Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

UNIT: 1 – V



Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer



Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56


Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University


67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5



3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education

127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233


5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4


UNIT – I 7 .

8 .

Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. In. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. 9 . discusses the regional educational development in India. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. The need. Jainism and their educational implication. Lesson 5.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. and Jain system of education. Lesson 2. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. Lesson 4. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India.

10 . 1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.6 Education during British Era Features of Buddhist system of Education Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.5.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism Salient features of Gurukula system of Education Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.LESSON Jain system of education Buddhist system of Education 1.6.1 Aims of Jain system of Education Charter Act of 1813 1.5.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.4.

1. in morals and in the intellect”.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. “a class of persons.9 1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. Indian in blood and colour.1. but English in taste.1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. British system of education presented the modern western model. elucidate the education during British Era. both present and future.1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1.6. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.1. That 12 . Education in India.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. has a long past history starting in vedic education. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.1. 1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. Muslim and British periods. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. you will be able to: 1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1.8 1. describe the Jain system of Education 4.1. 1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. The history of education passed through Buddhist. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.7 1.1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.1.6. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.3. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. in opinion. India.

The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. 5. questioning by the pupil. Religious and Spiritual. Method of Instruction. Immediate Aim Vocational. from darkness. not en masse by the class method. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. 12. 13 . from eternal to immorality 2. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. and to agriculture and trade. Education of Moral. to light. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. 13. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 10. 8. The immediate aim of education. individually. Method of Study. 4. Residential Schools. 9. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. managed entirely by Brahmans. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. however. generally. Pupils were taught. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. 16. High Status of Teachers. followed by explanation by the teacher. Forests as Centres of Education. 11. as it is generally considered to be at present. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Self-Control and Self-Discipline.knowledge was real. There was. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. with grants of land or money. Curriculum. if they thought fit to do so. No State Control on Education. the monitorial plan was followed. 6. religious and spiritual. Free and Accessible. Education was a private affair of the people. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Teacher as Parents. Where pupils were many. Individual Teaching. 3. It was not merely intellectual. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Role of Travel in Education. 14. It was also moral. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions.

There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . It was freely available to all those who wanted. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. 2. Wide-Spread Education in Women. studied Vedas.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. lived a life of celebacy. It was suited to the needs of the society. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils.17. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. 1. They were very cordial and intimate.1. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 .

impure conduct. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. the student had his head shaved of all hair. medium of Pali. Right speech 4. Consequently.4. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. 15 . 2.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features.1. partaking of food at prohibited times. taking things without being offered. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. the student remained in a state of Shramana. Right endeavour 7. Right knowledge 2. Education was imparted through the. except the Chandals. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. in which. he had to perform the Pababja ritual.C. Right activity 5. etc. use of intoxicating things. Right memory 8. he was qualified to become a monk. Right thought 3. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. had the right to receive education. I take Refuge to Dharma. dressed himself in yellow clothes. the handicapped. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. killing of any living being. the most significant of which were the following 1. disease and death of the human beings. watching dances or listening to music. 1. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. It was denied only to the ill. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. After attaining the age of 20. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. every class in society. use of cosmetics. which included abstaining from theft. Right contemplation 1. I take Refuge to Sangh. Right means of livelihood 6.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B.

so long as it successfully does so. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. arithmetic and religious discussion. 6. cottage industries. etc. As reality is becoming. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. nothing is of any permanent consequence. women occupied a position inferior to men. On this occasion. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. depth and range.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. education was impart in art. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. geology. elephant lore. Later on. archery. 5. bodily gestures. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni.. eat food thrice a day. magic. 7. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. 4. After this ritual. Initially. archery. the science of taming and training animals. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. has no metaphysical value for life. it is regarded as true”. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. nature. however. 8. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. a change is not only total but also perpetual. approach. animal husbandry. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. along with education in script writing. meaning. be considered the aim of education It. 2. objectives of human life. assumptions. changing the goals. 1. These are called later Buddhist schools. the presence of the monks was essential. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. commerce. therefore. of clothes. knowledge of reviving the dead. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. etc. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years.4. agriculture. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. and. 3. handicrafts. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. It comprehended education in writing. etc. wear three items. control over sensuous activities. aspirations and. Life is in a flux. Whatever its nature and extent. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. military science. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. beg for alms. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period.3. Hence. a continuous change creating 16 . medicine. Even at this stage.

the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. therefore. whatever works are true and good.5. its pessimistic outlook on life. such as. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’.. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. 5. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. goes to Vardhaman.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects.1. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. Validity is effective and consequences. Write Eight fold path . and to give it a shape that it has today. however.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Its chief feature. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. it is much older than the latter. Education must. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. Jainism insists 17 .new and peculiar situations. However.e. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. In fact. 1. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. i. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

b) Right knowledge.1. 3. 2. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. 10. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 9. 5. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. 4. 1. d) To lead a celibate life. As such. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. 1. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. 8. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. e) To renounce the world.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. c) Right conduct. and believe in happiness to all. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. They are: a) Not to injure. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. 3. 18 . 6. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. more stress on individual aims. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. 7. c) Not to steal. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Hence.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. and is to be redeemed and liberated. thought and deed. it has a foot in both the words. 2. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Development of personality as an individual.5. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. but on both. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. b) Not utter falsehood.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 4.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 1. practised and not only aspired for. 5. here and now. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. What are Triratnas ? .5. that would be socially desirable. Teaching should be social and tolerant. 3. education must be action based and ideally oriented. success and love. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Jiva is essentially karmic. and should bring happiness to all. 19 . 8. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . therefore. Knowledge is through senses and meditation.4. 1. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. 3. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Belief in transmigration of soul. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. 2. Hence. Teaching must develop these faculties.5. education should develop sense of discrimination.

They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. However. To set up separate departments of. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. philosophy and literature of Europe.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. science. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. Madras.6. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. Bombay.6. 1953).1. North West Province and Punjab. 1. 2.1. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. 1.6. and not for life. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.6.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. 1. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. primary 20 . 1. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. with rally and rout.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.

they named these schools as polytechnic schools. Later on. self-respecting and competent.6. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . • Universal free primary education. namely.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944.K.6. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. To ensure qualitative improvement. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). Instead of being a self-sufficient course. • Secondary education. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. 1. Then the prevalent education was anti-national.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In was neglected. At that time M. The universities dominated the secondary education. In 1882. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. 1. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. secondary education became a step towards university.6. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. 1. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. at the primary level. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement.

The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. After this stage. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. 10. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. The objective of education was to provide 22 .7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. all children are to have a common curriculum.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? .

along with education in script writing. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. handicrafts.1. arithmetic and religious discussion. During the Buddhist period. It was suited to the needs of the society. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. 6. 2. Right endeavour. 4.. 2. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 4. b.1. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 1. 3. Right contemplation. Right memory. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Right means of livelihood. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. the science of taming and training animals. questioning by the pupil. science and English language. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. followed by explanation by the teacher. geology. Right knowledge. 23 . The system of education was well-organised. 3. Right thought. establishment of universities. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 1. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. military science. education was impart in art.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 5. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. Right speech. archery. The immediate aim of education. a. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. etc. Right of European literature.

(2007). Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education.K. c. a. a. (2005). Sargent report 12. b. Development of Educational System in India. more stress on individual aims. Sharma. J. 1937 1. 10.C. Right conduct. (2009).1. J. 24 .C. Development of personality as an individual. Right faith. History of Indian Education System. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (1984). and Nath. Y. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Improvement of Literature. 9. R. b. Y. Hence. Singh. Aggarwal. 8. Ltd. Ltd.7. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Right knowledge. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 11.K. 1882.

2.2 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.2. The 25 .3.5 1.3.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.7 1.2.9 Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.3.4 1.6 1.1 University Education Commission INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.2.8 1.2.1 1.LESSON 1.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.

curriculum. medical and legal education. you will be able to: 1. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. New Educational Policy. 1986 1.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. expansion of vocational. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. explosion of enrolment. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. S. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. examination system. National Council for Women’s Education 5. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. National Board of Teacher Education 10. analyse the progress of education in free India.3. technical. There had been vast institutional expansion. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2. 1.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. diversification of courses of studies.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. secondary and higher education. standard of teaching.2. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. girls and women education besides primary.conditions of the teachers. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3.2. technological engineering. 1. 2. vocational education. Post-graduate 26 . Kothari (1964-66) 8.

3.2. 1952. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. accumulated over the years. quality. 2. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. D.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Essence and Role of Education. the New National Policy on Education. However. 1. 1966. Education for Equality. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. Kothari. Finally.2. research et. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. National System of Education. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency.2. Government of India. 4. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. A. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. The national system of education envisages common educational structure.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. Education is the key to our allround development. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. 3. 1. material and spiritual. A meaningfully Partnership. Problems of access. 1.S. utility and financial outlay. quantity. the chairman of University Grants commission. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. 1986. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 .teaching.3.3. in January 1985. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. Therefore. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964.

28 . It can train practical aptitudes. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the concepts of work experience. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. The UNESCO Report. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. By working with hands.2. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. attitudes. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work.” Thus. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Thus. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. the minorities and the handicapped.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life.

1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. The Radhakrishnan Commission. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. Besides. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. co-ordinations. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. In 1955. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. if he wishes. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. the Commission.” The Mudaliar Commission.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. The Education Commission. According to. With adequate planning. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. As such. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. “The aim of these colleges.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. “It may be described. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. it will conduce self. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened.

the. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. Subsequently. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. The Central Advisory Board of Education. Therefore. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. the rigid streaming of courses. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. for quality of life in the rural areas. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. raising the special facilities. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. etc. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. the semester and credit system. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students..” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. With a view to relating education to the life. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. admission requirements to vocational courses. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages.ot her. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. In addition.

5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. etc. preferably spinning and weaving. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred.defined S UP W as “purposive. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. The wave of Basic Education.. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. meaningful. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. 1. In short. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. which are useful to the community. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. who conceived the System of Basic Education. which swept the country for over two decades. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf.and the world of work. The Father of Nation. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Commerce. 31 .2. felt that education should be centred around a craft. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. giving importance to productivity in the national development. manual work resulting in either goods or services. technological courses including Agriculture. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. According to committee. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. aimed at this goal. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. meaningful. which offer scientific. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past.

The criterion for selection of activities should thus. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Culture and recreation 6. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Food 3. Clothing 5. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Experimentation with materials. as far as possible. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Work practice. Educative and 3. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. The teachers should make use of. Productive 2. 4. Health and Hygiene 2. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. 3. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Shelter 4. locally available materials and tools. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. 32 . tools and techniques and 3. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. be that the work involved is: 1. 2. so that it is educational in essence. Community work and social service.

this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. 6. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. Community Service In-1972. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. improve discipline. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. Productive Work 33 . It can become an instrument to build character. the local community should be actively associated. as far as possible. 1. inculcate a faith. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject.5. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. adoption of a a locality for its improvement.2. Check on educated unemployed 4. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. To make education more realistic. Merits of the Programme 1. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. removal of illiteracy. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. etc. Education through work The SUPW should. slum clearance.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. helping the adults-in productive work. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. offering first aid. etc. AICTE was set up in year 4. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. should involve itself in the educational effort. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Define SUPW 34 . What are the work areas in SUPW 6.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The community. if not productive. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. in turn. traffic control. skills and better future for the children.

Write short note on SUPW. meaningful. 2. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. which are useful to the community.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.2. Dr. b.2. c. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. 35 . Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. f. 1. Radhakrishnan 2.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. e. 3. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 6. manual work resulting in either goods or services. 1955 4. 1952 3.2. a. 1. d.

C. (2007). P. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Anupama. Ltd.. : Sharma. New Delhi: A.P.H.D.1. A.K. 36 . (2009).(2005).2. History of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Y. J. R.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2007). Y. History of Indian Education System. Development of Educational System in India. and Nath. Rao. (2005). V. and Rao.K.P. History and Problems of Indian Education. Amala. B. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. Publishing Corporation.K. Singh.

and liberty.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. there is an official Hindi translation.3. 1950. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. containing 395 articles.1 1. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.3. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. 1949. 37 .4 1.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. procedures. assuring its citizens of justice. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.8 1. Besides the English version. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.3. Being the supreme law of the country. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. it came into effect on January 26.3. for a total of 117.6 1.3.369 words in the English language version.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3. democratic republic.2 1. establishing the structure.3.9 1. directive principles and duties of citizens.1 Significance of DPSP 1.3.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. equality. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.7 1.3.5

3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. you will be able to: 1. 38 . Through them.3. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. for 166 days. Dr. economic. in sessions open to public. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. understand our Indian constitution. spread over a period of 2 years. The Assembly met. 1950.3. On August 29. 1947. 2. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. the Drafting Committee was appointed. Two days later.3. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1. political. describe the important constitutional articles related to education.3. with Dr. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. After many deliberations and some modifications. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. administrative. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. legal and environmental. 3. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. social. learn the role of central and state government on education. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. 1. 1. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. 1947. According to the constitution. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 4. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution.In the August 14.

within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Right to work. Article 39A. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. That the health and strength of workers. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. No abuse of children. and shall. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Minimising inequalities in status. Protecting children from exploitation. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Organisation of village panchayat. Condition for dignity of children. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. sickness and disablement. Article 40. Protecting health of the workers.government. 39 . The State shall. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Article 42. Article 41. for workers. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. on the basis of equal opportunity. and in other cases of undeserved want.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. provide free legal aid. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Equal justice and free legal aid. old age. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Liking wage etc. men and women. Article 43. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. The State shall endeavour to secure. Equal pay for both sex. in particular.

