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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
9 . Lesson 5. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. In. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. The need. Lesson 4. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. Lesson 2. and Jain system of education.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. Jainism and their educational implication. discusses the regional educational development in India. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. regional imbalances and variations in different environment.
6 Education during British Era 184.108.40.206.3.1 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.5.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 220.127.116.11 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.4.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.LESSON 18.104.22.168.1.1.5 Jain system of education 1.1.2 22.214.171.124 Methods of Jain system of Education 126.96.36.199.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.6.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.6.1.
British system of education presented the modern western model.1.1. has a long past history starting in vedic education. Education in India. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. That 12 . but English in taste. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. 1.1. Muslim and British periods.7 1. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. in opinion.1. elucidate the education during British Era. 1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. The history of education passed through Buddhist.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. Indian in blood and colour.1. describe the Jain system of Education 4.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. both present and future. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. India.1.8 1.6.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. “a class of persons.1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. in morals and in the intellect”.6.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.3. you will be able to: 1.9 1.1.1.
if they thought fit to do so. Teacher as Parents. There was. It was also moral. with grants of land or money. to light. from darkness. managed entirely by Brahmans. 5. Residential Schools. Curriculum. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. No State Control on Education. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Forests as Centres of Education.knowledge was real. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 9. as it is generally considered to be at present. High Status of Teachers. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. however. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Individual Teaching. 16. Education of Moral. not en masse by the class method. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Role of Travel in Education. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. generally. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. individually. 10. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. Immediate Aim Vocational. The immediate aim of education. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. from eternal to immorality 2. Where pupils were many. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Free and Accessible. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. It was not merely intellectual. followed by explanation by the teacher. Religious and Spiritual. Method of Instruction. 6. 4. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. 3. religious and spiritual. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. questioning by the pupil. 11. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. 8. Education was a private affair of the people. the monitorial plan was followed. 12. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. and to agriculture and trade. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. 13. Pupils were taught. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Method of Study. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. 13 . 14.
2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. It was freely available to all those who wanted. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. It was suited to the needs of the society. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times.17. They were very cordial and intimate. 1.3. studied Vedas. Wide-Spread Education in Women. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. lived a life of celebacy.1. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
Consequently. the handicapped. Right endeavour 7. the student had his head shaved of all hair. except the Chandals. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. had the right to receive education. which included abstaining from theft. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. I take Refuge to Dharma. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. the most significant of which were the following 1. Education was imparted through the. 2. use of cosmetics. Right thought 3. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. the student remained in a state of Shramana. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. every class in society.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. Right memory 8. 1. I take Refuge to Sangh. impure conduct. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. etc. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. use of intoxicating things.4. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Right contemplation 1. dressed himself in yellow clothes. medium of Pali. disease and death of the human beings. in which. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. partaking of food at prohibited times. 15 . Right activity 5. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. he was qualified to become a monk. It was denied only to the ill. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. watching dances or listening to music. Right knowledge 2. taking things without being offered.C. After attaining the age of 20.1. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Right speech 4. killing of any living being. Right means of livelihood 6.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features.
control over sensuous activities. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. It comprehended education in writing. and. the presence of the monks was essential. medicine. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. wear three items. animal husbandry. bodily gestures. archery. assumptions. eat food thrice a day. changing the goals. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. On this occasion. etc. Whatever its nature and extent. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. etc. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. however. archery. Later on. beg for alms. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. 2. along with education in script writing. commerce. a change is not only total but also perpetual. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. knowledge of reviving the dead.. military science. agriculture. it is regarded as true”. 3. elephant lore. therefore. As reality is becoming. women occupied a position inferior to men. magic. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. 4. a continuous change creating 16 . Hence.4. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. After this ritual. approach. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. aspirations and. 5.3. education was impart in art. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. 8. of clothes. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. so long as it successfully does so. the science of taming and training animals. These are called later Buddhist schools. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. 6. be considered the aim of education It. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. arithmetic and religious discussion. depth and range. Even at this stage. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. 7. Life is in a flux. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. meaning. cottage industries. nature. etc. 1. geology. has no metaphysical value for life. Initially. handicrafts. nothing is of any permanent consequence. objectives of human life. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive.
e. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism..5. Jainism insists 17 . therefore.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. such as. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. goes to Vardhaman. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. i. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. and to give it a shape that it has today. In fact. Education must. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. 5. its pessimistic outlook on life. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. However. 1.new and peculiar situations. Write Eight fold path .1. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. it is much older than the latter. whatever works are true and good. Its chief feature. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Validity is effective and consequences. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. however. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. and its refusal to believe in supreme God.
Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 1. Development of personality as an individual. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. it has a foot in both the words. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. and believe in happiness to all. 3. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 5. but on both. 2. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. more stress on individual aims. d) To lead a celibate life. 9. b) Not utter falsehood. thought and deed. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. c) Not to steal. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. rather than the interpretation of the universe. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. They are: a) Not to injure. Hence. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. 2. 1. 10. As such. 3.1. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. 18 . Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 8. 4. 7. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. and is to be redeemed and liberated. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. c) Right conduct. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. b) Right knowledge. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection.5. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. e) To renounce the world. 6.
3. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. education must be action based and ideally oriented. education should develop sense of discrimination. 19 . practised and not only aspired for. 3. 8. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. therefore. 4. Jiva is essentially karmic. success and love. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Hence. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . 1.5. Teaching must develop these faculties.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 2. 2. 5.5. Teaching should be social and tolerant. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. What are Triratnas ? . Belief in transmigration of soul. and should bring happiness to all. here and now.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. 1. that would be socially desirable.
“they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. 2. Bombay. with rally and rout. and not for life. To set up separate departments of. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. science. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. However. primary 20 . They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. 1.6. 1. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.6. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. 1. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.1.6.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. 1953). We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler.6.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. philosophy and literature of Europe. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”.1. Madras. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. North West Province and Punjab. 1.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report.
and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. To ensure qualitative improvement. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. At that time M.6. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). The universities dominated the secondary education. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. 1. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. 1. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. In 1882. secondary education became a step towards university. • Secondary education. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant.6. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature.education was neglected. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . Then the prevalent education was anti-national. 1. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education.6. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). namely. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. Later on. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. at the primary level.K. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. self-respecting and competent. • Universal free primary education.
Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12.1. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. After this stage. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. all children are to have a common curriculum. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . 10. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians.
Right thought. followed by explanation by the teacher. It was suited to the needs of the society. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. 4. Right endeavour. 6. a. establishment of universities. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. The system of education was well-organised. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. education was impart in art. 2. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 3. Right speech. The immediate aim of education.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. the science of taming and training animals. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. geology. 23 . 2. 1. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. During the Buddhist period. arithmetic and religious discussion. 4. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. science and English language. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Right means of livelihood.education of European literature.. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. etc. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. 5. Right contemplation. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. questioning by the pupil. archery. 1. Right memory. Right activity. along with education in script writing. handicrafts. Right knowledge. military science. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education.1.
b. c. a. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2007). J. Right knowledge. 11. Development of personality as an individual. 8.7. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Ltd. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.K. and Nath. 9. Sargent report 12. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (1984). Right faith. (2009). Improvement of Literature. History of Indian Education System. Ltd. 10.C. Right conduct. 1937 1.C. 24 . b. a.K. Y.1. Sharma. R. Aggarwal. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). Y. Development of Educational System in India. J. 1882. Singh. Hence. more stress on individual aims.
2.3.1 1.2.1 University Education Commission 1.2.2 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 220.127.116.11 National Policy on Education 1.8 1.5 18.104.22.168.2.2.9 22.214.171.124. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.6 1.3.3 Kothari Commission 1.3. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.LESSON 1.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4 1.2. The 25 .7 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2.
vocational education. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. explosion of enrolment.2. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. you will be able to: 1.2. diversification of courses of studies. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. examination system. analyse the progress of education in free India. girls and women education besides primary.conditions of the teachers. curriculum. secondary and higher education. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. New Educational Policy.3. S. National Council for Women’s Education 5. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. Post-graduate 26 . Kothari (1964-66) 8. technical. standard of teaching. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. technological engineering. 2. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. expansion of vocational. medical and legal education. There had been vast institutional expansion. 1. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1986 1. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2. National Board of Teacher Education 10.
3. the chairman of University Grants commission. A meaningfully Partnership.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. 1986. National System of Education.3. 1. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. Education for Equality. Problems of access. utility and financial outlay.teaching.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. D. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. 2. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. 1. 4.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. However. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar.S. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1. material and spiritual. Therefore. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. the New National Policy on Education. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. quality. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. 1952. The Essence and Role of Education. A. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . The national system of education envisages common educational structure. Finally. quantity.2.2. Education is the key to our allround development.3. research et. 1966. Kothari. accumulated over the years.2. Government of India. in January 1985. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education.3.
Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. 28 . Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. It can train practical aptitudes.” Thus. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2. By working with hands. the minorities and the handicapped. the concepts of work experience.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. attitudes. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. The UNESCO Report.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Thus. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education.
would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. it will conduce self.” The Mudaliar Commission. “It may be described.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. In 1955. “The aim of these colleges. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. With adequate planning. Besides. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. if he wishes. co-ordinations. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. The Education Commission. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. As such. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. According to. the Commission.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. The Radhakrishnan Commission. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened.
Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. the semester and credit system. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. In addition. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. the rigid streaming of courses. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976.ot her. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly.. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. for quality of life in the rural areas. the. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. The Central Advisory Board of Education. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. With a view to relating education to the life. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. Subsequently. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. Therefore. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. raising the special facilities. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. etc. admission requirements to vocational courses. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern.
The Father of Nation. preferably spinning and weaving. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. which swept the country for over two decades. which offer scientific.and the world of work. The wave of Basic Education. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. Commerce. giving importance to productivity in the national development.2. technological courses including Agriculture.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. manual work resulting in either goods or services. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. 1. meaningful. etc. meaningful. 31 . According to committee. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. which are useful to the community. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed.. who conceived the System of Basic Education.defined S UP W as “purposive. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. felt that education should be centred around a craft. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. In short. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. aimed at this goal.
Productive 2. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Shelter 4. be that the work involved is: 1. tools and techniques and 3. 32 . From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Community work and social service. The teachers should make use of. Experimentation with materials. Clothing 5. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Educative and 3. Culture and recreation 6. Health and Hygiene 2. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. as far as possible. 3. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. so that it is educational in essence. Some Hints to Teachers 1. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. 4. Food 3. 2. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Work practice. locally available materials and tools.
improve discipline. To make education more realistic. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. as far as possible. Merits of the Programme 1. inculcate a faith. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. Reduction of gap in work and education 2.5. removal of illiteracy. Check on educated unemployed 4. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Productive Work 33 . this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. It can become an instrument to build character. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. 1. Education through work The SUPW should.2. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. slum clearance. Community Service In-1972. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. the local community should be actively associated. 6. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. etc. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory.
