BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

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UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. Lesson 5. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Lesson 4. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. In. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. The need. Lesson 2. and Jain system of education. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. discusses the regional educational development in India. Jainism and their educational implication. 9 .HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world.

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1.5 Jain system of education 1.1.1.1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.6.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.3.1.6.6.4.6.1.5.1 1.1.1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.5.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.1.1.2 1.6.4.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1.1.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.5.1.1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.6 Education during British Era 1.1.1.3.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.LESSON 1.5.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.

1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. elucidate the education during British Era. 1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.1. Education in India.1. has a long past history starting in vedic education. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.3.1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. Muslim and British periods.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.7 1. in opinion.1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. The history of education passed through Buddhist.1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. “a class of persons.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. British system of education presented the modern western model.1. in morals and in the intellect”. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.1. Indian in blood and colour.1. India.6.1.1.1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 1.9 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. describe the Jain system of Education 4. both present and future. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. That 12 . education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.8 1.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.6. but English in taste. you will be able to: 1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.

Method of Study. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. generally. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. 13 . religious and spiritual. from darkness. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. High Status of Teachers. 9. Method of Instruction. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. managed entirely by Brahmans. Education was a private affair of the people. Education of Moral. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. if they thought fit to do so. 3. 13. 10. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. from eternal to immorality 2. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. followed by explanation by the teacher. 5. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. 8. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. There was. Religious and Spiritual. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. It was also moral. with grants of land or money. Free and Accessible. Residential Schools. 12. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. as it is generally considered to be at present. 6. Pupils were taught. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. questioning by the pupil. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. 14. Curriculum. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Where pupils were many. Immediate Aim Vocational. individually. 11. to light. Individual Teaching. Role of Travel in Education. however. Forests as Centres of Education. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. No State Control on Education. and to agriculture and trade. Teacher as Parents. The immediate aim of education. the monitorial plan was followed. not en masse by the class method. 4. 16. It was not merely intellectual.knowledge was real. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra.

The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. It was freely available to all those who wanted. lived a life of celebacy. They were very cordial and intimate.1. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent.3. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . 2. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. 1. It was suited to the needs of the society.17. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Wide-Spread Education in Women. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . studied Vedas. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3.

Right thought 3.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. the student remained in a state of Shramana. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. watching dances or listening to music. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. dressed himself in yellow clothes. the most significant of which were the following 1.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. Right knowledge 2. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’.4. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. which included abstaining from theft. every class in society. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. except the Chandals. 15 . the handicapped.1. Right memory 8. medium of Pali. the student had his head shaved of all hair. partaking of food at prohibited times. in which. Right contemplation 1. taking things without being offered. killing of any living being. After attaining the age of 20. 1. Education was imparted through the. impure conduct. etc. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. It was denied only to the ill. had the right to receive education. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. he was qualified to become a monk. disease and death of the human beings. Right activity 5. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. Right endeavour 7. use of intoxicating things. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. 2. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. I take Refuge to Dharma.C. Consequently. Right speech 4. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Right means of livelihood 6. I take Refuge to Sangh. use of cosmetics.

4. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. These are called later Buddhist schools. 1. commerce. the science of taming and training animals. the presence of the monks was essential. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. magic. 3. depth and range. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. Even at this stage. aspirations and. nature. After this ritual. archery. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. it is regarded as true”. approach. be considered the aim of education It. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. has no metaphysical value for life. changing the goals. control over sensuous activities. Hence. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. etc. meaning. a continuous change creating 16 .. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. military science. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. handicrafts.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. education was impart in art. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. As reality is becoming. geology. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. 5. Initially. agriculture. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. and. women occupied a position inferior to men. On this occasion. therefore. medicine. etc. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. along with education in script writing. beg for alms. 8. animal husbandry. archery. It comprehended education in writing.4. Whatever its nature and extent. Life is in a flux. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine.3. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. so long as it successfully does so. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. elephant lore. arithmetic and religious discussion. wear three items. bodily gestures. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. eat food thrice a day. nothing is of any permanent consequence. 6. Later on. etc. 2. objectives of human life. knowledge of reviving the dead. 7. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. cottage industries. however. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. assumptions. of clothes. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. a change is not only total but also perpetual. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period.

goes to Vardhaman. whatever works are true and good. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. However.5. its pessimistic outlook on life.1. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Jainism insists 17 . the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. 1. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. Education must. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. however.new and peculiar situations. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. i. and to give it a shape that it has today. In fact. therefore.. Its chief feature. such as.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Validity is effective and consequences. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. 5. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Write Eight fold path . it is much older than the latter. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism.e.

b) Not utter falsehood. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. 6. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. 3. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. it has a foot in both the words. 1. 4. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. 1. 3. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. c) Right conduct. 18 . but on both. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. e) To renounce the world. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment.1. rather than the interpretation of the universe.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage.5. 10. They are: a) Not to injure. more stress on individual aims. Hence. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. 8. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. b) Right knowledge. c) Not to steal. Development of personality as an individual. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. thought and deed. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. d) To lead a celibate life. 2. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. As such. 2. 5. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. and believe in happiness to all. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. 7. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. 9. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. and is to be redeemed and liberated.

5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. that would be socially desirable. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. Teaching must develop these faculties. here and now. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. 1. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 3. 3. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. therefore. education should develop sense of discrimination.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue.5. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. practised and not only aspired for. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Teaching should be social and tolerant. What are Triratnas ? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. success and love. education must be action based and ideally oriented. and should bring happiness to all. 2. 19 .4.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 8. Belief in transmigration of soul. Hence. 5. Jiva is essentially karmic. 4. 1. 2.

and not for life.1. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. 1. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. To set up separate departments of.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. 1.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. However. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. philosophy and literature of Europe. Bombay.6. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. with rally and rout. 1953). primary 20 . science.6. North West Province and Punjab. 1. Madras.6. 1. 2. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report.1.6. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854.

The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. • Universal free primary education. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools.education was neglected. At that time M. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. The universities dominated the secondary education. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. To ensure qualitative improvement.6.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. In 1882. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. secondary education became a step towards university. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. namely. 1. 1. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success.6. at the primary level. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. self-respecting and competent. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. • Secondary education. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. 1.6. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). Later on.K. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. they named these schools as polytechnic schools.

Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. all children are to have a common curriculum. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial.1. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. After this stage. The objective of education was to provide 22 . 10.At the primary stage (6-11 years).7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions.

2.education of European literature. military science. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. Right speech. education was impart in art.1. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. 5. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. geology. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. a. etc. the science of taming and training animals. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. 3. The immediate aim of education. Right memory.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Right means of livelihood. followed by explanation by the teacher. 23 . Right endeavour. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 6. Right contemplation. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. questioning by the pupil. 4. science and English language.. archery. Right knowledge. It was suited to the needs of the society. Right activity. During the Buddhist period. The system of education was well-organised. arithmetic and religious discussion.1. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. along with education in script writing. b. 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 2. 1. Right thought. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. 3. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. 4. handicrafts. establishment of universities. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life.

New Delhi : Shipra Publications. b. 8. Right faith.C. a. R. Ltd.C. (1984). Right knowledge. Ltd. more stress on individual aims. (2007). 1937 1. J. Singh.K.7. Improvement of Literature. History of Indian Education System. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. 24 . b. Y.K. 11.1. Sargent report 12. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. (2005). 1882. 9. c. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Development of Educational System in India. Development of personality as an individual. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Hence. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J. 10.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Y. Sharma. and Nath. Aggarwal. a. Right conduct. (2009).

1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.7 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.2. The 25 .1 1.2.2.3.2.2.2.1 University Education Commission 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.3.4 1.3.5 1.2.2.9 1.8 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.2.3.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2.2 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.2.6 1.2.2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.LESSON 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.

Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. S. technical. Post-graduate 26 . National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. curriculum. you will be able to: 1. There had been vast institutional expansion.conditions of the teachers. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. diversification of courses of studies. 1. 1986 1. National Council for Women’s Education 5. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. Kothari (1964-66) 8.2. New Educational Policy. explosion of enrolment. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. examination system. analyse the progress of education in free India. medical and legal education.2. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. technological engineering. 1. 2.3. vocational education. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. standard of teaching. girls and women education besides primary.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. expansion of vocational.2. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. National Board of Teacher Education 10. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. secondary and higher education.

the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.teaching. 1952. 1966. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. research et. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. The Essence and Role of Education. 2. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. National System of Education.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. Education for Equality. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. accumulated over the years. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. quality.2. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1. 1. 3.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country.S. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . 4. material and spiritual. utility and financial outlay.2. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University.3. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. Therefore. D. Education is the key to our allround development. quantity. A. the chairman of University Grants commission. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. in January 1985. the New National Policy on Education. Finally.3. However.3. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. 1986. Problems of access.2. Kothari. 1. Government of India.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. A meaningfully Partnership.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2.2. attitudes. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Thus.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 28 . the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. the minorities and the handicapped. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world.” Thus. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. By working with hands. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. It can train practical aptitudes. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. the concepts of work experience. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. The UNESCO Report. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

" It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. The Education Commission. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. “It may be described. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. it will conduce self. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. According to. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. As such. “The aim of these colleges. In 1955.” The Mudaliar Commission. Besides. The Radhakrishnan Commission. if he wishes. the Commission. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions.employment and promote economic independence of the youth.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. co-ordinations. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . With adequate planning. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries.

did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern.. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. Therefore. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. The Central Advisory Board of Education. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. the rigid streaming of courses. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. the semester and credit system. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. admission requirements to vocational courses. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. raising the special facilities. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. Subsequently.ot her. In addition. With a view to relating education to the life. the. etc. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. for quality of life in the rural areas.

. who conceived the System of Basic Education. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. aimed at this goal. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. The wave of Basic Education. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. meaningful.and the world of work. which swept the country for over two decades. According to committee. Commerce. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. The Father of Nation.defined S UP W as “purposive. manual work resulting in either goods or services. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. etc. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. 1. meaningful. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. In short. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. which are useful to the community. which offer scientific. 31 . Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. technological courses including Agriculture. giving importance to productivity in the national development. felt that education should be centred around a craft. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. preferably spinning and weaving.2. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject.

enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Community work and social service. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Productive 2. be that the work involved is: 1. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. 4. Clothing 5. Educative and 3.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. The teachers should make use of. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Experimentation with materials. 32 . Food 3. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. so that it is educational in essence. Health and Hygiene 2. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. tools and techniques and 3. as far as possible. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. 3. Shelter 4. Work practice. locally available materials and tools. Some Hints to Teachers 1. 2. Culture and recreation 6.

removal of illiteracy. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. adoption of a a locality for its improvement.5. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. Merits of the Programme 1. inculcate a faith. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. Community Service In-1972. etc. slum clearance. 6. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. the local community should be actively associated. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful.2. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. It can become an instrument to build character. To make education more realistic. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. improve discipline. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. 1. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. Such activities may include projects of village uplift.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Check on educated unemployed 4. Education through work The SUPW should. as far as possible. Productive Work 33 .

AICTE was set up in year 4. traffic control. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. if not productive. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . should involve itself in the educational effort. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. skills and better future for the children. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. Define SUPW 34 .the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. etc. in turn.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. helping the adults-in productive work. The community.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. offering first aid.

1952 3. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. f. 6. d.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. 1. 2. manual work resulting in either goods or services. Write short note on SUPW.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.2. meaningful. which are useful to the community. 1. Dr. c. a. 35 . Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.2. b. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. e.1. 3. 1955 4. Radhakrishnan 2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.

New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). New Delhi: A. 36 .C.P. Singh. P.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. B.2. and Nath. History of Education. A.. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. (2005).H. Rao. J. Y. : Sharma. R. and Rao. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.K. Y. Anupama. (2009).K. Publishing Corporation. Development of Educational System in India. (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. History of Indian Education System. History and Problems of Indian Education.P. V.1.K. Ltd.D. Amala.(2005).

3.3. equality. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Besides the English version. and liberty.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. procedures. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.3.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. democratic republic.3. for a total of 117.8 1. it came into effect on January 26. establishing the structure.369 words in the English language version.4 1. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.6 1. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. 1949. 1950. Being the supreme law of the country.3.3.3. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.3.9 1.3. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.3. directive principles and duties of citizens. there is an official Hindi translation.7 1.1 Significance of DPSP 1.2 1.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.3.5 1.3. containing 395 articles.1 1. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. 37 . assuring its citizens of justice.

social. 4. 1947.3. spread over a period of 2 years. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. administrative. 1.In the August 14.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. Two days later. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. 1947. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. 1. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy.3. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. Through them. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. political. learn the role of central and state government on education. economic.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. understand our Indian constitution. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. 1950.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. for 166 days. in sessions open to public. 1. On August 29.3. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. After many deliberations and some modifications. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. you will be able to: 1. 2. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. According to the constitution.3. Dr. legal and environmental. the Drafting Committee was appointed. 3. with Dr. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. 38 . the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. The Assembly met. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands.

