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee.9. 3.4. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. 10. 11. Good manners. Unity of mankind. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Efficiency. 2.
. In the school programme. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). religions may be included in the syllabus. Asatyam (Non-thieving). Good temper. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Discipline. discipline. Sharivashram (Physical work). Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. 4. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. 1. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. National unity and Spiritual values. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. loyalty and self-sacrifice. 3. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited.
the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced.
. In this connection. 5. love of humanity. University Stage 1. should form a normal part of school programme. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education.4. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction?
6. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Silent meditation should be encouraged. patriotism and self-discipline. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . In other words. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 2. 3. 4. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 5. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage.
Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid
blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. a. b. the. Training of Character 3. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. In short. b. For this. minutes in the morning for group singing. 2. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1959 5.1. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. 1. Discuss the aims of Religious education. 2. Sri Prakasa 6 .8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. The School Assembly should be held for a few.
4. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times.4. 1. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. a. a.4. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also.
L. K. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. M. New Delhi :
Siddiqui. Publishing Corporation. Ltd.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008).
.4.P. N. (2004).
Bhatia. J.1. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2007). New Delhi: A.H. P. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2003).C. (2008). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.H. K and Narang C. B. Anmol Publications Pvt.
8 1.11 1.1 1.6 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.e. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5.3 1.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.LESSON 5
REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
STRUCTURE 1.4 220.127.116.11 1.5.7 1. disparities between provinces/States.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan. Although.18.104.22.168 1.9 1.5. i..12 1.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5.10 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. waters. 3. They therefore. they take appropriate measures.
. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. 6. 7.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF
Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. 8. 5. This leads to separatist movements.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. know the education suited to different environments. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication.5. for example. you will be able to: 1. 4.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. 2. understand the regional educational development in India 3. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.5. 1. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. work hard towards this end.5.
1. etc. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. Accordingly. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.5. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 1.1. energy.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. roads.
• Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. Tight security arrangements should be made. Secularism. 3. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. and.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region.
The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. 4.5. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. on the basis of regional development may be formed. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. Therefore. • Separate States (of course viable States). some average.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. while others remained educationally backward. some States became educationally far advanced.
. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. 2.
scholarships. approved proposals worth Rs. Even in each State.84 crore was released in 2005-06. etc. NERIST.5. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes.392. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. Out of this. Itanagar. the State Governments. Mizoram. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has.. books. academic buildings. while some States like Bihar.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. remained under developed. In the Central sector. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. Nagaland and NEHU. Funds amounting to Rs. Jammu and Kashmir.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. the Union Government. Rs. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects.g.480.14. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. 1. etc. since its inception in 1998-99. Tezpur. Silchar. and provision of informal education to enable those. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. NIT. Regional Centres of IGNOU. Central Universities of Assam.After the Planning Process has originated. However. library buildings. Guwahati. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. These projects are in various stages of implementation.
. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. After the attainment of independence.
Out of this an amount of Rs. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION
The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.05 crore and Rs. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west).In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Source: National Portal Content Management Team. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010
. A provision of Rs. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. Tezpur University. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.40.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. Government expenditure on education.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. too. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.501. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. Moreover.5. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.8 per cent in 05). During 2003-04.500. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.57 crore and Rs. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.187.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.261.
The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. To add to the woes.5. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. engineering and R&D.
Moreover. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. pharma. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). Karnataka.
Listing the positives.
1. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. Medical education. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. health services and welfare of the citizen population. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT.
The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. notes the study. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside.
Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. for instance. too. Andhra Pradesh. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. too. Kerala and Gujarat.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all
. Karnataka. too. English. Tamil Nadu. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. for which 16 sites. The Chandigarh Administration. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. telecom.
etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. the working days: an academic . Then education become realistic and idealistic. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. and so on. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. In the same manner. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Hence it is called as need-based. the curricular subjects. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. when he will not be sure of time. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. the teaching methods. while the former does not. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners.
. the socio-physical conditions. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. life-oriented and environment slanted. taking the average in the middle. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. the vocations. the needs. which a non-tribal person cannot do. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. For a learner living in a rural area. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. even actually looking at the watch. the interests. Of course. The living conditions. in which the learners live. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers.year. The working hours of educational institutions.
2.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What do you meant by regional imbalance?
. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.5. to suit education to different environments? 1. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region?
. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education?
3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. 1.5.
G. (2002). (2001). R.H. (2008). some States have become more developed than others b.
. some of areas which were under the native rulers.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. (2001). S. Education Scenario in India. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.5. Education in Developmental Arena. during the British rule. 60% 1. a. and Nair. New Delhi: Authors press. Dubey.2.N. Educational Development in India. Giridhar. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. C. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.K. A. S. Salim. remained undeveloped 3.
UNIT – II
characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. school community and mass media. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Of all the human factors in the school system. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. National Integration.
. semi literate and illiterates. community development. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept.
1.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.9 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.LESSON 2.1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.4 2.6.8 2.1.7 126.96.36.199 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.5.3 2.1.2 2.6 Education for Secularism 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 188.8.131.52 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.184.108.40.206.
socialistic and secular state. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. socialism and secularism 2. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.1. 3) Provision of Manual Work. colour or wealth.
. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.
2.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility.1. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. creed. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. Abraham Lincoln. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. The students may be associated with the management of the school. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. you will be able to: 1. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Democracy thus means power of the people. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. understand the concept of democracy. This is the political aspect of democracy. socialism and secularism 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. 5) Encouragement to Group Work.2. there should be made no distinction of caste.1. for the people by the people”. 2.
With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln?
3. it soon spread all over the world. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work.
2. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. debates.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression.1.
. may be planned..6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. declamation contest etc. Democracy means 2. 11) Student Parliament. There are different brands of socialism. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. 12) Visits to Legislatures. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum.
3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 2. free from exploitation.1. the wealthy and the poor.1. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 7) Special facilities for girls.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. service and cooperation. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. none high”. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 2) Socialism aims at equality. but on the path of non-violence.
2. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. Under it.
. the prince and the peasant. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.5.5. oppression and disparity.
” In every political and educational corner. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary.1. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. Everyone says. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children.
5. “India is a secular-country.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. secularism is being propagated. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.
. Write any two main features of socialism.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’.
2. 11) State schools. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. "which seeks the development of physical. According to Holydake.
people have narrow mindedness.
. A large number of people is uneducated. In this type of prevailing situations. should be independent of religion. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. fraternity. education etc. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. 5) It implies tolerance. “Webster further says. 2. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. Moral values have to be imbibed. That is why. There is need of making the people open minded. the belief that the state morals. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading.opposed to religious education. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. 8) It believes in co-existence. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life.6.1. During the recent past. 9) It stress free inquiry. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. liberty. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation.6. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights.1. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 3) It permits freedom of worship.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. 2) It permits freedom of religion. people started believing in regionalism.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. Equality.
Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. education. 2. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. There should be some internal checking of the material being. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. In the hands of such teachers.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING
In the schools. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Religious Education. In the celebration of each such function. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. No doubt. While doing so. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. 1) Moral Education. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. tours and trips may be organized.6. The very sight of the building. students belonging to different religions should be associated. it has then everlasting impact on their
.presented by the students in the gathering. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. Patiala. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.1. that the central string of all religions is one. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.7 LET US SUM UP
. Define Secularism
9. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The term secularism was first used by 8. No doubt. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions.
2. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook
10. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. The word “Seculum” means 7. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students.
This present age 7.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Socialism aims at social justice. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. Power of the people 2. Since socialism stands for equality. Provision of Manual Work. a. for the people and the people”. What are the implications of socialism on education
2. a. 4. Abraham Lincoln. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. there should be made no distinction of caste. 3. a.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. In the matter of admitting students in schools. d. 4. 6. c.9
ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. b.1. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Respect of Individual Personality. Socialism aims at equality. 5. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Tuition free education b. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. b. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. Equal Opportunities for Admission. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. The students may be associated with the management of the school. colour or wealth. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 3. George Jacob Holydake
2. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. creed. 5.1.
1. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. J. N. b. (2004).
. (2008). Theory and Principles of Education. Mohanty. education etc. J. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. P. b.
Bhatia. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. 10.” 9. a.C. (2007). should be independent of religion. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi :
Pahuja. K and Narang C. It treats all religions on an equal footing. B. It permits freedom of religion.8. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Dash. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. L. Ltd. K. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. a. N.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2003). the belief that the state morals.
1 2.2.2. knowledge and experience of one
.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 220.127.116.11
ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY
STRUCTURE 2.9 2.2.7 18.104.22.168.1 International understanding in the school 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.10 22.214.171.124.2.2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2.4 2.2 126.96.36.199 2.2.LESSON 188.8.131.52 2.
2. It involves physical. 2.generation to another. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. who are placed in his custody. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. social.an instructor of school children. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. social and moral aspects. emotional. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school.2. mental. A teacher is first and foremost. as learners. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. skills. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. as persons.2. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. as workers. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. and 4. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values.
. a r e 1. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. therefore. The developmental roles of children. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. as it is t he aim o f modern education. 2. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. 3. you will be able to: 1. moral. development. as citizens. understandings. aims and objectives of the school. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. application.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.
Teacher as a Parent
Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. a part of their day in
. 1. He has to look after their physical. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association
Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. morally. 2. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born.All education should lead to better behavioural development. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. 3. member of his community at the outset. inquisitive. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. mental. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. The students live. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. physically fit for socially efficient. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. and aesthetically to become. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. emotionally. culturally confident. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. The following are some of such roles described in brief.2. socially. motivated. economically effective. experiences and acceptance. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. 2. Teacher as a Citizen
Next. intellectually. mentally. social and emotional health. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. morally. He is to become an active member. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. teacher has to play the role of a citizen.
faiths. Dr. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. List out the role of teachers towards community development
. creeds. activities of the society into which he is born. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. photographic clubs. 4. and most of hours. It
. languages and religions.the school being under the custody of teachers. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural.2.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs
In addition to the above cited roles in the community. fine art associations. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. India is a land of many castes.
2. Unless. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. science club. solve them. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. They will be spending with their parents.
therefore. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. national anthem and other national songs.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. ‘We should not become parochial. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer.” Regarding the role of education.” 2. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. Nehruji has explained this as. a. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. Let us. Sampurnanand remarked.5. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of
. The only process is the process of education. It should broaden the outlook. with straight backs and look up at the skies.2. social studies. this integration of the Indian people. c. and make into one strong national unit. stand up straight. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. the citizens of the Republic of India. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. b. the study of language and literature. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. poems. folklore and teaching of social studies.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. should be emphasised. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. Radhakrishnan.is. narrow-minded provincial. 1. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. At the primary stage the importance of stories.
Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Taking Pledge. Scouts and Guides. Uniform for School Children. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. 6. Celebrations of National Days. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. languages and literature.
. dramatics and youth festivals. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. sports.different social sciences. Student Camps. Co-Curricular Activities. militar y training like the NCC. symposia. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. t he st udent s and t he community. educational excursions. Singing of National Anthem. 10. and picnics. 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. 3. 8. Reverence of National Flag. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. 2. 4. National Days—January 26. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. tours. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. debates. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. 9. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Textbooks. ACC. 7. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies.
t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. v. Students Exchange and Tours. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Admissions to schools. flora and fauna. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India.2. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. region or religion. 16. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged.5. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING
Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Open-Air Dramas. Admissions. iv. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. language.11. ways of thinking and doing things. 14. School Projects. 12. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. 2. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. colour. iii. 13. Educational and Travel Documentaries. Recognition of Institutions. ii. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4.
viii. irrespective of national boundaries. 2. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just
. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. cultures and races on equal bases.