(Original Article 45. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. The State shall take steps. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Article 46. to all workers. Article 48. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. industrial or otherwise. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Article 47. by suitable legislation or in any other way. Article 43A. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. in particular. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. Article 49. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Article 48A. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. a living wage. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. 2002 for “45. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Article 45. and. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Article 44. See also Article 21A). [declared by or under law made by 40 . and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. in particular. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Participation of workers in management of industries. agricultural. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. The State shall endeavour to provide. work. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Note: Subs. in particular.

(This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 50. 2. removal. Article-21A Right to Education. may be law determine”. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another.3. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. from spoliation. Promotion of international peace and security. disfigurement. as the case may be. 2002. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. Article 51. disposal or export.Parliament] to be of national importance. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. destruction. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Separation of judiciary from executive. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 45 .

race. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. his guardian has given his consent thereto. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. in particular.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 6. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 8. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. and. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. ii. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. and shall protect them. 5.” 42 . 3. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. if such person is a minor. caste. language or any of them”. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. from justice and all forms of exploitations. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. 4. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. 2002. 7. iii.

Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. 43 . wherever necessary or desirable. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . the forms. Article 351 gives importance to 6. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. The central government determines targets and promotes education.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. 2. Educational Reforms From time to time. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country.3. for its vocabulary. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. and by drawing. & 1.9.

government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. etc. The following pilot projects. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. 8.. So as to encourage education on right lines. private agencies etc. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). All India Council of Medical Science. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. By starting these projects. the state governments. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Local bodies and private enterprise. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. 7. 5. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry.3. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Production of suitable for children and adults f. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. to achieve the desired ends. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . 6. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. 4. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. So that they may work well.

it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. 1. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. research. is the state responsibility. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. are published by it.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. reports etc. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. 1. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. books. training and statistics. handicapped. The 45 . Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. Material concerning nation-wide interests. 11. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. etc. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. 10. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose.3. education for women. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. 4. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. 9.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. 12. 3.

Article 45 b.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Explain Directive principles 2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Article 21A c.3.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. 1. 5. 46 . Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Write short notes on a. 1. Article 46 4. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. articles in the Directive principles.

5. Clearing House function 9. 4. 2002. may be law determine”.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Article 46 5. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. Ambedkar 2. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Article 29 and 30 7. 3. a. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Article 45 . 2002. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. b. Article-21A Right to Education. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. The Directive Principles of State Policy. Describe the educational role of State Government. 1. Dr. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. a.3. Development of Hindi Language 6. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. b. 47 . (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers.

10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. (2004). (2009). (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. N. Ghosh. B. Education in Emerging Indian Society.3. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.1. Dash. 48 . Bhatia. Education in Emerging Indian Society. K and Narang C. (2008). K. L. S. S.

1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India. 1.1 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1. Christianity.4 Moral education The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.3.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 Why Moral Education 1.4. religious education should be broad based.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1. Buddhism etc. Jainism.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.4.4. Students should be 49 .1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.3.8 1. Islam.4.6 Precautions while introducing Aims of Religious Education 1.2 1.

An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. "In A multireligious society like ours. integrity. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). know the position of religious education in our country 3. beauty and goodness so that 50 . In the complicated and complex society of today.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions.. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline.” Education broadens human outlook. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. religious education and the concept of secularism. duty-consciousness. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. According to E. India' can produce men of character. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. 1. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. As result of which. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals.D. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. Thus.and dedication.4. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong.4. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. state meaning and need for moral education 1. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. you will be able to: 1.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion.

They thought that any kind of narrow.3.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society.3. it is clear that the State has no religion. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. if not regularly. through religious practices and 51 . As a matter of fact. 1. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. rancour. all citizens are free to follow any creed. Thus. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. In short. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. castes and creeds. Children attend these organizations. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. According to Article 22. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy.4.4. Hence. No religious tax can be imposed on them. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. realizes God in himself. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. According to Article 19. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. 1947 we achieved our freedom. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. religion and democracy are same. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. at least occasionally.” From the above. As our country is a country of diverse religions. 1. Viewing the defects of religious education. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs.

which help him for the development of his character. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. It helps to modify habits attitudes. when he becomes an adult. aggressive.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. Good education. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. moral and spiritual values. intellectual and physical faculties of children. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. what is done and what is not done etc. temperament etc.teachings. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. and what is evil. As a result of which. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action.. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. If unreleased. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. for the development of the individual and the society. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). It is religious education. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. which can mould. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . one fully developed. He also learns about social.

No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. 3. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. 1.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man.3. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. 2. If we open the pages of history. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world.4. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. 53 . They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. Therefore. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. This should not be allowed to happen. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. towards the society. which is the basic need of a democratic life. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore.

Life histories of great persons of the world. 10. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Since all religions have virtues. 9. Gurudwara as. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school.5.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . examples of patriotism.4. 11. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. churches and mosques 7. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Write Article 22 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. For this. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. therefore. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. stories of moral greatness. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. fellow-feeling.

Self sacrifice. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Non-injury. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. They will play their role effectively. 8. Fearlessness. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 4. Ahimsa (Non-violence).5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. 5. 8. Brahmacharya (celebacy). personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption.4. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). 7. Patriotism. 7. 5. The content of the curriculum. It they learn what morality is in their early years. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Without moral values. 2. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 3. Satyam (truth). 1.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 6. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Asvada (Control of palate). 4. Aparigarha (Non. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Service to others. Moral education. therefore. 2. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. “Let all be happy and free from disease. 55 .of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. is that which develops moral values.acquisitiveness). Purity. 1. the methods of teaching. 6. students. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. in the home. let men see well of one another. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Cultivation of emotions. 3.4.

The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Asatyam (Non-thieving). 10. 1. Unity of mankind. Good temper. Efficiency. loyalty and self-sacrifice.4. discipline. 56 . Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. religions may be included in the syllabus. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Secondary Stage 1. Discipline. 3. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Sharivashram (Physical work). Love for humanity and Self-discipline. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction.9. 4. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. 3. 11. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. minutes in the morning for group singing. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. In the school programme. The School Assembly should be held for a few.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Integrity. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. National unity and Spiritual values. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). 2. Good manners.

4. 4. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. 3. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. In other words. University Stage 1. love of humanity. should form a normal part of school programme. In this connection. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. 2. 57 . Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Silent meditation should be encouraged. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. patriotism and self-discipline. 5.

a.4. In short. For this. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. b.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. b. 1.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times.4. 2. a. the. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. 2. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. a. Training of Character 3. minutes in the morning for group singing. Sri Prakasa 6 .1.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education.4. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 58 . Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. 1959 5. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. Discuss the aims of Religious education. 4. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. 1.

Anmol Publications Pvt.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. L.1. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2008).H. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Siddiqui. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.4. P.C. Bhatia.P. (2007). (2004). K. Pahuja. K and Narang C. Theory and Principles of Education. Dash. Ltd. J. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2003). N. (2008). Publishing Corporation. N. B. New Delhi: A. 59 . M.H. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.

.5. 60 .13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.12 Although.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5.10 1.5.5. i.7 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.6 1.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.3 1.e.11 1.5.2 1.5.9 1.5.1 1. disparities between provinces/States.4 1.8 1.5 1.

know the education suited to different environments. energy. they take appropriate measures. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence.5. They therefore. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. 5. etc. 4. 3. 8.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. This leads to separatist movements. you will be able to: 1. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. Accordingly. work hard towards this end. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 1. 6. 7. roads.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 1. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. understand the regional educational development in India 3. for example. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region.5. 1. waters. 61 .

Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. Therefore. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. some average. some States became educationally far advanced. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. Secularism. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. on the basis of regional development may be formed. while others remained educationally backward.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . education as a fundamental human right was recognized. 2. 4. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. and.5. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. Tight security arrangements should be made. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. 62 . 3. • Separate States (of course viable States).

incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. while some States like Bihar. Itanagar. Even in each State. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. These projects are in various stages of implementation. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. Out of this. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has.480. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. Jammu and Kashmir. Guwahati. Mizoram. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. Regional Centres of IGNOU. Nagaland and NEHU.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. remained under developed. etc. academic buildings. Funds amounting to Rs.5. etc. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.84 crore was released in 2005-06. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. Tezpur. books. Central Universities of Assam. NIT. the State Governments.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. approved proposals worth Rs.392. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. Silchar. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Rs. and provision of informal education to enable those. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. However. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. 1. In the Central sector. since its inception in 1998-99. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. scholarships..14.g.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. NERIST. library buildings.After the Planning Process has originated. the Union Government. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. 63 . After the attainment of independence. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner.

Out of this an amount of Rs. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.261. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.187. Government expenditure on education. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.500. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. A provision of Rs. During 2003-04.40.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. too.8 per cent in 05). 64 . Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.57 crore and Rs.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.05 crore and Rs. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Moreover.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).501.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. Tezpur University. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.5. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. Kerala and Gujarat. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. The Chandigarh Administration. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. English. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. To add to the woes. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. too. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Tamil Nadu. Listing the positives. Karnataka. notes the study. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. too. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. Moreover.5. health services and welfare of the citizen population. telecom. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. engineering and R&D. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. 1. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . for instance. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. too. pharma. Medical education. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). Andhra Pradesh. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Karnataka. for which 16 sites. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level.

life-oriented and environment slanted. the working days: an academic . They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. which a non-tribal person cannot do. In the same manner. 66 . and so on.year. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. the needs. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. even actually looking at the watch. For a learner living in a rural area. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Hence it is called as need-based. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. the vocations. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. The working hours of educational institutions. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. Of course. the teaching methods. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. The living conditions. the interests. the socio-physical conditions. the curricular subjects. while the former does not. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. in which the learners live. taking the average in the middle. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. Then education become realistic and idealistic. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. when he will not be sure of time.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed.

What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.5. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.5. 67 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. to suit education to different environments? 1.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. 2. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

G. R. 60% 1. Education in Developmental Arena. some of areas which were under the native rulers. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. (2001). Dubey. some States have become more developed than others b. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. (2008).5. during the British rule. Salim. a.K. Education Scenario in India. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.N.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S. Educational Development in India. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi: Authors press. S. 68 .2. remained undeveloped 3. C. (2002). A.H. (2001). and Nair. Giridhar.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. school community and mass media. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. 71 . National Integration. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. semi literate and illiterates. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. community development.

1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.3 2.6 Education for Secularism 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.6.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.8 2.2 2.1.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.4 2.

The students may be associated with the management of the school. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.1. creed. 2. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. 3) Provision of Manual Work. 73 . socialism and secularism 2.2. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. 2. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. understand the concept of democracy. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. you will be able to: 1. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.1. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. Abraham Lincoln. socialistic and secular state. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Democracy thus means power of the people. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. In the matter of admitting students in schools.1. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. for the people by the people”.1. colour or wealth. This is the political aspect of democracy. there should be made no distinction of caste. socialism and secularism 2.

1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. debates. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. may be planned..5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. 11) Student Parliament. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. 12) Visits to Legislatures. 2. declamation contest etc.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. Democracy means 2. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. There are different brands of socialism. it soon spread all over the world. 74 . Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3.

4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. the prince and the peasant.5.1.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. service and cooperation. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 2. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. free from exploitation. Under it.5. 75 . oppression and disparity. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books.1. 7) Special facilities for girls. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 2.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. none high”. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. the wealthy and the poor. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. but on the path of non-violence.

76 . “India is a secular-country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. According to Holydake. 5. 2. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. 11) State schools. "which seeks the development of physical. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Write any two main features of socialism. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. secularism is being propagated. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders.” In every political and educational corner. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. Everyone says.1. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

fraternity. 5) It implies tolerance. the belief that the state morals.6. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. “Webster further says. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. liberty. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. That is why. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. 2. people started believing in regionalism. There is need of making the people open minded. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. People have different religions and they have different beliefs.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. Moral values have to be imbibed. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity.6. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. 8) It believes in co-existence.opposed to religious education. 3) It permits freedom of worship. should be independent of religion. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society.1.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. people have narrow mindedness. A large number of people is uneducated. 77 . “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 9) It stress free inquiry.1. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. 2) It permits freedom of religion. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. Equality. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. In this type of prevailing situations. During the recent past. education etc. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation.

In the celebration of each such function. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved.1. Religious Education. The very sight of the building.presented by the students in the gathering. that the central string of all religions is one. 1) Moral Education. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. tours and trips may be organized. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. education. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Patiala. While doing so. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. There should be some internal checking of the material being.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. In the hands of such teachers. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. 2.6. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. students belonging to different religions should be associated. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. No doubt.

