BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Jainism and their educational implication. Lesson 5. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Lesson 2. Lesson 4. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. and Jain system of education. 9 . In.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. The need. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. discusses the regional educational development in India. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism.

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1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.1.5.6.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.4.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.5.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.6 Education during British Era 1.6.1.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.LESSON 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1.1.1.2 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.6.5.1.1.6.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.1.3.4.1.1.1 1.5.1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.3.6.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1.1.1.5 Jain system of education 1.1.

both present and future. British system of education presented the modern western model.8 1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. in opinion. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1.3. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. That 12 . India.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. has a long past history starting in vedic education.1.1.6. Indian in blood and colour.7 1. 1.1.1. 1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. The history of education passed through Buddhist.1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. “a class of persons. elucidate the education during British Era. Muslim and British periods. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.9 1.1.1. in morals and in the intellect”. describe the Jain system of Education 4.1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. 1.1. but English in taste.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.6.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. Education in India.

11. Curriculum. It was not merely intellectual. with grants of land or money. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. 6. The immediate aim of education. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada.knowledge was real. It was also moral. Role of Travel in Education. 13. Method of Study. Education was a private affair of the people. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. questioning by the pupil. the monitorial plan was followed. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Education of Moral. High Status of Teachers. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. Free and Accessible. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Residential Schools. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Religious and Spiritual. No State Control on Education. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. to light. 12. Pupils were taught. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Immediate Aim Vocational. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. not en masse by the class method. 10. 4. 8. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. 16. followed by explanation by the teacher. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. from darkness. Method of Instruction. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. 14. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. if they thought fit to do so. managed entirely by Brahmans. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. from eternal to immorality 2. generally. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. 5. individually. 3. 13 . 9. There was. Where pupils were many. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Individual Teaching. Forests as Centres of Education. however. religious and spiritual. and to agriculture and trade. Teacher as Parents. as it is generally considered to be at present.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. studied Vedas.3. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. It was suited to the needs of the society. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 .17.1. 2.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. It was freely available to all those who wanted. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. Wide-Spread Education in Women. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They were very cordial and intimate. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. lived a life of celebacy.

the student remained in a state of Shramana.4. the handicapped. every class in society. Right means of livelihood 6. which included abstaining from theft. use of cosmetics. watching dances or listening to music. except the Chandals. Right endeavour 7. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. 2.1. Right speech 4. Right activity 5. medium of Pali. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Right thought 3. he was qualified to become a monk. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. dressed himself in yellow clothes. Right knowledge 2. Consequently. I take Refuge to Sangh. After attaining the age of 20. 15 . use of intoxicating things. partaking of food at prohibited times. Right contemplation 1. Right memory 8. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. in which. disease and death of the human beings. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. 1. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. It was denied only to the ill. I take Refuge to Dharma. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. impure conduct. killing of any living being. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. taking things without being offered. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. the most significant of which were the following 1.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes.C. etc. had the right to receive education.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. Education was imparted through the. the student had his head shaved of all hair. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha.

etc. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. Life is in a flux. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. approach. depth and range. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. a change is not only total but also perpetual. Initially. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. wear three items. therefore. women occupied a position inferior to men. meaning. military science. After this ritual. education was impart in art. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. nature. the presence of the monks was essential. 3.. 5. animal husbandry. 4. agriculture. nothing is of any permanent consequence. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. medicine. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. so long as it successfully does so. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. archery.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. These are called later Buddhist schools. etc. Whatever its nature and extent. control over sensuous activities. geology. a continuous change creating 16 . 6. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. It comprehended education in writing. archery. bodily gestures. 2.4. 8. As reality is becoming. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. it is regarded as true”. the science of taming and training animals. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. commerce. knowledge of reviving the dead. elephant lore. of clothes. along with education in script writing. arithmetic and religious discussion. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. eat food thrice a day. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. has no metaphysical value for life. objectives of human life. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period.3. and. Later on. 1. magic. assumptions. aspirations and. 7. On this occasion. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. be considered the aim of education It. Hence. however. Even at this stage. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. handicrafts. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. cottage industries. etc. beg for alms. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. changing the goals.

and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. whatever works are true and good. therefore. and to give it a shape that it has today. i. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Education must. such as. Jainism insists 17 .new and peculiar situations. however. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’.e. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Its chief feature. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. 1. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. Write Eight fold path .5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching.5.1. Validity is effective and consequences. In fact. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. However.. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. its pessimistic outlook on life. goes to Vardhaman. it is much older than the latter. 5.

2. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. rather than the interpretation of the universe. and believe in happiness to all. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. As such. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. 2. b) Right knowledge. it has a foot in both the words. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. 3.1. They are: a) Not to injure. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. 3. but on both. 1. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. 10. and is to be redeemed and liberated. Hence. 6.5. 1. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 8. 4. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. d) To lead a celibate life.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. 9. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. c) Not to steal. more stress on individual aims. thought and deed. c) Right conduct. b) Not utter falsehood. Development of personality as an individual. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. 7. e) To renounce the world. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. 5. 18 .

Teaching must develop these faculties.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 3. 2. 4. Teaching should be social and tolerant. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 19 . 1. 5. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma.5. Jiva is essentially karmic. that would be socially desirable. What are Triratnas ? . 8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 1. Hence.4. Belief in transmigration of soul.5. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. 2. therefore. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . education must be action based and ideally oriented. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. and should bring happiness to all. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. here and now. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. success and love. practised and not only aspired for. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. education should develop sense of discrimination.

In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. However. To set up separate departments of.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. North West Province and Punjab. primary 20 . Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.6. with rally and rout.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. Bombay. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. 1. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. Madras.1. 2.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods.6. and not for life. philosophy and literature of Europe. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”.6. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler.6. science. 1953). public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. 1. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. 1.1. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). 1.

it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . secondary education became a step towards university.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). Instead of being a self-sufficient course. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. • Secondary education.education was neglected. 1. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). at the primary level. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies.6. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. At that time M. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested.K. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. self-respecting and competent. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. Later on. 1. To ensure qualitative improvement.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. The universities dominated the secondary education. namely. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. • Universal free primary education.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. 1. In 1882. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education.6.6.

Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. After this stage. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. 10. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. The objective of education was to provide 22 . The report suggested development of adult education scheme.At the primary stage (6-11 years).1. all children are to have a common curriculum. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education.

1. Right endeavour. 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.education of European literature. science and English language. etc. b.. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. archery. establishment of universities. a. 4. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The immediate aim of education. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. During the Buddhist period. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. followed by explanation by the teacher. Right contemplation. 3. 23 . Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Right memory. geology. 5.1. along with education in script writing. It was suited to the needs of the society. Right speech. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. education was impart in art. 1. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. The system of education was well-organised. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Right thought. Right knowledge. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. questioning by the pupil. 2. 4. Right activity. 2.1. handicrafts. Right means of livelihood. military science. arithmetic and religious discussion. 6. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. the science of taming and training animals.

Singh. a. Right faith. Right conduct. Sharma. more stress on individual aims. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Aggarwal. Right knowledge.K.K. b. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.C. (2007). Y. 24 . R. 9. J. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Y. J. and Nath.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. 11. b. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Ltd. c. Development of personality as an individual. 1882. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Development of Educational System in India. Improvement of Literature. (1984). (2005). 1937 1. Ltd.1.C. a. 8. History of Indian Education System. 10. Sargent report 12. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Hence. (2009).7.

10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2 1.7 1.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.9 1.2.2.2.2.2.2.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.3.3.LESSON 1.4 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.1 University Education Commission 1.1 1.2.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2.2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.6 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.3. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.8 1.2.3.5 1.2.3 Kothari Commission 1. The 25 .

National Council for Women’s Education 5. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. analyse the progress of education in free India. explosion of enrolment. S. technological engineering. There had been vast institutional expansion. examination system. 1. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. 2. standard of teaching. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. you will be able to: 1.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided.conditions of the teachers. National Board of Teacher Education 10. curriculum. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. secondary and higher education. 1. medical and legal education. Post-graduate 26 . 1986 1. diversification of courses of studies. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan.3. Kothari (1964-66) 8.2. vocational education. technical.2.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1.2. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. girls and women education besides primary. expansion of vocational. New Educational Policy. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service.

S. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. A. Education is the key to our allround development. A meaningfully Partnership. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. the chairman of University Grants commission. 1986. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1.3. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 .2. D.3. quality. material and spiritual. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Education for Equality. Finally. 4. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. However. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23.2. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29.teaching. quantity. the New National Policy on Education. in January 1985. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. utility and financial outlay. Problems of access. National System of Education. Kothari. 1966. 1. Therefore. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. 2. 1952. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. The Essence and Role of Education. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. research et. Government of India.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. accumulated over the years. 1.2. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. 1.3. 3.

28 . the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. By working with hands.” Thus. the concepts of work experience. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes.2. the minorities and the handicapped.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. It can train practical aptitudes. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. attitudes. The UNESCO Report. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Thus.

1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. Besides. if he wishes. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations.” The Mudaliar Commission. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. According to. “The aim of these colleges. the Commission.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. it will conduce self. co-ordinations.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. With adequate planning.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. In 1955. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. As such. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. “It may be described. The Radhakrishnan Commission. The Education Commission. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations.

work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum.ot her. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. raising the special facilities. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . the rigid streaming of courses. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. The Central Advisory Board of Education. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. With a view to relating education to the life. etc.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. the semester and credit system.. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. Therefore. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. for quality of life in the rural areas. Subsequently. the. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. admission requirements to vocational courses. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. In addition. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work.

The wave of Basic Education. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum.defined S UP W as “purposive. giving importance to productivity in the national development. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. According to committee. technological courses including Agriculture. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. meaningful. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. The Father of Nation. preferably spinning and weaving. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. etc. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past.2. In short. Commerce. who conceived the System of Basic Education. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”.and the world of work.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. felt that education should be centred around a craft. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf.. 31 . which are useful to the community. which offer scientific. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. manual work resulting in either goods or services. meaningful. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. 1. which swept the country for over two decades. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. aimed at this goal.

This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. locally available materials and tools. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. 3. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. 4. tools and techniques and 3. Educative and 3. Clothing 5. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. as far as possible. Shelter 4. Productive 2. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Culture and recreation 6. so that it is educational in essence. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. The teachers should make use of. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Experimentation with materials. Food 3. be that the work involved is: 1. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Work practice. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Some Hints to Teachers 1.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. 2. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Health and Hygiene 2. Community work and social service. 32 .

Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. slum clearance.2. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. Check on educated unemployed 4. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. It can become an instrument to build character. Productive Work 33 . improve discipline. To make education more realistic. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. the concept of Community Service has been visualised.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. as far as possible. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. removal of illiteracy. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. etc.5. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. 6. Merits of the Programme 1. Community Service In-1972. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. the local community should be actively associated. Education through work The SUPW should. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. inculcate a faith. 1.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. offering first aid. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . The community. AICTE was set up in year 4. skills and better future for the children. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. etc. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. helping the adults-in productive work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. traffic control. in turn. should involve itself in the educational effort. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. if not productive. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Define SUPW 34 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge.

1955 4. b. Dr. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. which are useful to the community. d.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5.2. Write short note on SUPW. 6. 1. a. e. meaningful.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 3. 35 .8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.1. 1952 3. f. c. Radhakrishnan 2.2. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. manual work resulting in either goods or services. 1.2. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.

A. History of Indian Education System. B. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi: A. (2007). Singh. History of Education.K. (2005). Anupama. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Rao. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.D.(2005). V. Y. Ltd. J. R. and Nath. (2009).K. P.P. Publishing Corporation.C. 36 . History and Problems of Indian Education.1. : Sharma. (2007)..2. Y. Amala.K. and Rao. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt.H. Development of Educational System in India.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.P.

3.2 1. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. democratic republic. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. procedures.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. 1950.3.1 1. 1949. there is an official Hindi translation.3.8 1. Being the supreme law of the country. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.7 1.369 words in the English language version.3.3.1 Significance of DPSP 1. and liberty.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. equality. 37 .4 1.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3.3. it came into effect on January 26.3.5 1. Besides the English version.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. for a total of 117. containing 395 articles.9 1.6 1. assuring its citizens of justice.3. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. directive principles and duties of citizens. establishing the structure.3.3.

1947. 2. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. Through them.3. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. in sessions open to public. 3. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. 1. you will be able to: 1. legal and environmental.3. the Drafting Committee was appointed. According to the constitution. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. for 166 days. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.3.3. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. learn the role of central and state government on education. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects.In the August 14. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. The Assembly met.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. Dr. spread over a period of 2 years. with Dr. social. 1. economic. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. political. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. 1. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. 1947. Two days later. administrative. After many deliberations and some modifications. understand our Indian constitution. 4. 38 . On August 29. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. 1950. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24.

within the limits of its economic capacity and development. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. Liking wage etc. That the health and strength of workers. Organisation of village panchayat. Appropriate concentration of wealth. The State shall endeavour to secure. Equal justice and free legal aid. and in other cases of undeserved want. provide free legal aid. The State shall. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Protecting children from exploitation. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. Minimising inequalities in status. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. in particular. sickness and disablement. Article 42. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Equal pay for both sex. No abuse of children. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. old age. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. on the basis of equal opportunity. Article 39A. and shall. men and women. Article 40. Article 41. Article 43.government. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Condition for dignity of children. 39 .The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Protecting health of the workers. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. Right to work. make effective provision for securing the right to work. for workers. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment.

a living wage. (Original Article 45. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Article 48A. in particular. Article 43A. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. Article 49. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. See also Article 21A). in particular. in particular. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Note: Subs. Participation of workers in management of industries. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. industrial or otherwise. The State shall take steps. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Article 47. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. to all workers. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. 2002 for “45. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. agricultural. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. [declared by or under law made by 40 . by suitable legislation or in any other way. Article 48. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Article 46.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Article 44. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. work. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. and. The State shall endeavour to provide. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Article 45. Uniform civil code for the citizens. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and.