What are the work areas in SUPW 6. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. in turn. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. AICTE was set up in year 4. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. offering first aid. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. skills and better future for the children. should involve itself in the educational effort. etc. if not productive. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . The community. helping the adults-in productive work. Define SUPW 34 . traffic control. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area.
1. d. 1952 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 35 . 1955 4. Dr.2. Radhakrishnan 2.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. b. 2. which are useful to the community. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. c. manual work resulting in either goods or services.2. f. 6. meaningful. 3. a. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.2. e. 1. Write short note on SUPW. 1.
(2007). and Nath. (2007).K. J. Y. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. R.K. P.C. Ltd. (2005). Rao. Anupama. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. History of Indian Education System.(2005).D. : Sharma.K.1. New Delhi: A. History and Problems of Indian Education.H. 36 .2. (2009)..10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.P. and Rao. V. Singh. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. A.P. Amala. Y. Publishing Corporation. Development of Educational System in India. B. History of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
7 1. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.3. Being the supreme law of the country.3. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.6 1. for a total of 126.96.36.1999 words in the English language version. Besides the English version.3.3.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. assuring its citizens of justice.1 Significance of DPSP 1. 1950.9 1.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.4 1.3. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.2 1. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3.3. and liberty.3. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. equality. procedures.3.5 1. there is an official Hindi translation.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.3. 1949. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. 37 . containing 395 articles.3. democratic republic. directive principles and duties of citizens. it came into effect on January 26.8 1. establishing the structure.1 1.
1. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. After many deliberations and some modifications. 38 . social. 4. According to the constitution. administrative. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. Two days later. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. 3. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. The Assembly met. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4.3. in sessions open to public. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. On August 29. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. 1. learn the role of central and state government on education. understand our Indian constitution. Dr. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. for 166 days. 1947.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. Through them.3. 1947. economic.3. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. 1950. 2.3. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. political. the Drafting Committee was appointed. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian.In the August 14. spread over a period of 2 years.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. 1. you will be able to: 1. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. legal and environmental. with Dr. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.
That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Liking wage etc. The State shall. and in other cases of undeserved want. old age. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Protecting health of the workers. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Protecting children from exploitation. No abuse of children. Equal pay for both sex. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.government. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. provide free legal aid. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Appropriate concentration of wealth. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. and shall. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. That the health and strength of workers. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. on the basis of equal opportunity. Condition for dignity of children. 39 . Article 39A. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Organisation of village panchayat. Article 43. Article 40. in particular. men and women. Minimising inequalities in status. Article 42. The State shall endeavour to secure. Equal justice and free legal aid. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Article 41. for workers. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Right to work. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. sickness and disablement.
in particular. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. to all workers. work. See also Article 21A). The State shall take steps. Article 45. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. and. Article 47. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. in particular. [declared by or under law made by 40 . the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. a living wage. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Article 48A. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. (Original Article 45. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Participation of workers in management of industries. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Article 46. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Uniform civil code for the citizens. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Note: Subs. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Article 43A. Article 49. 2002 for “45. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. agricultural. by suitable legislation or in any other way. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Article 44. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. The State shall endeavour to provide. Article 48. in particular. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. industrial or otherwise. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.
Separation of judiciary from executive. from spoliation. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 45 .Parliament] to be of national importance. disfigurement. Promotion of international peace and security. removal.3.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. 1. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. disposal or export. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. Article 50. Article-21A Right to Education. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. may be law determine”. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. 2002. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Article 51. 2. destruction. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. as the case may be.
Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. 6. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. in particular. race. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. his guardian has given his consent thereto. 4.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. language or any of them”.” 42 . iii. 8. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. 3. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. and. 7. caste. from justice and all forms of exploitations. 5. if such person is a minor. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. and shall protect them. ii. 2002. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language.
Provision for Education for minorities is given in . style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Article 351 gives importance to 6.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. The central government determines targets and promotes education. & 1. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4.9. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Educational Reforms From time to time. the forms. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. 2. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. for its vocabulary. and by drawing. wherever necessary or desirable. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language.3. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. 43 . The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country.
Production of suitable for children and adults f. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. The following pilot projects. 8. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. So that they may work well. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). 6. So as to encourage education on right lines. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. By starting these projects. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 .3. etc. 5. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. 4. the state governments. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. 7. Local bodies and private enterprise. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country.. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. All India Council of Medical Science. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. private agencies etc. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. to achieve the desired ends. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society.
research. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. reports etc. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. 1. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. 3. books. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 4. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. 10. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. training and statistics. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. are published by it. 11. 12. is the state responsibility. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. 9. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. education for women. The 45 . handicapped.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. etc.3. Material concerning nation-wide interests. 1.
3. 46 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Write short notes on a. Explain Directive principles 2.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. articles in the Directive principles.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45.3.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Article 45 b. Article 46 4. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 1. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Article 21A c. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1.
b. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Dr. b. Ambedkar 2.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Article 29 and 30 7. 3. may be law determine”. Describe the educational role of State Government. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act.5. Article 46 5. a. Article 45 . Clearing House function 9. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.3. Development of Hindi Language 6. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. Article-21A Right to Education. 2002. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 4. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. a. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 47 . The Directive Principles of State Policy. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. 2002. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. a. 1. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.
(2007). (2009). S. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 48 . B. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. N. K and Narang C. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. S. Dash.1. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. (2004). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Bhatia. K. Ghosh. (2008).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta.3. L. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Education in Emerging Indian Society.
188.8.131.52.6 1.1 Why Moral Education 1. Students should be 49 .4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.5 1.4.8 1.4. Islam.4.2 1.4. Christianity.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Buddhism etc.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.2 Aims of Religious Education 1. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.184.108.40.206 What Constitutes Moral Education 220.127.116.11.1 1.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4.7 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168 Moral education 1. religious education should be broad based. Jainism.
integrity. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. In the complicated and complex society of today. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. religious education and the concept of secularism. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. state meaning and need for moral education 1. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. beauty and goodness so that 50 . Thus..4. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). you will be able to: 1. duty-consciousness. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. According to E. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. "In A multireligious society like ours. As result of which. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. understand the relationship between religion and education 2.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline.4.” Education broadens human outlook. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. India' can produce men of character. know the position of religious education in our country 3.D.and dedication.
our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. Thus. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values.4. No religious tax can be imposed on them. Children attend these organizations. They thought that any kind of narrow. 1. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. Viewing the defects of religious education. 1. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education.3.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. "In view of the provision in the Constitution.3. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. religion and democracy are same. all citizens are free to follow any creed. castes and creeds. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. if not regularly. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. at least occasionally.” From the above.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. In short. 1947 we achieved our freedom. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. through religious practices and 51 . As a matter of fact. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged.4. Hence.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. it is clear that the State has no religion. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. According to Article 22. realizes God in himself. According to Article 19. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. rancour. As our country is a country of diverse religions.
Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. As a result of which. He also learns about social. what is done and what is not done etc. Good education. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . which can mould. for the development of the individual and the society. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. which help him for the development of his character. and what is evil.teachings. intellectual and physical faculties of children. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. If unreleased. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. temperament etc. It helps to modify habits attitudes. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. It is religious education. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. aggressive.. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. when he becomes an adult. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. one fully developed.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. moral and spiritual values.
4. 2. which is the basic need of a democratic life. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. 1.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. 3. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. This should not be allowed to happen. Therefore. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. towards the society. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. 53 . Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. If we open the pages of history. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”.3.
stories of moral greatness. therefore. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. For this.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values.4. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10. fellow-feeling. Life histories of great persons of the world. they should be discussed in the right earnest. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 11. 9. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Write Article 22 2. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. churches and mosques 7. Gurudwara as.5. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. examples of patriotism. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Since all religions have virtues.
Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 5. therefore. 8.acquisitiveness). the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). The content of the curriculum. “Let all be happy and free from disease.4. Fearlessness. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Aparigarha (Non. Service to others. 3. 1.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 4. Cultivation of emotions. 3. 2. 1. 7. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Satyam (truth). They will play their role effectively. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. is that which develops moral values. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Purity. 5. 4. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. 7. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Without moral values. let men see well of one another. Asvada (Control of palate).6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Ahimsa (Non-violence). the methods of teaching.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. 8. Self sacrifice. 55 . in the home. 2. It they learn what morality is in their early years. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Patriotism. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations.4. Moral education. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. 6. 6. students. Non-injury.
Integrity. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Efficiency. 2. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. National unity and Spiritual values. discipline. 4. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Good temper. 3. The School Assembly should be held for a few. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Unity of mankind. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Discipline. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. religions may be included in the syllabus. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Good manners.4. Asatyam (Non-thieving). Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Secondary Stage 1.9. 1. Sharivashram (Physical work). 10. 3. In the school programme. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. minutes in the morning for group singing. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. 56 . 11.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. patriotism and self-discipline. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. 4. In this connection. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. 57 . General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. In other words. University Stage 1. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. love of humanity.4. 5. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Silent meditation should be encouraged. should form a normal part of school programme. 2.
1. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. 58 . 2. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3.4. Sri Prakasa 6 . According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. a. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.4. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the aims of Religious education. 2.4. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. a. b. 1959 5. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. Training of Character 3. The School Assembly should be held for a few. the. In short. 4. b.1. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. For this. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. 1. minutes in the morning for group singing.
4. Bhatia. M. Ltd. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2004). B. Dash. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Siddiqui. (2007). New Delhi: A. L. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. J.H. 59 . New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. N.C. K and Narang C. K.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2003).P. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. P. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2008). Pahuja. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.H. N.1. (2008).
2 1..5. Although.3 1.5.5. disparities between provinces/States.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.12 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5. 60 .5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.11 1.5.8 1.5.10 1.5.4 1. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5.7 1.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.9 1.6 1.e.5.1 1. i.5.5 1.
etc. 5. 2. They therefore.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. understand the regional educational development in India 3.5. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.5. This leads to separatist movements. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. 4. know the education suited to different environments. energy. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. 1.5. work hard towards this end. 6.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 8.5. 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1. Accordingly. waters. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. you will be able to: 1. 3. for example. 61 . Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. they take appropriate measures. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. roads. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies.1.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. 7.