All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL
International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee?
5. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students?
. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define National Integration
3. Community dinners. camps. ix.vi. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities.2. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. vii. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’.
friendships between children of different countries.6. of his body and mind.as important as that of a national citizenship. (c) fairly tales.. Dr.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism.” 2. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. Teachers
. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. In a very real sense. Strong has observed. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .F.2. 5.6.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. the international level. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. Radhakrishnan states. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. if it happens. This. patriotism is not enough. often in connection with anniversaries. therefore. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. Therefore. 2. and the healthy development. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. (b) stories of children of other lands. 3. Organising of debates and. that war. 4. 2. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.2. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. 6.e. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. C.
While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Impartial in their Treatment. a German. Indian and American. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding
7. Russian. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students
. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. an Englishman. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. They should not be propagandists. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. which results in agitation and aggression language. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies.2.2. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. 2. It does not prepare students for life. understand and indiscipline: 1.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. there is wide spread frustration among all people. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than
. Wide Spread Frustration .Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom.Another major. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. Defects of the educational System . A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.
Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. majority of people are.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. Devaluation of Values . factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. leading to. the education function can be carried. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. As the school is but a miniature society. 4. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. and help the students to over . Chronic Poverty . 3. If this is done. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. 5.
Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. co-operation. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2.2. love. 4. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. List out the factors causing social tension in schools
.2.democratic nature. 5. fellow feeling. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. community development. sympathy and good will among the nations. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding.
2. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination.
. 2. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 184.108.40.206 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 220.127.116.11 Functions and role of schools in the society 18.104.22.168 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 22.214.171.124 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 126.96.36.199 Radio as an agency of education 188.8.131.52 Television as an agency of education 184.108.40.206 Press as a medium of education 220.127.116.11 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
18.104.22.168 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 22.214.171.124 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
126.96.36.199 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
188.8.131.52 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. art galleries. During the course of time. citizens and school leaders must co-operate.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Emphasising this thing. are increasingly used in education. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. Now internet is being used. periodicals. In fact. Define community. He taught his students orally.3. books. “All the citizens of the community.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. led to the printing of books. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the
. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. To make them achieve their aim. Museums. Hence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher.
2. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Crow and Crow write. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
3. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. Moreover. Then came newspapers. the invention of the printing press.V. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children.
Important happening inventions. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom.3. A lot of work by way of pre. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. In collaboration with the experts. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. 2. Students listen various talks. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. 2.classroom teachers. Effective means of presenting music. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. dram appreciation. It enlightens public opinion.6. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. Various talks. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. It is also an important source of entertainment. social studies. the teacher still occupies.
. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching.G. current affairs and other areas. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. politics. the place of importance. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. Thus. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. “Listening participation” in current history. for the teacher through school broadcasts. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”.telecast. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Thus. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. Reynolds. In the emphasis is on sound. rather than on picture. languages. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. music. art. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1.
It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. travel talks. development of lessons. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. Making learning an open system. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. speech. 3. mathematics. Team-teaching demonstrations. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. 5. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. at any place. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. Participation of local teachers and pupils. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. Before presenting the programme. fol classical music. plays. at recreational centers. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. at play. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. style. 4. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. projects or creative activities. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. informal and non-formal education.
. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. audibility and presentability. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. At present. School concerts. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. at drawing room. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 184.108.40.206 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
220.127.116.11 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 18.104.22.168 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
3.3.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.2 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.4.5 2.7 2.1 2.4 Limitations of formal education 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.4.3.LESSON 2.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4
FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 188.8.131.52.2 Levels of formal education system 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 184.108.40.206 2.8 2.4 Non formal educational system 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 220.127.116.11.4.3 Advantages of formal education 18.104.22.168.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.
society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. 2. compare formal and non formal system of education. School is. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. In ancient time in India. the temple. starting and ending at -a particular age. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 4. his mental alertness. the community. 2. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. 2.4. 8. 6. 2. the learner are acquainted. 7. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. Education associated with a degree or certificate. open school. say the Government or the private enterprise.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. open university. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. the family. 3. 2.. the mass media et.4. you will be able to: 1. the most important agency of formal education. imparted at the residence of the teacher. Education organised by some agency. To realize this objective of education. 4.4. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. Education.
.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. it was mostly. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner.2. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system.4.3. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. 9.
3. depending on the jurisdiction. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. the elements of language are first learned. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal.
2. such as a high school or secondary school.a secondary education. or academic degrees. structured education. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling.2. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Concepts of proportion. as well as vocational education and training. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. also called tertiary.4. Higher Education: Higher education. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . Some education systems have separate middle schools. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. In general. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education.4. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education.3. or post secondary education. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. diplomas. capacity. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate
. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Through early formal education. third stage.
2.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. and remote dwellers. Write any two characteristics of formal education?
3.4. Agencies can be classified as 2. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. that is intended to serve identifiable
.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.which will help for nation's development. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.
2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit &
1.3. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. late beginners etc. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. children with disabilities.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. 4. What are levels of formal educational system?
is an important agency of formal education.
work and the opportunity to put learning to use. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. it is a more effective tool for rural development. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. adults as well as children. staffed.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured.formal education. planned. Thus. It is functional. systematic. until 1970 it had not been defined. one could say that non-formal education is an active.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. Therefore. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. According to Malcolm A. It is deliberate. It unlocks the doors of development plans. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief.learning client take some learning objectives. It is much more responsive to needs and change. However. place of instruction. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. it has its own valid claim to reality.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. Open university. admissions.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn.e. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. i. Adiseshiah. curriculum. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. adding up to a true learning society.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. to help themselves. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. systematic.. financially supported life formal education. continuing education and on the job oriented education. open learning. etc. Non-formal education includes adult education. “Non-formal education should
"Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. i. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. To develop in the student.S.renewal. age. curriculum. self. co-curricular activities. 5. the Ideas of citizenship. national integration. 2. socialism.learning pattern.
• • •
To help the student to acquire languages skills. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them.
The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.” 2. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. 7.4. 4.
• • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.
To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. Flexibility in various aspects of education. Covering life span of an individual. It should lay emphasis on the self.S.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 2. international understanding. admissions. 3.e. Lawrence. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. 6.4. place of education. Process of sharing.4. Preparation for future needs. evaluation etc.4. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields.
. modes of teaching. Part-time education. To help industrial workers to better their skills. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. exploring.be marketable and vocationalised. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.” According to H.
Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. 7.4. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. in villages and those who live in towns. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. 5. 10. 2. school dropouts.4.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. working adults. •
2. To offer Secondary. publication and information dissemination. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. Eradication of adult literacy. Universalisation of primary education. 4. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives.
. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 5. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. Technical. Meeting the omissions of formal education.4. Senior Secondary. 3. 8.4. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. 2. 9. 3. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. 6. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. 4. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live.
To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. 2. etc. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies.2. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. effective in modern societal context. self-employment iii. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. Again. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college .4. Radio and television. others are formal and informal. 2. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. training centres in factories. public libraries. To make if. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes
. centres of correspondence education. etc. To better qualifications.4.full time to learners – can be home. factory. To increase knowledge and 2. All-round development i. Institutions for formal education. if organised in isolation. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.4. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. open space. farm.. Therefore. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. library. 4. 3. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education.
radio. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
. Essay Assignments and short answer questions.
Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give examples of non formal education?
. List out any two aims of non formal education. Face Contact programmes.
. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Lecturing T. 6. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. institution. Teaching to face teaching.6 7
Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Define non formal education.
. Correspondence lesson. Written tests. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 7.
Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Pre-school level.4. Primary level. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Secondary level.” 6. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. the college and the university come under this category. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.
2. Formal and Non Formal 2. systematic. b. Open University. School 3.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. a. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. a. 4. 4.
7. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.2.
b. Higher Secondary level and University level.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The school. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. 3.
. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Open School. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 5. 2.4.
2. adults as well as children.4.
Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. J. Education in Emerging India. (2008). N. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi :
. (2003). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K and Narang C. Pahuja. B. Ltd. Ltd.2. K.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Gupta. Mohanty. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.C. Theory and Principles of Education. (2005).4. L. (2004). J. Dash. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. S. Bhatia. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2007). P. (2008). Anmol Publications Pvt.
5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.3.4 Agencies of continuing education 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.4 Need for Open University 2.LESSON 2.5.5
CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
STRUCTURE 188.8.131.52.5.7 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 184.108.40.206.5.5.4 Open University 220.127.116.11 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.5.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.2 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.3 Objectives of Open University 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 18.104.22.168.5 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 22.214.171.124 2.5.6 2.
1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. know the need and objectives of open university. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. you will be able to: 1. Under these circumstances. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not
. 2. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same.5. Thus.5.5.3. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. farmers. However. continuing education is a boon. For them. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. Any person.
2. It is a lifelong process. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. This knowledge may be in political field. industries. characteristics of open university 4. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. labourers and half educated individuals. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. 2. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture.2. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.5. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon.3
In India. economic field or such other fields. give the meaning. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. It is a continuous process.
2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI
As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. After the achievement of independence. For them too continuing education is essential.V. 2. deteriorating to his character and personality. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. cultured and progressive. are also contributing their might for the purpose. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. On the other hand.V. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans.3. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Cinema. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. Block Development Officers. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Persons engaged in health services. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Thus. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi.directly related to his job. Radio. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Doctors. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. T. The objectives of National Literacy Mission
. Throughout the country. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. if he gets opportunity to develop them. On the other hand.5.literate person. Radio and T. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas.
(13) psychology of child behaviour. (16) liking. Inspite of the great efforts. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. 6.3.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (1) ancient history. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. 7. (7) folk songs. 4. 2. (9) fundamentals of philosophy.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (6) folk stories. These books are not very useful. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation.5. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities.3.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (8) psychology of adults. (17) modern international and national events.
. (15) music.5. especially women. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (10) first aid. (2) basic religious matters. we have not been able to achieve our targets. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. 3. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements.V. (14) information about bringing up young children. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons.. Of course. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. and Radio. 5. (4) the fundamentals of economics. habits of people of other lands. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. 2. 2.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.
2.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. lack of time etc. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left
.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. attendance restrict ion.5.4. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate?
2. NLM was launched in the year 2. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. of educational opportunities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M
Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. What is the objectives of NLM?
3. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.
5. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. Mention any two characteristics of Open University?
. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. and in teaching. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. c.unobserved. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning.4.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 4. 2. 3. d. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. Which was the first open university in India? . e. the higher the degree of openness.
An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. b. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. its education is not class room based but home based. IGNOU was established in the year 6. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. Education is not a once for-all process. but
.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. No one is too old or too late to learn. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. it makes use of educational techno logy. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.
4. 2. 6. 2. supplementing the existing provision. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people.
. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. cho ice o f co ur ses. 3. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. Mo re o ver. 4. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. 2. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. it a ims at wider and hig her. 2. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 3. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment.5. 5. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes.who did not get it. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n.4. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. or who realised too late that they need it. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n.5. 4.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books.