No doubt.1. Define Secularism 9.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . The word “Seculum” means 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The term secularism was first used by 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

3. Socialism aims at equality. colour or wealth. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. Respect of Individual Personality. 4. a. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. This present age 7.1. Tuition free education b. Equal Opportunities for Admission. a. 5. Since socialism stands for equality. 2. a. Power of the people 2. there should be made no distinction of caste. In the matter of admitting students in schools. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. The students may be associated with the management of the school. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. b. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. for the people and the people”. George Jacob Holydake 80 .9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. 3. Provision of Manual Work. creed. c. b. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 4. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.1. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 5.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. d. 6. Socialism aims at social justice. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Abraham Lincoln.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic.

the belief that the state morals. Bhatia.1. It treats all religions on an equal footing. (2003). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Ltd. P. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2008). B. 81 . According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. J. N. (2007). School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. (2005). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. b. (2004). Ltd. education etc.” 9. b. It permits freedom of religion. a. L. 10. J. N.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. should be independent of religion. Dash.C. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. Mohanty. K. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Pahuja. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.8. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. a. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. K and Narang C.

1 International understanding in the school 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.4 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 . 2.2.LESSON 2.6.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.8 2.2.10 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.7 2.2.3 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.9

know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. 83 . 2. who are placed in his custody. The developmental roles of children. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. 2.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. as citizens. mental. It involves physical. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. therefore. as it is t he aim o f modern education. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. aims and objectives of the school. moral.2. and 4. emotional. as workers. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. 3. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the instructor of school children.generation to another. development. social and moral aspects. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. A teacher is first and foremost. a r e 1. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. as persons.2. 2. you will be able to: 1. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. understandings. application. skills.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. social. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. as learners.

morally. He is to become an active member. motivated. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. He has to look after their physical. 3. a part of their day in 84 . experiences and acceptance. physically fit for socially efficient. intellectually. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. economically effective. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. Teacher as a Citizen Next. The following are some of such roles described in brief. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. inquisitive. mental. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. 1. socially. The students live. mentally. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. 2. member of his community at the outset. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. culturally confident. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. 2. and aesthetically to become. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. emotionally.All education should lead to better behavioural development. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative.2. morally. social and emotional health. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y.

” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. It 85 . India is a land of many castes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Dr. 2. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. faiths. and most of hours. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. solve them. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. They will be spending with their parents.the school being under the custody of teachers. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. List out the role of teachers towards community development .5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. 4. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. photographic clubs. fine art associations. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. creeds. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. languages and religions. Unless. science club. activities of the society into which he is born.2. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to.

” 2. this integration of the Indian people. narrow-minded provincial. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. Political integration has already taken place to some Sampurnanand remarked. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. Let us. At the primary stage the importance of stories. b. should be emphasised. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. Nehruji has explained this as. a. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man.2. therefore. stand up straight. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. social studies. ‘We should not become parochial. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. the citizens of the Republic of India. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . folklore and teaching of social studies.” Regarding the role of education. The only process is the process of education. and make into one strong national unit. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. It should broaden the outlook. Radhakrishnan. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . with straight backs and look up at the skies. the study of language and literature. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. national anthem and other national songs. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. 1. poems. c.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one.5.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration.

debates. 5. Singing of National Anthem. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. t he st udent s and t he community. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. and picnics. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. dramatics and youth festivals. Textbooks. educational excursions. 10. militar y training like the NCC. symposia. tours. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Celebrations of National Days. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Co-Curricular Activities. National Days—January 26. Student Camps. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Scouts and Guides. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. 9.different social sciences. ACC. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. 8. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. 2. 7. Reverence of National Flag. languages and literature. 87 . These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Taking Pledge. Uniform for School Children. 3. 6. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. sports. 4. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved.

5. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Admissions to schools. flora and fauna. iv.2. Open-Air Dramas.11. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. ii. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . 2. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. 88 . Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. Admissions. ways of thinking and doing things. 15. Students Exchange and Tours. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. 13. 14. iii. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. 16. Educational and Travel Documentaries. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. language. v. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. colour. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. School Projects. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. region or religion. 12. Recognition of Institutions. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country.

Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Community dinners. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. irrespective of national boundaries. cultures and races on equal bases. Define National Integration 3. camps. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. 2. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 .2. viii. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. ix. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes.

either plunged in or overshadowed by war. and the healthy development. 6.6.6. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .F. 3. therefore. patriotism is not enough. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. (b) stories of children of other lands. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen.2.friendships between children of different countries. This. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. often in connection with anniversaries.. of his body and mind. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum.2. Teachers 90 . 4.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. Organising of debates and.e. 2. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. Strong has observed. Radhakrishnan states. if it happens.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.” 2. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. Therefore.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. the international level. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. that war. (c) fairly tales.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. important as that of a national citizenship. Dr. In a very real sense. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 2. 5.

They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Impartial in their Treatment. an Englishman. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race.” Well Informed About World Situations. Russian. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Indian and American. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. They should not be propagandists. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. a German.

Devaluation of Values .2.Another major.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. the education function can be carried. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. and help the students to over . students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. As the school is but a miniature society. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. there is wide spread frustration among all people. leading to. Chronic Poverty . A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. Defects of the educational System .Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. If this is done.2. Wide Spread Frustration . It does not prepare students for life. 4. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. 5.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. 3. majority of people are. which results in agitation and aggression language. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. understand and indiscipline: 1. 2.

How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. 2. community development.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. co-operation. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. 93 .2. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. fellow feeling. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. etc.democratic nature. 5. love. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him.2. sympathy and good will among the nations. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. 3.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System


Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.


STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency Functions and role of schools in the society Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency Radio as an agency of education Television as an agency of education Press as a medium of education Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”. IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.

9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.

16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together. MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.




1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society


2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.


Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. art galleries. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Crow and Crow write. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. During the course of time. Then came newspapers.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He taught his students orally.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation.V. are increasingly used in education. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. led to the printing of books. the invention of the printing press. Hence. books. Moreover.3. “All the citizens of the community. Emphasising this thing. In fact. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Now internet is being used. periodicals. Museums. Define community. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. To make them achieve their aim.

Effective means of presenting music. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Thus. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. It is also an important source of entertainment. It stimulates curiosity and interests.3. “Listening participation” in current history. the place of importance. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. politics. languages.G. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries.telecast. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. Various talks. It enlightens public opinion. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. Important happening inventions. A lot of work by way of pre. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. current affairs and other areas. music. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. 101 . In the emphasis is on sound.classroom teachers. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. for the teacher through school broadcasts.6. social studies. rather than on picture.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. art. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Students listen various talks. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. In collaboration with the experts. the teacher still occupies. 2. Thus. 2. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. Reynolds. dram appreciation. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and.

While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. Participation of local teachers and pupils. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. at any place. Team-teaching demonstrations. mathematics. style. at recreational centers. informal and non-formal education. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. 3. 102 . plays. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. Before presenting the programme. fol classical music. at play. 4. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. At present. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. School concerts. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. travel talks. at drawing room. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. projects or creative activities. audibility and presentability. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. Making learning an open system. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. development of lessons. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. speech. 5.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.


Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.


For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.


Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.

2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.

Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.5 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education Aims of Non formal education 2.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.3.2 Levels of formal education system 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.3.2 2.4.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4 Non formal educational system 2.4.7 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .3 Advantages of formal education 2.3.

starting and ending at -a particular age. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. 2. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. 2. the learner are acquainted. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. Education organised by some agency. 2. To realize this objective of education. 8. the community. In ancient time in India.3. imparted at the residence of the teacher.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. 4. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. open school. School is. 6. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 5.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. say the Government or the private enterprise. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. the most important agency of formal education. his mental alertness..4. it was mostly. you will be able to: 1. 4. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. open university.4. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. the mass media et. 3.2. 7. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 3.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. 9. 110 . society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. Education.4. the temple. compare formal and non formal system of education. 2. the family.

4. third stage. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start.2. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. capacity. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling.3. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. diplomas. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . Higher Education: Higher education. also called tertiary.4. or post secondary education. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . structured education. depending on the jurisdiction. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. or academic degrees. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. as well as vocational education and training. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. Some education systems have separate middle schools. the elements of language are first learned. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal.3. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. such as a high school or secondary school. Concepts of proportion. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. In general. 2.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates.a secondary education. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Through early formal education.

What are levels of formal educational system? . Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. children with disabilities. is an important agency of formal education. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . late beginners etc. 3. and remote dwellers. 2. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.4. Agencies can be classified as 2. Write any two characteristics of formal education? .3.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.4. 2.which will help for nation's development.

it has its own valid claim to reality. systematic. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. It is deliberate. Adiseshiah.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. adding up to a true learning society. It is functional. open learning. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. It unlocks the doors of development plans. “Non-formal education should 113 . critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. Thus. admissions. Therefore. curriculum. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. However. planned. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. Open university. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. place of instruction. Non-formal education includes adult education. adults as well as children. staffed. It is much more responsive to needs and change. systematic. continuing education and on the job oriented education. i.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population.e. it is a more effective tool for rural development.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school.learning client take some learning objectives. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. According to Malcolm A. one could say that non-formal education is an active.formal education. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word.. to help themselves. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. etc.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. financially supported life formal education. until 1970 it had not been defined.

socialism. 5.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. exploring. Part-time education. 114 . "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. To help industrial workers to better their skills. It should lay emphasis on the self. Lawrence.4.4. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. the Ideas of citizenship. curriculum. age. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. place of education.4. self. 2. international understanding. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. evaluation etc.4. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. 4. Flexibility in various aspects of education. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them.S. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things.” 2. modes of teaching. Preparation for future needs. i.renewal. 7. Covering life span of an individual.e. To develop in the student. 2. admissions. national integration. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth.S.” According to marketable and vocationalised. Process of sharing.learning pattern. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. co-curricular activities. 6. 3. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.

4. To offer Secondary. 5. • 2. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. school dropouts. 10. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances.4. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. 2.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 4. 115 . working adults. in villages and those who live in towns. 9. 6. Universalisation of primary education. Technical. Senior Secondary. 8. 3. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. Eradication of adult literacy.4. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 7. publication and information dissemination. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 3. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. 5. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. 2. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society.4. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live.4. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research.

3.2. Institutions for formal education. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. Again. others are formal and informal.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. centres of correspondence education. library. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. All-round development i. 4.4. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . if organised in isolation. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute.4.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. training centres in factories.. farm. factory. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. etc. To increase knowledge and 2. self-employment iii. open space. 2. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. public libraries.full time to learners – can be home. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. Therefore. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home.4. To make if. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. etc. effective in modern societal context. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. To better qualifications. 2. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. Radio and television.

Essay Assignments and short answer questions. 117 . institution. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work.V. List out any two aims of non formal education. . Written tests. Lecturing T. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. radio. . period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Define non formal education. 6. 7. Correspondence lesson. Give examples of non formal education? . Teaching to face teaching. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Face Contact programmes.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals.

To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. a. Open School. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.4. the college and the university come under this category. Pre-school level.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. 2. b. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. Formal and Non Formal 2.4.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. adults as well as children. 2. 3. 7. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. systematic. Open University. 4. The school. 2. 5. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned.2. b. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Primary level. 4. School 3.4. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. a. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Secondary level.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Higher Secondary level and University level. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. 118 .” 6. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution.

Bhatia. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Mohanty. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. B. Theory and Principles of Education. Dash. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2008). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. J. N. Gupta.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2007). Pahuja. (2004).C. Modern Trends in Indian Education. K and Narang C. N. (2005). (2003). (2008). L. Education in Emerging India. New Delhi : 119 . J. Ltd. S. P.4. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. K.2.

4.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.3.4 Open University 2.3.LESSON 2.4.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.6 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.4.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.3.3 Objectives of Open University 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults Need for Open University 2.1 Characteristic features of open University Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .3.5.2 2.

farmers. For them.5. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. Under these circumstances. Thus. Any person. economic field or such other fields.5. 2. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 .1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. 2.3. continuing education is a boon. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations.5. you will be able to: 1.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. 2. give the meaning. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies.5. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. industries. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. It is a lifelong process. labourers and half educated individuals.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. know the need and objectives of open university. However. This knowledge may be in political field. It is a continuous process.2. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. characteristics of open university 4.

After the achievement of independence. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Radio. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Radio and T. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. are also contributing their might for the purpose. Cinema. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. On the other hand.V. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. T. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. 2. Throughout the country. cultured and progressive.directly related to his job.V. deteriorating to his character and personality. For them too continuing education is essential. Persons engaged in health services.3. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened.5. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Doctors. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. On the other hand.literate person. if he gets opportunity to develop them. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Block Development Officers. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. Thus. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further.