Separation of judiciary from executive. from spoliation.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. destruction. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.Parliament] to be of national importance.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. 2002. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. may be law determine”. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. Promotion of international peace and security. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Article 50. Article 45 . Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. as the case may be. disfigurement. disposal or export. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. removal. Article 51. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.3. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Article-21A Right to Education. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. 2.

2002. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. and. 8. ii. 6. from justice and all forms of exploitations. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. 7. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. 3. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections.” 42 . his guardian has given his consent thereto. caste. if such person is a minor. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. 4. iii. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. race. and shall protect them.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 5. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. language or any of them”. in particular. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people.

3. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. 43 . style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Educational Reforms From time to time. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. 2. wherever necessary or desirable. for its vocabulary. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions.9.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. the forms. The central government determines targets and promotes education. and by drawing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. & 1. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5.

So as to encourage education on right lines. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. to achieve the desired ends. 8. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. Production of suitable for children and adults f. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. Local bodies and private enterprise. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . 5. The following pilot projects. the state governments. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. All India Council of Medical Science. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. By starting these projects. 4. private agencies etc. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities.3. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. 6. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry.. etc. 7. So that they may work well.

Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. 12. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. are published by it. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas.3. research. 3. reports etc. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. 11. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. education for women. 4. is the state responsibility. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. 9. 1. handicapped. The 45 . books. 1. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. 10.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. etc. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. training and statistics. Material concerning nation-wide interests.

1. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Article 21A c. Article 45 b. Write short notes on a. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Article 46 4.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 1. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Explain Directive principles 2. articles in the Directive principles.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 46 . and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. 5.3.

(This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. a. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 1. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. b. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Article-21A Right to Education.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. a. Dr. The Directive Principles of State Policy.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. Describe the educational role of State Government. Article 29 and 30 7. 2002. 2002. Ambedkar 2. 47 . are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. b. Article 46 5. 3. Article 45 . a. may be law determine”.3. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Clearing House function 9. Development of Hindi Language 6. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 4.

3. N. Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. B. (2007). 48 . (2008). Ghosh. S. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.1. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Dash. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2004). (2009). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. Education in Emerging Indian Society. L. S. K. K and Narang C. Bhatia. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society.

7 1. Islam.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.3.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.8 1.4.1 1.4.4.3.1 Why Moral Education 1. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4. Jainism.6 1.4.4.4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.4. Students should be 49 .2 1.4.5 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4.4 Moral education 1. Buddhism etc. Christianity. religious education should be broad based.4.4.4.3.4.

know the position of religious education in our country 3. According to E. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. duty-consciousness. India' can produce men of character. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. beauty and goodness so that 50 . integrity. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline.. state meaning and need for moral education 1. Thus. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. As result of which. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment.4. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication.and dedication. 1. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). religious education and the concept of secularism. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance.” Education broadens human outlook.4.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. In the complicated and complex society of today. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion.D. "In A multireligious society like ours.

they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs.” From the above. Viewing the defects of religious education. castes and creeds. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. realizes God in himself. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. No religious tax can be imposed on them. They thought that any kind of narrow.3. at least occasionally. 1947 we achieved our freedom.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. In short. As a matter of fact. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. through religious practices and 51 . it is clear that the State has no religion. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. rancour. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. According to Article 19. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. all citizens are free to follow any creed.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. Hence. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. if not regularly.4. 1. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. Children attend these organizations.3. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism.4. As our country is a country of diverse religions. According to Article 22. religion and democracy are same. Thus. 1.

and other impulses are often denied direct expression. It is religious education. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. for the development of the individual and the society. when he becomes an adult. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. He also learns about social. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. If unreleased. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. Good education. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. which can mould. It helps to modify habits attitudes. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. intellectual and physical faculties of children.teachings. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. and what is evil. As a result of which. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. what is done and what is not done etc.. moral and spiritual values. which help him for the development of his character. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. temperament etc. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. one fully developed. aggressive. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna).

53 . This should not be allowed to happen. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. 3. Therefore. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. towards the society. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. 2. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. If we open the pages of history. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. 1. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world.3. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life.4. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. which is the basic need of a democratic life. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore.

Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Life histories of great persons of the world. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. 10. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. 11.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Gurudwara as. therefore. Since all religions have virtues. fellow-feeling. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. churches and mosques 7. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. For this. examples of patriotism. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. stories of moral greatness. 9. Write Article 22 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8.

is that which develops moral values. 3. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Self sacrifice. students. Moral education. Service to others. 55 .of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. The content of the curriculum. 2. 6. Asvada (Control of palate). 7. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow.4. let men see well of one another. Fearlessness. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate.4. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 8. It they learn what morality is in their early years.acquisitiveness). Without moral values. 1. 5. Non-injury. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. “Let all be happy and free from disease. They will play their role effectively. Cultivation of emotions. Purity. 7. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 3. 5. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Satyam (truth). 8. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 4. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. Brahmacharya (celebacy). the methods of teaching. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Ahimsa (Non-violence). This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. 4. 2. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. 6. Patriotism. Swadeshi (Patriotism). 1. therefore. Aparigarha (Non. in the home.

1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 10. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Unity of mankind. Secondary Stage 1. Discipline. religions may be included in the syllabus. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. 4. Good temper. 3. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. discipline. Love for humanity and Self-discipline.9. Efficiency. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. National unity and Spiritual values. 3. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. The School Assembly should be held for a few. In the school programme. 2. Simple texts and stories concerning different. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability).7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. 56 . loyalty and self-sacrifice. 1. minutes in the morning for group singing. Integrity. Sharivashram (Physical work).4. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. 11. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Good manners. Asatyam (Non-thieving).

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In other words. Silent meditation should be encouraged. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. 4. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. 3. 5. University Stage 1. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. In this connection. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. 57 . Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes.4. should form a normal part of school programme. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. love of humanity. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. patriotism and self-discipline. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme.

4. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. 2. a.4. Training of Character 3. the. In short. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. b. For this. minutes in the morning for group singing.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1. 1959 5. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. b. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. 1. Discuss the aims of Religious education. The School Assembly should be held for a few. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.4. a.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. a. 58 . Sri Prakasa 6 . 4. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.1. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. 2. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.

4. Dash. Pahuja.1. (2008). (2003). Theory and Principles of Education. J. (2008). New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C. P. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. L. Publishing Corporation. N.P. K and Narang C. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. M. Bhatia. Ltd. B. K.H. (2004). Anmol Publications Pvt. 59 . New Delhi : Siddiqui. New Delhi: A. N.H. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.

5.e.4 1.11 1.5.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1. 60 .5.12 1.3 1.5.2 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.5.7 1.5.1 1. disparities between provinces/States.5 1.5. i.5.9 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context. Although.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.6 1.10 1.5.5..8 1.

Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. etc. 5. 4. for example. 7. They therefore.5. Accordingly. know the education suited to different environments. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. understand the regional educational development in India 3. 8. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region.5. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. 1. waters. 3. 2. roads.1. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence.5. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. 61 . Neglect of the region by the Central Government. energy.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. This leads to separatist movements. 1. you will be able to: 1. 6. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. they take appropriate measures.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 1. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. work hard towards this end.5.

• The country’s borders should be suitably protected. while others remained educationally backward. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided.5. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. 62 . and. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. some States became educationally far advanced. 4. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. Secularism. Therefore. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. Tight security arrangements should be made. • Separate States (of course viable States). 2. 3. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. on the basis of regional development may be formed. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. some average.

Guwahati. Central Universities of Assam. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. NIT. approved proposals worth Rs. Funds amounting to Rs. Even in each State. etc. books. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. scholarships. Silchar. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. Itanagar. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. NERIST. etc. 63 . while some States like Bihar. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development.5. These projects are in various stages of implementation. and provision of informal education to enable those.14. Regional Centres of IGNOU. After the attainment of independence. academic buildings. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. Tezpur. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. remained under developed.After the Planning Process has originated. Mizoram. the Union Government. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects.g. In the Central sector. 1. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. the State Governments..7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. library buildings. However.392. Rs.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.84 crore was released in 2005-06. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. Nagaland and NEHU.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005.480. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. Jammu and Kashmir. since its inception in 1998-99. Out of this.

57 crore and Rs. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).05 crore and Rs.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). During 2003-04.261.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Tezpur University.187. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. too.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.8 per cent in 05). With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.500. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. Government expenditure on education. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. Out of this an amount of Rs. 64 . The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. A provision of Rs. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.501. Moreover.40.5.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.

5. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. pharma. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. for instance. The Chandigarh Administration. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. Moreover. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. Medical education.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . for which 16 sites. Kerala and Gujarat. too. English. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. Karnataka. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. too. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Andhra Pradesh. Tamil Nadu. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. notes the study. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. 1. engineering and R&D. Listing the positives. Karnataka. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. To add to the woes. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. telecom. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. health services and welfare of the citizen population. too.

which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. even actually looking at the watch. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. the working days: an academic . the curricular subjects. Hence it is called as need-based. The living conditions.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. the socio-physical conditions. the needs. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. while the former does not. taking the average in the middle. when he will not be sure of time. and so on.year. in which the learners live. 66 . the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. The working hours of educational institutions. In the same manner. life-oriented and environment slanted. the teaching methods. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. the interests. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. Of course. For a learner living in a rural area. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. which a non-tribal person cannot do. Then education become realistic and idealistic. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. the vocations.

There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. 2. to suit education to different environments? 1.5. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. 67 . How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .5. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.

13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Education in Developmental Arena. 60% 1. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. C. 68 . (2008). R.G. during the British rule. (2002). (2001). (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. A. a.H. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. Education Scenario in India. S. some of areas which were under the native rulers. Dubey.N. New Delhi: Authors press.K. S. Salim. Educational Development in India.5. Giridhar.2. some States have become more developed than others b. and Nair. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. remained undeveloped 3.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. school community and mass media. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. 71 . Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. community development. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. National Integration.

1.6 Education for Secularism 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.6.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.6.1.6.1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.4 2.1 2.2 2.1.8 2.9 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.1.1.5.LESSON 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1.1.1.5.1.1.3 2.7 2.

1. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. understand the concept of democracy. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 73 . Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. for the people by the people”. 2.1. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. creed. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. 3) Provision of Manual Work. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.2.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.1. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. Democracy thus means power of the people.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. 2. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’.1. colour or wealth. This is the political aspect of democracy. you will be able to: 1. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Abraham Lincoln. In the matter of admitting students in schools.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. socialism and secularism 2. socialism and secularism 2. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. there should be made no distinction of caste. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. socialistic and secular state.

7) Promotion of Self-Expression.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. it soon spread all over the world. 11) Student Parliament. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. 12) Visits to Legislatures. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century.. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. There are different brands of socialism. debates. 74 . Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. may be planned. 2. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. Democracy means 2. declamation contest etc. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students.

2) Socialism aims at equality. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 2. the wealthy and the poor. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. free from exploitation. oppression and disparity. the prince and the peasant. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 2. but on the path of non-violence. service and cooperation.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.5. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 7) Special facilities for girls. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections.1. Under it. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 75 .Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society.1. none high”. stationary and uniforms to the needy students.5. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low.

the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. Write any two main features of socialism. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. Everyone says. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. 76 . The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. 5.1.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. 11) State schools. “India is a secular-country. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. According to Holydake. "which seeks the development of physical. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. 2. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. secularism is being propagated.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.” In every political and educational corner. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

Equality.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. liberty. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. During the recent past. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. “Webster further says.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing.1. 8) It believes in co-existence. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. education etc. the belief that the state morals. people have narrow mindedness.1.opposed to religious education. should be independent of religion. In this type of prevailing situations. Moral values have to be imbibed.6. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. fraternity. There is need of making the people open minded. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. 77 . That is why. 2. 5) It implies tolerance. 2) It permits freedom of religion. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. A large number of people is uneducated. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. 9) It stress free inquiry. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness.6. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. 3) It permits freedom of worship. people started believing in regionalism. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines.

Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. students belonging to different religions should be associated.presented by the students in the gathering. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. While doing so. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. Patiala. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . In the celebration of each such function. that the central string of all religions is one. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. No doubt. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.1. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show.6. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. Religious Education. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. There should be some internal checking of the material being. education.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. In the hands of such teachers. 1) Moral Education.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. tours and trips may be organized. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. 2. The very sight of the building. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.1.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . No doubt. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. The term secularism was first used by 8. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. The word “Seculum” means 7. Define Secularism 9.

4. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. creed. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. George Jacob Holydake 80 . a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. there should be made no distinction of caste. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. The students may be associated with the management of the school. d. for the people and the people”.1. Equal Opportunities for Admission.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Tuition free education b. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. b. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. Socialism aims at social justice.1. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Power of the people 2. Respect of Individual Personality. This present age 7. a. c. Since socialism stands for equality. Abraham Lincoln. colour or wealth. 3. 2. Socialism aims at equality. b. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. 6. Provision of Manual Work. 5. 5. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. 4. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 3.

b. Ltd. N.1. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. L. Modern Trends in Indian Education. It permits freedom of religion. Dash.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. 81 . (2008). (2004). (2003). According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. New Delhi : Pahuja.8. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. a. Theory and Principles of Education.C. It treats all religions on an equal footing. b. (2007). J. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. N. the belief that the state morals. 10. P. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2005). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Mohanty. Anmol Publications Pvt. Bhatia.” 9. K and Narang C. B. K. Ltd. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. a. J. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. education etc. should be independent of religion.

LESSON 2.2 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.1 2.8 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.2.10 2.2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.5.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.6.2.4 2.2.2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.2.2.6. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.7 2.3 2.9 2.2.5.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.2.

understandings. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. you will be able to: 1. as learners. 83 . aims and objectives of the school. who are placed in his custody. as it is t he aim o f modern education. The developmental roles of children. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. A teacher is first and foremost.2. as workers. moral. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. mental. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. 2. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. development. a r e 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. skills.an instructor of school children. It involves physical. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction.2. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. therefore. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. social. emotional. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. and 4. 2. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. as persons. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. social and moral aspects. as citizens.generation to another.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. 2. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. application.

morally. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong.2. economically effective. motivated. inquisitive. member of his community at the outset. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. morally. 2. and aesthetically to become. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. mentally. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. He is to become an active member. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. He has to look after their physical. Teacher as a Citizen Next. physically fit for socially efficient. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. social and emotional health. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. 2. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. The following are some of such roles described in brief. mental.All education should lead to better behavioural development. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. 3. a part of their day in 84 . Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. emotionally. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. The students live. intellectually. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. 1. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. socially. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. experiences and acceptance. culturally confident.

” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. 2. List out the role of teachers towards community development . solve them. Unless. Dr. science club. They will be spending with their parents. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. activities of the society into which he is born. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. faiths.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. creeds. photographic clubs. fine art associations. 4. India is a land of many castes. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened.the school being under the custody of teachers. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and most of hours. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. languages and religions. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. It 85 .

communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. c.5.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. the citizens of the Republic of India. social studies. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. It should broaden the outlook. with straight backs and look up at the skies. and make into one strong national unit. therefore. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. ‘We should not become parochial. should be emphasised.” Regarding the role of education. At the primary stage the importance of stories.” 2. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. Nehruji has explained this as. folklore and teaching of social studies. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration.is. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. Let us. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. a. narrow-minded provincial. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man.2. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. Sampurnanand remarked. 1. Radhakrishnan. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . b. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. stand up straight. national anthem and other national songs. poems. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. the study of language and literature. The only process is the process of education. this integration of the Indian people.

Co-Curricular Activities. 9. 3. Scouts and Guides. symposia. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Textbooks. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. tours. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. 5. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ACC. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. 7. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. 87 . languages and literature. militar y training like the NCC. National Days—January 26. and picnics. t he st udent s and t he community. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. dramatics and youth festivals. Celebrations of National Days. 4. 10. 8. Singing of National Anthem. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Taking Pledge. Uniform for School Children. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. debates. educational excursions. sports. 6. 2. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented.different social sciences. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Student Camps. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Reverence of National Flag. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important.

2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. ii. 12. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. iv. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. colour. Open-Air Dramas. language. 16. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 14. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. Recognition of Institutions. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. 88 . Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. iii.11.5. ways of thinking and doing things. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. 13. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. 2. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country.2. Educational and Travel Documentaries. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. Admissions to schools. Students Exchange and Tours. region or religion. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. 15. flora and fauna. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . v. Admissions. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. School Projects.

Define National Integration 3. viii. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students.2. 2. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. camps. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. cultures and races on equal bases. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Community dinners. vii. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. irrespective of national boundaries. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. ix.vi.

therefore. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. 3. Organising of debates and. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. and the healthy development.” 2.. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. of his body and mind.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.e.6.6. often in connection with anniversaries. 2. 6. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. Radhakrishnan states. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. 5. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.2. patriotism is not enough. Teachers 90 . C. that war. (c) fairly tales. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.friendships between children of different countries. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Therefore. Strong has observed.F. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it.as important as that of a national citizenship. if it happens. In a very real sense. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. This. the international level. Dr.2. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. (b) stories of children of other lands. 4. 2.

List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Indian and American. They should not be propagandists. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Russian. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a German. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. Impartial in their Treatment. an Englishman.

It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. 4.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom.Another major.2. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. Chronic Poverty . the education function can be carried. 2.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. and help the students to over . These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. Wide Spread Frustration .7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. there is wide spread frustration among all people. leading to. As the school is but a miniature society. understand and indiscipline: 1. majority of people are. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. If this is done. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. Devaluation of Values . It does not prepare students for life. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. which results in agitation and aggression language. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully.2. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. 5.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. Defects of the educational System . Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. 3. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies.

5.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. fellow feeling. etc.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. sympathy and good will among the nations. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. 2. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. 2. co-operation. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. love. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. 2.democratic nature. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. 3. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. community development. 93 .2.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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V. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. 2. Emphasising this thing. Moreover. “All the citizens of the community.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. the invention of the printing press. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Define community. books. Then came newspapers. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room.3. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Now internet is being used.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Museums. art galleries. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. are increasingly used in education. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Hence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In fact.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. To make them achieve their aim. periodicals. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Crow and Crow write. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. He taught his students orally. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. led to the printing of books. During the course of time. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them.

In collaboration with the experts.3. languages. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Important happening inventions. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom.G. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. In the emphasis is on sound. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Various talks. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. dram appreciation. Thus. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. art. It enlightens public opinion. Reynolds. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. It is also an important source of entertainment. music. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. 2.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. rather than on picture. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. Effective means of presenting music. the place of importance. “Listening participation” in current history. current affairs and other areas. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Students listen various talks. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. 2. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. 101 .telecast. It stimulates curiosity and interests. A lot of work by way of pre. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. for the teacher through school broadcasts. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. the teacher still occupies.classroom teachers. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. Thus. social studies. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force.6. politics. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion.

mathematics. 5. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. projects or creative activities. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. fol classical music.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. Before presenting the programme. Participation of local teachers and pupils. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. Making learning an open system. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. at recreational centers. At present. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. at any place. development of lessons. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. Team-teaching demonstrations. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. travel talks. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. 3. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. at play. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. 4. speech. style. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. 102 . Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. at drawing room. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. School concerts. informal and non-formal education. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. plays. audibility and presentability.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4.4.2 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.3 Advantages of formal education 2.3.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.7 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .3.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.4.4.4 Limitations of formal education 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.6 2.3.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.3.4.4.LESSON 2.4 Non formal educational system 2.1 2.4.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.5 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.8 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.4.4.

Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. the temple. 4. the learner are acquainted. In ancient time in India. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. starting and ending at -a particular age.3. 6. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 3. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. say the Government or the private enterprise.4. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. To realize this objective of education. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. 7. it was mostly. 110 . know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. Education associated with a degree or certificate. open university. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. the most important agency of formal education. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. 8.. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. 2. the mass media et. 4. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.2. the community. 2.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and.4. compare formal and non formal system of education. 9. 5. 3. 2. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college.4. 2. you will be able to: 1.4. Education organised by some agency. his mental alertness. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. open school. imparted at the residence of the teacher. Education. the family. School is.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. 2.

Higher Education: Higher education. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years.3.4. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. or post secondary education. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. third stage. capacity. In general. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. the elements of language are first learned. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. as well as vocational education and training. such as a high school or secondary school. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals.2. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. 2. depending on the jurisdiction. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society.a secondary education. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Through early formal education.3. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. also called tertiary.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Some education systems have separate middle schools. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Concepts of proportion. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. or academic degrees. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. diplomas.4. structured education.

4. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.4. is an important agency of formal education. 2. late beginners etc. 3. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.which will help for nation's development.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. children with disabilities. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. Write any two characteristics of formal education? .3. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. and remote dwellers. Agencies can be classified as 2. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. What are levels of formal educational system? . 4. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . 2.

to help themselves. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. adding up to a true learning society.formal education. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. it is a more effective tool for rural development. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. admissions.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. Adiseshiah. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. i.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. staffed. planned. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. place of instruction. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. It unlocks the doors of development plans.e. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. Thus. open learning. curriculum.. It is much more responsive to needs and change. Open university. However. adults as well as children. systematic. continuing education and on the job oriented education. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. Therefore.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. until 1970 it had not been defined. It is functional. Non-formal education includes adult education.learning client take some learning objectives. According to Malcolm A. It is deliberate. etc. it has its own valid claim to reality. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. one could say that non-formal education is an active. systematic. financially supported life formal education. “Non-formal education should 113 .

S. place of education. 3. 5. To develop in the student. 4. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs.4. Preparation for future needs. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. 2. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. To help industrial workers to better their skills.e. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. age. i. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. evaluation etc. co-curricular activities. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs.” 2. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Process of sharing.4. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. self.4. modes of teaching. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. admissions. Flexibility in various aspects of education. 6.4.renewal. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. socialism. 7. national integration. curriculum. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. the Ideas of citizenship. exploring. Part-time education. 114 . international understanding.be marketable and vocationalised. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. 2. Lawrence.” According to H. Covering life span of an individual.S.learning pattern. It should lay emphasis on the self. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status.

6.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. 2.4. Universalisation of primary education. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. Eradication of adult literacy. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. school dropouts.4. publication and information dissemination. 2. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. working adults. 5. 4. To offer Secondary. 10. 9. 4. • 2. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. in villages and those who live in towns. 3. Senior Secondary. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 7. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. Technical. 115 . 3.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized.4. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 5. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods.4. 8.

self-employment iii. Institutions for formal education. 3. Again.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . 2. public libraries. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. 2. To increase knowledge and 2. others are formal and informal. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. centres of correspondence education. All-round development i. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. To better qualifications. Radio and television. library. etc. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs.2. farm. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. if organised in isolation. effective in modern societal context. Therefore. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.4. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. factory. 4. To make if.4. training centres in factories.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. etc.4.full time to learners – can be home.. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . open space.

6. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. . 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. radio. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Correspondence lesson. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Written tests. Teaching to face teaching. 117 . Lecturing T. 7. Define non formal education. Give examples of non formal education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . List out any two aims of non formal education.V. institution. Face Contact programmes. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning.

The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. b. Secondary level. 5. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Pre-school level. 2. Higher Secondary level and University level. 2. Primary level. Open University. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.2.4. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 2. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. 4. 3. 4.4. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. systematic. Open School. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.4. the college and the university come under this category. b. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. The school. a. a. School 3. adults as well as children.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 118 . educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.” 6. Formal and Non Formal 2. 7. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

K and Narang C. B. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. Gupta. (2008). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2003). P.4. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Dash. (2007).C. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Education in Emerging India. S. Anmol Publications Pvt. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. L. Theory and Principles of Education. J. Bhatia. (2008). Ltd. New Delhi : 119 .2. Mohanty. (2004). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Pahuja. (2005).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. K. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. N. N.

5.5.3.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5.7 2.LESSON 2.5 2.4.5.5.5.4.5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.2 2.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.6 2.5.3 Objectives of Open University 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.4.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.3.1 2.3.4.4.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.4 Need for Open University 2.5.5.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.5.5.5.3.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .4 Open University 2.

No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. economic field or such other fields. For them. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. 2. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. This knowledge may be in political field. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. Any person. industries. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education.3. know the need and objectives of open university.2. farmers. continuing education is a boon. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. 2. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. Thus. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. Under these circumstances.5. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person.5.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened.5. give the meaning. However. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India.5. you will be able to: 1. labourers and half educated individuals. characteristics of open university 4. It is a lifelong process. It is a continuous process.

deteriorating to his character and personality. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest.literate person. On the other hand. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs.V. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Persons engaged in health services. Thus. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas.3.V. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Doctors. After the achievement of independence. if he gets opportunity to develop them. Block Development Officers. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Throughout the country. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Radio. For them too continuing education is essential.directly related to his job. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. Radio and T. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. 2.5. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. T. are also contributing their might for the purpose. cultured and progressive. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Cinema. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. On the other hand.

are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. especially women. and Radio.. 7. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. 6. (16) liking. Inspite of the great efforts. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. 4. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. (13) psychology of child behaviour. 5.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely.3.5. habits of people of other lands. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. 2. (2) basic religious matters. (14) information about bringing up young children. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (10) first aid. Of course. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (15) music. 3. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases.V. (1) ancient history.5. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. 2.3. (6) folk stories. (7) folk songs. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 2. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. These books are not very useful. we have not been able to achieve our targets. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. (8) psychology of adults. (17) modern international and national events. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. 123 . This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life.

attendance restrict ion. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. It also attempts to pr ovide equality.4. 2. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. lack of time etc.5. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. of educational opportunities. NLM was launched in the year 2. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.

Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. d. No one is too old or too late to learn. it makes use of educational techno logy. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education.unobserved. 2. 2. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. 5. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. IGNOU was established in the year 6.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. 3. e. the higher the degree of openness. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. 4. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . but 125 . b. and in teaching. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e.4.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1.5. its education is not class room based but home based. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. c. Which was the first open university in India? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education is not a once for-all process.

Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. 126 . T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1.4. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. it a ims at wider and hig her. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. 4. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. 2. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. cho ice o f co ur ses. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. 2. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l.5.4. 5. 3. 3. 2. supplementing the existing provision. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. or who realised too late that they need it. Mo re o ver. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. who were deprived of t he same earlier. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities.5.who did not get it. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. 2. 4. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. 6.

no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. semi – literates.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. a state or nation. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Every day. school drop outs. 2. Self instructional materials. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. Laboratory works. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. you have learnt the concept. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. 127 . Therefore. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. a society. 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.4. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . In the present day world. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University.5. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 8. 3. 5. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. 7. 6. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 1. 2. 4. Tutor Comments. List out any four methods of Open University? . Correspondence tuition. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following.2. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates.

5. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 9. 8. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1985. cho ic e o f co u r ses. 8. a. 4. P r int med ia b. which may include house wives. 7. aspirants for continuing education. 128 . b. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 6. (1) ancient history. unskilled workers and other professionals. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals.ambitious learners. 2. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. its education is not class room based but home based. d. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. b. (2) basic religious matters. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. a. Explain the objectives. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. Broad casting lectures c. agricultural and industrial workers. 7. a. youth. 2. Television Lessons.5. 1988. 3. need and characteristics of Open University.

2. L. (2007). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.S. (2004). K. Modern Problems of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ltd. (2001). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 129 .K. Udaiveer. Recent trends in Non Formal Education.5. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. K and Narang C. R.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. (2004). Reddy.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. Examination reform. and teacher education. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. its causes and remedial measures. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Training teachers for all levels of education. which may claim the attention of those concerned. In Lesson 2. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. 133 . wastage and stagnation. examination.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. the education of women. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. All which is the need of the hour.

134 .

1.1.7 3.5 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.4 3. 135 .8 3.1.2 3.3 New initiatives.3.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.1.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.LESSON 3.1.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.2 EFA – How? 3.6 3.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1 3.1 EFA – For whom? 3.

Eradication of illiteracy (EDI).” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1.1. directed that. therefore. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. economic or cultural. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly.1. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. may be political. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. On the other hand. “The State shall 136 . In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. (EOI) 2. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. education received added importance and significance. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). understands the country. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. Continuing Education (CE) 1. 2. you will be able to: 1. Therefore. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. Eradication of Illiteracy. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. 3. social. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950.3. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL).

Therefore. After the attainment of independence.endeavour to provide. the national Government under. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. 137 . the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. rights and responsibilities. Universalization of Retention. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. It enables the parents to send their children to School. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . After the enrolment of the students in school is over. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Due to the adoption of democratic system. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Universalization of Enrolment. Continuing Education (CE). Even then we have not yet achieved the target. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Three Stages for Universalization. 3. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. present and future. 1995 (for upper primary stage). we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. It is safe to assure.3. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. 1990. 3. This target had to be revised to 1970. educational enterprise. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. Write Article 45. later to 1988. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. then to 1976.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. 138 .1. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. Therefore. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. UNESCO Bulletin states. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2.

Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. FELF. 3. In order to make the programme of education for all community. their social economic status and occupations. problem of literacy.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. creed. nutrition education and sports and games. and Women’s education programme should be improved. 9. Apart from primary education. Early childhood education should be streamlined. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. 10. 8. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. etc. 12. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. adolescent and adult. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. 6. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. their enrolment and retention. 11. Disabled. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. slum areas. The Social Education. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children.3. 3. NAEP. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Jams and Jellies.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. Emphasis must be given on health education. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. 139 . Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). sex. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. By undertaking survey. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. Education of Girls. rural areas. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country.1. Education of the Impaired. 5. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate.

Wastage and Stagnation. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. 4. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4.e. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1.3. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. 3.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Expand MLL and SSA . Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 .3.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.

(a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. Social Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. Personal Factors .first stage of education. it is considered as wastage. School Factors . Familial Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.

can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. 7. Enumerate the causes of Wastage.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. . 142 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Define Wastage. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. .

The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .The following factors. school or society.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Societal Factors .1.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. They are described hereunder :1. Family Factors . relating to home. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. Personal Factors . in his home.3. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. School Factors . rural or urban 3. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.

List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . 144 . casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. uniforms. mid-day meals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define Stagnation? 9. stationary.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. etc. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.

Hartog Committee. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Universalization of Provision b. improvement of curriculum. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. therefore. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. 3.1.3.1. b. 4. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. 2. a.” 3. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. a. 4. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. 145 . Universalization of Retention 2. 3. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. “The State shall endeavour to provide.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Universalization of Enrolment c. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. Minimum Levels of Learning b..1. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. 6. directed that. 3. a. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA.

introduce graded curriculum. Personal Factor b. Crescent Publishing Corporation.7. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. T. Social Factors 8. a. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations.N. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Problems of Elementary Education. improve examination system. Familial Factors c.K. Sharma. b. 3.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. (2008).1. (2001). Hemchand. New Delhi: 146 . S. School Factors d. (2007).K. 9. S. a.

3 Modern reforms of examination 3.2.2.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.7 Open book examination 3.2.7 Let us sum up 147 .4.5.2.LESSON 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2.2.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.5.2.5 New evaluation procedures 3.2 Grade System 3.5.2.2.2.4.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2.4 Question banks 3.1 3.5.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.1 Problems of examination 3.2.2.6.4.2.5.5.2.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.3.3.2.2.5.2 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.

3.8 3. Besides.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. 3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. you will be able to: 1. but on the other. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. 3. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. suggest the new evaluation procedures. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.2. 3.9 3. 3.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.2.2.3.2.2.2.

3. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. etc. hostel facilities. which the educational authorities have to face. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. The following steps should be taken up.2. etc. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. If the students are in sufficient number.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. roadside Romeoism. etc. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. waiting rooms for girl students. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. 149 . They develop secondary sex characteristics. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools.. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. They may cause problems relating to discipline. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. 3. schools for them wherever necessary. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.2. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. the examination system has an important role to play. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. teachers. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. appointment of paper-setters. 3. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. the net-work of examination system has also become vast.2. Instruction. public interested in education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 150 . school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. conduct of internal examinations. It is considered as a major sub-system. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. public administrators and statesmen. assessment and Finance.4.

2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members.4. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. etc. scrutinizers. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. etc. training of examiners. tabulators. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. announcement of results. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. introducing objective-based testing. etc. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. establishing reliability. 3. examiners. etc. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. etc. pursuing objective-oriented instruction.2. invigilators. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation.printing and distribution of question papers. validity and practicability. values. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters.

it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. may also discredit them. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. lack of objectivity etc. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. halo-effect.4. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. 2) From the angle of content of education. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. 7) In connection with the question papers. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. 152 . Subjects. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. it s a common experience that subjectivity. stereotyped questions. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc.. 3) With respect to method of teaching. Rote memorisation. do not appeal to the students and parents. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed.2. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. it can be said that they become examination-oriented.. which they are expected to study. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. takes the place of comprehensive learning. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. 3. Vagaries in making..

What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. List any two merits of examination. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Question Books may be developed in all schools.. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. revaluation. may be introduced. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .develop true love for education. . Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t.a part of internal assessment. 4. Spot valuation. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. 153 . (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. etc. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. re-numbering of answer scripts. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.

When a person chooses to work extra. skills are given importance. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. attitudes. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. Every paper is treated equal.5.2.5. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Their interests. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success.3. 3. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. In actual practice. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . he is given extra credit points.2.2. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. The new scheme of assessment. It is complicated. In this system. The students can take any course offered in any department. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests.

this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.discipline. In the new system. The human error of evaluation is ± 10.good.2. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. Groupism is encouraged. These weightages are called credits. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. While designing syllabus. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning.poor. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. This system reduces comparison of marks. courses can have weightages defined.5. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. poor. or as a 4 credit course. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. only the total credits to be earned is specified. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. v. An example is a seminar. 3. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents.

3. However. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.5.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. 156 . in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.2. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.2. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. 3.5.2. 3. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.5. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students.

setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.5. List any four new evaluation procedures. . Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard.2.2.3. However. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. 6.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. 3. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Therefore. In the hierarchy. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. There are no proper procedures for selection. recruitment. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization.

2. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. taking up the follow-up programmes. 158 . assisting the schools in their qualitative development..6.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. disciplinary problems. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. wherever necessary. books are followed. whether the syllabus has been covered. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. 3.. inspecting the class-room teaching. submitting of the inspection reports. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. finding out whether the prescribed text. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. finding out the adequacy of. of late. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. qualifications. Academic inspection. requirements. etc.qualified personnel.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. being realised as two different functions. in a sense. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. laboratory equipment. When they are fully realised. staff. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. etc. interpersonal relationships and so on. in contrast. library books. 1. school buildings. They are. playgrounds. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. complaints and compliments.

educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors.Ed. 159 . to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level.. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. courses. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. Insistence on specialisation in the B. modern. once in five years. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. In the light of these conceptualisation. at least. Similarly. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. In the case of departmental candidates.Ed. or. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. M. 3. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. aptitude.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. their professional knowledge. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors.. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life.2. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. course in either educational. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments.

a. 2. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Grade System.2. b. c. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Administration. a. 3. 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. a. 160 . It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. b. 3. assessment and Finance. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. b.2. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 3. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. 4. 5.2. d. Instruction.

Open book examinations. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. K.2. Question banks. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. a. Educational Reforms. S. 5. 7. a. History and Problems of Education in India. a. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . K. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. (2002). and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. c. (2004).4. Problems of Education in India. b. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. b. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.a part of internal assessment. Multiple sets of question paper. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Vaidya. New 161 . b. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. 3. (2005). R and Sharma.

4 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3.3. 162 . 2.9 3.3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.5 3.3 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3. impact of Higher Secondary Education. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3.3.2 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. 3.LESSON 3.3.6 3.1 3.8 3.3. you will be able to: 1.10 3. identify the needs of rural India and social. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3. 4.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.7 3. 3.3.3.3. 5.

The Calcutta Madras. University Education.e. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. Consequent on the recommendations. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. Similar is the case with some other States.. etc. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage..3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta.3. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. 10 years of general Secondary Education. The. i. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. the Banaras Sanskrit College. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages.3. e. 8 years of general education.. and 3 years of First Degree Course. 2. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. Commission emphasised to continue.e. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919.specialisation programmes 3.g.. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . in Andhra Pradesh.

historical. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . Provision for transfer of credits to students. and. 8. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. who desire to change from one stream to another. 5. However. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. educational channels.confidence in students. 5) to help for the social. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. 6. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . 10. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. social. b. habits of hard work and develop .so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures.a sense of dignity of labour. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. 3. to imbibe. economical and political. cultural and economic development of the country. 7. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. to prepare. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 .3. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. is also a plus point . It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students.

. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. and. to develop national character. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. Psychologically. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. at the other. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Sociologically it is undesirable. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. Philosophically it is not the conception. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. democratic living. The General Educational Spectrum. cooperativeness. international understanding. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . and that required to enter the tertiary level. Here the choice of subjects is provided for.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. social justice.national integration. etc. 3. cultural and' religious tolerance. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X.3. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. on one hand. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. 1. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies.

Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. 3. and vocations based on dairy-farming. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. physics or mathematics.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. the rural areas have suffered very much. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. commerce.3. professional. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. fish culture. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced.— tube-wells. such as Agriculture. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. Science. In the matter of language. technical. medical plants. In our country. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. rural health. 2. All these need for an. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. educational and cultural services. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. or other machinery. technological. In the vocational spectrum. Biology. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. horticulture. India is a land of villages. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. 166 . semi-skilled and unskilled levels. Commerce and other disciplines. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. commerce. Agriculture is the main occupation. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. industrial agricultural production is growing. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. chemistry. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. vegetable growing. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. interests and aptitudes of the students.. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. can be ensured. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely .. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . 4. In this it may be concluded. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. In time.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. etc. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging.etc. There had been favourable reaction from the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. and the needs. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. and 5. In this way. social justice. the local resources available. 3.

a. (2008). (2005). to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. b. b. 3. B.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. S. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. a. habits of hard work and develop . Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. we studied the history. objectives. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. a. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Mohanty. 3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2007).3. Calcutta University Commission 2. 3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Anmol Publications Pvt.3. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.C. J. Vocational Sepctrum. (2001). Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. New Delhi : 168 . 2.3. General Educational Spectrum and b. J. Dash. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage.a sense of dignity of labour.3.3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. to imbibe. Ltd. N. 3. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.K.