The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. 8. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. school drop outs. Tutor Comments.
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. semi – literates. List out any four methods of Open University? .
2. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 3.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 4. 8. Self instructional materials. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. Correspondence tuition. a society. 6.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. a state or nation. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University.5. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
7. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will.2.
1. In the present day world. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Laboratory works.
B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 7. 5. Every day. Therefore.4. 2. you have learnt the concept.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist any two objectives of Open University?
it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. 7. need and characteristics of Open University. Write about the philosophy of Open University
2. 3. its education is not class room based but home based.5. 6. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. b. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. b. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5.
. 8.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Television Lessons. 2. 1985. Explain the objectives. (4) the fundamentals of economics. aspirants for continuing education. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. d. agricultural and industrial workers. a. a. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes.ambitious learners.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. 7. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (1) ancient history. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening.
2. (2) basic religious matters. cho ic e o f co u r ses. 1988. P r int med ia b. a. 9. which may include house wives.5. 4. unskilled workers and other professionals. Broad casting lectures c.
Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. L. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. R.S. (2004). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Udaiveer. Ltd. Reddy. K and Narang C..5. K.2. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2001). (2004). (2007). S. Recent trends in Non Formal Education.
. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Modern Problems of Education.K.
UNIT – III
pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. which may claim the attention of those concerned. In Lesson 2. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. the education of women. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. and teacher education. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. wastage and stagnation. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. its causes and remedial measures.
. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. Training teachers for all levels of education. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. examination. All which is the need of the hour. Examination reform.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen.
STRUCTURE 3.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3.7 3.1.1 EFA – For whom? 126.96.36.199.1.1 3.4 3.1.LESSON 3.5 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.2 EFA – How? 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.
. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.188.8.131.52 3.3 New initiatives.3.8 3.1.2 3.1.
so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. Therefore. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. Continuing Education (CE) 1. understands the country. you will be able to: 1. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. (EOI) 2. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Eradication of Illiteracy.
3.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. directed that. education received added importance and significance.1. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. “The State shall
. 2. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. may be political.1.3. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. therefore. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. social. On the other hand. economic or cultural. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3.
” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Continuing Education (CE). it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. Therefore. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. the national Government under. Universalization of Enrolment. Due to the adoption of democratic system. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties.
. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Three Stages for Universalization. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Universalization of Retention. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. It enables the parents to send their children to School. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . rights and responsibilities. 3. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment.endeavour to provide. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. After the attainment of independence.
educational enterprise. 1995 (for upper primary stage). for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. This target had to be revised to 1970.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. Write Article 45.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
3. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. then to 1976. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. later to 1988. 1990. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It is safe to assure. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education?
2. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. Therefore. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing.
. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target.3. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development.1. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. UNESCO Bulletin states. present and future. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India.
This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Jams and Jellies. their social economic status and occupations.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. By undertaking survey. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. adolescent and adult. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. The Social Education. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL).1. slum areas. 12. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. 6. sex. creed. Education of the Impaired. 8. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. Disabled. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre.3. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). Early childhood education should be streamlined. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Apart from primary education. 3. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. and Women’s education programme should be improved. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Emphasis must be given on health education. 9. 10. rural areas. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. In order to make the programme of education for all community. NAEP.
. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Education of Girls. problem of literacy. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. 5. 3. nutrition education and sports and games. their enrolment and retention. etc.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. 11. FELF. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them.
SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA?
4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Expand MLL and SSA
. Wastage and Stagnation. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. 4.
3.e.3. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES
W AS TAG E
The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. If any child drops out from the school before completing the
. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.3 NEW INITIATIVES.1. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.
The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school
poor standard of institutions
higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Social Factors . Familial Factors .
(a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas
1.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.
Personal Factors . School Factors . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. it is considered as wastage.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness
.first stage of education.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage :
unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools
parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home
over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and
excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.The personal factors responsible for wastage are
Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties
Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments
lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education
. Enumerate the causes of Wastage.
. Define Wastage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation?
. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
They are described hereunder :1. School Factors . Family Factors .The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation
.The following factors.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. Societal Factors . relating to home. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. in his home. school or society. Personal Factors .5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES
Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.1. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.3. rural or urban 3.
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. etc. Define Stagnation?
9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. uniforms. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation?
. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. stationary. mid-day meals.
4. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA.1.1. directed that. improvement of curriculum.3. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA.1. a.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Universalization of Provision b.
3. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Minimum Levels of Learning b. 3. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. 2. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Universalization of Enrolment c. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. 4.. Universalization of Retention 2. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. a. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. therefore. Hartog Committee. “The State shall endeavour to provide. b. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. 3.” 3.
. a. 6.
Crescent Publishing Corporation. School Factors d. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. b. a. 3. Familial Factors c.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S. Hemchand. (2007). improve examination system. S. New Delhi:
. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.N. T. introduce graded curriculum.1. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Personal Factor b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers.K. (2001). Sharma. a. 9. Problems of Elementary Education.K.7. (2008). Social Factors
184.108.40.206 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.1 220.127.116.11.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 18.104.22.168.7 Open book examination 22.214.171.124.2.2
STRUCTURE 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2 Grade System 3.5.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.7 Let us sum up
.126.96.36.199.4.4.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2.5 New evaluation procedures 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2.LESSON 3.1 Problems of examination 3.2.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2.4 Question banks 188.8.131.52.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2 184.108.40.206.
3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION
One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION
There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. 3. 3. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. 4. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.
3.3. you will be able to: 1. but on the other. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. suggest the new evaluation procedures. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. managing of co-educational schools is 148
. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. Besides. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.2. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.2.9 3.8 3. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.2.2.10
Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3.2.3. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. 3.2.
other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools.
3. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. etc.. waiting rooms for girl students. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. If the students are in sufficient number.2. hostel facilities. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. The following steps should be taken up. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes.
4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated
5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. They develop secondary sex characteristics. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. etc.
3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. schools for them wherever necessary. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. which the educational authorities have to face.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.
. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. They may cause problems relating to discipline. etc. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education.3. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. roadside Romeoism.
so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.2. Instruction.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. public interested in education. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two advantages of Co-education?
3. 3. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. the examination system has an important role to play. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. With the mass growth of educational enterprise.2. public administrators and statesmen. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. appointment of paper-setters. conduct of internal examinations. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. teachers.
. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is considered as a major sub-system. assessment and Finance.
etc. tabulators. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation.4. scrutinizers. invigilators. etc. etc. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning.printing and distribution of question papers. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. training of examiners. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. etc.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. validity and practicability. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. introducing objective-based testing. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. 3. establishing reliability.2. announcement of results. examiners. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different
. values. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. etc.
which they are expected to study. it s a common experience that subjectivity. may also discredit them. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. Subjects. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education..ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education.
3. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. 2) From the angle of content of education. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. Vagaries in making. stereotyped questions.4. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. halo-effect. lack of objectivity etc. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. takes the place of comprehensive learning. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education.. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. Rote memorisation. 3) With respect to method of teaching.2. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. do not appeal to the students and parents. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed.
. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. 7) In connection with the question papers.. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public.
What are the major areas of problems of examination?
3. revaluation. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. re-numbering of answer scripts. Spot valuation. may be introduced.a part of internal assessment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . List any two merits of examination. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions.. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately.
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.develop true love for education. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. etc. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. 4.
. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination.
Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. Their interests. In this system. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. he is given extra credit points.2. The new scheme of assessment. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . Which has 2 credits is like a half paper.3.2. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features:
3. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. In actual practice.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success.5. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Every paper is treated equal.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. skills are given importance. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the
. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. attitudes. When a person chooses to work extra.
Practical limitations are there. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. The students can take any course offered in any department. It is complicated. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.2.
More autonomy is given to students.5. 3.
or as a 4 credit course. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. only the total credits to be earned is specified. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D
Avoids or less comparison. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. While designing syllabus. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. v. Groupism is encouraged. The one shot written examination is not an effective
. This system reduces comparison of marks. In the new system. An example is a seminar.2. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. These weightages are called credits. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal.
Less understanding by the parents.good. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. courses can have weightages defined. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. 3. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course.poor. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester.5. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v.discipline. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. poor.
Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.2. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.2.2.5. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. 3.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.
. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. 3. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.5.
3.5. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. However.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.
and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.3.2. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Therefore.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and
• • • • • •
. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. There are no proper procedures for selection. 6.2. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships.
. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. recruitment. In the hierarchy. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. What is the reason for introducing grade system?
. However. List any four new evaluation procedures.
of late. etc. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. library books. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision.
. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect.2. 1.• • •
• • •
administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. complaints and compliments. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. playgrounds. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. finding out the adequacy of.6. etc. interpersonal relationships and so on. submitting of the inspection reports. inspecting the class-room teaching. qualifications. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. whether the syllabus has been covered. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. wherever necessary. They are.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. laboratory equipment. taking up the follow-up programmes. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools.. Academic inspection. disciplinary problems. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. in contrast.qualified personnel. in a sense. finding out whether the prescribed text. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance.. books are followed. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. school buildings. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. When they are fully realised. staff. There has been dearth of properly trained and well.
3. requirements. being realised as two different functions. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools.
attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought.. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. course in either educational.. modern. or. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. In the case of departmental candidates. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. M. their professional knowledge. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. aptitude.2. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. once in five years. In the light of these conceptualisation.
. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. at least.Ed. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. Similarly. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments.Ed. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. courses. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. Insistence on specialisation in the B. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. 3.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them.
2. 5. 3. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. c. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
7. 3. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. 2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
3. Instruction.2. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. a.
It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. d. assessment and Finance.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. a. b. b. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Grade System. a. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. Administration.
(2004). Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. c. S. New
. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Educational Reforms. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. a. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .a part of internal assessment. (2002). b.2. Problems of Education in India. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. 7. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. History and Problems of Education in India. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.
Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Vaidya.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. b. a. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. (2005).
3. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. Multiple sets of question paper. b. R and Sharma.4. Open book examinations. K. a. Question banks. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. K.
.3. 5.8 3.5 3.6 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3.3
HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 3. 220.127.116.11 3.3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.4 3. 4. identify the needs of rural India and social.3.3 3.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.7 3. you will be able to: 1.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.10 18.104.22.168 3.3. 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. 3.9 3.LESSON 3.3.
Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. 2. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. in Andhra Pradesh. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . 10 years of general Secondary Education. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. i.3. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States.3. University Education.e. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. The Calcutta Madras. The. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education.. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. and 3 years of First Degree Course. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Consequent on the recommendations. e. Similar is the case with some other States. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre.. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. Commission emphasised to continue.. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education..g.specialisation programmes 3. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively
. etc. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. the Banaras Sanskrit College.e. 8 years of general education.
3.a sense of dignity of labour. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. to imbibe. cultural and economic development of the country. Genera l Objectives are
1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. habits of hard work and develop .4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 10. general rise
in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. historical. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. However. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9.
3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students.3.confidence in students. educational channels. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . 5. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes
. who desire to change from one stream to another.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. 5) to help for the social. 6. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. 7. economical and political. and. to prepare. 8. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to
Higher Education. is also a plus point . Provision for transfer of credits to students. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. b. social.