• Separate States (of course viable States). • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. 4. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. while others remained educationally backward. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. some States became educationally far advanced. 3. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still.5. 62 . and.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. some average. 2. Tight security arrangements should be made. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. Therefore. Secularism. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. on the basis of regional development may be formed. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1.
efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. and provision of informal education to enable those. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. Even in each State. Central Universities of Assam. Itanagar. while some States like Bihar. These projects are in various stages of implementation.5. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects.84 crore was released in 2005-06. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. Tezpur. the State Governments. In the Central sector.480. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. 63 .68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. However. remained under developed. the Union Government. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. etc. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. Out of this. Nagaland and NEHU.392. Mizoram. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Rs. 1. Jammu and Kashmir. etc.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. since its inception in 1998-99.After the Planning Process has originated. approved proposals worth Rs.14. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District..81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans.g. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. scholarships. library buildings. After the attainment of independence. Regional Centres of IGNOU. NIT. Silchar. books. NERIST. Funds amounting to Rs. Guwahati. academic buildings. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities.
Out of this an amount of Rs.40. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. A provision of Rs. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.05 crore and Rs.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.8 per cent in 05).60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. too. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). 64 .40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.5. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.501.187. Government expenditure on education. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Moreover.57 crore and Rs. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. During 2003-04.500. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.261. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. Tezpur University.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.
pharma. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. notes the study. To add to the woes. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. English. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. for which 16 sites. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. Karnataka. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Moreover. telecom. Karnataka. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. for instance. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Listing the positives. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. Andhra Pradesh. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Tamil Nadu. 1. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). Medical education. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. too. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. too. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18).9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . Kerala and Gujarat. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. engineering and R&D. too. The Chandigarh Administration.5. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states.
the working days: an academic . when he will not be sure of time. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. taking the average in the middle. The living conditions. the socio-physical conditions. which a non-tribal person cannot do. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed.year. Hence it is called as need-based. the vocations. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. In the same manner. the needs. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. the teaching methods. For a learner living in a rural area. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. and so on. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. the curricular subjects.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. Then education become realistic and idealistic. 66 . Of course. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. even actually looking at the watch. while the former does not. The working hours of educational institutions. life-oriented and environment slanted. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. in which the learners live. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. the interests. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life.
to suit education to different environments? 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. 2. 2. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. 67 .5.5.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.
S. (2001). C.N. Education Scenario in India. 60% 1.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Dubey. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. some States have become more developed than others b. New Delhi: Authors press. and Nair.H.K. (2008). New Delhi: Anmol Publications. some of areas which were under the native rulers. a. Salim. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society.2.G. remained undeveloped 3. A. Educational Development in India.5. (2002). Education in Developmental Arena. R. S. during the British rule. 68 . Giridhar.
UNIT – II 69 .
Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. semi literate and illiterates. 71 . Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. school community and mass media. National Integration. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. secularism and democracy through Indian education. community development. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people.
22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.9 2.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 188.8.131.52.1.7 2.1.6 Education for Secularism 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .184.108.40.206 2.2 2.5.3 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.LESSON 2.6.
The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. socialistic and secular state. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission.1. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. creed. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. understand the concept of democracy.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. colour or wealth. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.1. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. 2. Abraham Lincoln. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Democracy thus means power of the people. The students may be associated with the management of the school.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility.2.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. socialism and secularism 2.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. there should be made no distinction of caste. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group.1. you will be able to: 1.1. 73 . socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. 3) Provision of Manual Work. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. for the people by the people”. socialism and secularism 2. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. This is the political aspect of democracy. 2.
declamation contest etc. 74 . Democracy means 2. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems.. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. 11) Student Parliament.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. 12) Visits to Legislatures. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it soon spread all over the world. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. debates. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. 2. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life.1. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. may be planned. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. There are different brands of socialism. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections.5. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. none high”. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. oppression and disparity.5. 75 . service and cooperation. 7) Special facilities for girls. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system.1. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 2.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.1.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. but on the path of non-violence. the wealthy and the poor. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. free from exploitation. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 2. the prince and the peasant. 2) Socialism aims at equality. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. Under it.
2. 11) State schools.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.1. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.” In every political and educational corner. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. According to Holydake. Everyone says.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. 76 . Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. "which seeks the development of physical. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. 5. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. “India is a secular-country. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Write any two main features of socialism. secularism is being propagated. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’.
there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 6) It has faith in rational thinking.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact.1. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. 9) It stress free inquiry.6. That is why. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. A large number of people is uneducated. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. people started believing in regionalism. In this type of prevailing situations. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. should be independent of religion.1. Equality. 77 . Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. “Webster further says. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. education etc. liberty. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values.opposed to religious education. 3) It permits freedom of worship. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. 2. fraternity. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. During the recent past. 5) It implies tolerance. 8) It believes in co-existence. There is need of making the people open minded. 2) It permits freedom of religion. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. people have narrow mindedness.6. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Moral values have to be imbibed.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. the belief that the state morals.
3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. There should be some internal checking of the material being. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. that the central string of all religions is one. No doubt. Religious Education. In the celebration of each such function. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. students belonging to different religions should be associated.presented by the students in the gathering. 1) Moral Education. tours and trips may be organized. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. education. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. While doing so. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students.6. 2. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. The very sight of the building. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. Patiala. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. In the hands of such teachers. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.1. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based.
No doubt. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The word “Seculum” means 7. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . The term secularism was first used by 8.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Define Secularism 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. 2. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For.
2. 3. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. b. a. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. a. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. George Jacob Holydake 80 . 6. In the matter of admitting students in schools. The students may be associated with the management of the school. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 3. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. This present age 7. 4. for the people and the people”. Abraham Lincoln. The two can move only in the consonance with each other.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1. Power of the people 2. 4. Since socialism stands for equality. creed. Socialism aims at social justice. d. a. Tuition free education b. b. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. there should be made no distinction of caste. 5. c. 5. Provision of Manual Work. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. colour or wealth.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.1. Socialism aims at equality. Equal Opportunities for Admission.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. Respect of Individual Personality. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Bhatia. J. b. Mohanty. P. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. N. New Delhi : Pahuja. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. should be independent of religion. K and Narang C.1. N.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. K. J. Dash. a. (2005). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Ltd. Ltd.C. 81 . New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2003). 10. b.” 9. (2007).8. B. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. the belief that the state morals. education etc. It permits freedom of religion. L. a. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Theory and Principles of Education. It treats all religions on an equal footing.
1 2.2.LESSON 2.6.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 220.127.116.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199.4 2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 188.8.131.52 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.3 184.108.40.206 2.10 2.5. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.8 2.7 2.
They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. understandings. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. 2. A teacher is first and foremost. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4.an instructor of school children. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. as citizens. as persons. 3.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. social and moral aspects. 83 .2. emotional.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. skills. as workers. you will be able to: 1. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. It involves physical. moral. 2.generation to another. a r e 1. mental.2. application. The developmental roles of children. aims and objectives of the school. as it is t he aim o f modern education. 2. as learners. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. and 4. social. development. who are placed in his custody. therefore. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach.
Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. 3. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. physically fit for socially efficient.2. emotionally. culturally confident. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. 2. The students live. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. morally. experiences and acceptance. intellectually. mental. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative.All education should lead to better behavioural development. He is to become an active member. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. economically effective. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. social and emotional health. He has to look after their physical. socially. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. 2. a part of their day in 84 . As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. The following are some of such roles described in brief. mentally. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. Teacher as a Citizen Next. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. and aesthetically to become. motivated. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. member of his community at the outset. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. inquisitive. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. 1. morally. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society.
Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. languages and religions. Dr. and most of hours. faiths. 2. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened.the school being under the custody of teachers. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. solve them. science club. It 85 . Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. activities of the society into which he is born.2. photographic clubs. List out the role of teachers towards community development . fine art associations. Unless. India is a land of many castes.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. They will be spending with their parents. creeds. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties.
the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. the citizens of the Republic of India. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. national anthem and other national songs. The only process is the process of education.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. It should broaden the outlook. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. c.is. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. a.2. Radhakrishnan. the study of language and literature.” Regarding the role of education. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. therefore. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. this integration of the Indian people. Nehruji has explained this as. ‘We should not become parochial. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. social studies. Let us. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. and make into one strong national unit. 1. stand up straight. poems. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. with straight backs and look up at the skies. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one.” 2. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . narrow-minded provincial. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. should be emphasised.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. folklore and teaching of social studies. Sampurnanand remarked. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform.5. At the primary stage the importance of stories. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. b.
Textbooks. educational excursions. 8. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. 10. 9. 3. t he st udent s and t he community. Taking Pledge. 87 . They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Uniform for School Children. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. dramatics and youth festivals. 7. symposia. ACC. 5. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. and picnics. sports. Celebrations of National Days. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. 2. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Singing of National Anthem.different social sciences. National Days—January 26. tours. 6. debates. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. militar y training like the NCC. languages and literature. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Scouts and Guides. 4. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Co-Curricular Activities. Student Camps. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. Reverence of National Flag.
The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. iii. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. flora and fauna. region or religion. Recognition of Institutions. colour. 13. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. 12. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. v. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. Admissions. 14. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. 2. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. 88 . 16.11.2. Educational and Travel Documentaries. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. iv. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Open-Air Dramas. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. ii. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Students Exchange and Tours. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. ways of thinking and doing things. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. language. Admissions to schools. 15. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged.5. School Projects.
Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. ix. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. cultures and races on equal bases. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. irrespective of national boundaries. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. viii. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes.2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? .6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. vii. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. 2. camps. Define National Integration 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Community dinners.vi. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4.
will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.friendships between children of different countries. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. if it happens. that war. Radhakrishnan states. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. patriotism is not enough. therefore. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. C. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.F.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. (c) fairly tales. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . often in connection with anniversaries. 2. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. 2. of his body and mind.2. Organising of debates and.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. Dr. Strong has observed.” 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. (b) stories of children of other lands. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies.2. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. This. 3. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. In a very real sense. 6. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live.as important as that of a national citizenship. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it.6. 4.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding.e. Therefore. and the healthy development. the international level. 5.. Teachers 90 .6.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. an Englishman. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Impartial in their Treatment.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Indian and American. a German. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. They should not be propagandists. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. Russian.” Well Informed About World Situations. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race.
living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. It does not prepare students for life. understand and indiscipline: 1. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. Defects of the educational System . 5. the education function can be carried. 2. majority of people are. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. If this is done. 4.Another major. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. As the school is but a miniature society. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 .2. Chronic Poverty . Soon after they leave their educational institutions. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. leading to.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them.2.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. there is wide spread frustration among all people.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. Devaluation of Values . they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. Wide Spread Frustration . Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. 3. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. which results in agitation and aggression language. and help the students to over . students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well.
community development. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. 5. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. fellow feeling.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. co-operation. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. love. 2.2. 2. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.democratic nature. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . sympathy and good will among the nations.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. 3. 2. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. 93 . In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 220.127.116.11 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 18.104.22.168 Functions and role of schools in the society 22.214.171.124 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 126.96.36.199 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 188.8.131.52 Radio as an agency of education 184.108.40.206 Television as an agency of education 220.127.116.11 Press as a medium of education 18.104.22.168 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
22.214.171.124 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 126.96.36.199 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
188.8.131.52 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
184.108.40.206 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
Crow and Crow write. the invention of the printing press. Now internet is being used. In fact. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define community.3. He taught his students orally. During the course of time. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. Museums. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. art galleries.V. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. periodicals. books. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. led to the printing of books.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. To make them achieve their aim. Hence. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Moreover. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Then came newspapers. are increasingly used in education. 2. “All the citizens of the community. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Emphasising this thing.
classroom teachers. Important happening inventions. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Thus. art. It is also an important source of entertainment. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Students listen various talks.6. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. 101 . Many gaps are to be filled up by them. rather than on picture. “Listening participation” in current history. Thus. Reynolds. dram appreciation. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. In collaboration with the experts. the teacher still occupies.3. languages. the place of importance. music. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. 2. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. A lot of work by way of pre. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. It stimulates curiosity and interests.G. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. In the emphasis is on sound.telecast. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. politics. It enlightens public opinion. current affairs and other areas. social studies. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Effective means of presenting music. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. 2. Various talks. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. for the teacher through school broadcasts. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts.
dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. development of lessons. audibility and presentability. 4. informal and non-formal education. At present. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. 102 . fol classical music. Team-teaching demonstrations. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. at drawing room. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. School concerts. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Before presenting the programme. mathematics.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. plays. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. 5. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. at any place. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. at play. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. at recreational centers. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. Participation of local teachers and pupils. 3. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. travel talks. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. style. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. speech. projects or creative activities. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. Making learning an open system. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 220.127.116.11 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
18.104.22.168 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 22.214.171.124 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
4.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.5 2.2 2.3.LESSON 2.6 126.96.36.199 Non formal educational system 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4.8 2.1 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.1 Characteristics of formal education 188.8.131.52 Aims of Non formal education 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 Levels of formal education system 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 126.96.36.199.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.
As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. 2. To realize this objective of education. say the Government or the private enterprise. the learner are acquainted. 2. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught.. 5. open university. the temple. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. 4. In ancient time in India.4.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. 9. 7. 4. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.2. Education associated with a degree or certificate.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. open school. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. it was mostly. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises.4. compare formal and non formal system of education. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. the mass media et. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. 3. you will be able to: 1. the family. 6. his mental alertness. 8.3. the community. imparted at the residence of the teacher. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. the most important agency of formal education. Education organised by some agency. 2. 110 .4. 2.4. 2. starting and ending at -a particular age. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. School is. Education. 3.
Concepts of proportion.3. also called tertiary. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. 2. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . and relations are formed and developed through normal play.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. such as a high school or secondary school. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. or post secondary education. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. In general. third stage.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Through early formal education. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Some education systems have separate middle schools.3. diplomas. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world.a secondary education. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection.4. as well as vocational education and training. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. structured education. or academic degrees.4. the elements of language are first learned. capacity. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools.2. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. depending on the jurisdiction. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Higher Education: Higher education. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them.
is an important agency of formal education. 2.4. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . children with disabilities. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. 4. and remote dwellers. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . 2.3. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. Agencies can be classified as 2. What are levels of formal educational system? .4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.which will help for nation's development.4. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. late beginners etc. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1.
open learning. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. to help themselves.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population.learning client take some learning objectives. financially supported life formal education.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. planned. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. adults as well as children. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. Non-formal education includes adult education.e. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. It unlocks the doors of development plans. one could say that non-formal education is an active. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. It is deliberate. place of instruction.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. adding up to a true learning society. Therefore. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. systematic. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. i. Open university. It is much more responsive to needs and change. However. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. it is a more effective tool for rural development. etc. Thus.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. According to Malcolm A.formal education. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. Adiseshiah. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. it has its own valid claim to reality. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. curriculum. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. continuing education and on the job oriented education. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. admissions. systematic. until 1970 it had not been defined.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. “Non-formal education should 113 .. staffed. It is functional. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon.
Flexibility in various aspects of education.4.S.renewal. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.be marketable and vocationalised. 114 . The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved.” According to H. Part-time education.4. self. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. age. admissions. socialism.” 2. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. Preparation for future needs. Covering life span of an individual. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. national integration. Process of sharing.learning pattern.4. To develop in the student. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. It should lay emphasis on the self. 7. modes of teaching. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. place of education. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. curriculum. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. 2. international understanding.S. Lawrence. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.4. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. 4. co-curricular activities. 6. 5.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. the Ideas of citizenship. exploring. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. 3. i. 2. evaluation etc. To help industrial workers to better their skills.e. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.
• To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. • 2. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. 8. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. 115 . Meeting the omissions of formal education.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. 4. 3. publication and information dissemination. 2. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 2. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. Universalisation of primary education. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. To offer Secondary.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects.4. 7. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2.4. 9. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. Technical. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 3. 4. Eradication of adult literacy. school dropouts. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. working adults. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 5. 6. Senior Secondary.4.4. 10. 5. in villages and those who live in towns.
To better qualifications. training centres in factories. Therefore. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. etc. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college .2. 4.full time to learners – can be home. 3. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras.4. farm. Institutions for formal education..4. centres of correspondence education.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. Radio and television. public libraries. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. self-employment iii.4. factory. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. All-round development i. To increase knowledge and 2. 2. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. To make if. 2. others are formal and informal.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. etc. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. open space. effective in modern societal context. library. Again. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . if organised in isolation.
period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. . Correspondence lesson. 6. 7. Teaching to face teaching. Give examples of non formal education? . radio. 117 . 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Written tests. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two aims of non formal education. Lecturing T. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Face Contact programmes.V. Define non formal education. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. institution. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.
They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.2. Primary level. Secondary level. The school. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. b. 3. the college and the university come under this category. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education.4. School 3. a.” 6. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.4. 4.4. systematic. b. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Higher Secondary level and University level. 118 . 4. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. 5.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. adults as well as children. Open University. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Pre-school level. 7. Formal and Non Formal 2. 2. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. a. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. 2. Open School.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2.
Ltd. J. (2007). Ltd. (2008). (2004). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. L. (2003). P. Gupta. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Bhatia. S. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.4. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : 119 . K and Narang C. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2005).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. N. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. B. (2008).C. Anmol Publications Pvt. Pahuja. N. Mohanty. Theory and Principles of Education.2. Dash. Education in Emerging India.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 2.3.2 220.127.116.11.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .6 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 18.104.22.168.5.3.5.LESSON 2.1 2.4 Open University 2.5.3 Objectives of Open University 2.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 22.214.171.124 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 126.96.36.199 Need for Open University 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.4.7 2.5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.3.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.
characteristics of open university 4. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . 2. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. It is a lifelong process. Any person. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools.5. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically.3.5. For them.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. continuing education is a boon. Under these circumstances.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. labourers and half educated individuals. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. give the meaning. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. 2.5. Thus.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. 2. industries. you will be able to: 1. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. However. farmers. economic field or such other fields. know the need and objectives of open university. This knowledge may be in political field. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened.2.5. It is a continuous process. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon.
Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. On the other hand. Thus.5. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. For them too continuing education is essential.literate person. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Radio. Throughout the country. deteriorating to his character and personality. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. After the achievement of independence.3. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Persons engaged in health services. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. Block Development Officers. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society.V. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. cultured and progressive.directly related to his job. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. On the other hand. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner.V. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. if he gets opportunity to develop them. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. Radio and T. Cinema.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. 2. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. are also contributing their might for the purpose. Doctors. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. T.
It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. especially women. (16) liking. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (10) first aid. (8) psychology of adults. habits of people of other lands. (15) music. 6. 7. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. and Radio. 5. 2. (17) modern international and national events. 4. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 2. we have not been able to achieve our targets. Inspite of the great efforts. 3. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (14) information about bringing up young children. (7) folk songs. Of course. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases.V. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. 123 .are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely.3. 2.. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. These books are not very useful. (2) basic religious matters. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. (6) folk stories. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy.3. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities.5. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it.5. (13) psychology of child behaviour.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (1) ancient history.
5. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. NLM was launched in the year 2.4. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. of educational opportunities. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. attendance restrict ion.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background.5. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . 2. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. lack of time etc.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc.
and in teaching. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. 2. No one is too old or too late to learn.5. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. e. but 125 .” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. 5. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. its education is not class room based but home based. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the higher the degree of openness. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. it makes use of educational techno logy. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. c. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. d. 3. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. 2. Education is not a once for-all process. Which was the first open university in India? . The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world.4. IGNOU was established in the year 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. b.unobserved.
He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n.4.5. cho ice o f co ur ses. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. or who realised too late that they need it. 2.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. 4. who were deprived of t he same earlier. it a ims at wider and hig her.who did not get it. Mo re o ver. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all.4. 6.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. 2. 3. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. supplementing the existing provision. 3.5. 5. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 126 . 2. 4. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 2. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities.
Laboratory works. you have learnt the concept. In the present day world. 127 . school drop outs. semi – literates. List out any four methods of Open University? . Every day.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. a society. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n .no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Therefore. Correspondence tuition. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. 8. 4. 2. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. 3. 6. 7. 8. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve .5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. Tutor Comments. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Self instructional materials. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. 1. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. 5. a state or nation.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following.2. 2. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored.5.
(4) the fundamentals of economics. aspirants for continuing education. agricultural and industrial workers. 4. 1988.5. 2. unskilled workers and other professionals. a. Television Lessons. 6. 2. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. Explain the objectives. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. P r int med ia b.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. 8. 9.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. 3. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. (2) basic religious matters. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 128 . 8. a. Broad casting lectures c.5. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. its education is not class room based but home based. youth.ambitious learners. need and characteristics of Open University. 7. d. (1) ancient history. which may include house wives. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. a. b. 7. cho ic e o f co u r ses. 1985.
New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.K. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Udaiveer. Modern Problems of Education.S. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. K and Narang C. (2001). L. 129 . S. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.. Ltd.5. R. (2004). (2004). K. Recent trends in Non Formal Education.2. Reddy. (2007).
UNIT – III 131 .
Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. examination. In Lesson 2. All which is the need of the hour. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. wastage and stagnation. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Examination reform. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. its causes and remedial measures. the education of women. and teacher education. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. Training teachers for all levels of education. which may claim the attention of those concerned. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. 133 .CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. The problems pertaining to the aim of education.