(11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (7) folk songs. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (2) basic religious matters. 7.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (17) modern international and national events. 3. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. 4.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 2. 2. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons.3. (6) folk stories.3. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. 123 . The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. and Radio.. (15) music.5. (14) information about bringing up young children. we have not been able to achieve our targets. Inspite of the great efforts. especially women. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements.V. (1) ancient history. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. Of course. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. 5. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. habits of people of other lands. These books are not very useful. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. (8) psychology of adults. 6. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (10) first aid. (16) liking.5. 2. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (13) psychology of child behaviour.

of educational opportunities.4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.5. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. lack of time etc. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . What is the objectives of NLM? 3. 2. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. NLM was launched in the year 2. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. attendance restrict ion. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.5.

unobserved. IGNOU was established in the year 6.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. the higher the degree of openness. 3. 2. its education is not class room based but home based. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. b. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and in teaching. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. d. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. c. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. 2. Education is not a once for-all process.5. but 125 . 5. 4. it makes use of educational techno logy.4. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. e. No one is too old or too late to learn. Which was the first open university in India? . It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education.

cho ice o f co ur ses. 5. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. 3. it a ims at wider and hig her. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 4.5. 4. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. 2. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. supplementing the existing provision. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n.5. 2. 126 . To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced.4. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. 6. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1.who did not get it. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. Mo re o ver. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 2. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. or who realised too late that they need it. 3.4. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 2. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. 2.2. Correspondence tuition. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Every day. 8.5.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . 3. List out any four methods of Open University? . a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. 1. semi – literates. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . 5. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. 6.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. a state or nation. school drop outs. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. you have learnt the concept. Therefore. Tutor t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 127 .4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. a society. 4. 7. Self instructional materials. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Laboratory works. In the present day world. 2. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. 8. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will.

cho ic e o f co u r ses. unskilled workers and other professionals. aspirants for continuing education.ambitious learners. 7. youth. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 4. 8. a. a. Television Lessons. its education is not class room based but home based. 6. b. 1988. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. need and characteristics of Open University. 8. 7. 2. 128 . P r int med ia b. 9. 3.5. 2. (4) the fundamentals of economics. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. a.5. Explain the objectives.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. agricultural and industrial workers.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. d. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. b. Broad casting lectures c. which may include house wives. (1) ancient history. (2) basic religious matters. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 1985.

S. Udaiveer. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. R. Reddy.. S.5. (2001). K. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. L. Recent trends in Non Formal Education.2.K.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K and Narang C. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. (2004). (2004). (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Modern Problems of Education. Ltd. 129 .

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

Examination reform. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. In Lesson 2. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. its causes and remedial measures. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. examination. All which is the need of the hour. which may claim the attention of those concerned. Training teachers for all levels of education. and teacher education. the education of women. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. 133 . wastage and stagnation. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen.

134 .

1.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1.1.2 3.1 3.3 New initiatives.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.1.1 EFA – For whom? EFA – How? 3.6 3.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.LESSON 3.1.1. 135 .9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.8 3.1.4 3.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.7 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.

Eradication of Illiteracy. On the other hand. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. understands the country. you will be able to: 1. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. 3. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. Therefore. education received added importance and significance. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. therefore. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness.1.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. (EOI) 2. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education.1. 2. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. social. “The State shall 136 . “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1.3. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. Continuing Education (CE) 1. may be political. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. directed that. economic or cultural. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.

In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Therefore. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. Universalization of Retention. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. 3. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. After the attainment of independence. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Universalization of Enrolment. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . Three Stages for Universalization. the national Government under. 137 . rights and responsibilities. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. It enables the parents to send their children to School. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Continuing Education (CE). The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas.endeavour to provide.

we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. 1995 (for upper primary stage). “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. UNESCO Bulletin states. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. It is safe to assure. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. present and future. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. This target had to be revised to 1970.3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1990. 138 . So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. educational enterprise. Write Article 45.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. Therefore. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. 3. then to 1976. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. later to 1988. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960.1.

educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. 6. 8.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. slum areas. problem of literacy. 3. FELF. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. Education of the Impaired.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. creed. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. The Social Education. etc. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. NAEP. Disabled. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all.1. rural areas. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Early childhood education should be streamlined. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. 5. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Apart from primary education. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. 3. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. Education of Girls. By undertaking survey. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. 10. 11. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). adolescent and adult. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. nutrition education and sports and games. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Emphasis must be given on health education. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. 139 . Jams and Jellies. 12. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. sex. and Women’s education programme should be improved.3. their enrolment and retention. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. the art of preparing fruit-juice. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. 9. their social economic status and occupations. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE).

3. Expand MLL and SSA . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. 4.3 NEW INITIATIVES.3.e. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.1. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Wastage and Stagnation. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3.

The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . Familial Factors .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . School Factors . Social Factors . Personal Factors . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.first stage of education. it is considered as wastage.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 142 . Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Define Wastage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . Enumerate the causes of Wastage. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. .occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. Societal Factors . It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. rural or urban 3.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . School Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. Family Factors .1. relating to home.3. school or society.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. Personal Factors . in his home.The following factors. They are described hereunder :1.

stationary. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Define Stagnation? 9. uniforms. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. 144 . casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. mid-day meals.

3. a. “The State shall endeavour to provide. 2.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. 4. Universalization of Enrolment c.” 3. 145 . a.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation.1.3.. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. 4. Universalization of Retention 2. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. b. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. directed that. Minimum Levels of Learning b. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Universalization of Provision b. 3.1. 3. 6. therefore. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. improvement of curriculum.1. Hartog Committee.

New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. School Factors d.7. S. b.N. Social Factors 8. introduce graded curriculum. Hemchand. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 9. Personal Factor b. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. a.K. a. Sharma. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. (2007). 3. (2008). New Delhi: 146 . improve examination system. Familial Factors c.1.K. Problems of Elementary Education. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Crescent Publishing Corporation. T. S.

6 Inspection and Supervision 3.5.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2.5 New evaluation procedures 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.5.2 3.3 Modern reforms of examination SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2.1 3.2.1 Problems of examination 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.7 Open book examination Merits and demerits of examination 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education Let us sum up 147 .4 Question banks 3.2 Grade System

Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. suggest the new evaluation procedures. 4.2. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. 3. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. 3.2. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. 3. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.3.9 3. 3.3.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. but on the other.2. Besides. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. you will be able to: 1.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.8 3. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.2.

specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. If the students are in sufficient number. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. schools for them wherever necessary. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. 149 .2. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. etc. waiting rooms for girl students. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. etc. They develop secondary sex characteristics. roadside Romeoism.3.. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. which the educational authorities have to face. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. The following steps should be taken up. 3. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. etc. hostel facilities. They may cause problems relating to discipline. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.

4. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. teachers.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. public administrators and statesmen. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. 150 . appointment of paper-setters. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. conduct of internal examinations. assessment and Finance. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. Instruction.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration.2. 3. the examination system has an important role to play. It is considered as a major sub-system. public interested in education.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country.

examiners. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. 3. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. validity and practicability. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. etc. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. tabulators. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. etc. invigilators. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted.printing and distribution of question papers. establishing reliability. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. etc. announcement of results. etc. introducing objective-based testing. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. etc. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 .2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. values. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. training of examiners. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation.2.4. scrutinizers.

halo-effect. Subjects. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. may also discredit them.2. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. takes the place of comprehensive learning. 3. 2) From the angle of content of education. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. it s a common experience that subjectivity.. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. 7) In connection with the question papers. lack of objectivity etc. Vagaries in making. Rote memorisation. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education.4. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. 152 . not meant to be assessed in the examinations.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. stereotyped questions. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. 3) With respect to method of teaching. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. which they are expected to study.. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. do not appeal to the students and parents. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education..

Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students.a part of internal assessment. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. 153 . Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. revaluation. List any two merits of examination. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Question Books may be developed in all schools.. may be introduced. re-numbering of answer scripts. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. . What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3.develop true love for education. etc. 4.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Spot valuation. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

he is given extra credit points. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.2.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. The students can take any course offered in any department. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. It is complicated. Advantages More autonomy is given to students.5. In actual practice.5. Every paper is treated equal.3. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. Their interests. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . The new scheme of assessment. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. 3. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. When a person chooses to work extra. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.2. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. attitudes. skills are given importance.2. In this system.

3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120.poor. Groupism is encouraged. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. poor. only the total credits to be earned is specified. In the new system.5. courses can have weightages defined. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. While designing syllabus. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. v. An example is a seminar. These weightages are called credits. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. This system reduces comparison of marks.2. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester.discipline. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. or as a 4 credit course. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. The human error of evaluation is ± 10.good. 3. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning.

credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. 3. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.5. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.2. 3. 3. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.2. However.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. the need for re-evaluation should not arise.5.5. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students.2. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. 156 .

Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . What is the reason for introducing grade system? . there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. In the hierarchy.2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. There are no proper procedures for selection. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.2. 6. recruitment.5. Therefore. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. List any four new evaluation procedures. 3. . Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. However.

etc. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. complaints and compliments.. requirements. Academic inspection. 158 . disciplinary problems. laboratory equipment. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. inspecting the class-room teaching.qualified personnel.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. playgrounds. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. When they are fully realised.. submitting of the inspection reports. wherever necessary. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. in a sense. in contrast. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. taking up the follow-up programmes. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. interpersonal relationships and so on. books are followed. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. of late. finding out whether the prescribed text. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. staff.6. school buildings.2. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. 3. being realised as two different functions. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. qualifications. whether the syllabus has been covered. finding out the adequacy of. library books. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. etc. They are. 1.

or. In the case of departmental candidates. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. 159 . There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection.. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher.. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. once in five years. course in either educational. In the light of these conceptualisation. at least. their professional knowledge. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. M. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. Similarly. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. modern. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties.Ed. courses. Insistence on specialisation in the B. 3. aptitude.Ed. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions.2.

b. 3. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Instruction. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. 3. 3. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection.2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Administration. 4. assessment and Finance.2. 3. 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. b. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India.2. d. 3. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. a. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 160 . a. c.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. 2. b. Grade System.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

7. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Educational Reforms. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . 5. History and Problems of Education in India. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Vaidya. c. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. New 161 . K.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. S. Open book examinations. b. K. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. (2005).4. Question banks. (2004). 3. a. Problems of Education in India. Multiple sets of question paper. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6.2.a part of internal assessment. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. b. (2002). b. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. R and Sharma. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. a. a.

3.10 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3 3.LESSON 3.8 3. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3.3.6 3.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.9 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3. 3. 162 .1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. 5. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. impact of Higher Secondary Education.2 3.3.3. identify the needs of rural India and social.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. you will be able to: 1. 3.7 3.1 3.

Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. the Banaras Sanskrit College. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges.. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.specialisation programmes 3. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course.. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. University Education. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage.3. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. 10 years of general Secondary Education.. The. Consequent on the recommendations. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. etc. 8 years of general education. The Calcutta Madras. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States.3. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. in Andhra Pradesh. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education.e. 2. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages.e. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. i.. Commission emphasised to continue. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. e.g. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. and 3 years of First Degree Course. Similar is the case with some other States.

5. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . to imbibe. that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. 3. 10.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. cultural and economic development of the country. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. 6. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. habits of hard work and develop . 7. 5) to help for the social. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. economical and political. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. to prepare. social. and. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . historical. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . Provision for transfer of credits to students. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. educational channels.confidence in students. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. b. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 8. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. is also a plus point . who desire to change from one stream to another. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self.a sense of dignity of labour.3.

Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 .national integration. cooperativeness. Philosophically it is not the conception. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level.3. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. on one hand. Psychologically. to develop national character. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. 1. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. at the other. and that required to enter the tertiary level. etc. Sociologically it is undesirable. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. cultural and' religious tolerance. international understanding. social justice. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. democratic living. 3. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. Here the choice of subjects is provided for.. and. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. The General Educational Spectrum. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission.

In the matter of language. commerce. horticulture. In our country. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. the rural areas have suffered very much. educational and cultural services. medical plants. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative.3. technical. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. industrial agricultural production is growing. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. 2. 3. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. Science. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. 166 . chemistry. In the vocational spectrum. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. Biology. such as Agriculture.— tube-wells. technological. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. or other machinery. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. All these need for an. Commerce and other disciplines. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Agriculture is the main occupation. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. physics or mathematics. fish culture. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. India is a land of villages. commerce. professional. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. vegetable growing. rural health. and vocations based on dairy-farming.

In time. In this it may be concluded. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. can be ensured. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. There had been favourable reaction from the students. social justice.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. the local resources available. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. and the needs.etc. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education.. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. 3. 4. and 5. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? .. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. etc. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. In this way. interests and aptitudes of the students. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream.

to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. J. a.3.3. 3. 3. Anmol Publications Pvt. Dash. habits of hard work and develop . (2001). a.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Modern Trends in Indian Education.3. New Delhi : 168 . a. 3. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal.a sense of dignity of labour. (2005). B. J.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3. Mohanty. General Educational Spectrum and b. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. to imbibe. (2008). 3. b. S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 2. N. Ltd.3. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Vocational Sepctrum. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. we studied the history.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.K. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. Calcutta University Commission 2. objectives. b.C.

2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”.4.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.6 3.2 3.4.LESSON 3.4.7 3.11 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.4.10 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.1 3.4. social and 169 .4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.9 3.3 3.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4.13 3.8 3.12 3.4. Education contributes to human development.4.4.