4.6 3. but the lighting of a fire”. Education contributes to human development.5 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.4.4.11 3.LESSON 3.4.2 3.4.4.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.13 3.4.9 3.3 3.4.4.12 3.4.4.4.4.8 3.10 3.1 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.7 3.4. social and 169 .4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.

can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. While women constituted only 9.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. There is a close connection between education and development. For the first time in the history of India. higher education of girls developed immensely. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. Teaching and Fine Arts. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. These courses were. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. although we have miles to go. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. family. you will be able to: 1. economic. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. In the post —independence period.higher education in particular. Education .3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .4. cultural and political development of the individual. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. Home Economics.4. community and nation is universally acknowledged. analyze the women and distance education. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. Dr.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. The relevance of women’s education to social. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. During the year 1937. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. particularly 170 . Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. 3. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. Nursing. 3. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far.

There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. we have more than 1200 institutions. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. Yet. 3. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. 3. Even today.T Women University.N.0 Today. out of 9200 and odd colleges. Coimbatore. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . In the rest of the country.D.4. in our country. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).9 27.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. The idea of women’s education for equality. Mumbai.1 24.4.9 14. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Kodaikanal. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.0 32.0 16.0 43. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.2 29.4. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.women. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. Mother Teresa Women University. levels and professions.2 22.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.1 31. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. In 1950-51. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.65 lakhs in 1994-95.

27 89.4%) prefer Arts subjects.1 respectively.47 65.56 64.4. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.36 3. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .83 47.73 10.66 66. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.63 Female % 34.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.53 34.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.46 82. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .17 52. 3.34 33.that of boys.1 and 14.54 12.4.44 35. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.

According to a survey. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. 3. and coeducation may spoil her character. In college. Thus. irrelevance of the content of education. The major hurdles. financial difficulty of the parents. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. 173 . which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. curriculum not suited to their requirements. she will only learn fashion. In every third family. They gave up their studies to enter home life. particularly. promoted and increased. what is the need for higher education for her. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. Also. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. marriage is a very common I factor. Book banks should be established. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education.4.hinders the girls from getting higher education. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. etc.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. distance of the college or university from home. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters.

3. Geographic distance of educational institutions.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. is the only tool for realising empowerment.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. resources and socio . Education.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. It also brings about 174 . It enables to study. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. space. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. 3. It is a productive investment. and the limitations of the conventional education system. Full-time employment. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation.4. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face.economic disabilities faced by women. which is the most dynamic factor of development.4. There are constraints of time. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. Empowerment in a nutshell. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Distance education is a boon to women.

The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. empowerment means being assertive. Women are partners in development. for full development of our human resources. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. higher learning.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. This can be achieved through reflection. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. The major objectives of women's higher education. 3.4. education of women must be given priority in national plans. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. legal awareness and economic independence. Empowerment is an active. on their own. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. education of women is of paramount importance. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. has to be implemented at the earliest. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. 3. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. which is pending for a long time. But their number is small. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. Better opportunities. Scholarships and concessions for women. 176 . through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. which had been the sole domain of men.4. will encourage them to venture new grounds. The educational institutions. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. The local administration.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. Reservation for women. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. especially so in the developing countries. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. who are eager to take up courses.

participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.9%). engineering and related technologies (16. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Also. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.8%). According to Lindy Hyam. 3. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. especially in developing countries like African countries. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. But. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. capacities etc. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations.000 women in the country. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Chief Executive. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. Australia. IDP Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.1%) and architecture and building (38. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. talents.3 percent. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2.4..

SNDT Women’s University. A.4. Kodaikanal. community and the nation. 4. create the right attitude towards life. A. Annakodi. 3.R. 43% 6. 178 . S.4. individuals and society b. (2000). New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Rajasthan 5.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. R. 4. Mother Teresa Women University.to the family. Coimbatore. (2007). a. R.4. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. 3. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. SNDT Women’s University. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Centre for Women’s Studies. Coimbatore.K.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. (2005). Pattanaikj. Mumbai. (2008).C. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Mishra. Women and Education. Mumbai. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. R. S. 3. Women Education. 2. Rao. and Swain. Women Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. and Suryalatha.

LESSON 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5.5.9 3.5. whole. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .11 3.1 3.personality of children in and out of school. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.8 3.10 3.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.2 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.6 3.5.7 3.5.5. They should be trained.5.5.4 3.5.

the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. Shorter working hours. understanding and strong desire for international peace.5.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. you will be able to: 1. 3. 180 . 3. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. national consciousness. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. 4. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. know the pre service and in service training facilities. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Lack of physical facilities. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. social and emotional integration. 5. international. equality and justice. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction.5. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. and national character. understand the training teachers for Primary.

Ed. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. and M. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education.Ed. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. who have not been trained earlier. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. Lop-sided curriculum. students.. the secondary teacher education. etc. (NCERT) New Delhi. Inadequate training in practical skills.5. higher secondary teacher education. the centre. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . the primary teacher education. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. and the collegiate teacher education. levels. At the diploma level. a Diploma course and a Degree course. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education.Less qualified teacher educators.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. it is called the Extension teacher Education. the state Government. 3. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training.5. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. Depending on the levels. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. 3. it is called the In-service teacher education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. inservice and extension education programmes. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers.. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. If the student teachers are working teachers. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them.

Educational teehnology cells. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. Also Guidance Bureaux. non-formal. state Institutes of Educat ion. Expand NCERT 2. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Science Education units. are established. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . collegiate cells.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. extensio n service. depart ments etc. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. 3. Education cells.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Evaluation unit. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 .5. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose .

The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. schools and sister institutions. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . to offer consultative services. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . audio visual aids. to prescribe conditions for recognition. despite its vast expansion. material conditions relating to libraries. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. to improve curricular programmes. should be improved on a top priority basis. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department.. degree. and so on. primary and secondary school teachers. which help breaking isolation from one another .post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . to ensure teacher competence.. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. laboratories.Ed.. which should include experience in the primary schools too. and 183 .Ed. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre.

Induction Courses.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. methodology and evaluation. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Psychology of Students. Agriculture. Modern Methods of Evaluation. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. The problem.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Modern Techniques of Teaching. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Hence. Organisation of Content Courses. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. etc. Meanwhile. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. and XII. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. not came up once again. Workshops. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. whether they should have professional education or.secondary education. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. etc. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. though no pre-service training. To meet this exigency. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. 184 .

Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. training. 3. Degree. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.Ed.A. courses and M. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. For re-orienting the teachers.Ed.Ed. Post-Graduates also undergo B. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.S. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.5.’s are elig ible for M.. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.Ed.A. These facilities are available for regular students. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. (Education) and M. M. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.. All B Ed. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. Ajmer. in Education. Pre-service training is for those.’s for Ph. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.. State Institutes of Education.D. Degree and M..Ed..Ed.. Courses leading to B.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. (Education) are organized by 185 . Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.

So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 3.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. 6. of conduct—written or unwritten. established by tradition and teachers of the past. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. 186 . 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and B... code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.). . and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.A.List any two code of conduct for teachers? .A. 5. (Ed). However.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. (Ed. Hence the employability of M. What is the role of ERIC? .5. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. they should be conscientious . Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.

3. The necessity is however this. b. b. a. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training.5. 3. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. they should be conscientious. 3. Shorter working hours. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Bhopal. 4. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. 2. Ajmer. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 4.3. 6.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. a. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. Explain code of conduct for teachers. 5. 187 .10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.5. 2. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 3.5. a. However. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. National Council of Educational Research and Training. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. Dearth of new technology of teaching.

Teacher Education. B. Tewari. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. P.N. Teacher Education.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda.D. J. (2009). and Teacher Education. Mohanty. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .3. Publication Pvt. A. Corporation. (2003). (2010). Ltd Aggarwal.5.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

communicable diseases and their prevention. economic and educational developments. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. In lesson 4. 191 .HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. common ailments of children. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. objectives. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. consuming the right amounts becomes important. objectives. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. Since food is the source of nutrients. If the diet is poor. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. objectives and role of the physical education. preservation of nutrients. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. the focus is on the school health programmes. In lesson 1. nutritional deficiency diseases. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. The person’s environment is equally important.

192 .

e. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i. 193 .1.LESSON 4.1. The programmes of school health education are quite important. emotional and social.8 4.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody.1. It is a miniature society.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.4 4.11 4.1.10 4.1.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1.5 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.7 4.1.2 4. mental. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.6 4.3 4.9 4.1.1. physical.1.1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.

Instruction. 3. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 8. 4. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. 2. content of health education.. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. to his family and to the community at large.1. list the common ailments of children 3.1. 5. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 7. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 6. To develop healthy health habits among children. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. you will be able to: 1. understand school health programmes 2.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To develop certain skills concerning health. training of teachers and evaluation. 194 . e. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. To give information regarding health rules.g. 4. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. 10. cleanliness and healthful living. explain the importance of First aid 5. 9.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. 4. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. training in first aid and etc. 11. know the need for sex education. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself.

The school buildings should be spacious. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. as described below 1. 3. suitable furniture. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . (ii) communit y healt h. cleanliness weeks.C. Vaccination for small pox. is imperative. organisation of school health days.G. First aid facilities should be made readily available. (xii) smoking education etc. Triple Antigen Vaccination.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. There should be good drainage facilities. play festivals. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. excusing late. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. “Play-for-all” programmes. The surroundings of schools should be clean. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. 2. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. vaccination. 2. proper doors and windows.. direct lighting. (viii) first aid. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. minimizing the travelling distance. (x) choice aid use of health services and products.4. B. inoculation against cholera.. (vi) nutrition education. (v) safety education. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. 5. etc. (vii) physio logy o f exercises.1. (xl) mental health.coming or absence. typhoid. ( iii) sanit at io n. B. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. 4. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. Arranging better transportation facilities. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. The flooring should not be damp. There should be regular water supply. arranging class rooms in the ground floors.

fainting (epileptic fit). The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. if epidemic is wide-spread. • Take nutritious food. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. etc. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. drowning. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. • Keep all rooms clean. poisons. sports and games in the interest of their health.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. isolate and notify. 196 . cuts. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. D. • Close the schools. insect stings. dislocations. bleeding. wounds.. fractures. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. C. • Find out the cases. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. and other accidents. • When sleeping in groups. scalds. burns. • Have adequate rest and sleep.

They have less resistence to diseases than adults. backache. List out the Health curriculum 3. These diseases are called communicable diseases. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. 2. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses.1. They are: i) The incubation stage. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. So they easily get illnesses. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. There are three stages in any communicable disease. chicken pox.. cough. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. measles etc. asthma. which are – cold. tuberculosis. 4. polio. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. Mention the school health programmes. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 4. pain in the joints. water or bodily contact.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. fever.1. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. headache.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Once these germs get into the body.

• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. unhygienic bottle feeding. After three or four days of fever. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. The symptoms include cold. Mumps . In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Tonsilitis . unhygienic living conditions. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. cough and fever. The following are the common communicable diseases. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. This is caused by cold virus. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Ear Infections . Measles .is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Important salts and water are lost in this process. eating food which is not clean. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. etc. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Scabies . Diarrhoea . Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. The child may have fever. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery.This disease is caused by bacteria. head-ache and cough. There may also be fever accompanied by cough.It is caused by measles virus. Hence it is called a killer disease. Others make the children very weak. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Throat is affected. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Common Cold . He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. 198 . Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Hence liquid diet is recommended.When a child suffers from scabies. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. sugar and water. Children catch cold from persons having cold.

The child may also have diarrhoea. raised pink spots appear on head. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. If proper treatment is not given.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. face and waist. the child may die. What are communicable diseases? 6. the child is not able to breathe. Diphtheria . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. separate. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. Expand DPT . As the disease progresses. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks.• • • • Chicken Pox . 5. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. Enlist the common ailments of children. 199 .This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Shortly. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. It begins with fever. By scratching he causes secondary infections. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. Typhoid .

Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. drowning. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. head injury. 5. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. eye injury.4. swelling. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. 4. Cuts and Bruises . cuts. bruises. man-woman behaviours.1. films and jokes. fiction. Wounds . wounds. bleeding. Sex is popular. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. etc. 4.g. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. dislocation.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. so-called sex books and periodicals. scorpion stings. Drowning .Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. In such cases. It is both biological and psychological. snakebites. It has its rightful place in education too. 3. 200 .Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. sprains. simple fractures. fainting. 2.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. sprains. and Community Work and Social Service. it is a subject of art. and films. Sprains .Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. exciting and body-oriented. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation.1.

Should the boys and girls. health. try experimenting with their bodies. the religious organisations. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. sex education is being recommended in schools. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. The values of life. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world.. the school. but preserve them from disaster and disease. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. In today's liberal and interactive society. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. B. 2. Hence. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. The home. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. celibacy are age. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. they would be treading the path of sure doom. In secondary schools.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. 3. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. in their ignorance. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it.old values. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems.

but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. What are the major components of Sex Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. the school health programmes. there will no crisis in its implementation. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. C. common ailments of children. first aid and sex education. Teacher education institutions are. when the courses are already overloaded.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. 202 . 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. hence. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. communicable diseases and their prevention. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions.1. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. offering sex education as a part of their curricula.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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Rickets is the deficiency of 5. 209 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Mention the food nutrients 2. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

minerals.2.4. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. 210 . Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Let us talk about each of these aspects.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. If you look at the definition carefully. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s .2.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned.