7 3.LESSON 3.1.2 3.3.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.5 3.8 3.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.2 EFA – How? 3.3 New initiatives.188.8.131.52 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 184.108.40.206 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1.6 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1 3.1. 135 .220.127.116.11. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.
Therefore. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. (EOI) 2. therefore. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. “The State shall 136 . you will be able to: 1. social. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. On the other hand. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. understands the country. Continuing Education (CE) 1. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy.1.1. education received added importance and significance. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). Eradication of Illiteracy. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. economic or cultural.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. may be political. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. 2.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. directed that. 3.3. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education.
This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Three Stages for Universalization. Universalization of Enrolment. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Due to the adoption of democratic system. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. After the attainment of independence.endeavour to provide. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . rights and responsibilities. It enables the parents to send their children to School. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. 137 . the national Government under. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. Universalization of Retention. 3. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Continuing Education (CE). The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Therefore. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society.
1995 (for upper primary stage). So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence.1.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. UNESCO Bulletin states. 1990. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. later to 1988. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. Write Article 45.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools.3. Therefore. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. 138 . We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. It is safe to assure. This target had to be revised to 1970. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. educational enterprise. present and future. then to 1976.
slum areas. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. 3. and Women’s education programme should be improved. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. 8.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. their social economic status and occupations. 139 . The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women.1. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. Apart from primary education. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. Early childhood education should be streamlined. 5. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. 10. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. 6. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). the art of preparing fruit-juice. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Disabled. NAEP. rural areas. Jams and Jellies. 12. etc. 11. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. 3. 9. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Education of the Impaired. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. their enrolment and retention. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. nutrition education and sports and games. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. FELF. problem of literacy. Emphasis must be given on health education. Education of Girls. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. adolescent and adult.3. The Social Education.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. creed. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. By undertaking survey. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. sex.
4.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Expand MLL and SSA . Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. 3.3. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Wastage and Stagnation. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.1.3.e.
The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .first stage of education. Familial Factors . Personal Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. School Factors . it is considered as wastage. Social Factors .
Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Define Wastage. 7. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. . 142 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.
in his home. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. Societal Factors . School Factors .The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. relating to home.1. Personal Factors . Family Factors . They are described hereunder :1.3. school or society. rural or urban 3.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.The following factors. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .
144 . uniforms. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. etc. stationary. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . Define Stagnation? 9. mid-day meals. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship.
Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA.1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. 4. Hartog Committee.3. improvement of curriculum. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. a. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. “The State shall endeavour to provide. 3. b. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 4. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA.1. a. Universalization of Enrolment c.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Universalization of Retention 2.. therefore. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. a. 6. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.” 3. 3. 3.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. 2. 145 . directed that.1. Universalization of Provision b. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.
3. S. a. (2001). b. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. a. T. Familial Factors c. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. improve examination system.7. (2007). Hemchand. (2008). Social Factors 8. Personal Factor b. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Sharma. Problems of Elementary Education. introduce graded curriculum.1.K.N. School Factors d. S. 9.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.K. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. New Delhi: 146 . Crescent Publishing Corporation.
5.2.1 3.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1 Advantages of Co-education 126.96.36.199.2.5.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 188.8.131.52 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.5 New evaluation procedures 184.108.40.206.3.5.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2 3.7 Open book examination 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 220.127.116.11 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2.1 Problems of examination 18.104.22.168.7 Let us sum up 147 .2 Grade System 3.4 Question banks 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.LESSON 3.5.1 Choice Based Credit System 22.214.171.124 The problem of reform of Examination 3.5.
2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. 3. 3.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. 4. 3.3. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.126.96.36.199. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .2. but on the other.8 3. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. you will be able to: 1. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .2. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. 3. Besides.9 3.3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. suggest the new evaluation procedures. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.
roadside Romeoism. waiting rooms for girl students. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. 3. etc. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage.. etc.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. schools for them wherever necessary. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. which the educational authorities have to face. 149 . Romantic themes will dominate their mental life.3. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. etc. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. If the students are in sufficient number. They may cause problems relating to discipline. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. They develop secondary sex characteristics. hostel facilities. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing.2. The following steps should be taken up. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education.
The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. 150 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. appointment of paper-setters. It is considered as a major sub-system. 3. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. conduct of internal examinations. assessment and Finance. public interested in education.2. teachers. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.4. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Instruction.2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. the examination system has an important role to play. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. public administrators and statesmen. the net-work of examination system has also become vast.
values. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively.4. announcement of results. introducing objective-based testing. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. pursuing objective-oriented instruction.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. establishing reliability. scrutinizers. etc. examiners. etc. validity and practicability. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. etc. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. etc.2. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. training of examiners. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. tabulators. reducing the domination of knowledge objective.printing and distribution of question papers. 3. invigilators. etc. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees.
5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. lack of objectivity etc. which they are expected to study. Vagaries in making.4.2. do not appeal to the students and parents. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed.. 3) With respect to method of teaching. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. 152 . it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. may also discredit them. 7) In connection with the question papers. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. stereotyped questions. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. 3. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils... Rote memorisation.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. takes the place of comprehensive learning. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. 2) From the angle of content of education. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. halo-effect. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. it s a common experience that subjectivity. Subjects.
re-numbering of answer scripts. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. 4. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. revaluation. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. etc. .Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. List any two merits of examination. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t.develop true love for education. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. may be introduced. 153 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Spot valuation.a part of internal assessment. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment.. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions.
When a person chooses to work extra. skills are given importance. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there.5.2.2. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3.3. The students can take any course offered in any department. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests.2. Their interests.5. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. he is given extra credit points. attitudes. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. 3. The new scheme of assessment. It is complicated. In actual practice.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. Every paper is treated equal. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . In this system. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper.
The human error of evaluation is ± 10. In the new system.good. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. v. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. or as a 4 credit course. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . These weightages are called credits. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. Groupism is encouraged. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. This system reduces comparison of marks. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v.poor. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal.2. While designing syllabus. An example is a seminar. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. 3. poor. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.discipline. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. only the total credits to be earned is specified. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison.5. courses can have weightages defined. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents.
of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.5. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. 3. 3. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.2. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners.2. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. 156 .5. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.2. 3. However.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.
this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. There are no proper procedures for selection. 3. Therefore. . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. 6. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately.3. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • .2. recruitment. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.5. However.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the reason for introducing grade system? .2. List any four new evaluation procedures. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. In the hierarchy.
interpersonal relationships and so on. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. finding out the adequacy of. complaints and compliments. inspecting the class-room teaching. etc. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. 158 .1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is.. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. finding out whether the prescribed text. etc. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. books are followed. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. Academic inspection. disciplinary problems. When they are fully realised.. in contrast. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. They are. taking up the follow-up programmes. school buildings.qualified personnel. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. whether the syllabus has been covered. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. whether proper teaching methods have been followed.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected.6. being realised as two different functions. 1. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. requirements. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. wherever necessary. submitting of the inspection reports. of late. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. staff. in a sense.2. library books. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. laboratory equipment. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. playgrounds. qualifications. 3.
Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. M. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. In the case of departmental candidates. Insistence on specialisation in the B. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo.Ed. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Similarly. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors.2. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. once in five years. or. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives.Ed. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. modern. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision.. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. 3. 159 . giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. at least. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. aptitude. course in either educational. their professional knowledge.. courses. In the light of these conceptualisation.
Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Grade System. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. a.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. d. 4. 2. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. 160 . a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 3. 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. c. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Administration. Instruction. assessment and Finance. 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. b. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance.2. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 3.2. examination reforms and supervision and inspection.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. a. b. 3. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System.
Educational Reforms. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.a part of internal assessment. History and Problems of Education in India. 5. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. c.2. Vaidya. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. b. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. a. a. K. (2004). Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. 7. Problems of Education in India. Question banks. b. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. Open book examinations. (2005). R and Sharma. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. New 161 . K.4. b. Multiple sets of question paper. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. (2002). Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. S. a. 3.
10 3.3.2 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.6 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3.3.8 3. 5.3.4 3.7 3.3.3 3.1 3. identify the needs of rural India and social.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. 3.3. 162 . 4.3.5 3.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1.3.LESSON 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.9 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education. 2.3. 3.
10 years of general Secondary Education. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission.e. and 3 years of First Degree Course. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1.. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. e. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. Consequent on the recommendations. Similar is the case with some other States. 2. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. 8 years of general education. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. etc..3. University Education. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges.specialisation programmes 3.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.e.g.3. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. the Banaras Sanskrit College. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages.. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. The Calcutta Madras.. in Andhra Pradesh. Commission emphasised to continue. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. i. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. The.
The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . and. historical. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. who desire to change from one stream to another. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. Provision for transfer of credits to students. 8. is also a plus point .so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. b. However. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self.a sense of dignity of labour. cultural and economic development of the country. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9.confidence in students. 5) to help for the social. to imbibe. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. economical and political. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. habits of hard work and develop . 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . social. 10. 3. to prepare. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage.3. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. 6. educational channels. 7. 5.
not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission.. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. at the other. Philosophically it is not the conception.national integration. etc. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X.3. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. and that required to enter the tertiary level. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. and.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. international understanding. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. democratic living. to develop national character. cultural and' religious tolerance. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. 1. cooperativeness. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. Psychologically. 3. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. social justice. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. Sociologically it is undesirable. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. The General Educational Spectrum. on one hand. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies.
the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. fish culture. and vocations based on dairy-farming. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. commerce. chemistry.3. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. medical plants. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. 3. the rural areas have suffered very much. vegetable growing. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. 2. horticulture. technical. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Science. commerce. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. educational and cultural services. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. 166 . or other machinery.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. industrial agricultural production is growing. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. In the vocational spectrum. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. Biology. In the matter of language. semi-skilled and unskilled levels.— tube-wells. physics or mathematics. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. technological. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. professional. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. In our country.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. such as Agriculture. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. All these need for an. Commerce and other disciplines. India is a land of villages. rural health. Agriculture is the main occupation.
The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States.3. and the needs. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the local resources available. 3. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. interests and aptitudes of the students. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. There had been favourable reaction from the students.etc. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. social justice. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging..7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education.. In this way. In time. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . and 5. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . can be ensured. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. In this it may be concluded. etc. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society.
Ltd. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.a sense of dignity of labour. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Vocational Sepctrum.C. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. a. New Delhi : 168 . to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. habits of hard work and develop . Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. 2.3. to imbibe. objectives. a. B. J. (2008). N. Mohanty. 3. b. Modern Trends in Indian Education.3. we studied the history.K. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. (2007).9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3. a. (2001).3. General Educational Spectrum and b. b. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Dash. J. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. 3. Calcutta University Commission 2. 3. S.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. 3. (2005).3. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.