The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. There is a close connection between education and development. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. Dr. While women constituted only 9. although we have miles to go. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. particularly 170 . 3.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. Teaching and Fine Arts. The relevance of women’s education to social. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. analyze the women and distance education. cultural and political development of the individual. you will be able to: 1.4. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. family.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend.higher education in particular. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. Education . known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. Home Economics. Nursing.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. For the first time in the history of India. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity.4. community and nation is universally acknowledged. During the year 1937. 3. In the post —independence period. These courses were. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. economic. higher education of girls developed immensely. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4.

3. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.D.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.4. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. Coimbatore. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.9 14. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.women.1 24. Kodaikanal. Mumbai.1 31. In the rest of the country. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. Yet. we have more than 1200 institutions. Even today. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . 3.2 22.9 27.0 Today.65 lakhs in 1994-95.4. The idea of women’s education for equality. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. Mother Teresa Women University.2 29. levels and professions.0 32.0 16.T Women University.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.N. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. out of 9200 and odd colleges. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. in our country. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.0 43. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.4. In 1950-51.

4%) prefer Arts subjects.66 66. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .46 82.56 64. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 respectively.47 65.63 Female % 34. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.83 47. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.73 10.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.that of boys. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.27 89.53 34.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . 3.34 33. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4.44 35. 2.4. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. 3. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .1 and 14.4.54 12.17 52.36 3.

The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. Also. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. etc. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. In college. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. marriage is a very common I factor. They gave up their studies to enter home life. promoted and increased. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. she will only learn fashion. The major hurdles. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. what is the need for higher education for her. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. financial difficulty of the parents. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. According to a survey. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. particularly.hinders the girls from getting higher education. In every third family. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. Thus. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. 3.4. irrelevance of the content of education. distance of the college or university from home. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. 173 . Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. curriculum not suited to their requirements. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. Book banks should be established. and coeducation may spoil her character.

learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. There are constraints of time. Education. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Distance education is a boon to women. is the only tool for realising empowerment. It enables to study. which is the most dynamic factor of development.4. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development.economic disabilities faced by women. Full-time employment. 3. Geographic distance of educational institutions. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. Empowerment in a nutshell. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. It also brings about 174 . space. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face.4.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. resources and socio . and the limitations of the conventional education system. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. It is a productive investment. 3.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.

they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. The major objectives of women's higher education. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. higher learning.4. legal awareness and economic independence.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. on their own. Women are partners in development. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. for full development of our human resources.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. empowerment means being assertive. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. Empowerment is an active. 3. This can be achieved through reflection. education of women is of paramount importance. education of women must be given priority in national plans. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years.

it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. But their number is small. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. will encourage them to venture new grounds. 3. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. who are eager to take up courses. Scholarships and concessions for women. Better opportunities.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. which had been the sole domain of men. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. Reservation for women. 176 . especially so in the developing countries. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. The educational institutions. The local administration. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. has to be implemented at the earliest.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions.4. which is pending for a long time. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops.

capacities etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. talents. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. 3. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Also. But.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. engineering and related technologies (16. According to Lindy Hyam. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. especially in developing countries like African countries.3 percent. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests.1%) and architecture and building (38. Chief Executive.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. Australia. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.000 women in the country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. IDP Education..9%). Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8%).4.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.

Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. 3. Coimbatore.R. individuals and society b. 3. SNDT Women’s University. (2005). A. community and the nation. SNDT Women’s University. Women and Education. (2008).K. A. Mumbai. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. and Suryalatha. 43% 6.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS the family. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. Rao. and Swain. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. R. R. Coimbatore. S.4.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. 178 . create the right attitude towards life. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Rajasthan 5. (2007). Women Education. S. Mumbai. Women Education. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Mishra. Kodaikanal.4. Annakodi.4. R. Mother Teresa Women University. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. 3.C. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Pattanaikj. 4. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. a. 4. Centre for Women’s Studies. 2. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. (2000).

They should be trained. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5.5.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5 3.11 3.8 3.10 3.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.personality of children in and out of school. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.6 3.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5. whole. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.1 3.5.7 3. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .9 3.2 3.3 3.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5.4 3.5.LESSON 3.5.

5. 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. Lack of physical facilities. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. 180 .the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. and national character. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. you will be able to: 1. social and emotional integration. equality and justice. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. understanding and strong desire for international peace. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. Shorter working hours. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. know the pre service and in service training facilities. 4.5. 5. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. understand the training teachers for Primary. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. 3. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. Dearth of new technology of teaching. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. national consciousness. international.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.

Inadequate training in practical skills. Lop-sided curriculum. levels. the state Government. it is called the In-service teacher education.5. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. etc. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. inservice and extension education programmes.Ed. students. a Diploma course and a Degree course.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. If the student teachers are working teachers. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. 3.Ed. who have not been trained earlier. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community.5. At the diploma level. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. Depending on the levels. the centre. 3. the primary teacher education..Less qualified teacher educators. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 .. higher secondary teacher education. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. it is called the Extension teacher Education. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. and M. (NCERT) New Delhi. the secondary teacher education. and the collegiate teacher education. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier.

state Institutes of Educat ion. etc. collegiate cells. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. extensio n service. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. are established. non-formal. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Educational teehnology cells. Expand NCERT 2. 3.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. Evaluation unit. Education cells. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Also Guidance Bureaux. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . Science Education units.. depart ments etc.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY.5. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

schools and sister institutions. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards.. laboratories.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . audio visual aids. degree.Ed.. to offer consultative services. which help breaking isolation from one another . to prescribe conditions for recognition. to improve curricular programmes. despite its vast expansion. primary and secondary school teachers. which should include experience in the primary schools too. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. should be improved on a top priority basis. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. and so on. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . and 183 .. to ensure teacher competence. material conditions relating to libraries. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers.Ed. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission.

Organisation of Content Courses. Psychology of Students. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. 184 . efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. Induction Courses. etc. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. Workshops. though no pre-service training. prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. not came up once again. Modern Methods of Evaluation. Agriculture. Hence.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. The problem. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . To meet this exigency.secondary education. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. and XII. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. methodology and evaluation. Modern Techniques of Teaching. whether they should have professional education or. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. Meanwhile. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know.

(RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.A.Ed. State Institutes of Education. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.’s are elig ible for M. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.5..Ed. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.’s for Ph. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.. These facilities are available for regular students. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.. 3.. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. (Education) and M. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. All B Ed. training.. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.Ed. in Education. courses and M. Degree and M. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.A.. M. Courses leading to B.Ed. Post-Graduates also undergo B. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. Degree.Ed. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. Ajmer.S. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . (Education) are organized by 185 . For re-orienting the teachers. Pre-service training is for those..D.Ed. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations..

A. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics.some Faculties of Education of some Universities.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and .8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . However. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.). (Ed. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned.. 4.5. 3. . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Hence the employability of M. 6. and B. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. of conduct—written or unwritten. (Ed). 5.A. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. What is the role of ERIC? . Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. established by tradition and teachers of the past.. 186 . they should be conscientious . and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.

Bhopal. Shorter working hours. 2. 3.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b.3. 6. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Ajmer. 5. The necessity is however this. However. 3. Explain code of conduct for teachers. 3.5. 3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. National Council of Educational Research and Training. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education.5. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. 187 . b. b. 4. they should be conscientious. these problems are not as such cannot be solved.5. 2. a. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. 4. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Discuss the problems of teacher education. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. a.

3.5. Tewari. and Teacher Education. (2009). P. A. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Mohanty. B. Publication Pvt. Corporation. (2010). Teacher Education.N. Teacher Education.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .D. (2003). Ltd Aggarwal. J.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

If the diet is poor. Since food is the source of nutrients. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. objectives. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. economic and educational developments. objectives. common ailments of children. The person’s environment is equally important. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. objectives and role of the physical education. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. communicable diseases and their prevention. nutritional deficiency diseases. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. preservation of nutrients. In lesson 1.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. the focus is on the school health programmes. In lesson 4. 191 .

192 .

1.3 4.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.8 4.e. mental. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.LESSON 4. It is a miniature society.1.5 4.9 4.6 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1.1 4. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1.1.11 4.1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. emotional and social.10 4. physical.1.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.2 4.1.7 4.1.1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1. 193 .4 4.

To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. 8. 9. 7. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 11. explain the importance of First aid 5. 4. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health.1. Instruction. training of teachers and evaluation. 3. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. 10. training in first aid and etc. list the common ailments of children 3.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. to his family and to the community at large. 2.. To give information regarding health rules. content of health education.g. 6. understand school health programmes 2. 4. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. know the need for sex education. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. To develop certain skills concerning health. 194 .3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. e. cleanliness and healthful living.1. you will be able to: 1. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. To develop healthy health habits among children. 5. 4.

Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. cleanliness weeks. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. 4. ( iii) sanit at io n. (v) safety education. (vi) nutrition education. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. typhoid. excusing late. B. First aid facilities should be made readily available. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. is imperative. direct lighting. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. suitable furniture.C. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. 2. Arranging better transportation facilities. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. etc. 5. 2.4. “Play-for-all” programmes. play festivals. (viii) first aid. vaccination. (vii) physio logy o f exercises.G. as described below 1. 3. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes..1. proper doors and windows. There should be regular water supply. Vaccination for small pox.coming or absence. organisation of school health days. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. (xii) smoking education etc. The surroundings of schools should be clean. (ii) communit y healt h. B. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. The school buildings should be spacious. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. Triple Antigen Vaccination. minimizing the travelling distance. inoculation against cholera. (xl) mental health.. The flooring should not be damp. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. There should be good drainage facilities.

C. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. dislocations. if epidemic is wide-spread.. wounds. • Have adequate rest and sleep. scalds. cuts. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. • Find out the cases. bleeding. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. insect stings. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. fainting (epileptic fit). Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. • Close the schools. sports and games in the interest of their health. 196 . etc. • Take nutritious food. and other accidents. isolate and notify. D. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • When sleeping in groups. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. fractures. drowning. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. • Keep all rooms clean.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. poisons. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. burns. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage.

they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. water or bodily contact. List out the Health curriculum 3. These diseases are called communicable diseases. chicken pox. polio. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. Once these germs get into the body. They are: i) The incubation stage.1. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. measles etc. 4. fever. So they easily get illnesses. cough. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage.1. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . pain in the joints.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. headache. tuberculosis. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. which are – cold. Mention the school health programmes. 2. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. asthma. backache.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. There are three stages in any communicable disease. They have less resistence to diseases than adults.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. 4.

nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. This is caused by cold virus. Important salts and water are lost in this process. unhygienic bottle feeding. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Hence it is called a killer disease. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. etc. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. unhygienic living conditions. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. sugar and water. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink.When a child suffers from scabies. cough and fever. Scabies . rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. After three or four days of fever. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Children catch cold from persons having cold. The following are the common communicable diseases. Tonsilitis . Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Common Cold . One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. The child may have fever. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child.This disease is caused by bacteria. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Others make the children very weak. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. eating food which is not clean. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. The symptoms include cold. 198 . Measles . Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Diarrhoea .It is caused by measles virus. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Hence liquid diet is recommended. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. head-ache and cough. Mumps . The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Ear Infections . Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Throat is affected.

• • • • Chicken Pox . What are communicable diseases? 6. the child is not able to breathe. the child may die. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. By scratching he causes secondary infections. separate.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. If proper treatment is not given. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Enlist the common ailments of children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. 5. Typhoid . face and waist. The child may also have diarrhoea. It begins with fever. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. Diphtheria . raised pink spots appear on head. As the disease progresses. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. Expand DPT . Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. Shortly. 199 .

wounds. etc. cuts. so-called sex books and periodicals. bruises. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future.1. sprains. and Community Work and Social Service.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. head injury.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. 4.1. scorpion stings. 3.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. Cuts and Bruises . It has its rightful place in education too. 200 . 4. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. 2. sprains.4. Sex is popular. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. Drowning . Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. it is a subject of art. snakebites. man-woman behaviours. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. dislocation. fiction. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. and films. swelling.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. simple fractures.g. Wounds .Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. bleeding. In such cases. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. Sprains . eye injury.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. drowning. 5. exciting and body-oriented. It is both biological and psychological. fainting. films and jokes. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. Sex is but an integral part of human personality.

2. B. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. In secondary schools. but preserve them from disaster and disease. 3. the religious organisations. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. The home. in their ignorance. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. health. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 .old values. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. The values of life. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. try experimenting with their bodies. Should the boys and girls. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. celibacy are age. the school. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. In today's liberal and interactive society. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive to give sex education to the young.. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. Hence. sex education is being recommended in schools. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. they would be treading the path of sure doom.

As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. the school health programmes. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions.1. common ailments of children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. communicable diseases and their prevention. hence. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. C. 202 .1) 2) 3) as a separate course. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. Teacher education institutions are. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. when the courses are already overloaded. What are the major components of Sex Education. 4. first aid and sex education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. there will no crisis in its implementation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. offering sex education as a part of their curricula.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.



SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.


STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.


4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:


Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.


Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy


Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Mention the food nutrients 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. 209 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients.

minerals. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied.4.2. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s.2. Let us talk about each of these aspects. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. 210 . This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. If you look at the definition carefully.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s .6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods.

A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . the social and religious practices of that region.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. People in the east of our country prefer rice. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals .g. There is no point. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. dosa are typical of the south. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south.2. it is also specific to a given activity level . Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet.sedentary. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. paratha and poori. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. A balanced diet is specific firstly.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. 4. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. These are: region where the person resides and income. sex. for example. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. In other words. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. Preferences/customs are also important. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. Balanced diets also provide for periods of in the morning and the other at night. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. Even within given States there is considerable variation. moderate or heavy work. construction labourer). In the case of adults.g. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. activity level and physiological stress. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age.

eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. vegetables and fruits. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. customs. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. income plays a vital role. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. taboos related to food may play an important role. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion.planning the diet. as important for the rich as for the poor. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. These determine the acceptability of foods. One must. One person may be fond of milk products. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. As income increases. Even among flesh foods. nuts and dry fruits. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. If you think of your own religious group. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. As you read this discussion. Judicious selection of food is. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. for example. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. however. Including these 212 . Among the social factors. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. while another may hate them. fat and sugar tend to increase. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. however. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. However. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. however. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Having more money. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. In addition to these.

fruits. if the teachers have good food habits. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. List out any two healthy food habits. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. but they should be thrown away. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 213 . For this.eating is hazardous. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 8) Walk a while after eating. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. Define balanced diet. meat. etc. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. 7) One should eat what is needed to live .milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. 17. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 8. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. over-eating or under. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. green leaves. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. mouth. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. eggs .

there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Conjuctival xerosis. Discuss good food habits. d. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Night blindness. Corneal xerosis. When the diet is inadequate. 4. Keratomalacia 3.4. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. b. Vitamin D 5.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. 4. Bitot’s spots. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Beri Beri 4. preservation of nutrients. a.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Explain food nutrients 4.2.2. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. good nutrition is essential for good health. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. e.2. In fact. c.

b. Food and Nutrition Education. A Text Book of Foods. Chopra. R. 8. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. a . a. b. (2009). Sri Lakshmi B. P. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru.6. R. Nutrition Science.2. minerals. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s .N. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . Nutrition and Dietetics. (2008). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. Food should be consumed after eating well. mouth. 4.C. Health and Nutrition Education. (2004).11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Food and Nutrition Education. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food.M. (2005). (2008). 7. S. Hands. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

3.5 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE Impact on Education 4.3.1 Impact on social development 4. 216 .2 4.3 4.1 4.11 4.3.4 4.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.7 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.9 4.3.10 4.LESSON 4.

on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. economic and educational development 3. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. Whenever we talk of sex education. the causes of population change.4. describe the impact of population growth on social. population characteristics. characteristics and changes for himself. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. therefore.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. It is a much wider co ncept. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. the stress is.3. aims at providing the younger generation. 217 . you will be able to: 1. his societ y and the world. It is not sex education. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. and the consequences of these processes. understand the importance of small family norm 5. 4. 4. his family. family planning and sex education etc.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control.3.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. community. There is some difference. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. state the meaning. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Population Education. objectives and need for population education 2. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India.

6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. the family.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Define Population Education 2. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.3. the nation and the world. List out any two objectives of Population Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3. the society.4.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .

Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population.3. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. health and happiness of its citizens.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. When the family is small. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Every second two thousand children are being born. economic and educational development of the country. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. Family is considered as a social unit. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. social welfare schemes can be implemented well.3. 4. 219 . With the larger families. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. 4. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. which will not be possible without population control. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress.6. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. the family programmes are also handicapped.

will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. heavy intern I migration etc. in parks and other places of public gatherings. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils.3.3. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. 4. in cinema halls and theatres. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. organization index and material index. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. Swollen cities. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. toilets. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. in buses and trains. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. In developing countries. and so on. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio.e. i. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. unemployment.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt.6. are the results of demographic pressures on social life.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. pollution of the environment. The gulf between them is widening further.6. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. 4. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy.. teacher index. 220 . facility for drinking water. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. Many students herded in a small room. lack of proper health care.

The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners.. essays. even text books would be in short supply. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. family planning etc. 221 . less administrative initiative and leadership talents. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. There would be poor library facilities. Social Studies Statistics on population education. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Regional Language. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Hindi and English. blank verses etc. bar graphs etc. less budget for education. There would be very few audiovisual aids. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and laboratory equipments. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. can be taken up.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. thus. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. less space facilities. reproduction. can be studied in science and health education.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4.3. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme.

the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. 15. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 9. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 12. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 5. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 4. 13. 10. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala.4. area and average density of population. causes of deaths etc. Brazil. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. United States of America. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Children may compare two families. China. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Bihar. 8. 11. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. 7. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. 2. 14. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living.3. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. deaths. Canada. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Uttar Pradesh. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 3. Children with the help of parents. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . West Bengal.

The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. values and role children etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife.3. 17. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Comparing life in various respects in two families. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. The question. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. preferences for sex. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. age at opened in their schools. 16. 18. we have no right to stop 223 . These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education.

which education can only do. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and emphasize family planning services. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .3. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. and the child survival components of the news: program. at varying places in different regions. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.were implemented 224 .. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. however. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. Since the program's inception. The Family Welfare Program. fertility levels have declined throughout the country.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. on an overall basis. especially the expansion of child immunization services . continued . More than 45 years ago. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). 4.their entry into the world”. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. “He who is responsible for population growth.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.

various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. and the World Conference on Women.earlier than the safe motherhood components. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. Local programs vary in their approaches. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. a focus on health promotion. and nominal fees for services. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. men. At these meetings. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. In April 1996. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . the community appears willing to pay for services. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. Moreover. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. expansion of services to unmarried women. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. Therefore. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. reliance on local women as community health workers. In October 1997. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services.

12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. Describe the impact of population growth on social. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. 4. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. What are the goals of RCH? 4.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process.3.3. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. 3.emphasizing the needs of the client. community. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. 226 . Its main purposes are to create awareness. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. 1997). involving the community. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. family. nation and the world. economic and educational development 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

and the consequences of these processes. 227 .” 2. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages.4.3. United States of America. Brazil. the causes of population change. 7. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. 4. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. bar graphs. a. 3.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. area and average density of population. Canada. 6. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. b. less budget for education. a. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. b. his family. his society and the world. less space facilities. a. 5. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. population characteristics. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. characteristics and changes for himself. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. China.

Modern Trends in Indian Education. A. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 228 . Kantikar. Centre for Women’s Studies. Jayapoorni. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004). Modern Problems of Education. (1992).K. J.3. N. Coimbatore. Udaiveer. (2005). (2005). Changing attitudes to Education in India. Ltd. Bhende.4. V. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. (2002). New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Reddy. Ltd.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Principles of Population Studies. T.

8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.1 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .9 4.1 Minor games 4.3 4.7 4.4 4.11 Major games Indigenous games 4.2 Lead up games 4.6

and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. mental alertness.4.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. 4. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. as it should 230 .4.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. leadership and balance in defect. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the youth of the country.4.4. team spirit. perseverance. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. social fitness. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. which forms its most valuable assets. 4. The concept of physical education has been made broader. moral fitness and emotional fitness. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. you will be able to: 1. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. full records of physical activities should be maintained. classify the different types of games. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.

Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Every individual is a part of society. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. obedience to rules. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. To be more precise. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. They are inseparably united together. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. The educational efforts at home. team spirit. They go hand in hand. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Therefore. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. leadership. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual.

4.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain.” The Secondary Education Commission. game and sports. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. mo ral. Physical exercises. ment al. C.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. H. Just like Education. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. a sound health. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. pleasing manners. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. Regarding the significance of physical education. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. Buck has observed that 232 . Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action.4. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. nor body but the whole man. Rousseau states.” Montaigue writes.

“If we wish to develop the whole being. we must exercise the whole human being. coordinative abilities. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility.a properly directed physical education should result in health. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. 233 . flexibility and power. strength. etc. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. efficiency and character. speed. endurance. elegance.” 4.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. happiness.” In brief. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. resourcefulness and smartness. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. Froebel says. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. initiative. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent.4. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.

Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. they may form gangs. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. its adherents and its enemies. 234 (i) (ii) .” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. including all racial groups and historical ages. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. poetry and painting. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Tournaments foster this sentiment. in greater or lesser degree. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. should help in the spiritual development of the student. these fundamental things have always been present. systems of government. plagues and famines. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. While wars. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Every age has its artists.

List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. obedience. 3. to develop tolerance.sacrifice. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. etc. Write any two importance of Physical Education.\ to develop perseverance. respect for rules. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. 2. self. 235 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. bravery and interest in games and sports. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. B.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit.

5.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Be well-prepared. and readmission after they have recovered. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Inform health principles.4. 236 1. Haag. 6. Keep the field ready for the activities. 4. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. injuries among pupils should be made. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Be self-confident. 16. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. . 4.4. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. defects. 9. 14. Be in the uniform. Act as a leader. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. 7. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 2. 11. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Posture screening should be done. and. Usually parents. 10.H. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. students. 12. 15. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. is essential. Be sportive.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Be punctual. 3. 13. Always keep the whistle ready. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities.4. 8. At least now its importance should be duly recognized.

Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. Indigenous games. the play. 4. 4. Such inst incts as imitation. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. their development is handicapped. 3. 2. frolic and jo y. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 4.4.8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. chasing. 237 . Lead up games. As such they are well enjoyed by children.4. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Moreover. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. less equipment and less expense.

with implements or without implements. These games require varied skills such as running. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Jumping. On lawns. hitting. skipping. zig zag relay. bowling etc. dribbling. While many of them are played in the open playfields. the number of players and substitutes. some of them are played indoors. Jump the stick clay and so on. Throwing. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. on sea-shore. They are played for a shorter duration. Soft Ball. Kabaddy etc. 4. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. Tennikoit.With a very few rules. Khokho. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Hockey. spiking. trapping. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. Basket Ball. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Cricket. couple tag. over ball pass Relay. Dodging.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation.8. heading. the games can be modified according to convenience. pitching. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. snatching the kerchief. Volley Ball. For each game the rules are many. on mountain tops and on river beds. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. muffling. Hopping. driving. Ball Badminton. 238 .4. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Tennis. benefit in playing minor games. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. the play equipment. finding the partner. boosting. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Shuttle Badminton. catching. under ball pass Relay.. women take part most of the games. on hard courts. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Except a few games. stopping. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. The dimension of the posts and nets. wherever the kids assemble.

4.8. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. they are in existence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. While observing the players in action.4. Kho-kho. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. All the fundamental tactics. They have an abundant social value. 7. For example. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. An example for indigenous game is 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. death. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. birth. these games being popular. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. Games may be classified as 6. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 .4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. 4. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. On occasions like marriage. List out some major games. and . Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. festivals connected with religion and public functions.8.4.

b. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 5. 4. b.4. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. a. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. d. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. Minor and Major 240 . Briefly discuss the different types of games. 4. a. b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.4. Posture screening should be done. 2. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must.4. a. 4. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. to develop physical stamina. a. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. physically and emotionally fit and alert. aims and objectives and need of physical education. 4.4. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. to secure physical health b. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. 2. c. 3. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.

(2009).C. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Khokho 8. J. Tennis. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.K. Krishna murthy. Foot-ball. Kabaddy 7. G. (2008). Health. Hockey. Tennikoit. Aggarwal. J.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews.6. Physical Education and Sports. Ball Badminton. Ltd. J. 241 .4. 4. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Soft Ball. Khokho. Handbook of Physical Education. Volley Ball. Basket Ball. Shuttle Badminton. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Cricket. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2008). (2005). Mohanty.

2 Manmade Environment INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.10 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.1 Natural Environment 4.LESSON 4.5.9 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.2 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.6 4.5.4 4.11 4.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.7 4.3 4.

4. 6. Skills. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. 2.educat ion for the environment. Essential knowledge about the Environment. Evaluation Ability. aesthetic and educational factors. 243 . 3. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. 4. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. economic. political. list out the types of environment 3. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4.5. role of teacher in environmental conservation. population explosion and resource depletion could be.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.5. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 2. 5.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. Details are given below: I. it covers the following elements: 1. Broadly. Knowledge. The best place to start such learning is school. 3. Attitude. education about the environment and education through the environment. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. Participation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. you will able to: 1. 4. Awareness. social. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values.

• Biological magnification E. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Oxidants Other pollutants. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. 244 . Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. F. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation.B. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. D. 2. a.

Control of population growth a. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Use of medical science i. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Socio-economic measures. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. c. Intrauterine device iii. Persuasion: i. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. 3. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1.3. 2. Abortion iv. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. economic. III. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. B. Sterilisation. Birth control through education b. Family planning ii. 2. The pill ii. The human ecosystem II. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. 4.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. e) Recycling. 3. Water pollution abatement. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Define Environmental Education. 2.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. 246 . Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Air pollution abatement ii. 1983). 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. (UNESCO.