The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. for workers. Organisation of village panchayat. Liking wage etc. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. 39 . provide free legal aid. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Equal justice and free legal aid. Protecting children from exploitation. Article 39A. Article 43. Article 41. and shall. No abuse of children. Article 40. make effective provision for securing the right to work. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. That the health and strength of workers. Condition for dignity of children. Appropriate concentration of wealth.government. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Protecting health of the workers. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. The State shall endeavour to secure. on the basis of equal opportunity. and in other cases of undeserved want. in particular. The State shall. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Right to work. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Article 42. old age. sickness and disablement. Minimising inequalities in status. men and women. Equal pay for both sex.

The State shall take steps. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Article 44. Article 47. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Uniform civil code for the citizens. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. in particular. Article 49. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. 2002 for “45. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. to all workers. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Note: Subs. [declared by or under law made by 40 . industrial or otherwise. agricultural. Article 48. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. in particular. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Article 45. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. work. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. See also Article 21A). and. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. (Original Article 45. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. a living wage. in particular. Article 48A. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. The State shall endeavour to provide. Participation of workers in management of industries. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Article 46. by suitable legislation or in any other way. Article 43A. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years.

(This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. 1. as the case may be.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2002. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Article 50. may be law determine”.Parliament] to be of national importance. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. from spoliation. Article 45 . The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. removal. disfigurement. Article 51. destruction. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. disposal or export. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. 2. Promotion of international peace and security. Separation of judiciary from executive.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Article-21A Right to Education.

Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 3. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. 7. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. his guardian has given his consent thereto. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. from justice and all forms of exploitations.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”.” 42 . and shall protect them. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. iii. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. 8. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. 4. and. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. language or any of them”. 2002. in particular. race. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. if such person is a minor. 5. caste. 6. ii.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language.3. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. for its vocabulary. Article 351 gives importance to 6. wherever necessary or desirable. and by drawing. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.9. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. 43 . These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . The central government determines targets and promotes education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Educational Reforms From time to time. & 1. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. the forms. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. 2. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education.

Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. 4. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. Production of suitable for children and adults f. By starting these projects. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc.3. private agencies etc. The following pilot projects.. 7. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. So as to encourage education on right lines. 5. etc. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. 6. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. All India Council of Medical Science. to achieve the desired ends. the state governments. So that they may work well. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Local bodies and private enterprise. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. 8. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d.

Material concerning nation-wide interests. 4. The 45 . Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. 1. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. 3. 12.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. are published by it. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms.3. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. education for women. 10. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. reports etc. handicapped. etc. 9. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. 11. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. is the state responsibility. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. training and statistics. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. 1. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. research. books. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Explain Directive principles 2. 46 .recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Article 21A c. Article 46 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1.3. 1. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Write short notes on a.3.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Article 45 b. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. 5. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. articles in the Directive principles. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3.

Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”.3. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Article 45 . b. 1. a. Development of Hindi Language 6. 2002.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Clearing House function 9. 47 . (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Dr. Describe the educational role of State Government. 3. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. a. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. may be law determine”. 4. Ambedkar 2. 2002. a. The Directive Principles of State Policy. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.5. b. Article 29 and 30 7. Article-21A Right to Education. Article 46 5. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.

S.3. B.1. N. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2004). (2007). S. (2009). Bhatia. 48 . New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. L. K. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Ghosh. Education in Emerging Indian Society. K and Narang C. (2008). Dash.

4.4.1 1.4.4.8 1.4.4.4.4.4.4.6 1. Islam.3.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.4. Students should be 49 . The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.7 1.4.2 1. Jainism.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.5 1.3.4.1 Why Moral Education 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4. religious education should be broad based.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.4. Buddhism etc. Christianity.3.4 Moral education 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.

Thus.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. India' can produce men of character. 1. As result of which. In the complicated and complex society of today. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines.D. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. beauty and goodness so that 50 . enumerate the aims of religious education 4. integrity. religious education and the concept of secularism. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life.. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). understand the relationship between religion and education 2. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. "In A multireligious society like ours.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline.4. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. know the position of religious education in our country 3. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life.and dedication.” Education broadens human outlook. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. you will be able to: 1. duty-consciousness. state meaning and need for moral education 1. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. According to E.

our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. rancour.4. 1. at least occasionally. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full.” From the above. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. all citizens are free to follow any creed.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. Children attend these organizations. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. 1. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. No religious tax can be imposed on them. if not regularly. As our country is a country of diverse religions.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. In short.4. According to Article 19. it is clear that the State has no religion. They thought that any kind of narrow. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines.3. Hence. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. through religious practices and 51 . Thus.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. According to Article 22.3. religion and democracy are same. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. Viewing the defects of religious education. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. castes and creeds. As a matter of fact. realizes God in himself. 1947 we achieved our freedom.

Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. Good education.. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. As a result of which. It is religious education. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. moral and spiritual values. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). when he becomes an adult. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. what is done and what is not done etc. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. and what is evil. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. He also learns about social. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. for the development of the individual and the society. It helps to modify habits attitudes. aggressive. one fully developed. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.teachings. temperament etc. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. which can mould. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. which help him for the development of his character. If unreleased. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. intellectual and physical faculties of children.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child.

Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. 3. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Therefore. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. 1. If we open the pages of history. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. 2. which is the basic need of a democratic life.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. 53 . All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and.3. This should not be allowed to happen. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand.4. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. towards the society.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 11. fellow-feeling. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Life histories of great persons of the world. churches and mosques 7.4. 10. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. therefore. Write Article 22 2. Since all religions have virtues.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . they should be discussed in the right earnest. For this. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. stories of moral greatness.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 9. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. examples of patriotism. Gurudwara as. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6.

Without moral values.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Brahmacharya (celebacy). It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. 4. the methods of teaching. students. Patriotism. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. 55 . 5. 5. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate.acquisitiveness). It they learn what morality is in their early years.4. 6. Purity. Satyam (truth). Non-injury. 8. Fearlessness. Self sacrifice. 7. 4. let men see well of one another. Cultivation of emotions. Aparigarha (Non. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Service to others. They will play their role effectively. 2. is that which develops moral values. in the home. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. The content of the curriculum. Moral education. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. 6. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. therefore. Ahimsa (Non-violence). 7. 1. Asvada (Control of palate). 1. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 2. 3.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. Swadeshi (Patriotism). “Let all be happy and free from disease. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. 3.4. 8.

The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. National unity and Spiritual values. discipline. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Good temper. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Unity of mankind. 3. Secondary Stage 1. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Simple texts and stories concerning different. 11. minutes in the morning for group singing. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. 10. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Integrity. 4.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Good manners. religions may be included in the syllabus. Discipline. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. The School Assembly should be held for a few. 56 . 1.4. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Sharivashram (Physical work). Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. 2. In the school programme. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.9. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Asatyam (Non-thieving). 3. Efficiency.

4. In this connection. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 5. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. 57 . This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. love of humanity. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. patriotism and self-discipline. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In other words. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. Silent meditation should be encouraged. should form a normal part of school programme. University Stage 1. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme.4.

Training of Character 3. The School Assembly should be held for a few. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. a.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1.4. In short. b. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. 58 . To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. 2. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. 2. minutes in the morning for group singing. 1. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. For this. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.4. a. b.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. Discuss the aims of Religious education. 4. 1959 5. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. Sri Prakasa 6 . Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. 1. the. a.4. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.

Dash. K and Narang C. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. N. P. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: A. N. Pahuja. (2008).H.C. (2007). (2003). B. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.1. L. Bhatia. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. M. J. (2004). Publishing Corporation. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2008). K.4. New Delhi : Siddiqui.P. 59 . Education in the Emerging Indian Society.H.

5 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5. Although.5.9 1.4 1. i.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.7 1.6 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.e.5.5.12 1. 60 .5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively. disparities between provinces/States.1 1.11 1.5.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5.5.5.3 1.2 1. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also..5.8 1.10 1.5.

The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region.5. 7. you will be able to: 1.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. 1. 6. 4. This leads to separatist movements.5. roads. know the education suited to different environments. They therefore. 2. 1. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies.5. Selfishness of the regional political leaders.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. energy.5. Accordingly. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. 1. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. 3. etc.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 5. understand the regional educational development in India 3. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. 8.1.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. they take appropriate measures. for example. 61 . waters. work hard towards this end. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.

Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. 62 . • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. Tight security arrangements should be made.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. while others remained educationally backward. 4. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. some States became educationally far advanced. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. 2. and. Secularism. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. 3. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. some average. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. Therefore. on the basis of regional development may be formed.5. • Separate States (of course viable States).

The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. while some States like Bihar. Out of this. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. Nagaland and NEHU. etc. the State Governments. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. the Union Government. After the attainment of independence. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Even in each State. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. 63 .After the Planning Process has originated. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Jammu and Kashmir. These projects are in various stages of implementation. etc. In the Central sector.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005.5. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. books.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. NERIST.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice.g. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. Regional Centres of IGNOU. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. and provision of informal education to enable those. academic buildings.14. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. Silchar. remained under developed. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. Tezpur. Rs. scholarships.84 crore was released in 2005-06. since its inception in 1998-99. However.. Guwahati.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity.392. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. 1.480. NIT. Funds amounting to Rs. Mizoram. Itanagar. approved proposals worth Rs. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. library buildings. Central Universities of Assam.

40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Moreover. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.5. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. During 2003-04. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. A provision of Rs.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). too. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.261.187.57 crore and Rs. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Tezpur University. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. 64 . Government expenditure on education.8 per cent in 05). it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. Out of this an amount of Rs.40. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.05 crore and Rs.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.501.500.

North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. The Chandigarh Administration. too. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Karnataka. telecom. 1. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Moreover. Karnataka. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. Kerala and Gujarat. pharma. English. To add to the woes.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). too. for which 16 sites. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India.5. Tamil Nadu. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Listing the positives. engineering and R&D. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Andhra Pradesh. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). for instance. notes the study. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Medical education. too. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region.

Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. even actually looking at the watch. The living conditions. In the same manner. while the former does not. the teaching methods. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. the working days: an academic . Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. life-oriented and environment slanted. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. taking the average in the middle. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. the vocations. which a non-tribal person cannot do. the curricular subjects. when he will not be sure of time. 66 . Of course. in which the learners live. the socio-physical conditions. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. the needs. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. and so on. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. The working hours of educational institutions. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. Then education become realistic and idealistic.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. For a learner living in a rural area. the interests. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments.year. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. Hence it is called as need-based.

67 .12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. 2. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. 2. 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. to suit education to different environments? 1.5.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .

some States have become more developed than others b. S. Educational Development in India. remained undeveloped 3.5. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. (2002). (2008).13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.G. and Nair. C.K. (2001). R. Giridhar. Education in Developmental Arena. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. A. Salim.N. Dubey. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. a. 60% 1. during the British rule. (2001). Education Scenario in India. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.H. some of areas which were under the native rulers. S.2. 68 . New Delhi: Authors press.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. school community and mass media. community development. National Integration. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. 71 . semi literate and illiterates.

1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.7 2.6 Education for Secularism 2.9 2.6.1 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.1.1.5.8 2.1.LESSON 2.1.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.6.4 2.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .5.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.1.6.1.1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.2 2.3 2.

Abraham Lincoln. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’.1. The students may be associated with the management of the school. for the people by the people”. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.1. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. colour or wealth. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. socialism and secularism 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.2. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. This is the political aspect of democracy. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. socialistic and secular state. creed. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 3) Provision of Manual Work. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. 73 . understand the concept of democracy. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Democracy thus means power of the people. you will be able to: 1. 2.1.1. there should be made no distinction of caste. 2. socialism and secularism 2.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. declamation contest etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. may be planned. 74 . These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. it soon spread all over the world. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India.. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There are different brands of socialism. Democracy means 2. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. 12) Visits to Legislatures. debates. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions.1. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. 11) Student Parliament.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together.

the wealthy and the poor. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 75 .5. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 2. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. Under it. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 2. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. service and cooperation. oppression and disparity.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 7) Special facilities for girls. but on the path of non-violence.1.5.1. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. free from exploitation. none high”. the prince and the peasant.

1. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values.” In every political and educational corner. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two main features of socialism. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. 11) State schools. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. 76 .9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. Everyone says. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. secularism is being propagated. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. According to Holydake. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. "which seeks the development of physical. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “India is a secular-country.

“A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 5) It implies tolerance. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life.6. A large number of people is uneducated. 9) It stress free inquiry. During the recent past. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. 3) It permits freedom of worship.1. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. That is why. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 2. the belief that the state morals.6. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. people have narrow mindedness.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. Moral values have to be imbibed. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. “Webster further says.1. 77 . People have different religions and they have different beliefs. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. liberty.opposed to religious education. people started believing in regionalism. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. 8) It believes in co-existence. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. In this type of prevailing situations.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. education etc. should be independent of religion. fraternity. Equality. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. There is need of making the people open minded.

Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. There should be some internal checking of the material being. education. The very sight of the building.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. In the hands of such teachers. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. tours and trips may be organized. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. Patiala. While doing so. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. students belonging to different religions should be associated.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. 2. Religious Education. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. 1) Moral Education. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. In the celebration of each such function. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children.1. that the central string of all religions is one. No doubt.6.presented by the students in the gathering. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The term secularism was first used by 8. No doubt.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . The word “Seculum” means 7. 2.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Define Secularism 9. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students.1. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Equal Opportunities for Admission. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. Since socialism stands for equality. In the matter of admitting students in schools. d.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. This present age 7. The students may be associated with the management of the school. George Jacob Holydake 80 . Abraham Lincoln. 6. Provision of Manual Work. for the people and the people”. Socialism aims at social justice. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. Tuition free education b. c. b. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 3. 5. Respect of Individual Personality. a.1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. a. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Power of the people 2. 4. creed.1. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. colour or wealth. there should be made no distinction of caste. b. 5. 3. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. 4. Socialism aims at equality. 2. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. What are the implications of socialism on education 2.

Theory and Principles of Education. J. P. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. K. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. N. Bhatia. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. J. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. a. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. education etc. Ltd. It treats all religions on an equal footing. B. should be independent of religion. Mohanty. Anmol Publications Pvt. 81 . L. (2008). New Delhi : Pahuja. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. K and Narang C. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. the belief that the state morals.” 9. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2007).C. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. N. b. It permits freedom of religion. Dash.1. (2004). b. (2003). a. (2005).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. 10.8.

1 International understanding in the school 2.2.2.2.2.6.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.3 2.5.LESSON 2.2.2.1 2.8 2.10 2.6.2.5. knowledge and experience of one 82 .5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.4 2.2.2.2.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.9 2.2.7 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2 2.2.2.

as citizens. understandings. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. aims and objectives of the school. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. development. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. therefore. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. skills. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. moral. A teacher is first and foremost. The developmental roles of children. as it is t he aim o f modern education. 2. and 4. who are placed in his custody. 2. social and moral aspects. you will be able to: 1.2. application. It involves physical. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. emotional. a r e 1. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2.an instructor of school children.generation to another. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. social. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. as persons. mental. as workers. as learners.2. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. 83 . But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. 3. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4.

The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. He has to look after their physical. 3. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. 2. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. Teacher as a Citizen Next. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. morally. emotionally. mentally. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. experiences and acceptance. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative.All education should lead to better behavioural development. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. physically fit for socially efficient. social and emotional health. 2.2. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. culturally confident. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. a part of their day in 84 . The students live. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. mental. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. member of his community at the outset. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. The following are some of such roles described in brief. and aesthetically to become. inquisitive. He is to become an active member. motivated. morally.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. socially. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. economically effective. 1. intellectually. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y.

Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. List out the role of teachers towards community development . solve them. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. and most of hours. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. 2.2.the school being under the custody of teachers. activities of the society into which he is born. languages and religions. Unless. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. India is a land of many castes. Dr. creeds. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. science club.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. fine art associations. They will be spending with their parents. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. It 85 . there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. faiths. photographic clubs. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly.

Let us. 1. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. b. the citizens of the Republic of India.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. therefore. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. The only process is the process of education. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . Radhakrishnan. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity.” Regarding the role of education. Sampurnanand remarked. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. and make into one strong national unit.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation.” 2. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities.2. national anthem and other national songs. At the primary stage the importance of stories. a. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. social studies.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. stand up straight. c. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . narrow-minded provincial. with straight backs and look up at the skies. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. It should broaden the outlook. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. folklore and teaching of social studies. this integration of the Indian people. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. should be emphasised. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. poems. Nehruji has explained this as. ‘We should not become parochial. the study of language and literature. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country.5.is.

schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. Singing of National Anthem. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. 3. t he st udent s and t he community. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Student Camps. 4. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. 8. ACC. 6. Taking Pledge. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. languages and literature. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Textbooks. 5. 7. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. educational excursions. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen.different social sciences. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Celebrations of National Days. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. 2. 9. tours. Scouts and Guides. dramatics and youth festivals. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. and picnics. 87 . Uniform for School Children. symposia. National Days—January 26. Reverence of National Flag. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. 10. Co-Curricular Activities. militar y training like the NCC. sports. debates.

Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Admissions to schools. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Recognition of Institutions. Admissions.5. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. iv. iii. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. ii. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. colour. 15. Open-Air Dramas.2. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. region or religion. School Projects. 12. Students Exchange and Tours. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. flora and fauna. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. 16. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Educational and Travel Documentaries.11. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. ways of thinking and doing things. language. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 14. 2. 13. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. 88 . v.

"There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. cultures and races on equal bases.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. vii. Community dinners. viii. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. ix. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained.2. irrespective of national boundaries. Define National Integration 3. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . camps. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings.vi. 2. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity.

Dr. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. (b) stories of children of other lands. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. 2.friendships between children of different countries. Radhakrishnan states.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. 4.e. patriotism is not enough.6.” 2. therefore. This. Teachers 90 .. 2. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes.2. C. (c) fairly tales. if it happens. of his body and mind. that war. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. Strong has observed.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . the international level. Therefore. 6. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it.6.2.F. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. 3. Organising of debates and. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. and the healthy development.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.as important as that of a national citizenship. In a very real sense. 5. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. often in connection with anniversaries. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies.

a German. an Englishman.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Indian and American. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . Russian. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should not be propagandists. Impartial in their Treatment. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7.

Soon after they leave their educational institutions. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. majority of people are. 5. leading to. which results in agitation and aggression language.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. Defects of the educational System .Another major. and help the students to over .Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. If this is done. As the school is but a miniature society. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. 3. Devaluation of Values .2. 4. Chronic Poverty . there is wide spread frustration among all people.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. It does not prepare students for life. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. the education function can be carried. understand and indiscipline: 1.2. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. Wide Spread Frustration . factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. 2. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly.

Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. community development. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.2.democratic nature.2. etc.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. love. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. 3. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. 93 . sympathy and good will among the nations. co-operation. 4. 2. 5. fellow feeling. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Crow and Crow write. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. periodicals. art galleries. To make them achieve their aim. led to the printing of books. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the invention of the printing press. Hence. Define community. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. books.3. 2. Museums. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In fact. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. During the course of time. Moreover. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. are increasingly used in education. Emphasising this thing. Now internet is being used. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . He taught his students orally.V. Then came newspapers. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. “All the citizens of the community.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children.

telecast. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. the place of importance. music. 2.3. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Important happening inventions. the teacher still occupies. Students listen various talks. dram appreciation. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. It is also an important source of entertainment. Thus. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. Thus. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. In collaboration with the experts.G. 2. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. “Listening participation” in current history. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. art. It enlightens public opinion. languages.classroom teachers. In the emphasis is on sound. social studies. 101 . Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. It stimulates curiosity and interests. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. current affairs and other areas. Reynolds. politics. Various talks. A lot of work by way of pre.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. for the teacher through school broadcasts. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. rather than on picture. Effective means of presenting music.6.

It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. informal and non-formal education. 4. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. at any place. at recreational centers. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. at drawing room. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. style. 102 . fol classical music. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. projects or creative activities. 3. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. mathematics. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. Team-teaching demonstrations. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. audibility and presentability. at play. Participation of local teachers and pupils. 5. At present. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. Before presenting the programme. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. development of lessons. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. speech. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. School concerts. plays. travel talks. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. Making learning an open system.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.8 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.3.6 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.LESSON 2.4.4.4.5 2.4.1 2.3.4.4.4.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.3.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.4.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.4 Non formal educational system 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.2 2.4.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.7 2.4.4.4.3.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.4.

2.4. 9. 3. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. 2. the mass media et.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. School is.4. it was mostly. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. 7. 110 . Education organised by some agency.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Education associated with a degree or certificate. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. Education.4. say the Government or the private enterprise. the temple. his mental alertness. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. the community.4. you will be able to: 1. To realize this objective of education. 6. 2. 5. 4. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught.2. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. In ancient time in India.3.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. the most important agency of formal education. 4. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. starting and ending at -a particular age. 3. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. open university. the family. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. compare formal and non formal system of education. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. 2. imparted at the residence of the teacher.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. open school. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school.. 2. 8. the learner are acquainted. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner.

Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Concepts of proportion. diplomas. 2. as well as vocational education and training. such as a high school or secondary school. usually between the ages of zero or three and five.a secondary education. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Higher Education: Higher education. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. In general. third stage. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen.3. and relations are formed and developed through normal play.3. or post secondary education. or academic degrees. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Through early formal education.4. depending on the jurisdiction. the elements of language are first learned. capacity.2. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal.4. Some education systems have separate middle schools. structured education. also called tertiary.

It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. children with disabilities. Agencies can be classified as 2.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.4. late beginners etc. 2. What are levels of formal educational system? .3. and remote dwellers. 4. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . 3. is an important agency of formal education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 .4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities.which will help for nation's development.

critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. It is functional. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. open learning. continuing education and on the job oriented education.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. it is a more effective tool for rural development.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action.. admissions.e. planned. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. it has its own valid claim to reality. adults as well as children. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. staffed. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. place of instruction. “Non-formal education should 113 . In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. However.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. one could say that non-formal education is an active. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. According to Malcolm A. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. systematic. Non-formal education includes adult education. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. It is much more responsive to needs and change. Open university.learning client take some learning objectives.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. It is deliberate.formal education. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. i. etc.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. until 1970 it had not been defined.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. Thus. adding up to a true learning society. financially supported life formal education. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. It unlocks the doors of development plans. systematic. Therefore. to help themselves. curriculum. Adiseshiah.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’.

5. 4. 2. self. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. 3. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. international understanding. evaluation etc. place of education. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. To develop in the student. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. i. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.be marketable and vocationalised.4. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. exploring. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. Preparation for future needs. Covering life span of an individual.4. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. 2. It should lay emphasis on the self. admissions. modes of teaching. 7. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. curriculum.4.4. Flexibility in various aspects of education. national integration.” According to H.e.renewal. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. To help industrial workers to better their skills. socialism. 114 .” 2. co-curricular activities. age. Process of sharing. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 6.S.learning pattern. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. Lawrence. the Ideas of citizenship.S. Part-time education.

4. 5. 4.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society.4.4. school dropouts. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. Universalisation of primary education. 5. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. in villages and those who live in towns. 4. 7. publication and information dissemination. 115 .4. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 2. working adults. 3.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. Eradication of adult literacy. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 6. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. 9.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 8. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. • 2. 3. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 10. Technical. 2. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. Senior Secondary. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. To offer Secondary.

Therefore. 3. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. self-employment iii. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. 2. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. if organised in isolation.2. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. etc. All-round development i. open space.. Radio and television. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. centres of correspondence education. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home.4. public libraries. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . 4. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii.4. library. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. Institutions for formal education.4. To increase knowledge and 2. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. farm. Again. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. 2. To make if.full time to learners – can be home. To better qualifications. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. effective in modern societal context. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. factory. etc.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 .5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. training centres in factories. others are formal and informal.

Face Contact programmes. institution. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Lecturing T.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals.V. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. . 7. 117 . Give examples of non formal education? . Written tests. Teaching to face teaching. 6. . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Correspondence lesson. List out any two aims of non formal education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. radio. Define non formal education.

Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. 7.4. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. systematic.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. b. 2. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. 4. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. b. 2. the college and the university come under this category.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Pre-school level. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned.4. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. 4. The school. a. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. School 3. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. adults as well as children. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. Primary level. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Open University.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 118 . Open School. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.4. 5. a. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. 3.2. Secondary level. Formal and Non Formal 2. Higher Secondary level and University level. 2.” 6.

L. Pahuja.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. S. K and Narang C.4. B. P. J. N. New Delhi : 119 .C. Gupta. Dash. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2005). Bhatia. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2008). Mohanty. N. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ltd. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2003). Education in Emerging India. (2007). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2004). Theory and Principles of Education. (2008). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.2. K. J.

5.5.4.3.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5.5.5.5.5.7 2.1 2.4.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.4 Open University 2.5.6 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.4.5.3.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.3.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.4 Need for Open University 2.5.LESSON 2.5.4.4.5.5.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.3 Objectives of Open University 2.2 2.5 2.3.5.5.

their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education.5.5. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. continuing education is a boon. However. 2. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.5.3. Any person. 2.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. industries. economic field or such other fields.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. farmers. For them. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. know the need and objectives of open university. It is a continuous process. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person.2. It is a lifelong process. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. you will be able to: 1. Thus. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. give the meaning. characteristics of open university 4. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. labourers and half educated individuals. 2. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. Under these circumstances.5. This knowledge may be in political field. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies.

After the achievement of independence.3. 2. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Radio. On the other hand. Throughout the country.directly related to his job. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Persons engaged in health services. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. T. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. Cinema. if he gets opportunity to develop them. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. For them too continuing education is essential.V. On the other hand. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. Thus. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest.5. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature.literate person. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Block Development Officers. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. deteriorating to his character and personality.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. Radio and T. cultured and progressive. are also contributing their might for the purpose. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress.V. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. Doctors. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures.

This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. 2. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. (17) modern international and national events.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. 6. (7) folk songs. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. These books are not very useful. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. 2. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. habits of people of other lands. (2) basic religious matters. (1) ancient history. (14) information about bringing up young children.5.V. (10) first aid.3.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (15) music. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. Inspite of the great efforts.3. (8) psychology of adults. (16) liking. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. 4.. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (4) the fundamentals of economics. Of course. especially women. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. 7.5. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. 2. (13) psychology of child behaviour. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (6) folk stories. and Radio. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. 123 . 3. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. we have not been able to achieve our targets. 5.

Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 .4. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. lack of time etc. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e .5. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. NLM was launched in the year 2.5.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. of educational opportunities. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. attendance restrict ion. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

2.unobserved. the higher the degree of openness. Education is not a once for-all process. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . 5.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. 4. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. IGNOU was established in the year 6. e. 3. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. b. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience.4. it makes use of educational techno logy. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. its education is not class room based but home based. but 125 . and in teaching. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing.5. c. No one is too old or too late to learn. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. d. Which was the first open university in India? . it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification.

met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. cho ice o f co ur ses. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. 4.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. it a ims at wider and hig her. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education.4. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. 2. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 4. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 2. or who realised too late that they need it. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. Mo re o ver. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n.4. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 2. 3. 6. 5. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n.5. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n.who did not get it. 2. supplementing the existing provision. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 126 .5. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 3.

Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . 2. 8.5. In the present day world. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons.4. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. you have learnt the concept. a state or nation. 3.2. 5. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. List out any four methods of Open University? . school drop outs. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Every day. 4. Laboratory works. Therefore.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . 8. 2. 127 . Tutor Comments. 6. semi – literates.5. a society. 1. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. 7. Self instructional materials. Correspondence tuition. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

6. 7. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. which may include house wives. 8. need and characteristics of Open University. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (2) basic religious matters. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n.5. aspirants for continuing education. Television Lessons. its education is not class room based but home based. 4. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2.5. agricultural and industrial workers. P r int med ia b. d. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. youth. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 1985. Explain the objectives.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. (1) ancient history. Broad casting lectures c. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 1988. 8. 3. 2.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. 2. a. unskilled workers and other professionals. a. 128 . b. 9. a. cho ic e o f co u r ses. 7.ambitious learners. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. b.

S. L.K. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Udaiveer. Recent trends in Non Formal Education.2. Modern Problems of Education. 129 . (2004).S. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. (2004). K. (2007). K and Narang C. Reddy.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ltd. (2001). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education..5. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. R. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. the education of women. The problems pertaining to the aim of education.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. 133 . Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. In Lesson 2. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. examination. All which is the need of the hour. Examination reform. which may claim the attention of those concerned. and teacher education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. its causes and remedial measures. wastage and stagnation. Training teachers for all levels of education. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself.

134 .

1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1 EFA – For whom? 3.3.2 3.1.3 New initiatives.3.1.3. 135 .1.1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.1.LESSON 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.7 3.1.8 3.4 3.1.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.6 3.1 3.2 EFA – How? 3.1.5 3.

3. On the other hand. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. (EOI) 2. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. directed that.1. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. Therefore. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. economic or cultural. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. therefore.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. education received added importance and significance. 2. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. 3. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. Continuing Education (CE) 1.1. “The State shall 136 . It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. Eradication of Illiteracy. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. understands the country. may be political. you will be able to: 1. social.

” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Due to the adoption of democratic system. 3.endeavour to provide. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Universalization of Retention. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. the national Government under. Therefore. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . After the attainment of independence. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Universalization of Enrolment. Continuing Education (CE). Three Stages for Universalization. 137 . rights and responsibilities. It enables the parents to send their children to School. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education.

“Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. present and future. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. 1990. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. educational enterprise. This target had to be revised to 1970. Therefore. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write Article 45. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. It is safe to assure. UNESCO Bulletin states. 1995 (for upper primary stage). inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. 138 . So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. later to 1988.1.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2.3. then to 1976. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development.

2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. rural areas. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. their enrolment and retention. 3. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. nutrition education and sports and games. By undertaking survey. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Education of the Impaired. 12. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Apart from primary education. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. 139 . Early childhood education should be streamlined. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. 10. slum areas.1. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. and Women’s education programme should be improved. 6. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. Jams and Jellies. creed. FELF. 9. 11. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. Disabled. The Social Education. etc. Education of Girls. Emphasis must be given on health education. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. 5. 8. sex. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. NAEP. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. 3. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. adolescent and adult. problem of literacy. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. the art of preparing fruit-juice. their social economic status and occupations.3.

Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.1. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 .4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i.3. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.3. Expand MLL and SSA .3 NEW INITIATIVES.e. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. 4. Wastage and Stagnation.1. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. 3. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.

The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. Familial Factors .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .first stage of education. Personal Factors . Social Factors . School Factors .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . it is considered as wastage. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 142 . . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Define Wastage. . Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Enumerate the causes of Wastage.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. 7.

in his home. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. They are described hereunder :1.3. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. relating to home. rural or urban 3. Societal Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. school or society. Personal Factors . School Factors .1.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . Family Factors .The following factors.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Define Stagnation? 9. etc.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. mid-day meals. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. 144 . appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. stationary. uniforms. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? .

” 3. 6.. improvement of curriculum. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. 2. b. directed that.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1.3. 3. 3.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. 3. 4.1. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community.1. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. therefore. a. a. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. “The State shall endeavour to provide. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. a. Universalization of Enrolment c. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. 4. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Minimum Levels of Learning b. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. Universalization of Provision b. Hartog Committee. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment.1. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Universalization of Retention 2. 145 .

Social Factors 8. 3. New Delhi: 146 . Hemchand. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. (2008). Familial Factors c. Crescent Publishing Corporation.7.N. a. S.K. Problems of Elementary Education. S. introduce graded curriculum.K. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 9. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. T. Sharma. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. a. School Factors d. improve examination system.1. (2007). (2001). Personal Factor b. b.

2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.5.5.3.2.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.5.2.7 Let us sum up 147 .1 Advantages of Co-education 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.4 Question banks 3.5 New evaluation procedures 3.3.2.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2.1 Problems of examination 3.1 3.2.2.2.7 Open book examination 3.5.2.2 3.6.5.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.4.2.LESSON 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.2.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.5.4.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.2.2 Grade System 3.2.2.5.

8 3. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.9 3. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.2. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. 4.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.2.2.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. 3.2. but on the other.2.3. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.2. Besides.2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. 3. suggest the new evaluation procedures. 3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. you will be able to: 1.

boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. The following steps should be taken up. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. etc. roadside Romeoism. 3. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. etc.2. which the educational authorities have to face. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. They may cause problems relating to discipline.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. schools for them wherever necessary.3. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. If the students are in sufficient number. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. etc.. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. They develop secondary sex characteristics. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. waiting rooms for girl students. 149 . separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. hostel facilities. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided.

so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.2. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. 150 . It is considered as a major sub-system.4. the examination system has an important role to play. the net-work of examination system has also become vast.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. appointment of paper-setters. conduct of internal examinations. Instruction. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. assessment and Finance. teachers. public administrators and statesmen.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. public interested in education. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. 3.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

examiners. tabulators. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted.2. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. scrutinizers. etc. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. training of examiners.4. invigilators. etc. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. validity and practicability. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. 3. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. values. introducing objective-based testing.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. establishing reliability. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . etc. etc. announcement of results. pursuing objective-oriented instruction.printing and distribution of question papers. etc.

it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. 2) From the angle of content of education.4. 152 . The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. which they are expected to study. halo-effect. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education.. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. 3) With respect to method of teaching. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. takes the place of comprehensive learning. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. 7) In connection with the question papers. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. do not appeal to the students and parents. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc.. may also discredit them.2.. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. Vagaries in making. 3. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. lack of objectivity etc. Subjects.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. it s a common experience that subjectivity. Rote memorisation. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. stereotyped questions.

Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. List any two merits of examination.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. revaluation. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3.develop true love for education. 4. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . . Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. 153 . Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. etc. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions.a part of internal assessment. may be introduced. Spot valuation. re-numbering of answer scripts.

A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. In actual practice.3. In this system.5.2. skills are given importance. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. Their interests. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination.2. 3.5. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970.2. The new scheme of assessment. When a person chooses to work extra. Every paper is treated equal. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. The students can take any course offered in any department. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. he is given extra credit points. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. It is complicated. attitudes. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures.

poor. only the total credits to be earned is specified. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4.good. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester.discipline. v. or as a 4 credit course. courses can have weightages defined. poor. These weightages are called credits.2. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. An example is a seminar. This system reduces comparison of marks. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. 3.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. In the new system. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. While designing syllabus. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. Groupism is encouraged.5.

The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.5.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.2. 3. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. 3.5. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. 156 . Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. 3.2. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. However. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.2. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.

Therefore.2. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.2. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . There are no proper procedures for selection. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any four new evaluation procedures. 3. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. However.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization.3. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard.5. 6. recruitment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. In the hierarchy. .

They are. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. disciplinary problems.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. complaints and compliments. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties.. interpersonal relationships and so on. 158 . There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. in a sense. playgrounds. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. Academic inspection. taking up the follow-up programmes. school buildings. etc. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. finding out whether the prescribed text. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. library books. When they are fully realised. books are followed. requirements. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. finding out the adequacy of. submitting of the inspection reports. inspecting the class-room teaching. whether the syllabus has been covered. of late. whether proper teaching methods have been followed.6. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. staff. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. laboratory equipment. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. 3. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. wherever necessary. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools.qualified personnel. etc. being realised as two different functions.2. 1. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. in contrast. qualifications..

In the light of these conceptualisation. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. 159 . educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. their professional knowledge. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. aptitude. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives.Ed. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. or. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors.. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. course in either educational. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. modern. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. 3. Insistence on specialisation in the B..Ed. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. Similarly.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. at least. M. courses.2. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. once in five years. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. In the case of departmental candidates. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments.

Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India.2. c.2. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 2. d. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper.2. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. 3.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. 3. b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. a. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. b. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. Grade System.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. assessment and Finance. a. 160 . 3. 3. 5.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Instruction. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. 4. Administration. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.

Question banks. Open book examinations. (2002). 5. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. History and Problems of Education in India. (2005). R and Sharma. a. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Educational Reforms. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma.4. a. a. K. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Problems of Education in India.2.a part of internal assessment. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . b. c. S. (2004). Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Multiple sets of question paper. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. K. b. 3. New 161 . 7. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. b. Vaidya.

3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.3. 3.3. 3.4 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.9 3.LESSON 3.10 3.3. 162 . state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3 3.3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3.7 3.6 3.2 3.8 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.5 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3. 5. you will be able to: 1. 4. 2.3. identify the needs of rural India and social.3.3.1 3.3.

University Education. and 3 years of First Degree Course.3.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. Similar is the case with some other States. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i.specialisation programmes 3. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission.. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. The Calcutta Madras. i. 10 years of general Secondary Education. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. in Andhra Pradesh. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education.e. 2. e.. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. Commission emphasised to continue. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. 8 years of general education. the Banaras Sanskrit College.. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. etc. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination.3.e. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses .g. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. Consequent on the recommendations. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919.. The.

habits of hard work and develop .4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 5. is also a plus point . to imbibe. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. social. 5) to help for the social. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. cultural and economic development of the country.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . 3. 8. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. However. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. Provision for transfer of credits to students. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. 7. economical and political. educational channels. and. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. 10. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. 6.3. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. to prepare. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved .a sense of dignity of labour. who desire to change from one stream to another. historical.confidence in students. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . b.

to develop national character. and that required to enter the tertiary level. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. international understanding. 1. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. democratic living.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities.3. and. at the other.national integration. cultural and' religious tolerance. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. on one hand. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education.. The General Educational Spectrum. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. Sociologically it is undesirable. 3. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. social justice. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. Philosophically it is not the conception. Psychologically. etc. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . cooperativeness. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission.

3. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. In our country.3. medical plants. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. physics or mathematics. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. Biology. 2. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. and vocations based on dairy-farming. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. professional. Agriculture is the main occupation. industrial agricultural production is growing. or other machinery. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. India is a land of villages. Commerce and other disciplines. All these need for an. commerce. technological. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. Science.— tube-wells. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. In the vocational spectrum. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. commerce. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. 166 . chemistry. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. educational and cultural services. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. horticulture. rural health. the rural areas have suffered very much. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. fish culture. technical. In the matter of language. such as Agriculture. vegetable growing.

Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . In this way. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. social justice. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. There had been favourable reaction from the students. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. and the needs. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and 5. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3.. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . the local resources available. can be ensured. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. In time..etc. In this it may be concluded. 3. 4. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. interests and aptitudes of the students.

New Delhi : 168 . we studied the history. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3.C.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. N.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Modern Trends in Indian Education.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Calcutta University Commission 2. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. (2005). 3. a.3. B. a. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. to imbibe. Dash.K. a. J. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. (2007). (2008). General Educational Spectrum and b.3. 3. objectives. J.3. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. 3. Ltd. 2. b.3. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Mohanty.a sense of dignity of labour. 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.3. Anmol Publications Pvt. Vocational Sepctrum. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. habits of hard work and develop . to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. b. (2001). Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.