A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress).1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier.2. People in the east of our country prefer rice. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. There is no point. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems.g. construction labourer). Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. 4. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet.6.g. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . Even within given States there is considerable variation. A balanced diet is specific firstly. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. the social and religious practices of that region. In the case of adults. In other words. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . paratha and poori. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. Preferences/customs are also important. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. sex. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables.one in the morning and the other at night. it is also specific to a given activity level . a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. moderate or heavy work. activity level and physiological stress. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. dosa are typical of the south. These are: region where the person resides and income. for example.sedentary.

Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. Among the social factors. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting.planning the diet. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. Even among flesh foods. as important for the rich as for the poor. In addition to these. customs. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. taboos related to food may play an important role. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. income plays a vital role. As income increases. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. If you think of your own religious group. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. fat and sugar tend to increase. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. One person may be fond of milk products. These determine the acceptability of foods. Judicious selection of food is. however. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. however. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. for example. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. As you read this discussion. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. vegetables and fruits. however. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. One must. However. Having more money. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. nuts and dry fruits. while another may hate them. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. Including these 212 .

don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. if the teachers have good food habits. 213 . 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. over-eating or under. List out any two healthy food habits.eating is hazardous. fruits. 17. mouth. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. green leaves. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. eggs . 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. but they should be thrown away. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. Define balanced diet. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. meat. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 8) Walk a while after eating. etc. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. 8. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. For this. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands.

9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Night blindness. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease.4. Explain food nutrients 4. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. a. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.2. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. 4. In fact. Keratomalacia 3. good nutrition is essential for good health. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Vitamin D 5.2. When the diet is inadequate. c. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. preservation of nutrients. d. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . 4. b. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Bitot’s spots.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Corneal xerosis. Discuss good food habits. e. Beri Beri 4. Conjuctival xerosis.

minerals. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Food and Nutrition Education. b. R. a. Health and Nutrition Education. (2008). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. S. a . U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s .M. 7. Food should be consumed after eating well. (2004). R. Nutrition Science. mouth. Hands. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. 4.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum.2. Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. (2008). Food and Nutrition Education.C. b. (2009). Chopra. Sri Lakshmi B.N. P.6. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. A Text Book of Foods. 8. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. (2005).

8 4.3.6.LESSON 4.2 4.12 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.6.6.7 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3.3.3.5 4.3.4 4.3.3.3.11 4.13 4.2 Impact on economic development 4. 216 .3 Impact on Education 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3.3.3.10 4.1 4.3.3.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3 4.3.9 4.3.

A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. characteristics and changes for himself. aims at providing the younger generation. the stress is. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. family planning and sex education etc. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. economic and educational development 3. There is some difference. and the consequences of these processes. Population Education. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. state the meaning. 4. understand the importance of small family norm 5. the causes of population change. objectives and need for population education 2.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. community. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. 4.3. 217 .3. describe the impact of population growth on social.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. his societ y and the world. It is not sex education.3. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. It is a much wider co ncept. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. therefore. Whenever we talk of sex education. his family. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as.4. you will be able to: 1. population characteristics.

5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. the society. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two objectives of Population Education. Define Population Education 2. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. the nation and the world.4.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual.3. the family. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.

Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. When the family is small.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. the family programmes are also handicapped. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.3. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population.3. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. which will not be possible without population control. economic and educational development of the country. With the larger families. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. health and happiness of its citizens. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. 219 . Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. 4. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty.6. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. 4. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. Every second two thousand children are being born. Family is considered as a social unit.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed.

unemployment. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. in parks and other places of public gatherings.. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. 4. Many students herded in a small room. toilets. In developing countries.e. and so on. i. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. 4. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.3.6. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. facility for drinking water.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. organization index and material index. heavy intern I migration etc.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. Swollen cities. teacher index. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. in buses and trains. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. 220 . in cinema halls and theatres. pollution of the environment. lack of proper health care. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development.6. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production.3. The gulf between them is widening further.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.

The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. There would be poor library facilities. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Social Studies Statistics on population education. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff.3. and laboratory equipments. bar graphs etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.. even text books would be in short supply. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Hindi and English. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. reproduction. can be taken up. less budget for education. less space facilities. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. family planning etc. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Regional Language. can be studied in science and health education. blank verses etc. essays. 221 . Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. There would be very few audiovisual aids. thus. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies.

Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 3. Bihar. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. deaths.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Canada. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 15.4.3. 5. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Children may compare two families. 11. 2. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. causes of deaths etc. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . 12. Children with the help of parents. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. China. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. 14. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. 10. area and average density of population. Brazil. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 4. 8. United States of America. West Bengal. Uttar Pradesh. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 13. 7. 9.

how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. 16. 17. values and role children etc. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people.be opened in their schools. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. preferences for sex. The question. we have no right to stop 223 . It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important.3. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. age at marriage. Comparing life in various respects in two families. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 18. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size.

which education can only do. and the child survival components of the news: program. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. “He who is responsible for population growth. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage.their entry into the world”.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. on an overall basis. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. Since the program's inception. at varying places in different regions. however.4-6. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .3. continued . 4. fertility levels have declined throughout the country.were implemented 224 . More than 45 years ago..to emphasize family planning services. The Family Welfare Program. especially the expansion of child immunization services . For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. should be overcome at the intellectual levels.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.

Moreover. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. At these meetings. In October 1997. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. reliance on local women as community health workers. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. expansion of services to unmarried women. a focus on health promotion. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. Local programs vary in their approaches. men. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free.earlier than the safe motherhood components. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. and the World Conference on Women. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. In April 1996. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. Therefore. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. and nominal fees for services. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. the community appears willing to pay for services.

family. What are the goals of RCH? 4. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. economic and educational development 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Describe the impact of population growth on social.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. 226 . Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. 1997). nation and the world. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. Its main purposes are to create awareness. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers.emphasizing the needs of the client. community.3. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. involving the community.

4.4. United States of America. 5. 227 . The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. 3. 6. a. b. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. his family. area and average density of population. population characteristics. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. his society and the world. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.3. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. 7. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. b. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. and the consequences of these processes. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Brazil. bar graphs.” 2. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. a. less budget for education. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. the causes of population change. China. a. characteristics and changes for himself. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. Canada. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. less space facilities. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b.

14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Modern Problems of Education. (2002). (2005).K.3.4. (2004). A. Modern Trends in Indian Education. T. Coimbatore. Bhende. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Principles of Population Studies. N. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. (1992). Udaiveer. Reddy. Jayapoorni. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Centre for Women’s Studies. Changing attitudes to Education in India. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. 228 . V. (2005). Ltd. J. Kantikar. Ltd.

7 4.4.1 4.11 19.4.8.8.3 4.4.4 Lead up games 4.4.4.1 Minor games 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4 4.8.4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.4.6 4.3 Indigenous games 4.10 4.5 4.LESSON 4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4.2 4.9 4.4.4.4.4.2 Major games 4.4.8.

state the meaning of Physical Education 2. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. The concept of physical education has been made broader. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. classify the different types of games. 4.4. moral fitness and emotional fitness. you will be able to: 1. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. perseverance. team spirit. the youth of the country. leadership and balance in defect.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. full records of physical activities should be maintained.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. as it should 230 .” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3.4. mental alertness. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools.4. which forms its most valuable assets. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. social fitness. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities.4.

To be more precise. obedience to rules. Therefore. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Every individual is a part of society. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. leadership. team spirit. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. They are inseparably united together. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. The educational efforts at home. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. They go hand in hand. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education.

P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. ment al.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. C.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences.” Montaigue writes. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. Buck has observed that 232 . H.4. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. game and sports. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. Rousseau states. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. Regarding the significance of physical education. a sound health. 4. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. pleasing manners. nor body but the whole man.” The Secondary Education Commission. Just like Education. Physical exercises. mo ral.

Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.” 4. coordinative abilities. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. speed. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. efficiency and character. elegance. we must exercise the whole human being. etc. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. initiative. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems.4. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. flexibility and power. happiness. endurance.” In brief. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. resourcefulness and smartness. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. 233 .These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society.a properly directed physical education should result in health. “If we wish to develop the whole being. Froebel says. strength. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief.

” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. should help in the spiritual development of the student. including all racial groups and historical ages. poetry and painting.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. plagues and famines. its adherents and its enemies. While wars. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. If no opportunity is provided to the students. 234 (i) (ii) . Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. in greater or lesser degree. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. Tournaments foster this sentiment. Every age has its artists. they may form gangs. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. systems of government. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. these fundamental things have always been present. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups.

to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 235 . to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. B. obedience. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. self. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.\ to develop perseverance. bravery and interest in games and sports. to develop tolerance. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit.sacrifice. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. 3. respect for rules. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. etc. 2. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . Write any two importance of Physical Education.

injuries among pupils should be made. is essential. 16. Always keep the whistle ready. 236 1.4.H.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J.4. Be in the uniform. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Act as a leader. . 15. Be self-confident. 4. 11. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 12. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. 14.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Emergency care procedures should be followed. and readmission after they have recovered. 2. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 3.4. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. 7. Keep the field ready for the activities. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Be punctual. Be sportive. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Usually parents. 10. and. Inform health principles. 6. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. 8. Be well-prepared. students. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. defects. Haag. Posture screening should be done. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 9. 13. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. 5. 4.

The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. less equipment and less expense.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Moreover. frolic and jo y. 2. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character.4. Indigenous games. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Such inst incts as imitation.8. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. 4. 1.4.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. 4. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. As such they are well enjoyed by children. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. their development is handicapped. 4. Lead up games. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. 237 . the play. chasing.

wherever the kids assemble. Shuttle Badminton. They are rules approved by the International Associations. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. Soft Ball. The dimension of the posts and nets. Cricket. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. on mountain tops and on river beds. zig zag relay. hitting. These games require varied skills such as running. with implements or without implements. over ball pass Relay. Except a few games. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. stopping. Tennis.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. boosting. On lawns. benefit in playing minor games. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Hockey. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. snatching the kerchief.. They are played for a shorter duration. driving.4. finding the partner. Dodging. spiking. pitching. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. Jumping.8. Basket Ball. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. under ball pass Relay. muffling. Throwing. the number of players and substitutes. Khokho. couple tag. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Ball Badminton. the games can be modified according to convenience. Kabaddy etc. heading. While many of them are played in the open playfields.With a very few rules. Hopping. dribbling. bowling etc. some of them are played indoors. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Jump the stick clay and so on. women take part most of the games. the play equipment. on hard courts. 4. For each game the rules are many. trapping. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Tennikoit. skipping. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Volley Ball. catching. on sea-shore. 238 .

death. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.4. birth. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. 7. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. they are in existence. They have an abundant social value.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out some major games. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. these games being popular. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 4. festivals connected with religion and public functions.4. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Kho-kho. An example for indigenous game is 8. While observing the players in action. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball.8. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. All the fundamental tactics. and . On occasions like marriage. For example.8. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. Games may be classified as 6.

Posture screening should be done. a. a. Schools should help students to keep them mentally.4. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. 3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. b.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. b. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. a. to develop physical stamina. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. 4. physically and emotionally fit and alert. to secure physical health b. 3. 5. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. Briefly discuss the different types of games.4. a. Minor and Major 240 . 2. d. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. b.4. 4. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. aims and objectives and need of physical education.4. 4. c. 4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers.

K. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Kabaddy 7. Shuttle Badminton. G. Physical Education and Sports. Tennikoit. Cricket. Mohanty. Khokho. Aggarwal. Ball Badminton. 4. Hockey.C. 241 .12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Volley Ball. Krishna murthy. (2009). Modern Trends in Indian Education.4.6. Handbook of Physical Education. J. (2008). J. Tennis. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Khokho 8. Soft Ball. J. Health. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Basket Ball. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Foot-ball. Ltd. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2008). (2005).

LESSON 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.5.5.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.4 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.10 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.7 4.5.1 Natural Environment 4.9 4.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5.2 4.1 4.5.5.5.5.6 4.5.3 4.11 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.5.8 4.

correlate environmental education with school subjects 4.5. 4. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Awareness. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. 3. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. it covers the following elements: 1.5. The best place to start such learning is school. list out the types of environment 3. 2.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. role of teacher in environmental conservation. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. education about the environment and education through the environment. aesthetic and educational factors. Evaluation Ability. Broadly.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1.educat ion for the environment. Knowledge. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Participation. 243 . 4. 4. social. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. 3. Essential knowledge about the Environment. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. economic. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. 5. Skills. you will able to: 1. Attitude. 2. Details are given below: I. 6.5. political. population explosion and resource depletion could be. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment.

Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. 2. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. F. 244 . mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. • Biological magnification E.B. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Oxidants Other pollutants. a. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. D. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1.

Persuasion: i. 4. Family planning ii. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. 2. Intrauterine device iii. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Abortion iv. c. The pill ii. Birth control through education b. 2. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Use of medical science i. Socio-economic measures. B. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology.3. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Sterilisation. economic. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. III. Control of population growth a. 3. The human ecosystem II. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical.