4. social and 169 .4.4.1 3.7 3.9 188.8.131.52.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3. Education contributes to human development.184.108.40.206 3.5 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.6 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.4.10 3.12 3.LESSON 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 220.127.116.11 3.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.2 3.8 3. but the lighting of a fire”. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4.4.11 18.104.22.168.
the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. analyze the women and distance education. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. These courses were.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. community and nation is universally acknowledged. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. While women constituted only 9. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. 3. The relevance of women’s education to social. Nursing. There is a close connection between education and development.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. you will be able to: 1.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. higher education of girls developed immensely. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women.4.higher education in particular. In the post —independence period. Education . Dr. economic. During the year 1937. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. Teaching and Fine Arts. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up.4. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. 3. family. although we have miles to go. cultural and political development of the individual. For the first time in the history of India. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. Home Economics.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. particularly 170 .
a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.4.N.0 32.0 Today.2 29. Mumbai.1 24.65 lakhs in 1994-95.2 22.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.0 43. 3.9 27. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. Coimbatore. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. Yet. In 1950-51. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. we have more than 1200 institutions. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. Kodaikanal.4. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. 3. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. In the rest of the country.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. The idea of women’s education for equality. Mother Teresa Women University.9 14. Even today.women. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. out of 9200 and odd colleges. levels and professions.0 16. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. in our country. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.T Women University.1 31. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .D. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).4. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.
that of boys. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .27 89. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.73 10.1 respectively.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . 2. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .54 12. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.66 66.56 64.4.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.47 65.46 82.4%) prefer Arts subjects.63 Female % 34.4. 3.83 47.34 33. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .17 52.1 and 14. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. 3.44 35.53 34.36 3.4.
If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. what is the need for higher education for her. According to a survey. In every third family. financial difficulty of the parents. Book banks should be established. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. etc.hinders the girls from getting higher education. They gave up their studies to enter home life. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. 3.4. In college. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. 173 . curriculum not suited to their requirements. marriage is a very common I factor. irrelevance of the content of education. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Thus. she will only learn fashion. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. and coeducation may spoil her character. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. promoted and increased. Also. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. particularly. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. The major hurdles. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. distance of the college or university from home. They argue that when their daughter need not earn.
space. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. which is the most dynamic factor of development. 3. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Geographic distance of educational institutions. is the only tool for realising empowerment. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Empowerment in a nutshell. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. resources and socio . It also brings about 174 . Distance education is a boon to women. It enables to study. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. 3. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses.4. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. There are constraints of time. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. It is a productive investment.economic disabilities faced by women. and the limitations of the conventional education system. Full-time employment. Education.4.
Women are partners in development. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. for full development of our human resources. legal awareness and economic independence. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. The major objectives of women's higher education.4. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. on their own. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. 3. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. education of women must be given priority in national plans. education of women is of paramount importance.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. higher learning. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. This can be achieved through reflection. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . empowerment means being assertive. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. Empowerment is an active. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them.
4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Better opportunities.4. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. But their number is small. which had been the sole domain of men. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. The educational institutions. 3. has to be implemented at the earliest. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. especially so in the developing countries. Scholarships and concessions for women. 176 . which is pending for a long time. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. The local administration. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. will encourage them to venture new grounds. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Reservation for women. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. who are eager to take up courses.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also.
11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. Also. talents. engineering and related technologies (16. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. especially in developing countries like African countries. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Australia. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 .9%). they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. IDP Education. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. capacities etc. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.3 percent.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem.4. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.1%) and architecture and building (38.8%). there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. Chief Executive. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. According to Lindy Hyam. But. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. 3. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%)..000 women in the country. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability.
“Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. R. (2007). Mumbai.R. 3. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education.4. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. S.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Women Education. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. 4. create the right attitude towards life. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. and Swain. R. Women Education. Annakodi. Mumbai. Mishra. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.to the family. Coimbatore. Pattanaikj. A. Centre for Women’s Studies.4.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. and Suryalatha. 178 . Coimbatore. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. SNDT Women’s University. 43% 6. individuals and society b. Rao. (2008). Women and Education.C.4. 3. S. Mother Teresa Women University. community and the nation. (2005). R. 2. 3. Kodaikanal. Rajasthan 5. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. a. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.K. 4. SNDT Women’s University.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. A. (2000).
5.6 3.1 3.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5.5. whole.9 3. They should be trained.5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.2 3.4 3.10 3.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.5.8 3.11 3.personality of children in and out of school.5.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.LESSON 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.3 3.5 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.7 3.
enumerate the code of conduct for teachers.5. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. 3. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. understanding and strong desire for international peace. 180 . Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. 3. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. equality and justice. Shorter working hours. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. social and emotional integration. understand the training teachers for Primary. you will be able to: 1.5. know the pre service and in service training facilities. international. Secondary and Higher Secondary level.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. and national character. national consciousness. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. 4. Lack of physical facilities. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 5. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction.
Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. 3.5. a Diploma course and a Degree course. etc. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education.Ed. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. the state Government.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. students.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. If the student teachers are working teachers. and M.Less qualified teacher educators. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. Inadequate training in practical skills. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. the primary teacher education. Depending on the levels. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. who have not been trained earlier.. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. it is called the In-service teacher education. higher secondary teacher education. At the diploma level. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. 3. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. inservice and extension education programmes. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. the centre.Ed. levels. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. it is called the Extension teacher Education. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. (NCERT) New Delhi. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. the secondary teacher education. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. Lop-sided curriculum. and the collegiate teacher education.5. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 ..
Also Guidance Bureaux. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . etc.. Expand NCERT 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. Educational teehnology cells. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Science Education units. depart ments etc. 3. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . are established. collegiate cells. Evaluation unit. non-formal. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory .5. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Education cells.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose .6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. extensio n service. state Institutes of Educat ion.
which help breaking isolation from one another . • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and .Ed. laboratories... despite its vast expansion.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . audio visual aids. degree. material conditions relating to libraries. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. to improve curricular programmes. to offer consultative services. which should include experience in the primary schools too. schools and sister institutions.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. to prescribe conditions for recognition. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B.Ed. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. to ensure teacher competence.. primary and secondary school teachers. and 183 . the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. and so on. should be improved on a top priority basis.
Hence. Agriculture. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. etc. Psychology of Students.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Modern Techniques of Teaching. etc. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. methodology and evaluation.secondary education. Modern Methods of Evaluation. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Organisation of Content Courses. Meanwhile. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. To meet this exigency. not came up once again. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. whether they should have professional education or. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher .Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Induction Courses. Workshops. 184 . though no pre-service training. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. and XII. The problem. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education.
In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. Courses leading to B. Ajmer. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. Degree and M.A. 3. training.. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.D. For re-orienting the teachers. (Education) are organized by 185 .. Post-Graduates also undergo B..5. All B Ed.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.’s are elig ible for M.Ed.Ed. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. Point out two defects in primary teacher training .S. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.Ed. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. courses and M. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.Ed. (Education) and M. in Education. Pre-service training is for those. Degree.Ed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.Ed. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.A... State Institutes of Education. M.. These facilities are available for regular students..’s for Ph. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations.
and B. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . they should be conscientious . Hence the employability of M. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. However. (Ed). 3. 186 . 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. established by tradition and teachers of the past.A.5.). 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. of conduct—written or unwritten. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. . as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. (Ed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively.. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. What is the role of ERIC? . 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.A. 6. 4..
Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 187 . 3.5. Ajmer. 5. 3. b. National Council of Educational Research and Training. 4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. However. a. The necessity is however this. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations.5.3. Discuss the problems of teacher education.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Shorter working hours. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. 2. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 3. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.5. a. 2. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. 6. Explain code of conduct for teachers. Bhopal. a. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. b. they should be conscientious.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 4. 3. Dearth of new technology of teaching.
3. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Teacher Education. Teacher Education.N.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. (2010). J.5. A. (2003). Corporation. Publication Pvt. (2009). New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . Mohanty.D. Tewari. B. P. and Teacher Education. Ltd Aggarwal.
UNIT – IV 189 .
objectives and role of the physical education. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. In lesson 4. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. If the diet is poor. objectives. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. preservation of nutrients. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. The person’s environment is equally important. objectives. the focus is on the school health programmes. In lesson 1. economic and educational developments. Since food is the source of nutrients. communicable diseases and their prevention. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. common ailments of children. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. nutritional deficiency diseases. 191 . our attention shifts to physical education – its need.
It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.10 4.5 4.9 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.3 4.1. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1. physical.1.7 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important. mental.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. 193 .e.4 4.6 4.1.LESSON 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 22.214.171.124 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time. emotional and social.8 126.96.36.199. for giving health education to the children under its custody.2 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.11 4. It is a miniature society.1 4.
9. e. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. 5. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 4. understand school health programmes 2. To develop certain skills concerning health. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. you will be able to: 1. cleanliness and healthful living. training in first aid and etc. 4. 10. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 2. 6. explain the importance of First aid 5. 11.1. To develop healthy health habits among children. know the need for sex education. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. To give information regarding health rules. 4.1. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health.. 8. 7. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. content of health education.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. 194 . describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. to his family and to the community at large. training of teachers and evaluation. list the common ailments of children 3. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. 3. Instruction. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation.g.
. First aid facilities should be made readily available. (ii) communit y healt h. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. Vaccination for small pox. organisation of school health days. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. proper doors and windows. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. 3. suitable furniture. “Play-for-all” programmes.1. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. B. (vi) nutrition education. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes.C. cleanliness weeks. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. There should be good drainage facilities. (v) safety education. (xl) mental health. 2. direct lighting. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. The flooring should not be damp. The school buildings should be spacious. vaccination. Triple Antigen Vaccination. 4. (xii) smoking education etc. There should be regular water supply. minimizing the travelling distance. excusing late. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. (viii) first aid.4. The surroundings of schools should be clean. typhoid. play festivals. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings.. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. 5. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . is imperative. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. etc.coming or absence.G. 2. inoculation against cholera. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. as described below 1.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. B. ( iii) sanit at io n. Arranging better transportation facilities.
burns. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • Keep all rooms clean. 196 . and other accidents. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. • Find out the cases.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. insect stings. fractures. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. wounds. if epidemic is wide-spread. dislocations. • Have adequate rest and sleep. C. fainting (epileptic fit). Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. • Close the schools. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. sports and games in the interest of their health. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. scalds. etc. poisons. cuts.. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. bleeding. • Take nutritious food. isolate and notify. drowning. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. • When sleeping in groups. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. D.