14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4.12 3.7 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.10 3.9 3.2 3.4.3 3.4.4.4. Education contributes to human development.6 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.11 3.4.4.LESSON 3. but the lighting of a fire”.4.4. social and 169 .4.1 3.4.4.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.8 3.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.13 3.5 3.

known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. While women constituted only 9. cultural and political development of the individual. There is a close connection between education and development.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. family. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up.4. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. economic. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states.higher education in particular. During the year 1937. analyze the women and distance education. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. you will be able to: 1. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. community and nation is universally acknowledged. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. For the first time in the history of India. Dr. These courses were. higher education of girls developed immensely. 3. 3. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. Home Economics. particularly 170 . understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. In the post —independence period. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. The relevance of women’s education to social. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. although we have miles to go. Teaching and Fine Arts. Education .3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence.4. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. Nursing.

a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. Even today. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.2 29.0 16. In the rest of the country. Coimbatore. out of 9200 and odd colleges. The idea of women’s education for equality. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. 3. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).D. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.0 43. in our country.1 24.9 27. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .9 14.women. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.1 31. Mumbai.4. levels and professions.65 lakhs in 1994-95.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. In 1950-51. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. 3. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.4.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.2 22.0 32. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Yet. Kodaikanal.4. we have more than 1200 institutions. Mother Teresa Women University. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.N. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.T Women University. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.0 Today.

D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.4.44 35.56 64. 2.83 47. 3. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .1 respectively.66 66.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.4. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .53 34.that of boys.73 10. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.54 12. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.34 33.4%) prefer Arts subjects.17 52. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .63 Female % 34. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.36 3.47 65. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4.46 82.27 89. 3.1 and 14.

75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. curriculum not suited to their requirements. financial difficulty of the parents. According to a survey. Thus. They gave up their studies to enter home life. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. what is the need for higher education for her. 173 . etc. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. particularly. and coeducation may spoil her character. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. In every third family. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. 3. promoted and increased. irrelevance of the content of education.hinders the girls from getting higher education. Book banks should be established. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it.4. marriage is a very common I factor. distance of the college or university from home. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Also. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. The major hurdles. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. In college. she will only learn fashion. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas.

Geographic distance of educational institutions.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. It also brings about 174 . Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. Education. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. space. is the only tool for realising empowerment.4. 3. Empowerment in a nutshell. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Full-time employment. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. It is a productive investment. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. There are constraints of time. It enables to study.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. and the limitations of the conventional education system. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development.economic disabilities faced by women. 3. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. resources and socio . Distance education is a boon to women.4. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges.

The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. The major objectives of women's higher education. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. education of women must be given priority in national plans. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. higher learning.4. 3. empowerment means being assertive. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. Women are partners in development. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. education of women is of paramount importance. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. for full development of our human resources. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. legal awareness and economic independence. on their own.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. Empowerment is an active. This can be achieved through reflection.

who are eager to take up courses. 3. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. which is pending for a long time. especially so in the developing countries. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures.4. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. will encourage them to venture new grounds. 176 . Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. has to be implemented at the earliest. But their number is small. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. Scholarships and concessions for women. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. The local administration. which had been the sole domain of men. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. Reservation for women.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. The educational institutions. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Better opportunities.

talents. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Australia. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.9%). IDP Education. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 .She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. But. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. According to Lindy Hyam.4. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. 3. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.3 percent. engineering and related technologies (16. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. Also. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. especially in developing countries like African countries.8%). Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates.000 women in the country. capacities etc. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.1%) and architecture and building (38. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . Chief Executive..

(2000). impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. Women Education. SNDT Women’s University. 4. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. (2005). New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication.to the family. and Swain. S. 3. Coimbatore. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. 3. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.4.R. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.C.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Rao. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Mumbai. 43% 6. 4. Women Education. Mother Teresa Women University.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. A. Mishra.K. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. a. create the right attitude towards life. Kodaikanal. Centre for Women’s Studies. Pattanaikj. R. Coimbatore. individuals and society b. (2008). Women and Education. (2007). 178 . New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. and Suryalatha. R.4. 3. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. S. A. 2.4. R. SNDT Women’s University. community and the nation. Mumbai. Rajasthan 5. Annakodi.

There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.8 3.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .9 3.11 3.LESSON 3.1 3.5. They should be trained.5.3 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.4 3.5.5 3.2 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. whole.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5.5.6 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5.5.5.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.7 3.personality of children in and out of school.10 3. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.5.

The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. understand the training teachers for Primary. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. national consciousness. know the pre service and in service training facilities. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. equality and justice. Dearth of new technology of teaching. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. Lack of physical facilities. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. 4. understanding and strong desire for international peace. Secondary and Higher Secondary level.5. international. 3.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. 5. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. you will be able to: 1.5. Shorter working hours. social and emotional integration. and national character. 3. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. 180 .

4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. higher secondary teacher education. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. the secondary teacher education. students. it is called the Extension teacher Education. a Diploma course and a Degree course. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service.Ed.5. At the diploma level. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. etc. and M. Lop-sided curriculum. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. it is called the In-service teacher education. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. the centre. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. and the collegiate teacher education. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. who have not been trained earlier. 3. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. inservice and extension education programmes. Inadequate training in practical skills.5.. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. the primary teacher education. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. (NCERT) New Delhi. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training.Ed.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities.. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels.Less qualified teacher educators. Depending on the levels. If the student teachers are working teachers. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . levels. 3. the state Government. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education.

state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. 3. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Expand NCERT 2. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 .6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Educational teehnology cells. Also Guidance Bureaux. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . Education cells. collegiate cells. depart ments etc. Science Education units.5. state Institutes of Educat ion. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Evaluation unit. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs .Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education.. extensio n service. non-formal. etc. are established.

through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. to ensure teacher competence. should be improved on a top priority basis. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . material conditions relating to libraries. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed .Ed. schools and sister institutions.. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. which should include experience in the primary schools too. and 183 . Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. to offer consultative services.Ed. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and .. primary and secondary school teachers. despite its vast expansion. to improve curricular programmes. audio visual aids. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. laboratories. degree. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. which help breaking isolation from one another . and so on.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B.. to prescribe conditions for recognition.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department.

The problem. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. Modern Methods of Evaluation.secondary education. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. etc. Induction Courses. and XII. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Meanwhile. 184 . To meet this exigency. Modern Techniques of Teaching. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. though no pre-service training.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. methodology and evaluation. Agriculture. Organisation of Content Courses. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. Hence. etc. Psychology of Students. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. whether they should have professional education or. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. not came up once again.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. Workshops. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher .

Degree and M.Ed. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. (Education) and M. Post-Graduates also undergo B.. Ajmer.Ed. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.. All B Ed. 3.A. Pre-service training is for those. courses and M.. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. Degree. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. in Education. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. training. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. (Education) are organized by 185 . Courses leading to B.’s are elig ible for M.D. State Institutes of Education. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. M. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education..’s for Ph.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.. Point out two defects in primary teacher training .A.. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications..Ed.S.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.Ed.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. For re-orienting the teachers. These facilities are available for regular students.Ed. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.Ed. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.

4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. they should be conscientious . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the role of ERIC? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.List any two code of conduct for teachers? .5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit .. Hence the employability of M. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 186 . (Ed).A. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively.. and B. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.). 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. 5. 3. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. 4. (Ed. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. established by tradition and teachers of the past. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. . However. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . 6. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. of conduct—written or unwritten.A.

a. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. Bhopal. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. Explain code of conduct for teachers. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. b. National Council of Educational Research and Training. 6.5. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. these problems are not as such cannot be solved.3. Ajmer.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. 4. a. Dearth of new technology of teaching. they should be conscientious. 3. Shorter working hours. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. b. The necessity is however this.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 3. 4. Discuss the problems of teacher education.5. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. However. 3. 187 . a. 2.5. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. 5. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 2. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.

(2009). Ltd Aggarwal.N. Teacher Education.D.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. Mohanty. B. Tewari. and Teacher Education. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Teacher Education. Corporation. P.3. A. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . (2003). Publication Pvt.5. (2010). J.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

communicable diseases and their prevention. nutritional deficiency diseases. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. the focus is on the school health programmes. 191 . Since food is the source of nutrients. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. common ailments of children. objectives. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. preservation of nutrients. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. objectives and role of the physical education. economic and educational developments. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. In lesson 1. objectives. If the diet is poor. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. In lesson 4.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. The person’s environment is equally important. consuming the right amounts becomes important.

192 .

They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody.1.7 4.2 4.1.10 4. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.11 4.6 4. It is a miniature society.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1.1. emotional and social. physical.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1. mental.1. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1.1.4 4.1.1.1.9 4.3 4.e. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time. 193 .8 4.1.1 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.LESSON 4.5 4.

explain the importance of First aid 5. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. To develop certain skills concerning health. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students.1. To develop healthy health habits among children. 194 . 4. content of health education. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4.g. understand school health programmes 2. training of teachers and evaluation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 9. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. you will be able to: 1. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 4. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. list the common ailments of children 3. 2. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. training in first aid and etc.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. 5. 10. know the need for sex education. 7. 4. 11.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. 3. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. e. to his family and to the community at large. cleanliness and healthful living. 8. To give information regarding health rules. 6.. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. Instruction.

vaccination. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students.. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. typhoid. There should be regular water supply. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises.. There should be good drainage facilities. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. proper doors and windows. organisation of school health days. cleanliness weeks. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. 2. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. ( iii) sanit at io n. excusing late. The surroundings of schools should be clean. 5.4. as described below 1. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. (vi) nutrition education. The flooring should not be damp. B. The school buildings should be spacious. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. play festivals. etc. “Play-for-all” programmes. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. (xii) smoking education etc.coming or absence. 4. Triple Antigen Vaccination. suitable furniture. direct lighting. First aid facilities should be made readily available. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. (viii) first aid. Vaccination for small pox. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. (v) safety education. 2. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. minimizing the travelling distance. B. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. 3.C. (xl) mental health.G. inoculation against cholera. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. is imperative.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. (ii) communit y healt h. Arranging better transportation facilities.1.

The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. fainting (epileptic fit). 196 . Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. etc. • Have adequate rest and sleep. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • When sleeping in groups. • Find out the cases. • Keep all rooms clean. scalds. and other accidents. insect stings. drowning. sports and games in the interest of their health. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. isolate and notify. cuts. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. if epidemic is wide-spread. • Close the schools. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. • Take nutritious food. burns. D. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. C.. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. bleeding. wounds. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. poisons. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. dislocations. fractures. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes.

From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. pain in the joints. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. measles etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. polio. fever.1. 4. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • .6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. Once these germs get into the body. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. There are three stages in any communicable disease. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. chicken pox. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage.. asthma.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. Mention the school health programmes. So they easily get illnesses. List out the Health curriculum 3. backache. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. 2. water or bodily contact. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. cough. headache. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. They are: i) The incubation stage. These diseases are called communicable diseases. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. which are – cold. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. tuberculosis.1.

Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Throat is affected. Diarrhoea . 198 . etc. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Ear Infections . Some suffer cold due to allergy.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Hence liquid diet is recommended. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. There may also be fever accompanied by cough.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. sugar and water. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. The child may have fever. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Hence it is called a killer disease. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Mumps . Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Others make the children very weak. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Important salts and water are lost in this process. cough and fever. eating food which is not clean. The following are the common communicable diseases. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Common Cold .It is caused by measles virus. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. unhygienic bottle feeding.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt.This disease is caused by bacteria. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. unhygienic living conditions.When a child suffers from scabies. Tonsilitis . After three or four days of fever. head-ache and cough.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. This is caused by cold virus. Measles . Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Scabies . The symptoms include cold. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief.

The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. 5.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. 199 . Typhoid . As the disease progresses. the child is not able to breathe. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. The child may also have diarrhoea.• • • • Chicken Pox . Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. By scratching he causes secondary infections. What are communicable diseases? 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. face and waist.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Expand DPT . The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. raised pink spots appear on head. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. Enlist the common ailments of children. Diphtheria . separate. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. Shortly. If proper treatment is not given. the child may die. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. It begins with fever. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing.

Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. scorpion stings. dislocation. bleeding. drowning. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups.g.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. 3. films and jokes.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. 2. sprains. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. wounds. Wounds .” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. It is both biological and psychological. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. In such cases. exciting and body-oriented. Sprains . Cuts and Bruises . head injury. sprains. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. and films. Drowning . eye injury. fiction.1. simple fractures.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. 4. Sex is popular. fainting. It has its rightful place in education too. man-woman behaviours. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. swelling. 4. so-called sex books and periodicals. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. cuts.1. bruises. snakebites. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. it is a subject of art. 200 . 5.4. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. and Community Work and Social Service. etc. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water.

2. celibacy are age. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. health. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. The home.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. try experimenting with their bodies. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. in their ignorance. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. they would be treading the path of sure doom. the religious organisations. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . 3. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. Should the boys and girls. In secondary schools. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. but preserve them from disaster and disease. Hence. In today's liberal and interactive society. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community.. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. B. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A.old values. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. sex education is being recommended in schools. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. The values of life. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. the school. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies.

there will no crisis in its implementation. the school health programmes. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. What are the major components of Sex Education.1. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. when the courses are already overloaded. C. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. Teacher education institutions are. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. communicable diseases and their prevention. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. 202 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. hence. first aid and sex education. common ailments of children. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Mention the food nutrients 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. 209 . List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

210 . But how do we select these foods? The major aim. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . Let us talk about each of these aspects.2. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected.2. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied.4.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. minerals. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. If you look at the definition carefully. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned.