Water pollution abatement. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1983). 246 . Air pollution abatement ii. Define Environmental Education. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. 2. e) Recycling. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. 3. (UNESCO. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. 3.

to his needs. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. -other.5.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. animals and other organisms (biotic). fax agricultural apparatus. 4. These are biotic components.5. way is called environmental or ecological factor. He modifies according”.5. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . A change in one brings about a change in the other. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.5. Biological environment The biological environment. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. Any constituent or condition of the environment.other components of the environment. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.5.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. They interact with each.4. b. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. telex. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions.5. includes the plants. a.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.

natural way of controlling pests. reasons. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. nuclear warfare. need for conservation. preserving the watersheds. role of trees in building economy. etc. trees reducing noise pollution. etc. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. alternate sources of energy. effects o f CFC. industrial pollut io n. river systems. sources. effects.. over exploitation of ground water. excellent recreation sites. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . wars and hazards of war. greenhouse effect. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. explosion deforestation. maintaining the ecological diversity. ozone depletion. preventing siltation of dams. History The rise and fall. water scarcity. change in climate may be added. of civilizations. noise pollution. (ii) Air pollution. desertification 248 . use of pesticides. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. air pollutants from industries. extinction of species. sources of pollut ion. solar cookers. balance of nature. food chain and food-web. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. need for bio-diversity. industrial survey. population. social studies. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. windmills. evolution. t heir role in preventing pollution. importance of nitrogen cycle. nuclear energy. ozone layer deplet ion. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. acid rain. biogas plants. are the topics which may be taught in History. noise control. relation between population and pollution. mineral survey. use of medicinal plants. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. supplying timber for various uses.

Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 4. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. animal and plants.5. 11. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 10. 14. aims and scope. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 6. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. 5. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 13. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. group discussions and seminars. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 3. 8. 2. Peepal and Tulsi. 9. Organising conferences. 4. 7. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise.may be inc ded in Geography. 249 . Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Providing. 12. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man.

and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. especially plastics. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. used oils down the drain. Never put any left over chemicals. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. If it is done. 6. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. all these can cause serious pollution. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Reuse carrier bags. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. World Environmental falls on 250 . it will cause pollution. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Don’t burn any waste. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Use public transport wherever it is possible.Send their waste oil. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide.

rather than conquest and mastery. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. potable water. To provide materials needed for practical work. diversity and stability. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. orderliness and beauty). Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. concern for others). The groups may exchange. Harmony with the nature . dest roying nat ural habitats.4. loss of bio-diversity. deforestation. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. and 251 . developing desirable attitudes. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. values and habits. To arrange for visiting speakers. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion.. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. CFCs. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Social responsibilit y (common good. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. depletion of ozone. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. Att itudes of balance towards nature.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information.5. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . To discuss the approach to problems or topics. Conservation of natural resources. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. etc. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. nuclear wars. etc. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems.mat erials. Concern for species. viz. (cleanliness. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection.). To arrange visits or expeditions.

It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. 8.5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. preserving natural cycles. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.5. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. 4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills.5.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. 252 . Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.

Y. effects. Udaiveer. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. To provide materials needed for practical work. (2007). acid rain. 8. (2004). b. population.K. a. relat ion between population and pollution. 3. S. Providing. group discussions and seminars.5. concern for others). over exploitation of ground water. New Delhi : Authors Press. Environment and Human Rights. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Awareness. a. b. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. greenhouse effect. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Ltd. Modern Problems of Education.K. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . reasons. a. explosion deforestation. 6.\ 4.2. Kuldeep. Publications Pvt. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. b. b. (ii) Air pollution. (1997). Environmental Education. importance of nitrogen cycle. Organising conferences. a. sources. S. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Rapid population growth. 5. Nanda. air pollutants from industries. Social responsibilit y (common good.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. ozone layer deplet ion. Anmol Publications Pvt. Environmental Education. Knowledge. Ltd. 4. new problems from science and technology.K.K. June 5 7. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. New Delhi : Sharma. sources of pollution.. To provide reference materials for children’s use. (2007). New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. T. water scarcity. Education for values.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. Education according to idealism. the emancipation of spirit. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind.our life. in fact. According to Rusk'.” 5. It is self-realisation. should be universal in nature. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. promote and transmit it to rising generation. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. Therefore. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 .3. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. moral. The universe is regarded as a thought process. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Education must contribute to development of culture. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. man is essentially a moral being. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. enrichment and transmission of culture. Spiritual Development. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. Universal Education.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is.1. inviolable and hence holy life” In short.

For intellectual development. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . However. friend and guide. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. and collation (striving) should find due place. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. So he should embody.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. Mathematics etc.3. affecting (feeling). Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. subjects like Languages. The teacher serves as a living model for the students.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. no doubt. so subjects like Religion. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. 4. the school is a garden. Learning through reading. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. According to idealism. He sets the environment in which education takes place. Learning through lecturing. hygiene. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. Learning through imitation.1. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. 5. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. 5. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Learning through discussion.1. should be there. It considers teacher as. a spiritual guide for the child. an indispensable necessity.” He is thus. Learning through questioning. 3. Ethics. 2. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage.3.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher.” 5. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. History.the spiritual qualities of mankind. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. So cognition (knowing). the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. Science. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. Philosophy. The plant can grow. He carries the child from darkness to light. For this no particular method has been suggested. According to Frobel. Herbert advocated instruction method. So health.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.4. text books. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. 5.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. Ross explains. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. 2. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. 5. time tables.preservation. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. "Education should make 263 • . Perfection of Human Machine. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.perfection and beauty. In the words of Ross. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. formal lessons or examinations.1. curricula.1.

264 .o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation.4. • 5. Education also aims at helping the individual t. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Biology. Botany etc Language. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. “Education finds its purpose. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. In all.1.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. is based on the nature of the child. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. subjects like history.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. 4. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Chemistry. Therefore. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. therefore. rational harmoniously balanced. There is no place for religious and moral education. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. Naturalistic curriculum. It is based on the psychology of the child. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Arithmetic. Education should. useful and mature child. Literature. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Zoology. It stresses basic sciences. education should develop the child into Joyous. geography should also be included in the curriculum. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Art etc are subsidiary subjects.

Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. the stage.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . 3. a provider of an ideal environment. It discards all rigid. Learning through experience.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. 5. Learning through observation. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology.1. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Learning by doing. In the . 4.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.1.4.5. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. a supplier of materials and opportunities. 5. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Rousseau says. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. he should be taught by experience alone. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Dalton Plan. Heuristic method. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism.1. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.4.

5. Continuous Growth. Geography. social and moral aspects. History. 5. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses.absolutism of idealism. intellectual. of human personality is in terms of his physical. diversified and flexible. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. is true. Sciences.1. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Social Science.1. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements.5. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Agriculture. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Personal Social Adjustment.5. Social Efficiency. Subjects. The aim of educational development. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Physical training.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Vocational and 266 . All Round Development of an Individual. Continuous reconstruction of Experience.

Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. a senior partner and a sincere guide. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. should find proper place. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Learning by Doing. He has to be active. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. a teacher occupies an important position. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. alert and resourceful. He must be trained.Technical Education.” 5. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. The subjects.5.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. 5.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy.1.

Geography are unnecessary 268 . Art. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Education is preparation for a complete living. 4. Mathematics. liberal. It favours child-centered. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Sex Education.6. 3. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. 5. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. literary or humanistic education.1. 4. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Biology. rich and happy. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics.1. 5. Astrology. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood.1. 3. Study of Subjects like Language. scientific and psychological education. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Music and Dance. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Crafts. Education must cultivate scientific outlook.5. 2. Literature. Chemistry. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Biography Philosophy. History. 2. Population Education.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. practical. Psychology. specific.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. intellectual. 5.6. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind.

4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .6. certainly and clearly.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.1.6.5. easily and pleasantly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

5. d. Child centered c. Social Science. Rousseau 5. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Agriculture. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim.1. Self Realisation b. c. a. Learning through imitation. b. has no end other than growth. Universal Education 2. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.5. Learning through experience b. History. Languages.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. Tours / Excursion e. Vocational and Technical Education.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Demonstration and Observation 270 . 5. Geography.1. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Learning through lecturing. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. in this lesson. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Learning through reading. Experimentation d. 5. 3. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Learning through questioning.1. Physical training.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. pragmatism and realism. Learning through discussion. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. & curriculum. Sciences. Education according to pragmatism. naturalism. 6. a. e. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4.

(2004). O. R. Foundations of Education. K. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Theory and Principles of Education. Pahuja. Narang C. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education.P.P.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. New Delhi : A.H. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2007). P. of Pathak. New Delhi : Bhatia. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2003). 271 . N. Ltd. L. P.5. Publishing corporation.1.

4.2.2.2.2.3.2 Curriculum 5.2.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.1 5.2.3.2.2.2.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.2 Curriculum 5.2.2.3 Methods of teaching 272 .LESSON 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.3.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.5.1 Aims of Education 5.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.4.2.2.1 Aims of Education 5.4 Views about teacher 5.3.4.2 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.4.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.3 Methods of teaching 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.1 Aims of Education 5.3.4.2.2.2.2.4 Views about teacher 5.3.5.

7 5. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.2. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. economic and political reconstruction in our country.2. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. content and methods.6 5. 5. 2. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.2.2.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. 273 . 5.2.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. an artist. mind and spirit.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.5. 3.5.2. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.2.8 5.4 Role of the teacher 5. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. Tagore was a poet. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. Gandhiji was primarily a social. you will able to: 1. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.

They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. His scheme of education is life centred. It really provides opportunity for character building. 274 . 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage." Dignity of Labour. 5. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side.2.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. "I attach more. strength of mind. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self.3.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. In the words of Gandhiji. 'Man is neither mere intellect. mind and soul of children He further observed. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. righteousness. it is education of life. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. self-restraint and service of humanity. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. nor the gross animals body. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. through life and for life.supporting.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education.

2. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. "Development of the moral character. Music.Training for Leadership.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Drawing and Hindustani. metal work. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Mother-tongue. wood work.3. Art. the realization of the ultimate reality. General Sciences. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. 5.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. Only good individual forms a better society. gardening. Individual and Social Aims. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 .the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. According to Gandhi. leather work have been suggested. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations.

3. Basic education is other wise known as 4. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.2.trained. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. men of 276 .2. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. proficient.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.3.

2.3. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. Education must be child centered. 3. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. He also advocates freedom for the child. He has an experimental approach towards life 2.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. That is why. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies.knowledge. 5.

3. • Ideal of citizenship. He believed in the oneness of humanity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. 5. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. Gandhi in 1937. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.2. he was a true Vedantist 5. • Cult of non-violence. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.” Like all other ideals.2. He was a true patriot. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.2.K. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. • Education should involve manual work. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. He was deadly against untouchability.

It should help. Tagore said. Music. Chemistry. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. International Understanding. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . sentiment. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. "Mankind must realise a unity. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. could help in forging unity among all.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. deeper in. the more dedicated and devoted. Civics. them solve problems of day to day life.2. International understanding. Therefore. Dance. stronger in power than ever before. That way only. (vi) Philosophy. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students.Language and Literature .Mother tongue and other Indian languages. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. It should help the learner have good physique. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. 279 . Religion and Psychology. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Zoology. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. he said. etc. Botany. complete manhood could be attained. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination.4." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Geography. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. wider in range.

” He further says.2.2. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. 5. Tagore rightly says. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.4. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.4. 5.4.2. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones." 5. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. 280 . Only a good learner can be a good teacher.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. In 1921. Activity Method Heuristic Method. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.

religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. race. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. 281 . What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. 10.g. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is open to all irrespective of country. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 9. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7.

man making. Freedom. character forming and assimilation of ideas. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Concept of Education. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Education should make a person self-reliant. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life.5.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. work and deeds come out of it. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual.2.2. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself." He was against the theoretical type of education.” 5. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. 3. Education for Self-reliance. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. Education for strong Moral Character. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. According to him. 2. Purity of thought.5. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. Education for Self-realization. 4. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Book learning. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says.

sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. 6. Swami. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study.the learners on different students in the discussion. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. That will serve the purpose of education fully. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. A physically strong person is the need of the society. And above all.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Religion.2. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Thirdly he wished that games.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. 5.5.5. 283 . That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Education for Physical Development. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. engineering and technical subjects.2.5. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things.2. philosopher and guide to the students He.5. Of course. Discussion Method. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. 5. The teacher should be the facilitator. 5. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Secondly he wanted Science. Philosophy and Theology. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.

5. 5.6 LET US SUM UP We have. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. Write short notes on Basic education. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. 3. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. We have seen that Tagore. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. Gandhiji as a Idealist. Their educational ideas. of course.2. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. naturalist. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. legs. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. in this lesson. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. 284 . They were concerned with total education and the full development of man.Substantiate your answer. and pragmatist .2. 2.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 12. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. ears and eyes.

3. a. 8. Teaching while Walking b. Technique of Correlation 6. 10. Discussion Method 285 . Self realization. Debate and Discussion Method.4. a. Learning by Doing c. Activity Method d. 11. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. a. 2. Nai Talim 4. Activity Method b. 9. 1937 7. e. d. 5. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. leather work have been suggested. wood work. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Education should involve manual work. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. b. Cult of non-violence. Ideal of citizenship. 5. c. Heuristic Method. Self-Study b. gardening. Explain Vishwabharathi. a.2. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. metal work. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Meditation and concentration c. Basic education. 5. f. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. c.

Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. N. on Bhatia. New Delhi : A. Pahuja. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2003). (2004).P.2.5. L. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Foundations of Education. Theory and Principles of Education.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ltd. K. C. O. 286 . (2002). P. P. N. (2007). K and Narang C. J. New Delhi : Aggarwal.H. B. Dhiman. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Publishing Corporation. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education.

3.3.4 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.10 5.3.3.3.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3. In this lesson.11 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3.7 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.2 5.8 5.3.9 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3 5.3.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.3.LESSON 5.6 5.3.1 5.5 5. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.

5. there is a large number of communities. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. curriculum. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. in the form of new experience. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. the desert area. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. Since the demands. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. in the U.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. curriculum signifies situations for learning.3. in Russia or in Japan. it is identical wit h socializat ion. the plain area. While education is a process.. In the words of Kerney and Cook. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. In it. is a means to the process.S. Then in a big country like India. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. present behaviour may be modified. From the latter point of view. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. in fact .under the direction of the school. While education is learning. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3.3. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. A g o o d curricu lu m. living in the hilly area.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. state the meaning of curriculum 2. maintained or eliminated. Curriculum is intimately related to education. 5. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. the plateau area and 288 . analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. In the former sense.3. new behaviour may be acquired.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. you will be able to: 1. Both the processes are integrated. curriculum also offers a wide contrast.A.

Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. customs and needs. Besides craft. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. irrespective of their needs and environment. In fact .5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. and 289 . So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. However. democratic and socialistic country. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. Again. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. 5.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. It must differ from locality and from society to society. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. From a slave-country we became secular. too. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. studying therein. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. environment. therefore. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils.3. it is. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. according to modern trends in the educational process. differs from individual to individual. the learning capacity of children.

3. 1. tangible. aesthetic and spiritual development. So it is inadequate. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education.g. unsatisfactory. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. etc. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. 3. 290 . individual or Social and so on.g. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. They speak of immediate purposes of education. 5. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. emotional.. unambiguous and functional. etc. moral. eg. uninspiring and unscientific.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. They are achievable.g. Self Realisation. Understanding Objective. aims. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. which may or may not be attained. social. in instructional objectives. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. Knowledge Objective. e. 2. Goals of Secondary Education. Vocational Efficiency. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. They are visionary goals e. 4.. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands.. Goals of Primary Education.. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. They may be ultimate or proximate. National Integration. of classroom. specific. they depend on the political. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. general or specific. e. remote or immediate. They speak of perfect goals. Application Objective.. The word “Curere” means 2. social. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. etc.

3. needs. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. According to Crow and Crow. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. on the playing fields. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. Crow and Crow remarks. in the class rooms. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. educationists.” 291 . “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects.5. but it includes the totality of experiences. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. abilities. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. The interests. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. heavy fire.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. finding them very interesting and captivating. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. Raymont rightly says. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. capacities.

time in a useful manner. tendencies. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. moral. urges.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. Due to these variations and differences. capacities and abilities. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. They often waste it or rather kill it. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. aptitudes. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. mental. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner.

evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. organized. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. Similarly. phased preparation. analysis and concretise the curricular elements.curricular. development of professional capability at all levels. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. administrative programme need be planned. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. 2. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. 3. 293 . production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. To ensure success of the process.

5. 5. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. in the class room. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16.3. 10. workshop. 18. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . Child Centred Education b. 11. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. laboratory. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. principles of curriculum construction. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. Relation with Life c. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Run. 17. library. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals.3. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. 12. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1937 19. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d.3. a.

Lakshmi. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. and Sarita Kumari. Innovations in Education. (2007). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. S. New Delhi : Authorspress.5. Curriculum Development.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.K. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. D. N. S.S. (2001). Curriculum and Instruction. P. Bhalla. (2007).3. (2007). 295 . New Delhi : Isha Books.

1 Developing scientific outlook 5.7.4.4.8 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.9 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.6.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.LESSON 5.10 5.4.4.2 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4.4.7.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.7.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.1 5.4.4.4.4.4.3 5.4.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.5 5.7.4.6.

3. tolerance for the opinions of others.4. 4. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. 5. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. you will be able to: 1. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. 2.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. know the importance of science education. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. yet real advancement in this area was achieved .during the second half of this century.5. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. We mean curiosity. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. superstition or emotion. open-mindedness. explain the concept of scientific attitude. newer and newer industries started growing.4. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. in the economic reconstruction of society. 5. honesty. Gradually.4. 297 . By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking.

4. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. 2.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. 3.4. seminars and symposiums. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Organisation of science fairs. Central science workshop. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 6. 5. as well as of the society. Promotion of science clubs. Through newspapers. Principles are formulated. Thinking and memory develops. Schemes of teaching science. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. 2. 4. Love for truth enhances. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Devotion towards nature increases. Selection for science education. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction.4. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Through examinations. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. 5. 3. After such experience and training. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 5.So that. 5. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 6. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 7.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work.

It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. Enquiry teaching is. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. Training of science teachers. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. For laboratory and workshop techniques. 5. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. essential that teachers. should provide opportunities to. After presenting the problem. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. They ask many questions about the objects they see. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . 5. Write any two advantages of Science Education.needs and conditions. therefore. objectivity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It is. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. In the inquiry approach. sex or religion.4. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. They experience natural phenomenon. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs.6.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. each child to “enquiry skill building”. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. They encounter many social events as they grow. 7.

Herma Wouk.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. if they like.6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. It requires consistent thinking. . offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook.4. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Adopting creative models of teaching. stern pursuit of accurate data. test. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Social sciences. Appreciating pupils ideas. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . 5. Giving less directions. commands or orders.4. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. .7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. 6. to ask questions and experience things. 4. 5. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. Evidence. 5. 2. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences.books. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 3. 300 .

to develop among the learners. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. of vast resources running waste. practiced. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. friends. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. see and feel the need of developing this attitude.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. and emphasized during the learning process . therefore should be unbiased and objective. The students observation. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. 5. To achieve this we should understand what it means. critical thinking and suspended judgments. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. neighbourhood.7. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. These include open mindedness. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. keen observation. it must be encouraged. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. For instance. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits.4. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience.(Smith 2008). (Vaidya 2007). The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. school and society at large. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way.

Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. understanding and logic.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions.4. he studies all aspects of it. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. 2007). understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. rumor. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. The intention to respect another’s point of view. 302 . Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. think and work it”. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. or superstitions.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions.7. 5. intuition or wishful thinking”. (Das. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. In considering a situation or a problem.

Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.7.4. but to begin only after careful planning.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. 5. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.7. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.4.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. • 5. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.

Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. 304 . Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. it must be encourages. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. practiced and emphasized during the learning process.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

Rao. Proper example of the teacher c. M. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. b. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. (2008). 305 .S. 5. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.4. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. a.4. (2006). The intention to respect another’s point of view. a. 5. Yadav. 16. Planning of activities 5. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Discuss the importance of science education 14. objectivity. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Vaidya. a. 3. Reflections on Scientific attitude.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Study of superstitions d. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. S. b.5. (2000). Wide reading b. 4. a. Adopting creative models of teaching. D. b.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. 2. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.4.B (2008). Love for truth enhances.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. N.

5.4 5. objectives and characteristics.10 5. actively. you will be able to: 1.5.1 5.5 5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.LESSON 5.5.5.5.5.6 5.5.11 5.5.5.5.7 5.5.2 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population. 2.3 5. areas of institutional planning.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. 5. state the concept. 306 .12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.9 5.5.8 5.5.

every teacher.5. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. executive as well as public. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. 5. teachers and students is not lost sight of. and every student in the process of educational planning. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. every parent. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. and supplement planning from above. Institution should be regarded as the unit. • To make institutional planning more successful. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy.3. and. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 .3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. and each student are regarded as separate entities. • to make planning development-oriented. • to involve teachers and school administrators.5. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. 5. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. in the task of educational planning.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. each teacher. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. State and national levels from below. which become the bases for further planning at the district.

and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. which will be discussed in the general.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. Examinations. Classwork. council and. (2) Co. it becomes the basis for school inspection. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. etc.curricular Activities.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. 5. Co-curricular activities.5. 308 . Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. Syllabus. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. approved after making necessary modifications. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.• implemented. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. and Personnel services.5. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan.

hobby-centres. Courts. etc. Preparation of models.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Conducting of educational. 1. Undertaking remedial instruction services.No. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Editing the school magazine. 3. scientific and historical excursions. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Preparation of instructional material. Organisation of Pupils. etc. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Organisation of Students’ Association. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Organising play-for-all programmes. Organisation of class-room libraries. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. Improving the internal assessment. Fair distribution of syllabi. Organisation of Self-Government Days. etc. Preparation of audio-visual aids. etc. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. charts and apparatus. Running science clubs. Equipping of laboratory and library. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Improving the subject competence of teachers.

teacher-State. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. administrator-administrator. and solidarity.5. co-operation. pupil310 . parent-teacher associations. etc. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. teacher-pupil.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. pupils. teacher-managing body. teacherinspector. administrator-supervisor. teacher-teacher. administrator-pupil.5. understanding.” The human relationships in. and —pupil-pupil. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. parents. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. students’ associations. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. which are divided as the in. Administrator-State. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. ii. science teachers’ associations. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. involving mainly human materials. teachers. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. headmasters associations.

311 . It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. control. supervision. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to accomplish. administrator. pupil-inspector. According to C. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. and to serve. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. superintendence. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. pupil-community leader. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. Good.State. To administer means to manage." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. pupil-non-official functionaries. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. to attend. now-a-days. teacher-parent. to carry out. It is also being modernized to become a technique. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. organisation. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. pupil-parent. teacher-community leader. etc. supervision and superintendence. It covers personnel and material management. social sciences and other disciplines. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. organisation and management.5. V. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies.

the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. Leadership . 5. 6.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. Socio-Scientific Approach . Worker Participation .lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 7.The manager should have leadership traits. This is the latest democratic trend in management. who occupy the managerial positions. Communication . The relationship should change from master. 10.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. 3.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. 13. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. 4. Decision Making .The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. 11. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . If the cost benefit ratio is less.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. 2. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Liasion with the Public . Economic Management . If it is more. Cost-Benefit Analysis . 9. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. 12. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. Better Human Relationships . it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. Democratic Management .Any good management will always have good public relations.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . Rapport between the Management and Employees .Of all the approaches. Motiviation .Modern Management Techniques At this juncture.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. Those. it is not worth-while. He should be an artist in human relationships. low. 8. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.

19. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. 14. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. objective. enrichment of curricula. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. 5. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. 18. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.g. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. and cooperative performance should be ensured. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . to improve the quality of education it provides. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. 5. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.5. improvement of teaching methods. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc.These two are.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. 313 .too.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too.

(2003). New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. a. S. a. H. 2. Motiviation d. Fundamental of Educational Management.5. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.M. Decision Making b. e. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Classwork. NUEPA. it becomes the basis for school inspection.K. a. Co-curricular activities. a. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3.5. Tarachand and Prakash. c. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Leadership c. d. Singh. and Personnel services. Syllabus. APH Publishing Corporation.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. (2001). Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. Communication 5. 314 . b. b. In group and Out group 5. R. Instruction.5. (1995). Educational Administration. f. Examinations. b.

Realized the problems of school education. social Impact 3. 2. physical education and environmental education 5.Preventive measures.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.CORE PAPER .4 India's Secular Policy . CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .Pre-service and In-services facilities. New evaluation procedures.1 Inculcation of Socialism.1 Primary Education : Education for all.3 Educational Influences of Home. women education and teacher education in India. Preservation of nutrients. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. School. Communicable diseases . population education. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.Article 45 . Economic 315 .2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Balanced diet.1 School Health Programme. Inspection and Supervision 3. Healthy Food Habit 4. Buddhist and Jain system of education.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. nutritional requirement.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Community and Mass Media 2.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.3 Directive Principles .4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. Common ailments of Children.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.1 Gurukula system of education. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. 1. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. 4.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. Code of conduct for teachers.2 Nutritional deficiencies. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.Religious and Modern Education 1. higher education.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Examination reforms.teachers should have : 1. Sex-education 4.I. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.5 Regional Educational Development in India . Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. First Aid. wastage and Stagnation 3.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.

Mahatma Gandhi. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Naturalism and Pragmatism . Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.S. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.R. and Human Development. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. 5. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Taneja V. Delhi : University Publications 2. New Delhi: NCERT 3.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. REFERENCE 1.K. (1999) Culture.N. Kalan Paper Packs 10.C. Prof. and Sharma R. curriculum and teacher's role 5.K. Hemchand.K. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.Aim. Saraswathi T. Curriculum and national goals . (2005) Foundations of Education. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Sharma. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.N.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.4 4. and Mohanty R. R. Pandy V. (2004) Problems of Education in India.K. Socialization. Ram S. 316 . and Dash B. Mishra. Tagore 5.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. T. Ghanta R.1 Idealism. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Realism. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. B. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. 7.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles .4. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.