6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. backache. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. Once these germs get into the body. There are three stages in any communicable disease. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. So they easily get illnesses. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. asthma. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. water or bodily contact. These diseases are called communicable diseases. 4. polio. pain in the joints. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. 4. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children.1. which are – cold. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. Mention the school health programmes. measles etc. List out the Health curriculum 3. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. headache. chicken pox. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. cough. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. 2. tuberculosis. fever. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage.1. They are: i) The incubation stage.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years.
• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Scabies . Common Cold . 198 . Diarrhoea . there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath.It is caused by measles virus.When a child suffers from scabies. Throat is affected. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Tonsilitis . The child may have fever. etc. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. sugar and water. head-ache and cough. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Some suffer cold due to allergy. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. After three or four days of fever. Measles . In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Mumps . Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. eating food which is not clean. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Others make the children very weak.This disease is caused by bacteria. Ear Infections . unhygienic living conditions. unhygienic bottle feeding. The symptoms include cold. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Children catch cold from persons having cold. The following are the common communicable diseases. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. cough and fever. This is caused by cold virus. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Hence it is called a killer disease. Important salts and water are lost in this process. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold.
Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. What are communicable diseases? 6. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. Enlist the common ailments of children. As the disease progresses. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. the child may die. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. By scratching he causes secondary infections. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. raised pink spots appear on head. The child may also have diarrhoea.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Expand DPT . The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It begins with fever.• • • • Chicken Pox . separate. face and waist. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. 5. Diphtheria . 199 . The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. the child is not able to breathe. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Typhoid . So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Shortly. If proper treatment is not given.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless.
Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. drowning.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. In such cases. 4. exciting and body-oriented. films and jokes. dislocation. so-called sex books and periodicals. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. sprains. It has its rightful place in education too. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. it is a subject of art. and Community Work and Social Service. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. 200 .Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment.1. simple fractures. bleeding. fainting. Sex is popular. cuts. scorpion stings. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. 3.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. bruises. It is both biological and psychological. wounds. eye injury.4. swelling.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. Wounds . sprains.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. 4.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. Cuts and Bruises . 5. 2. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. and films. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex.g. head injury.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Drowning . Sex is but an integral part of human personality. Sprains . etc. fiction.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. snakebites.1. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. man-woman behaviours.
Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. celibacy are age. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. In secondary schools. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. 2. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. B. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. in their ignorance. In today's liberal and interactive society. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life.. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. health. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . We can arm people with knowledge about sex. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. Should the boys and girls. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. but preserve them from disaster and disease. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS.old values. The values of life.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. try experimenting with their bodies. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. they would be treading the path of sure doom. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. The home. sex education is being recommended in schools. the religious organisations. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. the school. 3. Hence.
For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. Teacher education institutions are. when the courses are already overloaded. communicable diseases and their prevention. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. first aid and sex education. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. What are the major components of Sex Education. C. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.1. common ailments of children. the school health programmes.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. 4. there will no crisis in its implementation. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 202 . Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. hence. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 188.8.131.52 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
209 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention the food nutrients 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6.
How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. 210 . A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4.2. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. If you look at the definition carefully. minerals. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . Let us talk about each of these aspects. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.4. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s.2. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a.
sedentary. dosa are typical of the south. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days.g. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. construction labourer). People in the east of our country prefer rice. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. Even within given States there is considerable variation. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. A balanced diet is specific firstly. for example. There is no point. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals.2. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. moderate or heavy work. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. the social and religious practices of that region. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. sex. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables.g.6. In other words. 4. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. activity level and physiological stress. In the case of adults. paratha and poori. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately.one in the morning and the other at night. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. Preferences/customs are also important. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. it is also specific to a given activity level . typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). These are: region where the person resides and income. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet.
If you think of your own religious group. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. vegetables and fruits. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. One must. In addition to these. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. however. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. while another may hate them. Judicious selection of food is. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. These determine the acceptability of foods. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. however. fat and sugar tend to increase. As income increases. income plays a vital role. however. However. taboos related to food may play an important role. As you read this discussion. Even among flesh foods. nuts and dry fruits. Among the social factors. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income.planning the diet. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. as important for the rich as for the poor. for example. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. Having more money. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. Including these 212 . They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. customs. One person may be fond of milk products.
2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . green leaves. mouth. 8. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. Define balanced diet. For this. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . but they should be thrown away. eggs . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. 213 . meat. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. etc. 17. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. fruits. over-eating or under. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. if the teachers have good food habits. 8) Walk a while after eating. List out any two healthy food habits.eating is hazardous.
4. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. Explain food nutrients 4. e.4. Vitamin D 5. d. c. preservation of nutrients.2. Conjuctival xerosis. b. 4. When the diet is inadequate. a. Beri Beri 4. Keratomalacia 3. In fact. Corneal xerosis. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Night blindness. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Discuss good food habits.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 .2. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life.2. Bitot’s spots. good nutrition is essential for good health. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2.
New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . Health and Nutrition Education.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. S. (2008). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Nutrition and Dietetics. P. b.2. Food should be consumed after eating well. R. (2005). a. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . Chopra. minerals. a . Sri Lakshmi B. Food and Nutrition Education. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. 4. Food and Nutrition Education. (2004). 8. Hands. R.N. A Text Book of Foods. Nutrition Science. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. b. 7.C. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. mouth.M. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra.6. (2008). C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. (2009). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru.
3.3.1 4.1 Impact on social development 4.2 4.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.8 4.5 4.6.3 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3.3.LESSON 4.13 4.3 Impact on Education 4.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 184.108.40.206.10 4. 216 .3.3.9 220.127.116.11.12 4.3.11 4.3.2 Impact on economic development 4.7 4.3.4 4.3.6.
3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the stress is. economic and educational development 3. state the meaning. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India.3. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. his societ y and the world. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. It is a much wider co ncept. and the consequences of these processes. you will be able to: 1. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. the causes of population change. his family. family planning and sex education etc.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control.4. 4. characteristics and changes for himself. There is some difference. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. 217 . objectives and need for population education 2. population characteristics. 4. Whenever we talk of sex education. describe the impact of population growth on social. It is not sex education. Population Education. community. therefore. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. understand the importance of small family norm 5.3.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. aims at providing the younger generation.
4. the society. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. the nation and the world.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two objectives of Population Education. the family. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.3.3. 4.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. Define Population Education 2.
3. economic and educational development of the country. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. When the family is small. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. 4. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare.6. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. With the larger families. 219 . An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. health and happiness of its citizens. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. Every second two thousand children are being born. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. the family programmes are also handicapped. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it.3. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. 4. which will not be possible without population control. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. Family is considered as a social unit.
heavy intern I migration etc.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. 220 . In developing countries.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. organization index and material index.3.e. and so on. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. The gulf between them is widening further. lack of proper health care. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. 4. facility for drinking water. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. in cinema halls and theatres.3. Swollen cities. in buses and trains. teacher index.. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. unemployment. i. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. pollution of the environment. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production.6. 4. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. in parks and other places of public gatherings.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. Many students herded in a small room.6. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. toilets.
can be taken up. essays. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. There would be very few audiovisual aids. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. bar graphs etc. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Hindi and English. There would be poor library facilities.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. thus. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. family planning etc. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. less space facilities. even text books would be in short supply.3. less budget for education. Social Studies Statistics on population education. reproduction. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. blank verses etc. and laboratory equipments. can be studied in science and health education. Regional Language.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. 221 . Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. less administrative initiative and leadership talents.
Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. 11. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. 14.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1.3.4. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. area and average density of population. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. West Bengal. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. 3. 5. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. China. causes of deaths etc. 15. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. 12. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 4. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Bihar. 13. Uttar Pradesh. 7. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. 10. 2. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Canada. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. 9. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Brazil. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. deaths. Children with the help of parents. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. United States of America. Children may compare two families. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 8.
preferences for sex. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole.3. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. age at marriage. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. Comparing life in various respects in two families. we have no right to stop 223 . Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. 16. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. 18.be opened in their schools. The question. values and role children etc. 17. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
on an overall basis. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. continued . Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. More than 45 years ago. however. 4. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. The Family Welfare Program. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). which education can only do.4-6.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.were implemented 224 . India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .their entry into the world”. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. Since the program's inception. at varying places in different regions.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.3. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. especially the expansion of child immunization services .to emphasize family planning services. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. and the child survival components of the news: program.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. “He who is responsible for population growth.
innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. At these meetings. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. In April 1996. men. Therefore. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling.earlier than the safe motherhood components. reliance on local women as community health workers. Local programs vary in their approaches. Moreover. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . and nominal fees for services. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. the community appears willing to pay for services. expansion of services to unmarried women. a focus on health promotion. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. and the World Conference on Women. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. In October 1997. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program.
12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. family. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. 3. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training.3.emphasizing the needs of the client. community.3. Its main purposes are to create awareness. economic and educational development 4. involving the community. 4. 226 . Describe the impact of population growth on social. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. What are the goals of RCH? 4. 1997). Give your answer as instructed in each question b. nation and the world. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2.
increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. his society and the world. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. bar graphs. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. 6. the causes of population change. Canada. 5. b. characteristics and changes for himself. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. his family. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. b. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. Brazil. population characteristics. United States of America. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. 227 . 4. less budget for education. area and average density of population. a.” 2. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 7. 3. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.3. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. a. less space facilities. and the consequences of these processes. China. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers.4.
Centre for Women’s Studies.3. Ltd. (2002). (2005). V. Principles of Population Studies. (2005). J. 228 .4.K. Coimbatore. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (1992). (2004). Ltd. Udaiveer. Reddy. Jayapoorni.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Modern Problems of Education. Kantikar. A. T. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. N. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Bhende. Changing attitudes to Education in India. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.
2 4.8.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4.4 Lead up games 18.104.22.168 4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199.4 4.9 4.4.6 4.4.LESSON 4.8.11 19.1 Minor games 4.4.1 188.8.131.52.3 4.7 184.108.40.206 Major games 4.4.3 Indigenous games 4.
list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. leadership and balance in defect. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. full records of physical activities should be maintained. understand the importance of Physical Education 4.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. mental alertness. as it should 230 . teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. which forms its most valuable assets. the youth of the country. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. social fitness. moral fitness and emotional fitness. classify the different types of games. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students.4. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.4.4. you will be able to: 1. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. perseverance. The concept of physical education has been made broader. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. 4. 4. team spirit.
The educational efforts at home. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. They are inseparably united together. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. team spirit. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. They go hand in hand. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. obedience to rules. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Therefore. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. leadership. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. To be more precise. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Every individual is a part of society. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise.