Rice or rice preparations such as idli. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e.g. People in the east of our country prefer rice. it is also specific to a given activity level . Even within given States there is considerable variation. In other words. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. Preferences/customs are also important. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). moderate or heavy work. A balanced diet is specific firstly.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. These are: region where the person resides and income.6. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. There is no point. the social and religious practices of that region.2. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. construction labourer). for example. In the case of adults. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. dosa are typical of the south. activity level and physiological stress. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning.one in the morning and the other at night. sex. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately.g.sedentary. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. paratha and poori. 4. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable.

consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving.planning the diet. however. customs. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. One must. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. income plays a vital role. Judicious selection of food is. fat and sugar tend to increase. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. As income increases. One person may be fond of milk products. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. Among the social factors. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. vegetables and fruits. However. as important for the rich as for the poor. As you read this discussion. In addition to these. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. taboos related to food may play an important role. however. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. while another may hate them. Including these 212 . Even among flesh foods. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. for example. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. however. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. If you think of your own religious group. nuts and dry fruits. Having more money. These determine the acceptability of foods. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer.

if the teachers have good food habits. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. but they should be thrown away. fruits. mouth. 17. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two healthy food habits. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. Define balanced diet. For this. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. eggs . Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 8. green leaves. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. etc.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 8) Walk a while after eating. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. over-eating or under. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 213 . meat.eating is hazardous. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost.

planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Bitot’s spots. 4.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. c. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. e.2. Corneal xerosis. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. preservation of nutrients. When the diet is inadequate. Vitamin D 5. d. Beri Beri 4. Explain food nutrients 4. b.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. Discuss good food habits. a. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . good nutrition is essential for good health. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Night blindness. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. In fact. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer.2. Keratomalacia 3. Conjuctival xerosis.4.

mouth.N. (2008). A Text Book of Foods. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. 7.6. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . (2004).C. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. R. Food should be consumed after eating well. Hands. a.M. minerals. P. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . Health and Nutrition Education. 4. Chopra. (2009). b. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. R. a . Food and Nutrition Education. (2005). Food and Nutrition Education. Nutrition and Dietetics. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. b. (2008). Sri Lakshmi B. 8. Nutrition Science. S. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru.2. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.

3.10 4.3.9 4. 216 .3.3.3 4.12 4.3.LESSON 4.3.6.3.3.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.3.11 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3.4 4.3.1 4.2 4.3 Impact on Education 4.8 4.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.6.6.7 4.13 4.3.5 4.3.3.3.

you will be able to: 1. economic and educational development 3. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. therefore. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. community. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. 217 .3.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. It is a much wider co ncept. It is not sex education.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. state the meaning. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. describe the impact of population growth on social. and the consequences of these processes. population characteristics. understand the importance of small family norm 5. objectives and need for population education 2.3. 4. characteristics and changes for himself. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. Whenever we talk of sex education. Population Education. family planning and sex education etc. the stress is. his family. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. There is some difference. aims at providing the younger generation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. his societ y and the world.3.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. 4. the causes of population change.4. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.

3. Define Population Education 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well.3. List out any two objectives of Population Education.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. the nation and the world. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4. the society. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. the family. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .

Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.3. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. 4. health and happiness of its citizens. 4. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. Family is considered as a social unit. Every second two thousand children are being born. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. 219 . The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. which will not be possible without population control. the family programmes are also handicapped. When the family is small.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development.3. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries.6. economic and educational development of the country. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. With the larger families.

. pollution of the environment. Swollen cities. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. Many students herded in a small room. 220 . i. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. 4. The gulf between them is widening further. In developing countries.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. in cinema halls and theatres. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. organization index and material index. teacher index. unemployment. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index.3. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher.6.6.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. lack of proper health care.e. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. and so on. facility for drinking water. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. in buses and trains. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends.3. in parks and other places of public gatherings. heavy intern I migration etc. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. 4. toilets.

essays. There would be poor library facilities. and laboratory equipments. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. blank verses etc. Hindi and English.3. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. can be studied in science and health education. even text books would be in short supply.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. bar graphs etc. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. less space facilities. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. can be taken up. reproduction.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject.. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. less budget for education. Social Studies Statistics on population education. family planning etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. 221 . thus. There would be very few audiovisual aids. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. Regional Language. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages.

4. deaths. Canada. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Children may compare two families. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. United States of America. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. causes of deaths etc. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 3. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Uttar Pradesh. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Children with the help of parents. 14. West Bengal. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 10. Bihar. 5. 7. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 15. 12. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 2. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. They may arrange them as per average density of population.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1.3. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 9. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. China. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Brazil. 8. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled.4. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . 11. area and average density of population. 13.

3. 17. 16. 18. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. age at marriage. values and role children etc. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. preferences for sex. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Comparing life in various respects in two families. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. we have no right to stop 223 . one with a working woman and the other only a house wife.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The question. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size.be opened in their schools.

their entry into the world”. Since the program's inception. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . especially the expansion of child immunization services . The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.. “He who is responsible for population growth. 4. The Family Welfare Program.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. on an overall basis.4-6. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. however. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.were implemented 224 . fertility levels have declined throughout the country. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. continued . the total fertility rate decreased from 6. More than 45 years ago. should be overcome at the intellectual levels.3.to emphasize family planning services. which education can only do. at varying places in different regions. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. and the child survival components of the news: program.

The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. reliance on local women as community health workers. In October 1997. a focus on health promotion. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. the community appears willing to pay for services. Moreover. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. In April 1996. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. and the World Conference on Women. men. Local programs vary in their approaches. At these meetings. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. expansion of services to unmarried women.earlier than the safe motherhood components. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. Therefore. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. and nominal fees for services. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures.

improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. 226 . Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. Describe the impact of population growth on social. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. 3. nation and the world. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. economic and educational development 4. Its main purposes are to create awareness.3. involving the community. 4. family. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. 1997). CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.emphasizing the needs of the client. What are the goals of RCH? 4. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. community.3.

Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. population characteristics. bar graphs. China. 5. area and average density of population. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. Canada. 227 . a. b. 4. a. his family. b. 3. the causes of population change. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. less space facilities. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Brazil.4.3.” 2. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. a. 7. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. and the consequences of these processes. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. less budget for education. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. 6. characteristics and changes for himself. United States of America. his society and the world. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff.

J. Centre for Women’s Studies.K. A.4. Udaiveer. Coimbatore. Jayapoorni. (2002). Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2005).14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. (2005). T. Bhende. (2004).3. V. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. N. Changing attitudes to Education in India. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Ltd. Reddy. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Kantikar. Principles of Population Studies. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Modern Problems of Education. 228 . (1992). Ltd.

2 Major games 4.4.LESSON 4.11 19.4 4.1 4.10 4.4.3 4.4.4.3 Indigenous games 4.4.6 4.4.5 4.4.4 Lead up games 4.4.4.4.8.8.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4.4.2 4.8.4.4.8.7 4.1 Minor games 4.9 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.

4. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3.4. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. which forms its most valuable assets. leadership and balance in defect. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. classify the different types of games. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities.4. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. as it should 230 . teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. full records of physical activities should be maintained.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. social fitness. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools.4. the youth of the country. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. 4. The concept of physical education has been made broader. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. 4. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. team spirit. moral fitness and emotional fitness.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. perseverance. mental alertness. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.

g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . team spirit. obedience to rules. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. They go hand in hand. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. leadership. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. To be more precise. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. They are inseparably united together. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. The educational efforts at home. Every individual is a part of society. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Therefore.

ment al.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. Just like Education. Buck has observed that 232 . pleasing manners. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. a sound health. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. mo ral.4.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. 4. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. H. Physical exercises. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. nor body but the whole man. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain.” Montaigue writes. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. game and sports. C. Rousseau states. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal.” The Secondary Education Commission.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. Regarding the significance of physical education.

Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society.4. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. Froebel says. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. speed. “If we wish to develop the whole being. efficiency and character.” 4. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. coordinative abilities. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. we must exercise the whole human being. initiative. strength. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. 233 . Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. flexibility and power. happiness.a properly directed physical education should result in health. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. resourcefulness and smartness.” In brief. endurance. elegance. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. etc.

Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. If no opportunity is provided to the students. systems of government. poetry and painting. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. plagues and famines. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. While wars. in greater or lesser degree. Tournaments foster this sentiment. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. should help in the spiritual development of the student. they may form gangs. including all racial groups and historical ages. its adherents and its enemies. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. these fundamental things have always been present.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Every age has its artists. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. 234 (i) (ii) . Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical.

B.sacrifice. 2. Write any two importance of Physical Education. self. 3. to develop tolerance. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. 235 . List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. obedience. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . bravery and interest in games and sports. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. respect for rules. etc. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.\ to develop perseverance. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems.

9. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. . 2. 6.4.4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 15.H. Be self-confident. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 11. 7. 14. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. 12. is essential. Haag. 3.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 4. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. 236 1. 4. Always keep the whistle ready. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Be sportive. Inform health principles. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. 5.4. and. injuries among pupils should be made. defects. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Usually parents. and readmission after they have recovered. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 16. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Be punctual. Be well-prepared. Be in the uniform. Posture screening should be done. 8. students. 13. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. 10. Keep the field ready for the activities. Act as a leader.

They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. Moreover. less equipment and less expense. As such they are well enjoyed by children. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy.4. Such inst incts as imitation. Indigenous games. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. frolic and jo y. 3. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. chasing. 4.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. 4. Lead up games. 237 . They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun.4. 2. the play. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. 4. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play.8. their development is handicapped. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.

on mountain tops and on river beds. driving. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. pitching. Soft Ball. wherever the kids assemble.4. On lawns. Volley Ball. Cricket. on hard courts. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. finding the partner. muffling. The dimension of the posts and nets. stopping. For each game the rules are many.With a very few rules. Jumping. Hopping. They are played for a shorter duration.8. They are rules approved by the International Associations. trapping. bowling etc. Hockey. Throwing. 4. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. some of them are played indoors. hitting. Ball Badminton. Jump the stick clay and so on. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. women take part most of the games. with implements or without implements. couple tag. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Kabaddy etc. the number of players and substitutes. the play equipment. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. boosting. 238 .. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. the games can be modified according to convenience. over ball pass Relay. While many of them are played in the open playfields. dribbling. heading. Tennikoit. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Shuttle Badminton. These games require varied skills such as running. snatching the kerchief. zig zag relay. skipping. Except a few games. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. under ball pass Relay. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. spiking. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Dodging. benefit in playing minor games. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Tennis. on sea-shore. catching. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Khokho. Basket Ball.

Kho-kho. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one.4. death.8. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. For example. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. On occasions like marriage. All the fundamental tactics. festivals connected with religion and public functions. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. While observing the players in action. these games being popular. An example for indigenous game is 8.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. List out some major games.4. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . Games may be classified as 6. 7. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. birth.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. They have an abundant social value. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.4.8. and . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. they are in existence.

2. the role of physical education teachers and types of games.4. b. c. b. Briefly discuss the different types of games. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. 3. 2. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. 4. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 4. a. to develop physical stamina. a.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Posture screening should be done. 4. 4.4. aims and objectives and need of physical education.4. physically and emotionally fit and alert.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. b. 5. Minor and Major 240 . Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers.4. a. d. to secure physical health b. a. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. 3. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual.

C. Hockey. Soft Ball.4. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Krishna murthy. Handbook of Physical Education. Khokho. Health. Mohanty. (2005). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J.K. J. (2008). (2008). 4. Ball Badminton. Foot-ball. Physical Education and Sports. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Tennis. G. Cricket. Tennikoit. Kabaddy 7. Ltd. Shuttle Badminton.6. J. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. 241 .12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Khokho 8. (2009). Volley Ball. Aggarwal. Basket Ball. Modern Trends in Indian Education.

4 4.LESSON 4.5.9 4.5.5.10 4.5.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.5.8 4.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.5.11 4.2 4.5.5.5.3 4.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.1 Natural Environment 4.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .6 4.5.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.1 4.7 4.

3. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 243 . Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. 4. it covers the following elements: 1. 2. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Participation. social. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast.5. 3. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. 6.5. political. Attitude.educat ion for the environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Details are given below: I. Knowledge. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. role of teacher in environmental conservation. Broadly. population explosion and resource depletion could be. education about the environment and education through the environment. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. you will able to: 1. Skills. aesthetic and educational factors. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values.5. Evaluation Ability.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. economic. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. list out the types of environment 3. Awareness. 4. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. The best place to start such learning is school. 4. Essential knowledge about the Environment. 2. 5. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement.

2. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system.B. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. 244 . a. F. Oxidants Other pollutants. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. • Biological magnification E. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. D. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality.

4. 3. Use of medical science i. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . III. economic. Abortion iv. 2. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. B. c. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Socio-economic measures. Intrauterine device iii. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Birth control through education b. Persuasion: i. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Family planning ii. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Sterilisation. 2. The human ecosystem II. The pill ii. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Control of population growth a.3.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1983). 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Define Environmental Education. (UNESCO. Water pollution abatement. 246 . 3. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 2. e) Recycling. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Air pollution abatement ii. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection.