The General Educational Spectrum. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of
. Psychologically. cooperativeness. at the other. on one hand. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Sociologically it is undesirable. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. and that required to enter the tertiary level.3. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. to develop national character.national integration. Philosophically it is not the conception. 1. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. etc. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. social justice. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. democratic living. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. international understanding. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. 3.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. cultural and' religious tolerance.. and. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities.
Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. the rural areas have suffered very much. medical plants. such as Agriculture. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. horticulture. professional. commerce.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. Commerce and other disciplines.— tube-wells. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. industrial agricultural production is growing. educational and cultural services. or other machinery. In our country. Biology. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training.3. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. In the matter of language. vegetable growing. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. technical. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. In the vocational spectrum. Science. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. rural health. technological.
. Agriculture is the main occupation. and vocations based on dairy-farming. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. commerce. India is a land of villages. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. 3. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. chemistry. 2. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. fish culture. All these need for an. physics or mathematics. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas.
the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. interests and aptitudes of the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this it may be concluded. 4. can be ensured. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised.. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage?
. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2.etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1.. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . social justice. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. 3. etc. the local resources available. In this way. In time. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. There had been favourable reaction from the students. and the needs. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education.3. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education?
New Delhi :
.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3. Modern Trends in Indian Education. to imbibe. 3. b. 3.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Mohanty. 2. (2008). to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. Vocational Sepctrum. habits of hard work and develop . (2005). N. 3.3. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. we studied the history.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ltd.a sense of dignity of labour. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage?
3. Calcutta University Commission 2. (2001). b. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. a. a. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.K.C. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. J. a. J. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. S. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. 3. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.3. B.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1.3. (2007). objectives. Dash.3. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. General Educational Spectrum and b.
Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4.13 3.4.LESSON 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 22.214.171.124 3.2 3. Education contributes to human development.4.1 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3. social and
“Education is not the filling of a trail.126.96.36.199.9 188.8.131.52.6 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.4. but the lighting of a fire”.4.10 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.12 3.7 184.108.40.206 3.4.8 3.4
STRUCTURE 3.11 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. 3. During the year 1937. cultural and political development of the individual.4. family. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. you will be able to: 1. economic. Nursing. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. In the post —independence period. 3. While women constituted only 9. Dr. particularly
. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .4.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. higher education of girls developed immensely. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. The relevance of women’s education to social. analyze the women and distance education. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. Education . can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. Home Economics. These courses were. Teaching and Fine Arts.higher education in particular. For the first time in the history of India. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. There is a close connection between education and development. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. community and nation is universally acknowledged. although we have miles to go.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence.
2 29. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. out of 9200 and odd colleges.0 32. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Mother Teresa Women University. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than
.9 27. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.4. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. in our country.
ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS
In the post Independence period.4.0 43. Coimbatore. In 1950-51.N.2 22.T Women University. Mumbai.1 24.65 lakhs in 1994-95.D. levels and professions.4. Yet.1 31. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. we have more than 1200 institutions. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. The idea of women’s education for equality.0 16. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.women. Kodaikanal. 3.9 14. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. In the rest of the country.0
Today. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Even today.
The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.4.36
3.that of boys. 3. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India?
3. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education?
.44 35.4%) prefer Arts subjects. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.73 10.34 33.66 66.27 89.63 Female % 34.53 34. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1.54 12.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.46 82.83 47.1 respectively.47 65. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. Which was the first Women’s University in our country?
.56 64. 2.17 52.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that
. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.1 and 14.4.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. 3. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage.4. promoted and increased. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. Book banks should be established. etc. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. particularly. what is the need for higher education for her. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. she will only learn fashion. Thus. irrelevance of the content of education. curriculum not suited to their requirements. According to a survey. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. marriage is a very common I factor.
. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. In every third family. The major hurdles. They gave up their studies to enter home life. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. financial difficulty of the parents. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. and coeducation may spoil her character. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. Also. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. In college. distance of the college or university from home.hinders the girls from getting higher education.
Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.4. Full-time employment. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment.
Distance education is a boon to women. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women.4.economic disabilities faced by women. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. 3. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Empowerment in a nutshell. Geographic distance of educational institutions. is the only tool for realising empowerment.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. It is a productive investment. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Education. resources and socio . Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. which is the most dynamic factor of development. It enables to study. There are constraints of time. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. and the limitations of the conventional education system. It also brings about
. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. space.
conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. legal awareness and economic independence. higher learning. The major objectives of women's higher education. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. education of women is of paramount importance. Women are partners in development.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. This can be achieved through reflection. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. on their own. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media
. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education
system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies:
Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. 3. for full development of our human resources. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. education of women must be given priority in national plans. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. Empowerment is an active.4. empowerment means being assertive.
Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. who are eager to take up courses.
. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. But their number is small. Reservation for women. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. has to be implemented at the earliest. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men.
3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. The educational institutions. 3. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. will encourage them to venture new grounds.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. The local administration.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. especially so in the developing countries. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .4. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. which had been the sole domain of men. which is pending for a long time. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Better opportunities. Scholarships and concessions for women.
According to Lindy Hyam.3 percent. IDP Education.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace
. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.1%) and architecture and building (38. Australia.. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. engineering and related technologies (16. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. Chief Executive. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.9%). it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education.000 women in the country.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. But.8%). participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. capacities etc. especially in developing countries like African countries. Also. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2.4. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. talents. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education?
Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Coimbatore. Pattanaikj. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Mumbai. SNDT Women’s University. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. R. R. Women Education. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. 2.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Women and Education. Kodaikanal.
3. Mumbai. 43% 6. A. R. and Suryalatha. Mother Teresa Women University. Centre for Women’s Studies. 4. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women.to the family. 4. Annakodi.4. individuals and society b. and Swain.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. (2005). impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life
3. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication.4. Women Education. (2007). SNDT Women’s University.K. (2000). 3.R. A. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.4.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Mishra. Coimbatore. (2008).
. a. community and the nation. Rao. Rajasthan 5. create the right attitude towards life. 3. S. S.C.
4 3.1 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. They should be trained. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3.5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. whole.5
STRUCTURE 3.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.6 3.5.2 220.127.116.11.5.7 3.9 3.personality of children in and out of school.10 18.104.22.168.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching. so as to enable them to acquire
.LESSON 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.5 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.3 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5.11 3.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.8 3.
Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Shorter working hours. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. 4.5. 5. international. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. and national character. you will be able to: 1. 3. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. equality and justice. national consciousness. Dearth of new technology of teaching. social and emotional integration.5.
.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. 3. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. understand the training teachers for Primary. know the pre service and in service training facilities. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. Lack of physical facilities. understanding and strong desire for international peace.
inservice and extension education programmes. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise.Ed.. Inadequate training in practical skills. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. levels. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. the secondary teacher education. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Lop-sided curriculum. (NCERT) New Delhi. a Diploma course and a Degree course. the state Government. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching.
3. it is called the In-service teacher education.Less qualified teacher educators. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . who have not been trained earlier. higher secondary teacher education. Depending on the levels. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and
. the centre.Ed. etc. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. At the diploma level.5. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. and the collegiate teacher education. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. 3. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. If the student teachers are working teachers. students.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities.. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. and M. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. the primary teacher education.5.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. it is called the Extension teacher Education. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Evaluation unit. state Institutes of Educat ion. extensio n service.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. non-formal. etc. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. Expand NCERT 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. collegiate cells. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs .6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY.5. Science Education units. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate
. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers
The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . depart ments etc. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Education cells. Also Guidance Bureaux. Educational teehnology cells. are established. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Write any two problems of Teacher Education?
Ed. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . Training of Secondary School Teachers
The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas.•
• • • • (B)
manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . despite its vast expansion. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . which help breaking isolation from one another . to prescribe conditions for recognition. which should include experience in the primary schools too..
The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. to ensure teacher competence. schools and sister institutions.Ed. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. to improve curricular programmes. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. degree.. and so on. and
. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life.
Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and .. primary and secondary school teachers. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. material conditions relating to libraries. The following defects are note-worthy
• • •
it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . audio visual aids. laboratories. to offer consultative services. should be improved on a top priority basis. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department.
it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. Organisation of Content Courses. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. whether they should have professional education or. Modern Methods of Evaluation. Hence. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Psychology of Students.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. etc. Workshops. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers
As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. The problem. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. methodology and evaluation. etc. Induction Courses. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. Modern Techniques of Teaching. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen.
. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission.secondary education. though no pre-service training. and XII. not came up once again. Agriculture. Meanwhile. To meet this exigency.
Ed.’s are elig ible for M. Point out two defects in primary teacher training
. State Councils of Educational Research and Training..
3.A.. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. courses and M. For re-orienting the teachers.. State Institutes of Education. training.Ed. in Education. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. Courses leading to B. (Education) and M.Ed. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.A. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.D.Ed. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.. Ajmer. (Education) are organized by
. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.. These facilities are available for regular students. All B Ed. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. Degree and M. Pre-service training is for those. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore..Ed.. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. Degree. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
3.Ed. Post-Graduates also undergo B.5. M.S. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.’s for Ph. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.
Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. However. (Ed). and B. established by tradition and teachers of the past. . 3. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and .
. (Ed.A. 5. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively.. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .). 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. they should be conscientious .5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.A. 6. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.List any two code of conduct for teachers?
. What is the role of ERIC?
. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.. Hence the employability of M.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. of conduct—written or unwritten.
they should be conscientious. Dearth of new technology of teaching. a. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time.
3.9 LET US SUM UP
The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 3. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. 4.3. 5. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Explain code of conduct for teachers. 2. Ajmer. 2. However. Bhopal.5. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a.
4. National Council of Educational Research and Training.
3. a. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. The necessity is however this.
3.5. b.5. b. Discuss the problems of teacher education. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Shorter working hours.
6. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.
Publication Pvt.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. and Teacher Education. Ltd Aggarwal. Tewari. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing
.5.D. (2009). A.3. B. P. Teacher Education. Mohanty. J. (2010). Corporation. (2003).N. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Teacher Education.
UNIT – IV
. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. economic and educational developments. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. nutritional deficiency diseases. The person’s environment is equally important. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. If the diet is poor. common ailments of children. In lesson 1. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. objectives. Since food is the source of nutrients. preservation of nutrients. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. communicable diseases and their prevention. objectives and role of the physical education. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. In lesson 4. the focus is on the school health programmes. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. our attention shifts to physical education – its need.
The programmes of school health education are quite important.7 4.6 4.11 4.10 4. It is a miniature society.e.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.2 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1 4.LESSON 4.9 4. emotional and social. physical.1.1
SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES
STRUCTURE 4.1.1. mental.1.8 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.
.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1.1.5 4.1.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.3 22.214.171.124 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
training of teachers and evaluation. To develop certain skills concerning health. 6. To give information regarding health rules. you will be able to: 1.g. 4. cleanliness and healthful living.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student.1. 4. understand school health programmes 2. explain the importance of First aid 5. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. list the common ailments of children 3. 7. 4. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. 5.. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 11.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. 8. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. Instruction. content of health education. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. 9. to his family and to the community at large. e.
. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. know the need for sex education. training in first aid and etc. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. To develop healthy health habits among children. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2.1. 10. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community.
excusing late. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. (ii) communit y healt h. Triple Antigen Vaccination. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. minimizing the travelling distance. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. Vaccination for small pox. The surroundings of schools should be clean. There should be regular water supply. Arranging better transportation facilities. inoculation against cholera. “Play-for-all” programmes. B. There should be good drainage facilities. play festivals. proper doors and windows.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. direct lighting. The flooring should not be damp. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. suitable furniture.1. (v) safety education. The school buildings should be spacious.. First aid facilities should be made readily available. (vi) nutrition education.coming or absence. (viii) first aid. cleanliness weeks. typhoid. 2. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. ( iii) sanit at io n. B. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. 4. (xl) mental health. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. 5. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to
. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. 2. (xii) smoking education etc.C. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes..G. as described below 1. organisation of school health days.4. 3. is imperative. etc. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. vaccination.
• Compel vaccination and immunization programmes.
C. • Take nutritious food. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. • Close the schools. etc. • Find out the cases. drowning. scalds. fractures. fainting (epileptic fit). alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. burns. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. bleeding. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. if epidemic is wide-spread. • When sleeping in groups. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. sports and games in the interest of their health. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious.. • Have adequate rest and sleep. and other accidents.•
afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. wounds.
. dislocations. • Keep all rooms clean. D. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. poisons. cuts. isolate and notify. insect stings.
water or bodily contact.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. pain in the joints.
2. Once these germs get into the body. List out the Health curriculum
3. Mention the school health programmes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. There are three stages in any communicable disease. So they easily get illnesses. fever. measles etc. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage.1.
4. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. asthma.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. tuberculosis. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. backache. headache. They are: i) The incubation stage.. chicken pox. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people.1. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. polio. cough. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. These diseases are called communicable diseases. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. which are – cold.
4. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and
Throat is affected. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Important salts and water are lost in this process. head-ache and cough.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Hence liquid diet is recommended. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Children catch cold from persons having cold.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air.•
start affecting the body systems. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort.It is caused by measles virus. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Others make the children very weak. sugar and water. Ear Infections . Tonsilitis . Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately.
. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting.When a child suffers from scabies. The symptoms include cold. unhygienic bottle feeding. Diarrhoea . cough and fever. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child.This disease is caused by bacteria. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. Scabies . Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. etc. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Some suffer cold due to allergy. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. The following are the common communicable diseases.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. unhygienic living conditions. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. After three or four days of fever. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Measles . eating food which is not clean. Common Cold . Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Mumps . Hence it is called a killer disease. This is caused by cold virus. The child may have fever.
This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. What are communicable diseases?
6. If proper treatment is not given. It begins with fever. the child is not able to breathe. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings.•
Chicken Pox . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
5. raised pink spots appear on head. Typhoid .
. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. Enlist the common ailments of children. Diphtheria . By scratching he causes secondary infections. Shortly. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. The child may also have diarrhoea. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. Expand DPT . The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. the child may die. separate. As the disease progresses. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. face and waist.
it is a subject of art. so-called sex books and periodicals. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. It has its rightful place in education too.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. eye injury. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. dislocation. cuts. Drowning . snakebites.4. scorpion stings. It is both biological and psychological. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological.1.1.g. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. drowning.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. man-woman behaviours. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. films and jokes. Sex is popular.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. fiction. 2. bruises. exciting and body-oriented. sprains. 5. 4.
4. head injury. bleeding. etc.
.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. and films. and Community Work and Social Service. Sprains . In such cases. swelling.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. fainting. simple fractures. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. 3.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. Wounds .Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. Cuts and Bruises . sprains. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. wounds.
This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. In secondary schools. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. sex education is being recommended in schools. health. in their ignorance. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. the religious organisations. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives
. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. the school.old values. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. celibacy are age. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. 3. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. but preserve them from disaster and disease. Sex education has the major components as follows:
1. B. The values of life. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. In today's liberal and interactive society. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. try experimenting with their bodies.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. The home.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world.
Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex
A. they would be treading the path of sure doom. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. Hence. Should the boys and girls. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. 2..
when the courses are already overloaded. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions.
It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. C. hence. What are the major components of Sex Education. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education.1) 2) 3)
as a separate course. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised.
4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the school health programmes. first aid and sex education. common ailments of children. there will no crisis in its implementation. Teacher education institutions are. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. communicable diseases and their prevention.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 126.96.36.199 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to
4. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency?
3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Rickets is the deficiency of
5. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia
6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
a. Mention the food nutrients
If you look at the definition carefully. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. minerals.2. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s.
. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s.2. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied.4.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a.
Let us talk about each of these aspects. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.
It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet.g.2. There is no point. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. construction labourer). Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. These are: region where the person resides and income. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. activity level and physiological stress. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. 4. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. In other words. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. it is also specific to a given activity level . Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are
. for example. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. the social and religious practices of that region. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body.g. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. A balanced diet is specific firstly. Preferences/customs are also important. dosa are typical of the south. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . Rice or rice preparations such as idli. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. sex. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). moderate or heavy work.sedentary. In the case of adults. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days.6. People in the east of our country prefer rice. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). Even within given States there is considerable variation. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. paratha and poori.one in the morning and the other at night.
You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. for example. One must. as important for the rich as for the poor. vegetables and fruits. In addition to these. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. however. These determine the acceptability of foods. Having more money. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. Even among flesh foods. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. taboos related to food may play an important role. If you think of your own religious group. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. customs. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. however. income plays a vital role. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. while another may hate them. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. Among the social factors. however. As income increases. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. One person may be fond of milk products. As you read this discussion. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. nuts and dry fruits. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion.planning the diet. Including these
. fat and sugar tend to increase. Judicious selection of food is. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. However. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion.
3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 17.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. List out any two healthy food habits. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.eating is hazardous. etc. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food.
8. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 7) One should eat what is needed to live . 8) Walk a while after eating. green leaves. fruits. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. but they should be thrown away. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. For this. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. mouth. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. meat. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. if the teachers have good food habits. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. over-eating or under. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. eggs .
. Define balanced diet.
the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. d. Vitamin D 5. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. 4. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins
2. Explain food nutrients 4.2. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life.2. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. b. When the diet is inadequate. 4. In fact. Beri Beri 4. e. Night blindness. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. Conjuctival xerosis. Bitot’s spots.4. good nutrition is essential for good health. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Fatigue and Giddiness
. Corneal xerosis.2. preservation of nutrients. Discuss good food habits. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Keratomalacia 3. a. c.
Nutrition and Dietetics. minerals. (2005). a. (2008).M. P.2. Chopra. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. (2004). 8. a . Nutrition Science. R. (2009). plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. b. Food should be consumed after eating well. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s.
4. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. R. S. Sri Lakshmi B. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation
. Food and Nutrition Education. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . mouth.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.N. Food and Nutrition Education. (2008). b. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. 7.6. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru.C. Health and Nutrition Education. A Text Book of Foods. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. Hands.
3.8 4.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.13 4.1 4.6.9 188.8.131.52 Impact on social development 4.11 184.108.40.206.2 Impact on economic development 4.
.10 4.3.2 4.3 Impact on Education 220.127.116.11
STRUCTURE 4.12 18.104.22.168 4.3.3.LESSON 4.6.5 4.7 22.214.171.124 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.3 4.
understand the importance of small family norm 5. and the consequences of these processes. you will be able to: 1. his family. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. It is not sex education. Population Education.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. population characteristics. There is some difference.4. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4.
. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. aims at providing the younger generation. economic and educational development 3. the causes of population change. the stress is. characteristics and changes for himself.3. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. therefore. his societ y and the world.
4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. community. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. It is a much wider co ncept.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. objectives and need for population education 2.3. state the meaning. family planning and sex education etc.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. Whenever we talk of sex education. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. describe the impact of population growth on social. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. 4.
3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Define Population Education
2. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points:
.4. the family. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well.
4.3. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3. the nation and the world. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. the society.
social welfare schemes can be implemented well.3. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. health and happiness of its citizens.6. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. the family programmes are also handicapped. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. economic and educational development of the country. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development.3. 4. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. Family is considered as a social unit. When the family is small. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country.
. With the larger families. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. which will not be possible without population control. 4. Every second two thousand children are being born.
in buses and trains. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. and so on. facility for drinking water. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. heavy intern I migration etc. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too.. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. toilets. unemployment. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. in parks and other places of public gatherings. teacher index. 4. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective.e.
.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. The gulf between them is widening further. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends.3. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production.3. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. Many students herded in a small room. i.6. 4. Swollen cities. in cinema halls and theatres.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. lack of proper health care. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt.6. pollution of the environment. organization index and material index.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. In developing countries.
There would be very few audiovisual aids. and laboratory equipments. reproduction. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. can be taken up. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. There would be poor library facilities. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. family planning etc. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. thus. less administrative initiative and leadership talents.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject.3. bar graphs etc. less budget for education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme.. can be studied in science and health education. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. essays. Social Studies Statistics on population education. less space facilities. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. blank verses etc. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages.
. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education
4. Regional Language. Hindi and English.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. even text books would be in short supply. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility.
8. causes of deaths etc. 11. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. deaths. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 4. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to
. Bihar. 15. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. 2.3. Children may compare two families. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. 3. 13. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 5.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION
1. Canada. 10. 14. Uttar Pradesh. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths.4. Brazil. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. China. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. 7. United States of America. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. West Bengal. 12. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Children with the help of parents. area and average density of population. 9. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled.
Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. values and role children etc. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. The question. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.be opened in their schools. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. 16. Comparing life in various respects in two families.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. we have no right to stop
. age at marriage. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. 17. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. How will you correlate Population Education?
5. 18. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. preferences for sex. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education?
4. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size.3.
is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. the total fertility rate decreased from 6.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.to emphasize family planning services. on an overall basis.their entry into the world”. at varying places in different regions. Since the program's inception. “He who is responsible for population growth. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. 4.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. More than 45 years ago.3. which education can only do. especially the expansion of child immunization services . continued . The Family Welfare Program. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.were implemented
.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.4-6. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. however. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.. and the child survival components of the news: program.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.
In October 1997. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. a focus on health promotion. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control.earlier than the safe motherhood components. Moreover. men. reliance on local women as community health workers. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. In April 1996. expansion of services to unmarried women. Local programs vary in their approaches. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by
. and nominal fees for services. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. At these meetings. and the World Conference on Women. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. the community appears willing to pay for services. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. Therefore.
emphasizing the needs of the client. Its main purposes are to create awareness. 3. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. community. What are the goals of RCH?
. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. family. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Describe the impact of population growth on social.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. nation and the world.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme?
7. economic and educational development 4. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. involving the community. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. 1997).
Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. bar graphs. his society and the world. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. a.” 2. Canada. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. his family.
. 3. 6. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. b. and the consequences of these processes.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 5. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. b. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. China. a. less space facilities. characteristics and changes for himself. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. United States of America. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures.3. area and average density of population. 4. 7. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified.4. the causes of population change. population characteristics. a. Brazil. less budget for education.
Reddy. Ltd. V. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Principles of Population Studies.K.
“Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.
Udaiveer. Kantikar. (1992). Coimbatore. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. J.
Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2004).
Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. (2005). A.
. Centre for Women’s Studies. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Ltd. N. T.
Jayapoorni.3. Bhende.14 SUGGESTED READING
Mohanty.4. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.
Modern Problems of Education. (2002). (2005).