5. to his needs.other components of the environment.5. A change in one brings about a change in the other. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions.5. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. They interact with each. includes the plants.5.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.5. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. b. He modifies according”. Any constituent or condition of the environment. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. a. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. 4. These are biotic components. Biological environment The biological environment. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . telex. animals and other organisms (biotic). fax agricultural apparatus. way is called environmental or ecological factor. -other. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4.5.4. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.

extinction of species. ozone layer deplet ion. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. are the topics which may be taught in History. food chain and food-web. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. explosion deforestation. social studies. (ii) Air pollution. History The rise and fall. noise control. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . are the topics which may find place in Zoology. excellent recreation sites. supplying timber for various uses. noise pollution. natural way of controlling pests. air pollutants from industries. use of medicinal plants. etc. desertification 248 . solar cookers. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. balance of nature. importance of nitrogen cycle. sources. effects o f CFC. over exploitation of ground water. alternate sources of energy. maintaining the ecological diversity. greenhouse effect.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. preserving the watersheds. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. etc. effects. of civilizations. nuclear warfare. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. water scarcity. change in climate may be added. reasons. population. industrial survey.. acid rain. evolution. ozone depletion. mineral survey. preventing siltation of dams. river systems. use of pesticides. industrial pollut io n. role of trees in building economy. need for conservation. trees reducing noise pollution. sources of pollut ion. biogas plants. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. need for bio-diversity. windmills. relation between population and pollution. wars and hazards of war. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. t heir role in preventing pollution. nuclear energy.

Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. aims and scope. 4. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. 5. 3. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. group discussions and seminars. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. 6. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin.5. 13. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 9. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 249 . Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 4. 10. 8. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 11. 2. 7. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Organising conferences.may be inc ded in Geography. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Providing. animal and plants. 12. 14. Peepal and Tulsi. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment.

and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. used oils down the drain. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Use public transport wherever it is possible. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. all these can cause serious pollution. Don’t burn any waste. it will cause pollution. Reuse carrier bags. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. World Environmental falls on 250 . Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. 6. If it is done. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Never put any left over chemicals. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. especially plastics. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry.Send their waste oil. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy.

values and habits. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. etc. Conservation of natural resources. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information.). concern for others).mat erials. Harmony with the nature . diversity and stability. orderliness and beauty). The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. depletion of ozone. deforestation. viz. nuclear wars. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. developing desirable attitudes. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. Concern for species. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. and 251 . prevention of irretrievable loss of species. To arrange for visiting speakers. potable water.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. loss of bio-diversity. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. To arrange visits or expeditions. etc.5. CFCs. To discuss the approach to problems or topics.4. (cleanliness. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. Social responsibilit y (common good.. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . rather than conquest and mastery. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. dest roying nat ural habitats. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. The groups may exchange. To provide materials needed for practical work. Att itudes of balance towards nature.

Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. preserving natural cycles. 8. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.5. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.5.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.5. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. 252 .9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.

S. water scarcity. (ii) Air pollution. explosion deforestation. Kuldeep.5. Organising conferences. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . (2007). Modern Problems of Education. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. concern for others). To provide materials needed for practical work. a.. b. 5. importance of nitrogen cycle. 6. Y.K. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. (2004). Rapid population growth. Publications Pvt. Environment and Human Rights. 3. Awareness. Anmol Publications Pvt. importance of trees in the production of oxygen.K.2. Ltd. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Education for values. over exploitation of ground water. To provide reference materials for children’s use. b. sources of pollution. Providing. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. reasons. (2007). relat ion between population and pollution. T. 4.\ 4. Environmental Education. b. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Udaiveer. Nanda. Ltd. group discussions and seminars. greenhouse effect. New Delhi : Authors Press.K. air pollutants from industries. effects. a. Social responsibilit y (common good.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. a. new problems from science and technology. June 5 7. 8. S.K. acid rain. (1997). To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. population. ozone layer deplet ion. b. Environmental Education. New Delhi : Sharma. Knowledge. a. sources.

254 .




Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.



STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism Idealism and aims of Education Idealism and Curriculum Idealism and methods of teaching Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism Naturalism and aims of Education Naturalism and Curriculum Naturalism and methods of teaching Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

259 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to

enrichment and transmission of culture. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. According to Rusk'." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. Spiritual Development. the emancipation of spirit.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism.our life. Education must contribute to development of culture. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. The universe is regarded as a thought process. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Universal Education. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. Therefore. Education according to idealism.1. moral. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. It is self-realisation. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. man is essentially a moral being. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism.3. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. should be universal in nature.” 5. in fact. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self.

Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. so subjects like Religion. 3. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. According to Frobel. Mathematics etc. Learning through lecturing. 2. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. So cognition (knowing). 4. Learning through discussion. Science.” 5. However. For intellectual development. friend and guide. Learning through questioning. should be there. Ethics. no doubt.1. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. It considers teacher as. Philosophy. a spiritual guide for the child.” He is thus. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. Herbert advocated instruction method. Learning through imitation. the school is a garden. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all.3. So health. Learning through reading. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. He sets the environment in which education takes place. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. and collation (striving) should find due place. 5. affecting (feeling). He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . The plant can grow. subjects like Languages.the spiritual qualities of mankind.1. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum.3. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. According to idealism. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. 5. hygiene. So he should embody.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. He carries the child from darkness to light. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. an indispensable necessity. History. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. For this no particular method has been suggested. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types.

1. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. time tables. text books.4. formal lessons or examinations.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. 5. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. Ross explains. Perfection of Human Machine. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. In the words of Ross.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. "Education should make 263 • . Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.perfection and beauty. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.1. curricula.preservation. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.

Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Chemistry.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. It is based on the psychology of the child. 264 . Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment.1. • 5. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Biology. Zoology. It stresses basic sciences. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. education should develop the child into Joyous. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. rational harmoniously balanced. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Education also aims at helping the individual t. subjects like history.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. Arithmetic. is based on the nature of the child. Therefore. 4. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Education should. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Botany etc Language. In all. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society.4. geography should also be included in the curriculum. therefore. There is no place for religious and moral education. Literature.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. “Education finds its purpose. useful and mature child. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Naturalistic curriculum. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts.

he should be taught by experience alone. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .1. 5. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Heuristic method. 3.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.1. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation.4.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. It discards all rigid.1. the stage.5. 4. Learning through experience. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. a provider of an ideal environment. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Dalton Plan. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Learning through observation. Rousseau says. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. In the . 2.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. Learning by doing. a supplier of materials and opportunities.

Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. diversified and flexible. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. All Round Development of an Individual. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. The aim of educational development. is true. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses.5. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Geography. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Personal Social Adjustment. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Continuous reconstruction of Experience.1. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based.1. Continuous Growth. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. of human personality is in terms of his physical. social and moral aspects. 5. History.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. intellectual. Subjects. Social Science. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Vocational and 266 . Social Efficiency. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Agriculture.absolutism of idealism.5. Physical training. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. 5. Sciences.

Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Learning by Doing. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He must be trained.5. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. The subjects. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. should find proper place. a senior partner and a sincere guide.5. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences.” 5. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. He has to be active. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. alert and resourceful.Technical Education. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . 5.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. activities and experience should be integrated properly. a teacher occupies an important position.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education.

1. 2. Mathematics.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Psychology. practical. Chemistry. 3. Biology. 5. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Education is preparation for a complete living. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Biography Philosophy.1. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. History. 4. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. liberal.6.5. scientific and psychological education. Music and Dance. intellectual. 5. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist.6. specific. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. 4. Study of Subjects like Language. Art. Crafts. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics.1. 5. It favours child-centered. rich and happy. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Literature. 3. literary or humanistic education. Sex Education. Astrology. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. 2. Geography are unnecessary 268 .6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Population Education.

6.1. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . easily and pleasantly.6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. certainly and clearly.

a. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Self Realisation b. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. & curriculum. Sciences. Tours / Excursion e. e. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. 3. Education according to pragmatism. Experimentation d. has no end other than growth. Agriculture.1. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Rousseau 5.1. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. pragmatism and realism. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Learning through experience b. 5.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Learning through questioning. Vocational and Technical Education. Languages. Learning through imitation. Geography. 5. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Learning through discussion. Universal Education 2.1. c. in this lesson. History. Self preservation & Self expression 4. 6.5. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Child centered c. Learning through reading. d. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. Physical training. naturalism. Social Science. b. Learning through lecturing.

P. Ltd. O.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Foundations of Education.1. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.5. 271 . (2004). K. Anmol Publications Pvt. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. P. (2003). New Delhi : A. Pahuja. N. P. of Pathak. Narang C.P. (2007). New Delhi : Bhatia. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. L. Publishing corporation. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. R. (2007).H.

2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .2.2 Curriculum 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.2.3. Idealist and Pragmatist Curriculum 5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.4.4 Views about teacher 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.3.4.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji Views about teacher 5.LESSON 5.2 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum Aims of Education Aims of Education 5.3 Methods of teaching 5.

2. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. Gandhiji was primarily a social. 273 . “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.7 5. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. 3.5.2. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.6 5.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.2.2. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. mind and spirit.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. you will able to: 1.8 5.4 Role of the teacher 5. content and methods. economic and political reconstruction in our country.2. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. an artist. Tagore was a poet. 5.2. 2. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.5. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.2.2.

Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. 274 .3. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. 5. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. "I attach more.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. strength of mind. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self.2. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. nor the gross animals body. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality." Dignity of Labour. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. self-restraint and service of humanity. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side.supporting. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. righteousness. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. It really provides opportunity for character building. In the words of Gandhiji. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. through life and for life. it is education of life. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. 'Man is neither mere intellect. mind and soul of children He further observed. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. His scheme of education is life centred.

Training for Leadership.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. Music. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 .2. Mother-tongue. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. 5. Only good individual forms a better society. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. General Sciences.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy.3. "Development of the moral character. the realization of the ultimate reality. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Art. metal work. According to Gandhi. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. wood work. Drawing and Hindustani. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . leather work have been suggested. gardening. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Individual and Social Aims.

3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.trained. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.3. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. proficient. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. Basic education is other wise known as 4. men of 276 .3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.2.

2. 3. 5. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. He also advocates freedom for the child. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. That is why. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies.3. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.knowledge. Education must be child centered.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1.

He was deadly against untouchability.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. • Ideal of citizenship. he was a true Vedantist 5. He believed in the oneness of humanity.K. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. 5. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. • Cult of non-violence.2. Gandhi in 1937. • Education should involve manual work. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.” Like all other ideals. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.2.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful.3. 5. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. He was a true patriot. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.2.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.

a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. them solve problems of day to day life. Therefore. 279 . General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. International Understanding. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Zoology.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. International understanding. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality.Language and Literature . Chemistry. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners.4. wider in range. That way only. Music. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. It should help the learner have good physique. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Religion and Psychology. "Mankind must realise a unity. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Tagore said. could help in forging unity among all. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. It should help. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. complete manhood could be attained. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Dance. stronger in power than ever before. etc. sentiment. Civics." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. (vi) Philosophy. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. Geography.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. the more dedicated and devoted. he said. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Botany.2. deeper in.

” He further says. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. 280 .2. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.4. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. In 1921. 5. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.4. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. Activity Method Heuristic Method. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901." 5. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. 5.2. Tagore rightly says. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.4. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child.2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.

Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. It is open to all irrespective of country. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. 281 . race. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. 10. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore.g. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. 9. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10.

According to him. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. 3. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual.2. Purity of thought. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. character forming and assimilation of ideas. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Concept of Education. 4.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him.” 5. Education for Self-realization. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. Book learning.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court.2.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. work and deeds come out of it. Education should make a person self-reliant. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only.5. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Education for Self-reliance. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself." He was against the theoretical type of education. Freedom. man making. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Education for strong Moral Character. 2.5. who possess sweet and amicable tempers.

he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. 5. philosopher and guide to the students He.5. Swami.2. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more.2.5. Philosophy and Theology.the learners on different students in the discussion. 5. 5. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other.5. 6. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. A physically strong person is the need of the society. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. And above all. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.2. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Thirdly he wished that games. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Discussion Method. Of course. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. That will serve the purpose of education fully. Secondly he wanted Science. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. 283 . Religion. Every individual should be trained for concentration. The teacher should be the facilitator. engineering and technical subjects. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Education for Physical Development.5.

284 . and pragmatist .” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. We have seen that Tagore. Gandhiji as a Idealist. Their educational ideas. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher.Substantiate your answer. of course. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims.6 LET US SUM UP We have. 12. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. 2. 5. 5. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. 3. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action.2. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. ears and eyes. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. Write short notes on Basic education. in this lesson. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man.2. legs. naturalist. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda.

Activity Method b. a. d. Ideal of citizenship. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. 8. Teaching while Walking b. c. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Debate and Discussion Method. 3. Meditation and concentration c. a. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. 10.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Discussion Method 285 . (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Explain Vishwabharathi. wood work. Self realization. 5. c. Basic education. Technique of Correlation 6. e. a. leather work have been suggested. 2. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda.2.4. Heuristic Method. 1937 7. 5. Activity Method d. b. metal work. a. Education should involve manual work. gardening. 5. 11. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. f. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Learning by Doing c. 9. Nai Talim 4. Self-Study b. Cult of non-violence.

O. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2003). J. New Delhi : Aggarwal. Dhiman. Ltd. Foundations of Education. Theory and Principles of Education.P. (2002).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. P.5. Publishing Corporation. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.H. P. C. (2007). L. N. K.2. (2007). on Bhatia. New Delhi : A. K and Narang C. (2004). Anmol Publications Pvt. 286 . B. N. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. Pahuja.

8 5.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3.9 5.2 5.5 5.10 5.3.4 5.11 5.7 5.1 5.6 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5. In this lesson.3.3.LESSON 5.3.3.

3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. curriculum signifies situations for learning. is a means to the process. Curriculum is intimately related to education. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences.3. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. From the latter point of view. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . the plain area.3. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. 5. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. curriculum. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. it is identical wit h socializat ion. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. there is a large number of communities. In it. in the form of new experience. present behaviour may be modified.3. Then in a big country like India. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. state the meaning of curriculum 2. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. 5. maintained or eliminated. While education is a process. living in the hilly area. While education is learning.S. A g o o d curricu lu m. Since the demands.. the desert area. in the U. Both the processes are integrated. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan.under the direction of the school. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. you will be able to: 1. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. In the words of Kerney and Cook. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. the plateau area and 288 . in fact .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. new behaviour may be acquired.A. in Russia or in Japan. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. In the former sense.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static.

that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. democratic and socialistic country. Besides craft. However. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school.3. the learning capacity of children. In fact . without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. 5. Again. it is. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. irrespective of their needs and environment. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. too. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. studying therein. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. From a slave-country we became secular. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. therefore.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. customs and needs. according to modern trends in the educational process. and 289 . We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. differs from individual to individual. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. It must differ from locality and from society to society. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. environment. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour.

of classroom. Vocational Efficiency. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. which may or may not be attained. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. they depend on the political. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. They are visionary goals e. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. They may be ultimate or proximate. Self Realisation. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. specific.. They are achievable. etc. 4.. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. Understanding Objective.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture.g. They speak of perfect goals. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education... e. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. tangible. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. remote or immediate. individual or Social and so on. 1. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made .. social. uninspiring and unscientific. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation.g. etc. e. Goals of Secondary Education. Application Objective. unambiguous and functional. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. aims. National Integration.3. etc. Goals of Primary Education.g. general or specific. 3. Knowledge Objective.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. moral. They speak of immediate purposes of education. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. 2. eg. in instructional objectives. unsatisfactory. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. social. The word “Curere” means 2. 5. aesthetic and spiritual development. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. So it is inadequate. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. emotional. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. 290 .

Raymont rightly says. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. Crow and Crow remarks. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. finding them very interesting and captivating. educationists. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. in the class rooms. capacities. According to Crow and Crow. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other.3. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others.” 291 . should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. abilities. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. but it includes the totality of experiences. needs.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. heavy fire. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.5. The interests. on the playing fields. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced.

activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. capacities and abilities. tendencies. Due to these variations and differences. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. moral. They often waste it or rather kill it. mental. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. time in a useful manner. aptitudes. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. urges. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials.

curricular. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. administrative programme need be planned. 293 . supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. 3. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. Similarly. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. organized. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. To ensure success of the process. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. phased preparation. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. 2. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. development of professional capability at all levels.

Child Centred Education b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum.3. a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. 17. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. laboratory. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d.3. 5. 18. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Relation with Life c. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. 11. library. workshop. 12. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 .10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. 10.3. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. 1937 19.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. principles of curriculum construction. 5. Run. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. in the class room.

New Delhi : Authorspress. D. (2007).3. Innovations in Education. S.K.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. P. New Delhi : Isha Books. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. (2007). S. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Curriculum and Instruction. N. 295 .5. (2001). Lakshmi. and Sarita Kumari. Bhalla. (2007). Curriculum Development.S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.

1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.1 5.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.LESSON Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.10 5.7.8 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.2 5.4.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4.

1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. tolerance for the opinions of others.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. We mean curiosity. Gradually. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. honesty. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. 2.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. explain the concept of scientific attitude. in the economic reconstruction of society. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. 5.4. 297 .4. 5. 3.5. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. 4. you will be able to: 1. superstition or emotion.4. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. know the importance of science education. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition.during the second half of this century. open-mindedness. newer and newer industries started growing. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees.

Through examinations. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Thinking and memory develops. 3. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. 6. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people.So that. 7. 4. Principles are formulated. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Promotion of science clubs. 5. After such experience and training. 4.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Central science workshop.4. 3. Through newspapers. 6. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Love for truth enhances. Selection for science education. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Devotion towards nature increases. 2. 5. Organisation of science fairs. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. 5. seminars and symposiums. Schemes of teaching science. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. 2. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work.4. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 5. stipends and appreciations in various ways.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. as well as of the society.

a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They encounter many social events as they grow. It is. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. After presenting the problem. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. Training of science teachers. essential that teachers.4. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. 5. 7. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. They experience natural phenomenon.6. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. In the inquiry approach. Enquiry teaching is. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. each child to “enquiry skill building”. objectivity. For laboratory and workshop techniques. They ask many questions about the objects they see. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. sex or religion. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look.needs and conditions. 5.4. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. should provide opportunities to. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. therefore. Write any two advantages of Science Education.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.

2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. 4. Giving less directions. commands or orders. 5. It requires consistent thinking.books. Social sciences.4. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. 300 . 5. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. if they like. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. 3. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”.6. Evidence. to ask questions and experience things. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. test. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . Appreciating pupils ideas. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. Adopting creative models of teaching. stern pursuit of accurate data. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 3. 5. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues.4.Herma Wouk. 6. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. . 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.

In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. therefore should be unbiased and objective. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. see and feel the need of developing this attitude.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. of vast resources running waste. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. practiced. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. and emphasized during the learning process . it must be encouraged. (Vaidya 2007). Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. To achieve this we should understand what it means. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately.7. neighbourhood. These include open mindedness. school and society at large. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. For instance. friends. critical thinking and suspended judgments. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. keen observation. to develop among the learners. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation.4. The students observation. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. 5. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed.(Smith 2008).

the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. In considering a situation or a problem. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. 2007). (Das. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. understanding and logic. 302 . Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.7. rumor. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. The intention to respect another’s point of view. 5. think and work it”. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. or superstitions. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions.4. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. intuition or wishful thinking”. he studies all aspects of it. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof.

4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.7. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly.7. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. • 5. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.4. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. but to begin only after careful planning. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.4. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. 5. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.

practiced and emphasized during the learning process. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. it must be encourages.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory.4. 5. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. 304 . 5. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

4. N. Vaidya. Proper example of the teacher c. a. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. 16. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Rao. 5. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Adopting creative models of teaching. Yadav. 305 . b. b. a. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Discuss the importance of science education 14. M. Reflections on Scientific attitude. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. 3.B (2008). New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Planning of activities 5. 2. (2006).9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. 4. D. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. objectivity. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Love for truth enhances. a. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. S. b. (2008). Study of superstitions d. Wide reading b. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. 5.4. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. a.5. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude.4. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. (2000).S.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

5.5.1 5. areas of institutional planning.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.9 5.5 5.5.5.LESSON 5.10 5. actively.2 5. 306 .5.5.11 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. objectives and characteristics. 5. you will be able to: 1.4 5.3 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population. INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. state the concept. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5.6 5.5.8 5.

• to involve teachers and school administrators. and supplement planning from above.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. executive as well as public. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. • to make planning development-oriented. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . which become the bases for further planning at the district.5. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. 5. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator.5. State and national levels from below. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. in the task of educational planning. every parent. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. teachers and students is not lost sight of. and every student in the process of educational planning. • To make institutional planning more successful. every teacher.3. 5. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. and. Institution should be regarded as the unit. and each student are regarded as separate entities.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. each teacher. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level.

Classwork. (2) Co. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services.5. 5. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.curricular Activities.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. Examinations. 308 . Co-curricular activities. it becomes the basis for school inspection. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. approved after making necessary modifications. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. which will be discussed in the general. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction.• implemented. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. council and. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. and Personnel services. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. etc. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. Syllabus. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members.5.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Organising play-for-all programmes. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Courts. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Preparation of instructional material. etc. Organisation of Self-Government Days. charts and apparatus. scientific and historical excursions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Equipping of laboratory and library. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching.No. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Editing the school magazine. 1. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. hobby-centres. Preparation of models. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . etc. 3. etc. Undertaking remedial instruction services. etc. etc. 2. Fair distribution of syllabi. Improving the internal assessment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Organisation of Pupils. Organisation of Students’ Association. Organisation of class-room libraries. Conducting of educational. Running science clubs.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Improving the subject competence of teachers.

headmasters associations. teacher-teacher. administrator-administrator. Administrator-State. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. teacherinspector. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. parents. understanding. involving mainly human materials. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships.” The human relationships in. pupil310 . teachers. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships.5. teacher-pupil. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. administrator-pupil. science teachers’ associations. pupils. students’ associations. co-operation. teacher-State. ii. which are divided as the in. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. parent-teacher associations. etc. teacher-managing and out-group relationships are as given below i.5. and solidarity. administrator-supervisor. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. and —pupil-pupil. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system.

" Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. V. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. supervision. administrator. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. pupil-community leader.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.State. To administer means to manage. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. superintendence. to attend. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. to accomplish. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. etc. It is also being modernized to become a technique. It covers personnel and material management. social sciences and other disciplines. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. organisation and management. Good. organisation. According to C. now-a-days. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. pupil-inspector. teacher-parent. supervision and superintendence. control. teacher-community leader. and to serve. 311 . pupil-non-official functionaries. pupil-parent. to carry out. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept.

This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. 13. Rapport between the Management and Employees . low. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic.Of all the approaches.Any good management will always have good public relations. Decision Making . 4. Communication . 5. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. Liasion with the Public . The relationship should change from master. He should be an artist in human relationships.The manager should have leadership traits. 12.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. Leadership . He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. Cost-Benefit Analysis . the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . 6.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. Socio-Scientific Approach . He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. Those. 2.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. it is not worth-while. This is the latest democratic trend in management. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. 11.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. 8. If it is more. Better Human Relationships . Motiviation . it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. If the cost benefit ratio is less.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Democratic Management . 7.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. 9. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . who occupy the managerial positions. 10. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. Economic Management .The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. Worker Participation . 3.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. 19. 18. enrichment of curricula.5.5.too. to improve the quality of education it provides. improvement of teaching methods. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. 313 . Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained.These two are. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. and cooperative performance should be ensured. 14. characteristics and areas of institutional planning.g. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. objective.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 5. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.

New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House.K. S. b. In group and Out group 5. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. APH Publishing Corporation. Instruction. 4. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. NUEPA. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. Co-curricular activities. c. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Singh. 314 . d. b. H. 2.5. Syllabus. (2001).11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Classwork. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. b. Motiviation d. Examinations. Leadership c. (2003). Educational Administration. f. a. a. a. Fundamental of Educational Management.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Decision Making b. Communication 5. e. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.M. Tarachand and Prakash. R. a. and Personnel services. (1995).5.

I. higher education.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. population education. Preservation of nutrients. Sex-education 4.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Economic 315 . Buddhist and Jain system of education.1 Inculcation of Socialism.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .3 Directive Principles . UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.5 Regional Educational Development in India .Pre-service and In-services facilities. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. social Impact 3.CORE PAPER . nutritional requirement.Preventive measures.Religious and Modern Education 1.teachers should have : 1. wastage and Stagnation 3.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. First Aid. Common ailments of Children.1 Primary Education : Education for all.1 Gurukula system of education. New evaluation procedures. Examination reforms.4 India's Secular Policy . 2.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Community and Mass Media 2. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. School.3 Educational Influences of Home. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Communicable diseases . physical education and environmental education 5. Balanced diet.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. 4. Inspection and Supervision 3. Code of conduct for teachers.2 Nutritional deficiencies. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . women education and teacher education in India. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Healthy Food Habit 4.Article 45 . Education by Christian Missionaries 1. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. Realized the problems of school education. 1.1 School Health Programme.

Pandy V. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. T. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. 5.K.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Delhi : University Publications 2. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.1 Idealism. Mahatma Gandhi. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Curriculum and national goals .4 4. Tagore 5.4. New Delhi: NCERT 3. B.S. Prof.K. Sharma. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.R.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. curriculum and teacher's role 5. 316 .K. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. (2005) Foundations of Education.N.C.K. and Mohanty R. Mishra.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. REFERENCE 1.Aim. Ram S. Realism.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. (2004) Problems of Education in India. (1999) Culture.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. and Sharma R. Ghanta R. and Human Development.N. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Taneja V. Saraswathi T. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. R. Hemchand. and Dash B. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. Socialization. Kalan Paper Packs 10. 7. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Naturalism and Pragmatism .2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.

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