This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. Any constituent or condition of the environment.5.5. telex.5. He modifies according”.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. way is called environmental or ecological factor. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. animals and other organisms (biotic). which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. to his needs. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.4.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4.5.5. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds.other components of the environment. fax agricultural apparatus. Biological environment The biological environment. 4. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. They interact with each. A change in one brings about a change in the other. -other. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.5. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. These are biotic components. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. a. includes the plants. b. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.

explosion deforestation. mineral survey. desertification 248 . maintaining the ecological diversity. air pollutants from industries. nuclear energy. sources. importance of nitrogen cycle. preventing siltation of dams. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. relation between population and pollution. effects o f CFC. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. role of trees in building economy. t heir role in preventing pollution. social studies. balance of nature. use of medicinal plants. etc. reasons.. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. water scarcity. preserving the watersheds. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. alternate sources of energy. trees reducing noise pollution. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. population. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . ozone depletion. extinction of species. windmills. biogas plants. over exploitation of ground water. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. are the topics which may be taught in History. solar cookers. food chain and food-web. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. river systems. change in climate may be added. natural way of controlling pests.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. wars and hazards of war. etc. greenhouse effect. of civilizations. (ii) Air pollution. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. need for bio-diversity. acid rain. supplying timber for various uses. History The rise and fall. sources of pollut ion. effects. need for conservation. noise control. noise pollution. industrial survey. excellent recreation sites. evolution. industrial pollut io n. ozone layer deplet ion. use of pesticides. nuclear warfare.

Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. aims and scope. 4. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Providing. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. 3. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. 6. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs.may be inc ded in Geography. animal and plants. 4.5. group discussions and seminars. Developing awareness about environmental issues. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 14. 11. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. 249 . Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. 12. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Peepal and Tulsi. 7. 2. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Organising conferences. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. 13. 10. 5. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 8. 9. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment.

old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. all these can cause serious pollution. or form a car pool for everyday travel. used oils down the drain. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. especially plastics. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. 6. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Don’t burn any waste. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. If it is done. it will cause pollution. World Environmental falls on 250 . toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure.Send their waste oil. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Never put any left over chemicals. 5. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Reuse carrier bags.

diversity and stability. To arrange for visiting speakers. The groups may exchange.mat erials. and 251 .4. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. dest roying nat ural habitats. To provide materials needed for practical work. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. To arrange visits or expeditions. etc. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Att itudes of balance towards nature. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. CFCs. orderliness and beauty). etc. nuclear wars. potable water. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. Social responsibilit y (common good. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. values and habits. (cleanliness.). prevention of irretrievable loss of species. developing desirable attitudes. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. loss of bio-diversity. Conservation of natural resources.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information.. Harmony with the nature . their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. rather than conquest and mastery. concern for others). Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems.5. deforestation. To provide reference materials for children’s use. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. depletion of ozone. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. Concern for species. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . viz.

8.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. 252 .5. preserving natural cycles.5. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.5. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. 4.

Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection.K. explosion deforestation. Udaiveer. a. b. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . (2004). b. acid rain. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Anmol Publications Pvt. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. 5. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Environmental Education. Modern Problems of Education. S.\ 4.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. effects. relat ion between population and pollution. S. water scarcity. 8.K. Organising conferences. Knowledge. air pollutants from industries. Environment and Human Rights. 4. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. sources. ozone layer deplet ion. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Rapid population growth.K. population. Environmental Education. sources of pollution. Nanda. a. greenhouse effect. New Delhi : Authors Press. Ltd. Kuldeep. (2007). importance of nitrogen cycle. Ltd. reasons.5. (ii) Air pollution. 3. To provide materials needed for practical work. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Awareness. a. a.. b. T. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. 6. Y. group discussions and seminars.K. new problems from science and technology. Providing. Education for values. (2007). June 5 7. Social responsibilit y (common good. New Delhi : Sharma. (1997). b. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. concern for others). over exploitation of ground water.2. Publications Pvt.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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It is self-realisation." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality.our life.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. According to Rusk'. in fact. enrichment and transmission of culture. should be universal in nature. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man.” 5. Spiritual Development.1. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. moral. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. promote and transmit it to rising generation. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. Universal Education. Education according to idealism. Therefore. Education must contribute to development of culture. the emancipation of spirit. The universe is regarded as a thought process. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe.3. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. man is essentially a moral being. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 .

Learning through questioning. and collation (striving) should find due place. should be there. He carries the child from darkness to light. hygiene. According to idealism. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. Learning through reading. 2. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. affecting (feeling).” 5. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. He sets the environment in which education takes place. So he should embody.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. Ethics. Learning through imitation.3. 3.1. Herbert advocated instruction method.1. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. 5. It considers teacher as. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . subjects like Languages. According to Frobel. The teacher serves as a living model for the students.3. However. Science. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. History. So cognition (knowing). Philosophy. For this no particular method has been suggested. Mathematics etc. no doubt. Learning through lecturing.the spiritual qualities of mankind. 4.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. an indispensable necessity. so subjects like Religion. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. friend and guide. The plant can grow. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. 5.” He is thus. Learning through discussion. a spiritual guide for the child. So health. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. For intellectual development. the school is a garden.

In the words of Ross.perfection and beauty. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. curricula. text books. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Ross explains. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. 2. time tables. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Perfection of Human Machine.preservation.4.1. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. 5. formal lessons or examinations.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. "Education should make 263 • . Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. 5.

It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. useful and mature child. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. rational harmoniously balanced. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Naturalistic curriculum. geography should also be included in the curriculum. In all. Education should. Literature. Arithmetic.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution.4. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. It is based on the psychology of the child. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts.1. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. There is no place for religious and moral education. It stresses basic sciences. Biology.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. therefore. “Education finds its purpose. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Botany etc Language. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. 4. education should develop the child into Joyous. Therefore. • 5. subjects like history. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Chemistry.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. is based on the nature of the child. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Zoology. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. 264 .

1. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Dalton Plan. Learning by doing. 5.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.1.5. Rousseau says. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.4.4.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Learning through experience. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . 5. the stage. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. 3. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism.1. 4. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Learning through observation. It discards all rigid. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Heuristic method. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. a supplier of materials and opportunities. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. a provider of an ideal environment. he should be taught by experience alone. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. 2.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. In the .

History. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. The aim of educational development. Continuous Growth. intellectual. is true. diversified and flexible. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. social and moral aspects. Sciences.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment.absolutism of idealism.5. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Geography. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Social Science. Physical training. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Social Efficiency. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. The individual has not only to adjust himself. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment.1. All Round Development of an Individual. 5. Agriculture.5. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. 5. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Vocational and 266 .1. Subjects. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Personal Social Adjustment.

The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. a senior partner and a sincere guide.5. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. He must be trained. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. alert and resourceful. He has to be active. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.” 5.Technical Education. 5. Learning by Doing. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects.1. The subjects. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. In different situations he remains a friend and helper.1.5. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. a teacher occupies an important position. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. should find proper place.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education.

6. The basic tenets of realism are 1. 3. Literature. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Psychology. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Sex Education. It favours child-centered. specific. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Education is preparation for a complete living. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable.1. Biology. Chemistry. 2.1. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing.1. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real.5. 3. Crafts. scientific and psychological education. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Biography Philosophy. 5. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Population Education. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. 4. rich and happy. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. intellectual. practical. 5. liberal. History. 5. 4. Study of Subjects like Language. Music and Dance. Mathematics. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Art.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. 2. Astrology.6. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. literary or humanistic education.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education.

5. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. certainly and clearly.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. easily and pleasantly.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1.6.6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.

3. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss.1. Languages.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Self preservation & Self expression 4. pragmatism and realism. Self Realisation b.5. Demonstration and Observation 270 .8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. d. Experimentation d. a. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life.1. Universal Education 2. Education according to pragmatism. Learning through experience b. Agriculture. Learning through reading. 5. a. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. b. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Learning through lecturing. History. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Vocational and Technical Education. Sciences. e. has no end other than growth. Physical training. & curriculum. naturalism. a. 5. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. 6.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Learning through questioning. Geography. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. in this lesson. Learning through discussion. c. Tours / Excursion e. Social Science. Rousseau 5. 5. Learning through imitation. Child centered c.1.

P. (2003).5. New Delhi : Bhatia. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. of Pathak. (2004). Foundations of Education. N. R. O. (2007). Publishing corporation. K. New Delhi : A. P. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. L.1. (2007). Theory and Principles of Education.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman.H. Narang C. Pahuja.P. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. 271 .P. Ltd. Anmol Publications Pvt.

4.2.3.2.3 Methods of Teaching 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.5.2.4 Views about teacher 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.LESSON 5.2.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.4 Views about teacher 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.4.2.2.2.2.3. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2.3.2 Curriculum 5.2.5.4.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.1 Aims of Education 5.4.2.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.3.3 Methods of teaching 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2.2.3.2.4.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.5.1 5.2.2 5.1 Aims of Education 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.2.3.2.2.2 Curriculum 5.

273 . Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.4 Role of the teacher 5.2.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. 5. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.7 5.2. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. 5.2.2.2. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. economic and political reconstruction in our country. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. 2.2. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.6 5. you will able to: 1.8 5. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.2. 3.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. an artist.2. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.5. content and methods.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. Tagore was a poet. Gandhiji was primarily a social. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.5. mind and spirit.

He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. mind and soul of children He further observed. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. through life and for life. His scheme of education is life centred. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. righteousness. In the words of Gandhiji. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education.3. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour." Dignity of Labour. It really provides opportunity for character building. This can be matched with any modern concept of education.supporting.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. 'Man is neither mere intellect. 274 . They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. nor the gross animals body. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. 5. it is education of life. "I attach more. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. strength of mind.2. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. self-restraint and service of humanity.

2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. Individual and Social Aims. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development .2. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. According to Gandhi. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self.Training for Leadership. leather work have been suggested. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. the realization of the ultimate reality. Music. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Mother-tongue. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Only good individual forms a better society.3. Art. 5. Drawing and Hindustani. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. General Sciences. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. wood work. gardening. "Development of the moral character. metal work. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.

2. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.2.3. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. proficient. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.trained. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Basic education is other wise known as 4. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. men of 276 . It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.

He also advocates freedom for the child.knowledge. Education must be child centered. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. That is why.2.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. 5. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. 3. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.

He believed in the oneness of humanity.” Like all other ideals.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful.2.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.2. • Ideal of citizenship. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.2. He was deadly against untouchability. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Gandhi in 1937. • Cult of non-violence. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. 5.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. He was a true patriot. • Education should involve manual work.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.K. he was a true Vedantist 5. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. 5.3.

Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. International understanding. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. etc. the more dedicated and devoted. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Civics. "Mankind must realise a unity. wider in range. Purposeful and Meaningful Education.Language and Literature . Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. Therefore. Geography.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. Religion and Psychology. Chemistry. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. complete manhood could be attained. Zoology. them solve problems of day to day life.2. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. stronger in power than ever before. 279 . could help in forging unity among all. (vi) Philosophy. Dance.4. International Understanding." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. sentiment. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. That way only. he said. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. It should help. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Botany. It should help the learner have good physique. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. deeper in. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Tagore said. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Music. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner.

Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.2. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. 280 . Let individualised methods be used for teaching.4. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. Activity Method Heuristic Method. In 1921. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.” He further says.2. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.4.4. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students." 5.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. 5. Tagore rightly says. 5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.2.

Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. 9. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e.g.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. 281 . race. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. 10. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. It is open to all irrespective of country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4.

Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. 4. Concept of Education. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Education should make a person self-reliant. Education for strong Moral Character. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. According to him. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Purity of thought.2. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. work and deeds come out of it.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. 3." He was against the theoretical type of education. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 .5. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education.” 5. Education for Self-realization.2. man making. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life.5. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Book learning. Freedom. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. He believed in to learning or selflearning. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. 2.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Education for Self-reliance.

And above all. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.5. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. 5.5. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Thirdly he wished that games.2. Education for Physical Development. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Every individual should be trained for concentration. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. Discussion Method. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Swami. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. 6. 283 . sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Philosophy and Theology. The teacher should be the facilitator. Of course. A physically strong person is the need of the society. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and .the learners on different students in the discussion. Religion. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. 5. 5.2. That will serve the purpose of education fully.2. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend.5.5. Secondly he wanted Science. engineering and technical subjects. philosopher and guide to the students He.

legs. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. 284 . broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda.2. 2. 5.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 12.2. 3. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. ears and eyes. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. naturalist. Their educational ideas. We have seen that Tagore. 5. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore.6 LET US SUM UP We have. and pragmatist .Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. in this lesson. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. of course. Write short notes on Basic education.Substantiate your answer. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. Gandhiji as a Idealist. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher.