4.LESSON 4.9 4.4.2 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
.4.7 4.4.3 184.108.40.206.11 19.6 4.1 Minor games 4.4
STRUCTURE 4.8.4 Lead up games 4.4.2 Major games 220.127.116.11.4.5 4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.3 Indigenous games 4.8.4 4.
and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4. social fitness. 4. perseverance. The concept of physical education has been made broader. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. 4. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. team spirit. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3.4. the youth of the country. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. full records of physical activities should be maintained. as it should
. mental alertness. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. you will be able to: 1. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. classify the different types of games. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. moral fitness and emotional fitness. which forms its most valuable assets. leadership and balance in defect.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.4.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country.4.
The educational efforts at home. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. obedience to rules. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Therefore. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. They are inseparably united together. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. leadership. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Every individual is a part of society. To be more precise. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. team spirit. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. They go hand in hand. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s
. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term.
A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. H.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. Physical exercises. Regarding the significance of physical education. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences.” The Secondary Education Commission. game and sports. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. mo ral. a sound health. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. nor body but the whole man. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind.” Montaigue writes. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. C. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. Rousseau states. Just like Education. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers.4. ment al. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. Buck has observed that
. 4. pleasing manners.
coordinative abilities. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. Froebel says. happiness. efficiency and character. speed. initiative. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. strength. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility.a properly directed physical education should result in health. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. we must exercise the whole human being. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. “If we wish to develop the whole being. flexibility and power. endurance. etc. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.4.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. elegance.
. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems.” In brief.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. resourcefulness and smartness.” 4. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance.
its adherents and its enemies.
. they may form gangs. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. these fundamental things have always been present. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. poetry and painting. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. plagues and famines. Every age has its artists. While wars. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. in greater or lesser degree. including all racial groups and historical ages. systems of government. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Tournaments foster this sentiment.
Write any two importance of Physical Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. obedience. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . respect for rules.sacrifice.(iii) (iv) (v)
to develop rhythmic bodily movements.\ to develop perseverance. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. bravery and interest in games and sports. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
2. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. to develop tolerance. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x)
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc.
Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. 2. is essential.4.4.4. Be well-prepared. 7. Always keep the whistle ready. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. injuries among pupils should be made. Usually parents. Be self-confident. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Haag. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. and. Be sportive. Be punctual.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 10. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 12. Keep the field ready for the activities.H. 16. and readmission after they have recovered. 3. 11. 4. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed.
1. Posture screening should be done. Be in the uniform. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. students. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Act as a leader. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 9. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.
. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 14. defects. 8. 6. 4. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. 13. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 15. Inform health principles. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Emergency care procedures should be followed.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 5.
1.8. As such they are well enjoyed by children.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. less equipment and less expense. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. Moreover. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten.4. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. frolic and jo y. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the play. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Lead up games. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls.4.
. their development is handicapped. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Indigenous games. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. 4. Such inst incts as imitation. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. chasing.
Jumping. zig zag relay. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles.With a very few rules. Khokho. the number of players and substitutes. finding the partner. with implements or without implements. Volley Ball. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Kabaddy etc. These games require varied skills such as running. on sea-shore. spiking. trapping.8. Tennikoit. muffling. hitting. catching.
. benefit in playing minor games. on mountain tops and on river beds. driving. Jump the stick clay and so on. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. some of them are played indoors. the play equipment. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. They are played for a shorter duration. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. For each game the rules are many. the games can be modified according to convenience. boosting.4. stopping. heading. bowling etc. Hopping. pitching. wherever the kids assemble. Cricket. Throwing. 4. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Tennis. women take part most of the games. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. couple tag. On lawns. Dodging. Soft Ball. over ball pass Relay. skipping. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. snatching the kerchief. Hockey. While many of them are played in the open playfields. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. Shuttle Badminton. on hard courts. dribbling. They are rules approved by the International Associations. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Basket Ball. Except a few games. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. under ball pass Relay. The dimension of the posts and nets.. Ball Badminton. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level.
in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. They have an abundant social value. While observing the players in action.4.4. death. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. Games may be classified as 6. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. What do you mean by lead up games?
. On occasions like marriage. these games being popular. All the fundamental tactics.4. Kho-kho. List out some major games. festivals connected with religion and public functions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. they are in existence. birth. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.8.8. 4. For example. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. and . An example for indigenous game is 8. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.
c. to develop physical stamina. Minor and Major
.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. 5. b. a.4. 2. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. 4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. a. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. to secure physical health b.4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. physically and emotionally fit and alert. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. 2. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Briefly discuss the different types of games.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. d. a. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. 3. aims and objectives and need of physical education. 4. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. 3.4. b. Posture screening should be done.4. 4. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers.
4. a. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must.
Basket Ball. Tennikoit. Tennis.6. Health. (2008). (2009). Cricket.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Handbook of Physical Education. Hockey. J. Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2005). J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.4. Ball Badminton. Khokho 8. J. Khokho. Soft Ball. Shuttle Badminton. (2008). Aggarwal. Physical Education and Sports. Modern Trends in Indian Education.
4. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Krishna murthy. Volley Ball.K. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Foot-ball. Kabaddy 7.C.
. G. Mohanty.
5.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
4.5.4 18.104.22.168.2 22.214.171.124.8 4.1 Natural Environment 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as
.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.1 126.96.36.199 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.6 4. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.3 4.5.LESSON 188.8.131.52 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.5.11 4.5.7 4.
4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. economic. population explosion and resource depletion could be. aesthetic and educational factors. Attitude. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. social.
4. education about the environment and education through the environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. political. 3. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. The best place to start such learning is school.
. Skills. it covers the following elements: 1. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 2.educat ion for the environment.5.
4.5. 6. 3. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. 5. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. Awareness. 2. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. role of teacher in environmental conservation. Broadly. Details are given below: I. Evaluation Ability. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Participation. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors.5. 4. list out the types of environment 3. you will able to: 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Knowledge. Essential knowledge about the Environment.
soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Oxidants Other pollutants. heat sink and wind flow in cities. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation.
. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur.B. a. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. F. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. D. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. • Biological magnification E. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. 2. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality.
3. Abortion iv. 2. The pill ii. Family planning ii. Socio-economic measures. Intrauterine device iii. Control of population growth a. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Use of medical science i. c. 3. 2. Birth control through education b. The human ecosystem II. Persuasion: i. Sterilisation. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. 4. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. B. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources
. economic. III.
2. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 1983). Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Air pollution abatement ii.
. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. (UNESCO. Define Environmental Education. e) Recycling.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Water pollution abatement.
It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. b.5.other components of the environment.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. to his needs.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. a.5. A change in one brings about a change in the other. Biological environment The biological environment. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. includes the plants. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. fax agricultural apparatus. 4.5. These are biotic components. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. -other. animals and other organisms (biotic).4. way is called environmental or ecological factor.5. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.5. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. He modifies according”. They interact with each. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. Any constituent or condition of the environment.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. telex.5.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION
The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following
Physics Topics like conservation of energy. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife.
Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. acid rain. social studies. population. water scarcity. importance of nitrogen cycle. windmills. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . natural way of controlling pests. excellent recreation sites. need for bio-diversity. sources. relation between population and pollution. change in climate may be added. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. solar cookers. river systems. reasons. industrial pollut io n.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. supplying timber for various uses. nuclear energy. use of medicinal plants. History The rise and fall. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. explosion deforestation. effects o f CFC. desertification
. ozone layer deplet ion. t heir role in preventing pollution. ozone depletion. industrial survey. (ii) Air pollution. etc. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. noise control. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. preventing siltation of dams. maintaining the ecological diversity. effects. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. role of trees in building economy. nuclear warfare. mineral survey. extinction of species. air pollutants from industries. of civilizations. wars and hazards of war. biogas plants. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. balance of nature. alternate sources of energy. need for conservation. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. noise pollution. over exploitation of ground water.. use of pesticides. are the topics which may be taught in History. trees reducing noise pollution. preserving the watersheds. greenhouse effect. food chain and food-web. evolution. etc. sources of pollut ion.
7. 6. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND
P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development:
1. 4. Providing. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 12. group discussions and seminars. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Developing awareness about environmental issues. 8. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs.5. 2. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. aims and scope. animal and plants. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment.
. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man.
Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 14. Peepal and Tulsi.may be inc ded in Geography. 11. 5. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Organising conferences. 9.
Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. 13. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 4. 3. 10.
used oils down the drain. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. especially plastics.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so.Send their waste oil.
6. Don’t burn any waste. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. If it is done. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Reuse carrier bags. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. World Environmental falls on
. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. all these can cause serious pollution. Never put any left over chemicals. Use public transport wherever it is possible. it will cause pollution.
5. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.
The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. Att itudes of balance towards nature. and
.. values and habits. etc. To provide reference materials for children’s use. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. dest roying nat ural habitats. depletion of ozone. (cleanliness. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . To discuss the approach to problems or topics. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. concern for others). rather than conquest and mastery.4. developing desirable attitudes. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems.). orderliness and beauty). nuclear wars. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. Harmony with the nature . To provide materials needed for practical work. Conservation of natural resources. viz. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Concern for species. The groups may exchange. To arrange for visiting speakers. potable water. etc. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. diversity and stability. deforestation. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry.5. Social responsibilit y (common good. To arrange visits or expeditions. CFCs. loss of bio-diversity.mat erials.
Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills.
. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5.
8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. preserving natural cycles.5.
4. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. 4.5. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.
New Delhi : Authors Press. relat ion between population and pollution. (2007). a. reasons. ozone layer deplet ion. Environment and Human Rights. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Social responsibilit y (common good. 4. New Delhi :
Sharma. June 5 7. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Ltd. Udaiveer. b. To provide materials needed for practical work. Modern Problems of Education. Kuldeep. To provide reference materials for children’s use. T. a. Ltd. (2007).K. sources. b. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. effects. Organising conferences.5. Environmental Education. a. Environmental Education. greenhouse effect.K. Rapid population growth. explosion deforestation.K. Knowledge. concern for others). Nanda. importance of trees in the production of oxygen.. air pollutants from industries. 5. Anmol Publications Pvt. acid rain. (1997). To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. importance of nitrogen cycle. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. 6. new problems from science and technology. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. New Delhi : Anmol
. (ii) Air pollution. Awareness.\ 4. water scarcity. b.2. Education for values. over exploitation of ground water. b. Providing. population. (2004). group discussions and seminars. a. 3. Y.K. 8. S. S. sources of pollution. Publications Pvt. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 184.108.40.206 Idealism and aims of Education 220.127.116.11 Idealism and Curriculum 18.104.22.168 Idealism and methods of teaching 22.214.171.124 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 126.96.36.199 Naturalism and aims of Education 188.8.131.52 Naturalism and Curriculum 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and methods of teaching 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 18.104.22.168 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
22.214.171.124 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 126.96.36.199 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
Universal Education.our life.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. promote and transmit it to rising generation. The universe is regarded as a thought process.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. in fact. moral. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. According to Rusk'. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self.
Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says.3. should be universal in nature. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. Education must contribute to development of culture. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Therefore. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. Education according to idealism. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments.
Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. the emancipation of spirit. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities
. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm.1. enrichment and transmission of culture.
Spiritual Development. man is essentially a moral being. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. It is self-realisation."
Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe.” 5. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm.
the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. so subjects like Religion. 5. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. 3. Learning through discussion. an indispensable necessity. So he should embody. For this no particular method has been suggested. So cognition (knowing). History. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education.” He is thus. 4. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. should be there.1. Learning through lecturing. 5. The plant can grow. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. Herbert advocated instruction method. affecting (feeling).1. Mathematics etc.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race.the spiritual qualities of mankind. So health. He carries the child from darkness to light. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to
. He sets the environment in which education takes place. According to Frobel. and collation (striving) should find due place. For intellectual development. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. The teacher serves as a living model for the students.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. subjects like Languages.” 5. no doubt.3. According to idealism. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. friend and guide. Learning through reading. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. the school is a garden. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. Learning through questioning. However. a spiritual guide for the child. hygiene. Philosophy. It considers teacher as. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. Learning through imitation. 2. Ethics. Science. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct.3.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. "Education should make
. Perfection of Human Machine. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. text books. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.perfection and beauty. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. formal lessons or examinations. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. time tables.preservation. 5. Ross explains. curricula.1. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. In the words of Ross. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.
Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. education should develop the child into Joyous. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. rational harmoniously balanced.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. subjects like history. therefore. Biology. Education should. Zoology. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. “Education finds its purpose.
5. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience.
. Literature. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Punishment is given by nature in its own way.
Autonomous Development of Individuality. 4. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Naturalistic curriculum.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Therefore. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Botany etc Language. useful and mature child. Education also aims at helping the individual t. geography should also be included in the curriculum.4. is based on the nature of the child.1. It is based on the psychology of the child.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Chemistry. In all. It stresses basic sciences. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Arithmetic. There is no place for religious and moral education.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3.
The main aim of Naturalism is &
4. It discards all rigid.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation.1.4. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. and rebels against the academic and orthodox
. Rousseau says. 2. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.
5. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Learning through observation. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Dalton Plan. Here the emphasis is on the individual method.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. 5.4. the stage. In the .1. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Learning by doing. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers.5. Learning through experience. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Heuristic method. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. a supplier of materials and opportunities. 3. a provider of an ideal environment.1. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. he should be taught by experience alone. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
Personal Social Adjustment. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience.5. Social Science. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. diversified and flexible. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. 5. Agriculture. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. intellectual. Social Efficiency. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. The individual has not only to adjust himself. 5. Subjects.5.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. The aim of educational development. Physical training. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Continuous Growth. Geography. All Round Development of an Individual. History. social and moral aspects. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education.1. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. is true. Sciences.1. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared.absolutism of idealism. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Vocational and
Methods of teaching should not be fixed.1. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. a teacher occupies an important position.
5. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. He has to be active. Learning by Doing. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.5. alert and resourceful. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. a senior partner and a sincere guide.Technical Education. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism
. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. He must be trained. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences.5.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education.” 5. The subjects. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. should find proper place. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles.1. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life.
A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Geography are unnecessary
. literary or humanistic education. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 2.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. specific. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Psychology. 3. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Biology. Education is preparation for a complete living. Crafts. rich and happy. Biography Philosophy. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Sex Education. Chemistry.
5. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics.1. Literature.5. Art.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Music and Dance.6. scientific and psychological education. 4. 5. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. liberal. Mathematics. Astrology. 3. 5.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1.1. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real.1. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. History. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Population Education. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. 4. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. It favours child-centered. practical.6. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. intellectual. 2. Study of Subjects like Language. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. certainly and clearly. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.6.5. easily and pleasantly. List out the methods of teaching in realism
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1.6.
Sciences.7 LET US SUM UP We have. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Agriculture. History. b. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Learning through reading. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Rousseau 5. & curriculum. Social Science. Learning through questioning. e.1. pragmatism and realism. a. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Learning through lecturing.1. Learning through imitation. Languages.5. Vocational and Technical Education. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim.1. 5. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. c. in this lesson. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. naturalism. Education according to pragmatism. Universal Education 2. Physical training. Learning through experience b. Tours / Excursion e. Geography. d. 5. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Self Realisation b. Learning through discussion. Child centered c. a. 3. Experimentation d.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. 6. 5. Demonstration and Observation
. has no end other than growth.
Pahuja.P. (2003). P. R.
. Foundations of Education.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. Anmol Publications Pvt.5.
New Delhi :
Theory and Principles of Education. (2004). K and
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. New Delhi : A. O.H. N. (2007). of
Pathak.P.1. P. L. Ltd. (2007). K.
188.8.131.52 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 184.108.40.206 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.4 Views about teacher 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168
EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.4.2.3.LESSON 5.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.1 Aims of Education 5.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA
STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124 Methods of Teaching 126.96.36.199.3.1 Aims of Education 188.8.131.52 Curriculum 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.2 Curriculum 5.4 Views about teacher 5.2.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.1 5.1 Aims of Education 184.108.40.206.3 Methods of teaching 220.127.116.11.2.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.3 Methods of teaching
content and methods. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.2.5.4 Role of the teacher 5. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.
5. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.7 5. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. 5. Tagore was a poet.6 5.2. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. mind and spirit.5. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. 2.2.
. 3.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.2. you will able to: 1. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.2.2. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2. economic and political reconstruction in our country. Gandhiji was primarily a social. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. an artist.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life.2. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.8 5.
nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. His scheme of education is life centred. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect.3. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. self-restraint and service of humanity. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. nor the gross animals body.intellectual and physical faculties of the children.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. through life and for life. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. "I attach more. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. righteousness. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self.
. In the words of Gandhiji. 5. mind and soul of children He further observed." Dignity of Labour. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. strength of mind. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations.2. It really provides opportunity for character building.supporting. it is education of life. 'Man is neither mere intellect.
leather work have been suggested. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . the realization of the ultimate reality. development of the whole all were directed: towards. He suggested Home-Science for girls
. Mother-tongue. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. "Development of the moral character. 5. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. According to Gandhi. Art. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. wood work.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. General Sciences. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. metal work. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Only good individual forms a better society. Music. Drawing and Hindustani.2. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner.Training for Leadership. Individual and Social Aims.3. gardening.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Basic education is other wise known as 4. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. proficient. men of
. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.3. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji
5. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.3.2.trained.
PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST
On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education must be child centered. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. 3.3. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. That is why. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies.2. He also advocates freedom for the child. “To develop the spirit is to build character
.knowledge. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
5. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist.
He was deadly against untouchability. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He was a true patriot.2. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.3. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. He believed in the oneness of humanity. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.” Like all other ideals. • Ideal of citizenship. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. 5. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.2. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. • Cult of non-violence. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.2.K. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under:
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. he was a true Vedantist 5. Gandhi in 1937.
5. • Education should involve manual work.4. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.
2. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. he said. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. That way only. them solve problems of day to day life. stronger in power than ever before. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. sentiment. Civics. etc. could help in forging unity among all. Chemistry. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Botany. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. (vi) Philosophy. the more dedicated and devoted. It should help.
. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. "Mankind must realise a unity. Tagore said. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Therefore. Geography. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. deeper in.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. Zoology. Music. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Religion and Psychology. wider in range. It should help the learner have good physique.4. Dance. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. complete manhood could be attained.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . International Understanding.Language and Literature . International understanding.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner.
4. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.4. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.2. In 1921.2. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.2. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.” He further says. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. Tagore rightly says.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. 5.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. Activity Method Heuristic Method.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.4.
5." 5. Let individualised methods be used for teaching.
Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. It is open to all irrespective of country. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3.Shanthiniketan has open spaces.g. race. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2.
10. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e.
9. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7.
. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6.
Concept of Education.5. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Freedom. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality
. According to him. Education should make a person self-reliant.5." He was against the theoretical type of education.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building.2. man making. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. He believed in to learning or selflearning. work and deeds come out of it. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual.” 5.2. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Education for strong Moral Character. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Education for Self-reliance. Book learning.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. 4. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. 3. Education for Self-realization. Purity of thought. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. 2. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says.
concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.2.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. engineering and technical subjects. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. A physically strong person is the need of the society. Philosophy and Theology. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. That will serve the purpose of education fully.5. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Discussion Method.
. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. philosopher and guide to the students He. The teacher should be the facilitator. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Thirdly he wished that games. Swami.5. Religion. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Education for Physical Development. 5.2.the learners on different students in the discussion.2. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. 5. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. 5. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth.5. 6.5. And above all. Of course. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Secondly he wanted Science.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.
3. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. Write short notes on Basic education. We have seen that Tagore. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. legs. and pragmatist . They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. in this lesson. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Substantiate your answer. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. 2.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. ears and eyes.
. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1.
12. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. Their educational ideas. of course. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. Gandhiji as a Idealist. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. naturalist.2. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. 5.6 LET US SUM UP We have. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life.2.
Where the whole world forms its one single nest.
5. f. wood work. a. Learning by Doing c. a. Activity Method
b. Explain Vishwabharathi.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Self realization. metal work. 2. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. 1937 7. 11. a.2. d. gardening. Teaching while Walking b. Meditation and concentration c. c. Discussion Method
. 10. 9. Self-Study
b. 3. Basic education. Nai Talim 4. Cult of non-violence. Technique of Correlation 6.4. 5. Activity Method d. leather work have been suggested. a. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Education should involve manual work. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. e. b. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 8. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Debate and Discussion Method. c. Ideal of citizenship. Heuristic Method. 5. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man
Anmol Publications Pvt. J. N. K and Narang C. K.
Bhatia. New Delhi : A. Foundations of Education.5. B. P.2.9 SUGGESTED READINGS
Dash. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. C. L. O. (2003). Publishing Corporation. (2007). (2002). Ltd.H.
. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.
Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education.
Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. P.
Theory and Principles of Education.
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2004).
New Delhi :
Aggarwal. N. (2007).
6 5. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION
STRUCTURE 5.3. In this lesson.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
18.104.22.168. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.7 5.10 5.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students
.2 5.3.11 5.3.3 5.3.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.8 22.214.171.124 5.3.4 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.LESSON 5.1 5.3.9 5.
Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. While education is learning. curriculum. Then in a big country like India.S.. state the meaning of curriculum 2. you will be able to: 1. the plateau area and
. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. maintained or eliminated. Since the demands.3. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. curriculum signifies situations for learning. in the form of new experience. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. 5.3. the desert area.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. it is identical wit h socializat ion. In the words of Kerney and Cook. in Russia or in Japan. there is a large number of communities. present behaviour may be modified. While education is a process.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. Curriculum is intimately related to education. Both the processes are integrated. in fact . explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. the plain area. A g o o d curricu lu m.3. new behaviour may be acquired. in the U. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. living in the hilly area. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used.A. From the latter point of view. In the former sense. In it. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society.under the direction of the school. 5. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s .3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. is a means to the process.
the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. it is. studying therein. therefore. It must differ from locality and from society to society. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. Again. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. However. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. From a slave-country we became secular. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. the learning capacity of children. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. too. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. In fact .coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. and
. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. irrespective of their needs and environment. democratic and socialistic country. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. differs from individual to individual. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. 5. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. according to modern trends in the educational process. environment. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. Besides craft.3. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. customs and needs.
Knowledge Objective. What is the meaning of curriculum ?
3. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. Application Objective. Self Realisation. of classroom. aims. 4. They are achievable. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. They speak of immediate purposes of education. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. specific. So it is inadequate. Goals of Primary Education.g. uninspiring and unscientific. tangible. emotional. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. They may be ultimate or proximate. They are visionary goals e. moral. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. e.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS
At this juncture. general or specific. social. aesthetic and spiritual development. 3. eg. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes.g. They speak of perfect goals. etc. Goals of Secondary Education. remote or immediate. which may or may not be attained. The word “Curere” means 2. individual or Social and so on. social.(vii)
it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made
.. National Integration. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
5.. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. etc. in instructional objectives. Understanding Objective. they depend on the political. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical.. e. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. etc. unsatisfactory. unambiguous and functional. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals.g.. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands..
. 2. Vocational Efficiency. 1. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education.
7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. in the class rooms. educationists. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. abilities. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. capacities. finding them very interesting and captivating. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum.”
Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.5. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. The interests.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects.3. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. but it includes the totality of experiences. heavy fire. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. Crow and Crow remarks. According to Crow and Crow.
Raymont rightly says. needs. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. on the playing fields. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects.”
. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.
Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. mental. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. moral. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. They often waste it or rather kill it. aptitudes. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. urges. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new
.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. time in a useful manner. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. capacities and abilities. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment
according to his needs
Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. tendencies. Due to these variations and differences.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively.
supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. administrative programme need be planned. organized. 3.
. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. 2. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. To ensure success of the process. Similarly. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. phased preparation. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning.curricular. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. development of professional capability at all levels. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic.
library. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. workshop. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities
.3. Run.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning.
5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. 18. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. 10. Child Centred Education b. 1937 19.3.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. in the class room. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 17. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum?
5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. 11. a.3. principles of curriculum construction. 5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. 12. laboratory. Relation with Life c. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.
(2007). Curriculum and Instruction. N. Lakshmi. New Delhi : Isha Books. Bhalla. (2001). (2007). (2007). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited.3. D.S.5.
. S. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. P. New Delhi : Authorspress. Innovations in Education. S. Curriculum Development. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.K. and Sarita Kumari.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.
8 5.4.10 5.9 5.LESSON 5.4.3 5.4.1 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 184.108.40.206 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.7.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 220.127.116.11.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.2 5.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 Scientific Attitude 5.4
PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS
enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.4. tolerance for the opinions of others. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology.5. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. We mean curiosity. explain the concept of scientific attitude. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. you will be able to: 1. newer and newer industries started growing. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Gradually. know the importance of science education.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. 3.4.
5. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. 4. in the economic reconstruction of society.4. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. open-mindedness. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. honesty.during the second half of this century. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners.
.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. 2. yet real advancement in this area was achieved .1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science.
5. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. superstition or emotion.
Thinking and memory develops. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 5. 3. 5. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. seminars and symposiums. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships.5
SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION
NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Promotion of science clubs. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction.So that.
5. Through examinations. Organisation of science fairs. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1.4. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 2.
5. Devotion towards nature increases. Principles are formulated. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. 6.4. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian
. 4. 7. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Schemes of teaching science. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Selection for science education. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. After such experience and training. Central science workshop. 3. as well as of the society. Love for truth enhances. Through newspapers. 4. 6. stipends and appreciations in various ways. 2. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations.
Write any two advantages of Science Education. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource
. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. They experience natural phenomenon.4. For laboratory and workshop techniques. Enquiry teaching is. sex or religion. Training of science teachers. 7. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. should provide opportunities to. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. objectivity. therefore. It is. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
5. In the inquiry approach. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. They encounter many social events as they grow. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force.needs and conditions.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature.
5.6.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs.4. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. After presenting the problem. each child to “enquiry skill building”. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. essential that teachers. They ask many questions about the objects they see.
Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 6.Herma Wouk. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.books. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. It requires consistent thinking.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation.
5.6. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook?
. to ask questions and experience things. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. test. 2. Giving less directions. if they like. Appreciating pupils ideas.
. 5. . Social sciences. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. 3. Adopting creative models of teaching.4.
. 5.4. stern pursuit of accurate data. commands or orders. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. 3. Evidence. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. 4.
school and society at large. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. These include open mindedness. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. critical thinking and suspended judgments. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. To achieve this we should understand what it means. neighbourhood. 5. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. it must be encouraged. to develop among the learners. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. and emphasized during the learning process .(Smith 2008). of vast resources running waste. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students.4. therefore should be unbiased and objective. practiced. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. keen observation. The students observation. (Vaidya 2007). of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. For instance. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. These characteristics of any scientific
.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. friends.7. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation.
Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. rumor. intuition or wishful thinking”. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. The intention to respect another’s point of view. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. think and work it”.
. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. (Das. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions.4.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained.7. 2007). Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. understanding and logic. In considering a situation or a problem. 5. he studies all aspects of it. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. or superstitions. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences.
He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.7. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. but to begin only after careful planning.4. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.• •
The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.
5. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.7.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.
5.4. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading
8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
. it must be encourages.
5. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.4. practiced and emphasized during the learning process.
5. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.• • • • • • •
Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. manuals and reading materials available in school
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience.
a. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.5. Study of superstitions d. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. 16.4. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Love for truth enhances.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Proper example of the teacher c.4. b. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Adopting creative models of teaching. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. a. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. 3. (2008). Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. a. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.4. M.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1.S. S. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. 2. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. a. Vaidya. 5. Yadav. The intention to respect another’s point of view. 4. (2006). Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. 5. Planning of activities
5. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. (2000). Wide reading b. Rao. b. objectivity. Reflections on Scientific attitude.
. D. b.B (2008). What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. N. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications.
5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.7 5. objectives and characteristics.5.2 5. you will be able to: 126.96.36.199.5.
.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
STRUCTURE 5.8 5.5.LESSON 5.4 5.9 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.1 5.5. 2. state the concept.10 5.5.11 5. areas of institutional planning.6 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5.3 5.5 5. actively.188.8.131.52.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.
Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. 5. every parent.5. executive as well as public. State and national levels from below. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. • to make planning development-oriented. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. and each student are regarded as separate entities. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. which become the bases for further planning at the district.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. and every student in the process of educational planning. and. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. teachers and students is not lost sight of.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Institution should be regarded as the unit. • To make institutional planning more successful. each teacher. • to involve teachers and school administrators. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators.3. in the task of educational planning. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans.5. and supplement planning from above. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and
. every teacher. 5. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.
6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. Co-curricular activities. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans
5. Examinations. having the following areas of operation • •
• • • •
Syllabus. and Personnel services. 5. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.
Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services.
Preparation of an Institutional Plan
The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. approved after making necessary modifications. which will be discussed in the general. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers.5. council and. etc. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. (2) Co. Classwork. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs.curricular Activities. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. it becomes the basis for school inspection.•
1. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. etc.No. Organisation of Students’ Association. etc.
2. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Conducting of educational. Organisation of Pupils.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Preparation of instructional material. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Equipping of laboratory and library. Courts. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Editing the school magazine. Celebrating of national and international festivals. What are the areas of Institutional Planning?
. etc. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Fair distribution of syllabi. hobby-centres.
Discipline and Welfare. etc. Running science clubs. Improving the subject competence of teachers. charts and apparatus.
3. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Improving the internal assessment. Organisation of class-room libraries. scientific and historical excursions. etc. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Organising play-for-all programmes.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Preparation of models.
teacher-State. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. administrator-administrator. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. parent-teacher associations. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. understanding.5. pupils. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. students’ associations. teacher-teacher. involving mainly human materials. teachers. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. teacher-managing body. Administrator-State. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. pupil310
. science teachers’ associations. teacher-pupil. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. which are divided as the in. administrator-pupil. teacherinspector.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. ii. etc.5. administrator-supervisor. co-operation. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe.” The human relationships in. parents. and solidarity. and —pupil-pupil.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. headmasters associations. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations.
functionaries. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. Management may be taken as a narrow concept.State. to attend. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into &
5. pupil-parent. superintendence. It is also being modernized to become a technique. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. pupil-inspector. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. According to C." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. to accomplish. supervision and superintendence. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and to serve. pupil-community leader. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
. teacher-parent. organisation and management. Good. organisation. It covers personnel and material management. control.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. now-a-days. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences.
The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. social sciences and other disciplines. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. V. to carry out. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. supervision. administrator. To administer means to manage.5.
The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. He should be an artist in human relationships.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. 2.Any good management will always have good public relations. Economic Management . 5. Decision Making . 3. Worker Participation . Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 13. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. Cost-Benefit Analysis .Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. Motiviation .This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. Socio-Scientific Approach . The relationship should change from master. Better Human Relationships . 9. 10. 7. 4. Those. 11. Liasion with the Public . Leadership . it is not worth-while. low. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. Communication . 12. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. If it is more. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established.Management should be efficient and economical
. 6.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.Of all the approaches. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. Rapport between the Management and Employees . If the cost benefit ratio is less. who occupy the managerial positions. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. 8.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship .Modern Management Techniques At this juncture.The manager should have leadership traits. This is the latest democratic trend in management. Democratic Management . should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.
10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17.
. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management.g. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. 5. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. 18. improvement of teaching methods. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. and cooperative performance should be ensured. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. 14. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.5. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. 19.too. objective.5.These two are. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. enrichment of curricula. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning.
5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. to improve the quality of education it provides.
Examinations. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Motiviation d. Singh. APH Publishing Corporation. Tarachand and Prakash.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. NUEPA. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. a. (1995). b. Syllabus.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.5. Classwork. (2001). Educational Administration. it becomes the basis for school inspection. to introduce decentralization of educational planning.
. In group and Out group 5. Leadership c. f. Decision Making b. a. Co-curricular activities.5. R.
4. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. H.
c. d. and Personnel services.K. a.5. b. a. (2003). Instruction. Communication
5. Fundamental of Educational Management. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3.M. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. 2. S. b. e. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.
4 India's Secular Policy .1 Inculcation of Socialism.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.Article 45 . Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Realized the problems of school education.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . higher education.CORE PAPER . physical education and environmental education 5. nutritional requirement.1 School Health Programme. School. Code of conduct for teachers. Communicable diseases . New evaluation procedures. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. 2. Buddhist and Jain system of education. Preservation of nutrients. Sex-education 4. Examination reforms. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.teachers should have : 1. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.1 Primary Education : Education for all.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. Common ailments of Children. women education and teacher education in India.1 Gurukula system of education. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. Inspection and Supervision 3.Preventive measures. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .3 Directive Principles . UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. First Aid.Religious and Modern Education 1. 1.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Community and Mass Media 2. social Impact 3.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.2 Nutritional deficiencies. population education. Economic
. 4. Healthy Food Habit 4.5 Regional Educational Development in India .Imbalances and Variations in different environment.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. wastage and Stagnation 3. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.I. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.3 Educational Influences of Home. Balanced diet.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.Pre-service and In-services facilities.
K.R. Delhi : University Publications 2. Tagore 5. Naturalism and Pragmatism .C. and Dash B. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Ram S. New Delhi: NCERT 3. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Mishra.
. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.K. Curriculum and national goals .improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. 7. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. (1999) Culture. Pandy V. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Kalan Paper Packs 10.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Sharma.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . T. Mahatma Gandhi.S. B.Aim.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. Realism.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5.4 4.N.5
and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. REFERENCE 1. Ghanta R. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education
5. Prof.K. curriculum and teacher's role 5. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Saraswathi T. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.1
Idealism. and Sharma R. and Mohanty R. Hemchand.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.4. and Human Development. (2005) Foundations of Education. R. 5. Taneja V.N. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Socialization. (2004) Problems of Education in India. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.K. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.