Meditation and concentration c. Activity Method b. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Nai Talim 4. leather work have been suggested. Heuristic Method. c. Cult of non-violence. Basic education. Education should involve manual work. d. Explain Vishwabharathi. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. b. a. Discussion Method 285 . 5. Ideal of citizenship. wood work. Self-Study b.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. c. Activity Method d. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. a. 2. Debate and Discussion Method. 8.2. e. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Learning by Doing c.4. 5. 11. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. a. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. 1937 7. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Teaching while Walking b. f. 5. metal work. 10. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. gardening. Technique of Correlation 6. 9. Self realization. 3. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.

Ltd. Pahuja. Publishing Corporation. P. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. N. B. Dhiman.P.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash.5. P. (2003). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Aggarwal.H. on Bhatia. L. N. C. (2002).2. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Anmol Publications Pvt. 286 . (2004). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2007). K and Narang C. New Delhi : A. J. Foundations of Education. K. (2007). Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. O.

Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.3.10 5.3.3.3.9 5.4 5.6 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum. In this lesson.5 5.11 5.1 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.8 5.3.3.7 5.3 5.3.LESSON 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3.2 5.

you will be able to: 1. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. In the words of Kerney and Cook. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4.. curriculum signifies situations for learning. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. in fact . The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. Since the demands. 5. present behaviour may be modified. In the former sense. it is identical wit h socializat ion.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. In it. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. is a means to the process. maintained or eliminated. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. While education is a process. in the form of new experience. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. in the U.under the direction of the school.3. While education is learning.A. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. Then in a big country like India. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. there is a large number of communities. the plain area. state the meaning of curriculum 2. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences.3.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. A g o o d curricu lu m. From the latter point of view.S. the plateau area and 288 . it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. Curriculum is intimately related to education. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . in Russia or in Japan. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. the desert area. Both the processes are integrated.3. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. new behaviour may be acquired. curriculum. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. 5. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. living in the hilly area.

also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. It must differ from locality and from society to society. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. From a slave-country we became secular. In fact . Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. the learning capacity of children. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. Besides craft. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. irrespective of their needs and environment. and 289 . customs and needs. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. differs from individual to individual. However. studying therein. democratic and socialistic country.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. too. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. it is. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. Again. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. 5. if it is to educate the whole of the personality.3. according to modern trends in the educational process. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. therefore. environment.

The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. social.g.3. unambiguous and functional. They may be ultimate or proximate. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. tangible. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. Application Objective. unsatisfactory. They speak of perfect goals.g. Self Realisation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. So it is inadequate. 1. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. 290 .. general or specific.. individual or Social and so on. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Vocational Efficiency.. etc. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. eg. 2. Understanding Objective. in instructional objectives. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. etc. They speak of immediate purposes of education. National Integration. They are achievable. specific. They are visionary goals e. etc. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. which may or may not be attained. e. remote or immediate. Goals of Secondary Education. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. moral. Goals of Primary Education. aims.. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. they depend on the political. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. aesthetic and spiritual development.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. The word “Curere” means 2.g. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. of classroom. 5. e. social. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. Knowledge Objective. uninspiring and unscientific. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. emotional.. 4. 3.

The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. The interests. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. but it includes the totality of experiences. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. capacities. finding them very interesting and captivating. Raymont rightly says.” 291 . activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. abilities. on the playing fields. heavy fire.3.5. Crow and Crow remarks. needs. in the class rooms. educationists. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. According to Crow and Crow.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects.

The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. tendencies. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. mental. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. capacities and abilities. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. They often waste it or rather kill it.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. Due to these variations and differences. moral. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. time in a useful manner.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. urges. aptitudes.

293 . make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. phased preparation. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. To ensure success of the process. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. development of professional capability at all levels.curricular. Similarly. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. 3. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. 2.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. administrative programme need be planned. organized. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support.

Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. library. principles of curriculum construction. workshop. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. 5. 12. Relation with Life c. Run.3. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. 18. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. 1937 19. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. 10. Child Centred Education b. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. 5. laboratory. 11. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments.3. a.3. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. 17.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. in the class room.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils.

S. (2007). Lakshmi. Bhalla. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited.3. and Sarita Kumari. Curriculum and Instruction. D. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi : Isha Books.S.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2007). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. Innovations in Education. (2007). P.K. New Delhi : Authorspress. 295 . N.5. Curriculum Development. (2001).

3 5.7.4.1 5.9 5.4.7.4 5.5 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.7.7.4.4.4.4.4.6.4.10 5.4.6.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.LESSON 5.4.4.4.4.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.2 5.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.8 5.4.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.

5. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. you will be able to: 1. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. know the importance of science education. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. 5. We mean curiosity. 297 . importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. explain the concept of scientific attitude. 5. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. Gradually. superstition or emotion.4.4. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. newer and newer industries started growing. open-mindedness. honesty. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings.during the second half of this century. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. 3.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . tolerance for the opinions of others.4. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. in the economic reconstruction of society. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. 2. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth .

4. 4. 2. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 5. 4. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 3. Organisation of science fairs. 6. Selection for science education. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Schemes of teaching science. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. 5. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. After such experience and training. Thinking and memory develops. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. 7.4. Through examinations. seminars and symposiums.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. 2. Promotion of science clubs.So that. Through newspapers. Love for truth enhances. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 5. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. as well as of the society. Principles are formulated. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Devotion towards nature increases. 3. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. 6. Central science workshop. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 5.

needs and conditions. therefore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. Training of science teachers.6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. objectivity. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. 7. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind.4.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. should provide opportunities to. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. essential that teachers. For laboratory and workshop techniques. 5. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. sex or religion. They experience natural phenomenon. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . Enquiry teaching is. They encounter many social events as they grow. In the inquiry approach. They ask many questions about the objects they see.4. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. each child to “enquiry skill building”. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. 5. It is. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. Write any two advantages of Science Education. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. After presenting the problem. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon.

Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. stern pursuit of accurate data. Appreciating pupils ideas. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues.books.4. test.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. commands or orders. Evidence. 300 . 2. .6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It requires consistent thinking. 4. if they like. .Herma Wouk. 6. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Social sciences. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Adopting creative models of teaching. to ask questions and experience things.4. 5. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 5. 3.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Giving less directions. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. 5.

open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. neighbourhood. therefore should be unbiased and objective. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . (Vaidya 2007). They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions.7.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. 5. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. For instance. it must be encouraged. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. to develop among the learners. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. The students observation. These include open mindedness. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. keen observation. and emphasized during the learning process . school and society at large. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. practiced. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. critical thinking and suspended judgments. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. friends.4.(Smith 2008). To achieve this we should understand what it means. of vast resources running waste. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”.

understanding and logic. 2007). Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. 302 . he studies all aspects of it. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live.4. (Das. think and work it”. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups.7. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. In considering a situation or a problem. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. rumor. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. The intention to respect another’s point of view. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. intuition or wishful thinking”. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. 5.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. or superstitions. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.

5.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. but to begin only after careful planning.4. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. • 5.7. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .4.7. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.

The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. it must be encourages. 304 . 5. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. 5.4. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

Proper example of the teacher c. 4. N. (2006). Adopting creative models of teaching. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Study of superstitions d. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. a. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Love for truth enhances. Wide reading b. Discuss the importance of science education 14.5.S. Reflections on Scientific attitude.4. Yadav. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 305 . 16. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. (2008). a. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. D. 2. 5. 5. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Vaidya. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. b. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.4. 3. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Planning of activities 5. a. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Rao. S. a.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b.B (2008). (2000). b. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. objectivity. M.

5.8 5.9 5.5.5.5. 2.3 5.4 5.LESSON 5. state the concept.5.10 5. areas of institutional planning. 5. actively. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2 5.1 5. you will be able to: 1.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. 306 .5.7 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5.5.11 5.5 5.5.6 5.5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. objectives and characteristics.

the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . every parent. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. 5. every teacher. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions.5. and. and each student are regarded as separate entities.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. and supplement planning from above. • to involve teachers and school administrators. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. and every student in the process of educational planning. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n.5. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. Institution should be regarded as the unit. teachers and students is not lost sight of. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. State and national levels from below. which become the bases for further planning at the district. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. each teacher. • to make planning development-oriented. in the task of educational planning. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. • To make institutional planning more successful. executive as well as public.3. 5.

There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. 5. (2) Co. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. which will be discussed in the general. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. council and. Classwork. Syllabus. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services.curricular Activities. it becomes the basis for school inspection. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.5. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. 308 . and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. and Personnel services. Examinations. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. Co-curricular activities.• implemented.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. (3) TeachingLearning Aids.5. etc. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. approved after making necessary modifications.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members.

Editing the school magazine. Preparation of audio-visual aids. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. etc. Improving the internal assessment. Conducting of educational. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. etc. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Undertaking remedial instruction services. scientific and historical excursions. Organisation of Students’ Association. 3. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Running science clubs. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. etc. Organising play-for-all programmes. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. hobby-centres. Organisation of Pupils. Equipping of laboratory and library. Fair distribution of syllabi. Preparation of instructional material. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Preparation of models. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Courts. charts and apparatus.No. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 .THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. etc. etc. 2. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Organisation of class-room libraries. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

teacher-pupil. understanding. administrator-administrator. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. teacher-managing body. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. parent-teacher associations. administrator-supervisor. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. pupil310 . The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. parents. ii. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. teachers. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. teacher-State. teacher-teacher.” The human relationships in. headmasters associations. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. teacherinspector. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. which are divided as the in. pupils.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. science teachers’ associations. students’ associations. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. etc. involving mainly human materials. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. administrator-pupil. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved.5. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body.5. and —pupil-pupil. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. and solidarity. co-operation. Administrator-State.

Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. organisation. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. organisation and management. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. supervision. V.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. pupil-non-official functionaries. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. pupil-community leader. to accomplish. social sciences and other disciplines. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. To administer means to manage. and to serve. pupil-parent. teacher-parent." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. supervision and superintendence. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. 311 . It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. etc.5.State. It covers personnel and material management. to carry out. pupil-inspector. now-a-days. superintendence. Good. It is also being modernized to become a technique. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. According to C. administrator. to attend. control. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. teacher-community leader.

Of all the approaches. Leadership . Socio-Scientific Approach . 4.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. 8.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. 12.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. This is the latest democratic trend in management.The manager should have leadership traits.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. The relationship should change from master.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. 5. 11.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship .Modern Management Techniques At this juncture.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. Economic Management . Rapport between the Management and Employees . It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. without this the efficacy will be handicapped.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. Communication .Any good management will always have good public relations. Motiviation . He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. If it is more.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. 2. Liasion with the Public . 10. If the cost benefit ratio is less. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. 6. Cost-Benefit Analysis . who occupy the managerial positions. Democratic Management . He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. He should be an artist in human relationships. low. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. Worker Participation . 9. 13. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. Decision Making .There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. 7. Better Human Relationships . Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . 3. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. Those. it is not worth-while.

Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. 18. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.These two are. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. 14. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17.too. improvement of teaching methods. 5. to improve the quality of education it provides. objective.g. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. 5. characteristics and areas of institutional planning.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. enrichment of curricula. and cooperative performance should be ensured.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. 19. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. 313 . It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management.5.

S. Examinations. a. R. a.5. f. (2001). to introduce decentralization of educational planning. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. Communication 5. Tarachand and Prakash. d. Syllabus. Co-curricular activities. Educational Administration. 314 . b.5. Motiviation d. e. b. NUEPA. APH Publishing Corporation. 2.M. a. Leadership c.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. In group and Out group 5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. it becomes the basis for school inspection. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. b. and Personnel services. Instruction. a. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. (1995).K. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House.5. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Singh. Fundamental of Educational Management. H. Decision Making b. Classwork. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 4. (2003). c.

Balanced diet.Pre-service and In-services facilities. higher education.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.4 India's Secular Policy . Healthy Food Habit 4.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Economic 315 . Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . 1. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. women education and teacher education in India. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.2 Nutritional deficiencies.Preventive measures.1 School Health Programme.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Communicable diseases . Realized the problems of school education.1 Inculcation of Socialism. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. population education.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Code of conduct for teachers.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. First Aid. Community and Mass Media 2. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Sex-education 4.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. 2. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. Examination reforms.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . wastage and Stagnation 3. School.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Buddhist and Jain system of education. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.Article 45 .teachers should have : 1. Preservation of nutrients. Inspection and Supervision 3.5 Regional Educational Development in India .Religious and Modern Education 1. physical education and environmental education 5.3 Educational Influences of Home.1 Gurukula system of education. 4.I.1 Primary Education : Education for all.3 Directive Principles . social Impact 3. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.CORE PAPER . New evaluation procedures. nutritional requirement. Common ailments of Children.

S. (2004) Problems of Education in India. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Hemchand. Sharma.Aim. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. Mishra.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. Taneja V. T. Ghanta R. Mahatma Gandhi.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. and Dash B. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Curriculum and national goals . and Human Development. R. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Delhi : University Publications 2. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.K.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. and Sharma R. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Ram S. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. REFERENCE 1. 316 .1 Idealism. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Prof.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.K.4. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5.C. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . (1999) Culture.K. Realism. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. and Mohanty R. (2005) Foundations of Education. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. B.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Socialization. Tagore 5.4 4.N.K.N. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. 5. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. Saraswathi T. Pandy V.R. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. New Delhi: NCERT 3. 7. Naturalism and Pragmatism .

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