Physical exercises. nor body but the whole man. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action.” The Secondary Education Commission. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. Just like Education. H.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.4. a sound health. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. ment al. game and sports. 4.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. Regarding the significance of physical education. mo ral. Buck has observed that 232 . “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. C. pleasing manners. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency.” Montaigue writes. Rousseau states.
we must exercise the whole human being. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief.a properly directed physical education should result in health. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. elegance. efficiency and character. flexibility and power. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life.” In brief. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society.” 4.4. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. 233 . coordinative abilities. Froebel says. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. resourcefulness and smartness. strength. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. etc. speed. endurance. “If we wish to develop the whole being. happiness. initiative.
poetry and painting. including all racial groups and historical ages. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. systems of government. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. these fundamental things have always been present. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Every age has its artists. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. its adherents and its enemies.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. they may form gangs. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Tournaments foster this sentiment. plagues and famines. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. While wars. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. 234 (i) (ii) . in greater or lesser degree. should help in the spiritual development of the student.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity.
respect for rules.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. obedience. bravery and interest in games and sports. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit.\ to develop perseverance. etc. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.sacrifice. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. B. self. to develop tolerance. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. 2. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. Write any two importance of Physical Education. 235 .
15. Be in the uniform. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. . is essential. Inform health principles. Be self-confident. Be punctual. Usually parents. 8. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 13.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. 10. Be sportive. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Act as a leader. Haag. 6. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 9. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities.4. 4. Be well-prepared. and readmission after they have recovered.H. 4. 16. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 5. 2. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. 7. injuries among pupils should be made. 3. students. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. defects. 14.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Keep the field ready for the activities.4. 12.4. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. and. Posture screening should be done. 11. Always keep the whistle ready. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 236 1.
4. Lead up games. 2. 4. frolic and jo y.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Indigenous games.4.8. chasing. Such inst incts as imitation. 3. their development is handicapped. 4. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. 1. Moreover. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. the play. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. 237 . Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games.4. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. As such they are well enjoyed by children.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. less equipment and less expense.
The dimension of the posts and nets. They are rules approved by the International Associations.With a very few rules. the games can be modified according to convenience.. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. trapping. Dodging. benefit in playing minor games. bowling etc. couple tag. Hopping. spiking. boosting. hitting. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. some of them are played indoors. Khokho. Shuttle Badminton. women take part most of the games. While many of them are played in the open playfields. stopping. on sea-shore. Throwing. Soft Ball. Jump the stick clay and so on. Cricket. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. the number of players and substitutes. On lawns. muffling. 4. driving. They are played for a shorter duration. Basket Ball. with implements or without implements. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. finding the partner. Ball Badminton. For each game the rules are many. Hockey. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. These games require varied skills such as running. the play equipment.4. on hard courts. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. heading. zig zag relay. on mountain tops and on river beds. Volley Ball. wherever the kids assemble.8. 238 . Kabaddy etc. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Except a few games. snatching the kerchief. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. catching. dribbling. Tennikoit. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Tennis. over ball pass Relay. skipping. under ball pass Relay. pitching. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. Jumping. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children.
On occasions like marriage. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.4. While observing the players in action. death. festivals connected with religion and public functions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. An example for indigenous game is 8.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. All the fundamental tactics. They have an abundant social value. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out some major games.8. and .8. Kho-kho. Games may be classified as 6. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm.4. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. they are in existence. these games being popular. 7. birth. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. 4. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. For example.4. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 .
It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 5. to secure physical health b. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. b. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Posture screening should be done. 4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.4. physically and emotionally fit and alert.4. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. 4. a. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. b. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. Minor and Major 240 . d. to develop physical stamina. c. a. a. 2. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. 2. aims and objectives and need of physical education. b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. 3. a. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose.4. 4. 4.4. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. 3.
Tennis. Shuttle Badminton. Handbook of Physical Education.K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. Foot-ball. Volley Ball. Tennikoit. J. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Khokho 8. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Krishna murthy. Khokho. (2008).6.C. J.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Soft Ball. J.4. Health. G. Aggarwal. (2009). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2008). Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Mohanty. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. 241 . 4. Basket Ball. Kabaddy 7. Cricket. (2005). Physical Education and Sports. Ball Badminton. Hockey.
1 Natural Environment 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5.5.LESSON 4.5.8 4.2 220.127.116.11 4.9 18.104.22.168 4.10 4.11 4.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.5.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.5.1 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.2 Manmade Environment 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.6 22.214.171.124 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.5.
Knowledge. 4.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. aesthetic and educational factors. 5.5. Skills. 6. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. 2. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. Evaluation Ability. education about the environment and education through the environment. The best place to start such learning is school. Attitude.educat ion for the environment. 243 . 2. Awareness. 3. 3. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. role of teacher in environmental conservation. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Details are given below: I. Essential knowledge about the Environment. 4. political.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Participation. population explosion and resource depletion could be. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. you will able to: 1. list out the types of environment 3. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems.5. Broadly. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values.5. it covers the following elements: 1. economic. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. social.
Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. D. 244 . • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle.B. • Biological magnification E. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Oxidants Other pollutants. 2. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. a. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. F. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. heat sink and wind flow in cities.
New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. 2. Abortion iv. Family planning ii. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Control of population growth a. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. The pill ii. economic. 2. Socio-economic measures. Use of medical science i. Persuasion: i. Birth control through education b. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Sterilisation. c. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. III. The human ecosystem II. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. 3. Intrauterine device iii. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. B. 4. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 .3.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (UNESCO. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Air pollution abatement ii. Water pollution abatement. 2. e) Recycling. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. 1983).b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 246 . Planning human intervention on the natural processes. 3. Define Environmental Education.
4. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. 4.5. telex. He modifies according”.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain.5.5. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. -other. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. These are biotic components.5.5. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . They interact with each. Biological environment The biological environment. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. A change in one brings about a change in the other.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. includes the plants. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. way is called environmental or ecological factor. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. fax agricultural apparatus. to his needs. b. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. Any constituent or condition of the environment. animals and other organisms (biotic).other components of the environment.5. a.
etc.. nuclear warfare. role of trees in building economy. river systems. ozone depletion. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. maintaining the ecological diversity. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. nuclear energy. effects. alternate sources of energy. excellent recreation sites. supplying timber for various uses. food chain and food-web. social studies. biogas plants. windmills. noise pollution. sources. greenhouse effect. wars and hazards of war. need for bio-diversity. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. explosion deforestation. extinction of species. importance of nitrogen cycle. ozone layer deplet ion. etc. (ii) Air pollution. preventing siltation of dams. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. mineral survey. need for conservation. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. balance of nature. are the topics which may be taught in History. of civilizations. sources of pollut ion. trees reducing noise pollution. preserving the watersheds. water scarcity.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. effects o f CFC. t heir role in preventing pollution. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. change in climate may be added. relation between population and pollution. over exploitation of ground water. use of medicinal plants. noise control. industrial survey. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . acid rain. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. air pollutants from industries. desertification 248 . use of pesticides. natural way of controlling pests. industrial pollut io n. solar cookers. population. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. reasons. evolution. History The rise and fall.
specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. 13. group discussions and seminars. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. 8. 9. 7. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. 4. aims and scope. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 5. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Providing. 14. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 12. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 11.may be inc ded in Geography. Organising conferences. Peepal and Tulsi. Developing awareness about environmental issues. 249 . 10. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 3. 2. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. 6. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment.5. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. animal and plants. 4.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1.
Never put any left over chemicals. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. it will cause pollution. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Use public transport wherever it is possible. all these can cause serious pollution. Don’t burn any waste. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. 6. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. especially plastics. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. If it is done. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles.Send their waste oil. World Environmental falls on 250 . Reuse carrier bags. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. used oils down the drain.
8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. To provide materials needed for practical work. and 251 . Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. etc. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. nuclear wars. viz. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. loss of bio-diversity. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature.). The groups may exchange. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion.5. potable water. rather than conquest and mastery. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. Concern for species.4. To arrange for visiting speakers.mat erials. Harmony with the nature . The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. To provide reference materials for children’s use. depletion of ozone. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. diversity and stability. deforestation. developing desirable attitudes.. Att itudes of balance towards nature. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. Social responsibilit y (common good. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. dest roying nat ural habitats. CFCs. To arrange visits or expeditions. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Conservation of natural resources. (cleanliness. values and habits. orderliness and beauty). concern for others). To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. etc.
8. 4. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 252 .5.5. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. preserving natural cycles. 4. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.
Rapid population growth. T. To provide materials needed for practical work. sources of pollution.K. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. (ii) Air pollution. a. b. reasons. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Social responsibilit y (common good. Environmental Education. Ltd. 5. Organising conferences. Knowledge. Education for values. New Delhi : Sharma. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . Anmol Publications Pvt. 8. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. air pollutants from industries. 4. new problems from science and technology. (2004). a. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. June 5 7. concern for others). water scarcity.5. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. (1997). b. S. greenhouse effect. over exploitation of ground water. effects.2. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. explosion deforestation.K. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. S. ozone layer deplet ion. (2007). New Delhi : Authors Press. b. Providing. sources. Kuldeep. Publications Pvt. Awareness.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. acid rain. group discussions and seminars. Environment and Human Rights. Udaiveer. 6.\ 4. b. Environmental Education. relat ion between population and pollution.K. a.K. a. Modern Problems of Education. importance of nitrogen cycle. population. Ltd. 3. To provide reference materials for children’s use. (2007). Y. Nanda.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 126.96.36.199 Idealism and aims of Education 188.8.131.52 Idealism and Curriculum 184.108.40.206 Idealism and methods of teaching 220.127.116.11 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and aims of Education 22.214.171.124 Naturalism and Curriculum 126.96.36.199 Naturalism and methods of teaching 188.8.131.52 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 184.108.40.206 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
220.127.116.11 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 18.104.22.168 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. the emancipation of spirit. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. According to Rusk'. in fact. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 .1. Education according to idealism. enrichment and transmission of culture. promote and transmit it to rising generation.” 5. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. Spiritual Development. The universe is regarded as a thought process. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. Therefore.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. It is self-realisation. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. man is essentially a moral being. Education must contribute to development of culture. Universal Education. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. should be universal in nature. moral.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum.3." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says.our life. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm.
without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. Herbert advocated instruction method. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. so subjects like Religion. the school is a garden.3. 3.1. Learning through lecturing. According to Frobel. So health. Philosophy. Science. subjects like Languages. 2. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. and collation (striving) should find due place. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage.1. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct.the spiritual qualities of mankind. hygiene.” 5. He carries the child from darkness to light. Learning through questioning. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. 5. Ethics. History. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. So he should embody. 5. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. Mathematics etc. For intellectual development. The teacher serves as a living model for the students.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. no doubt. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 .” He is thus.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. Learning through imitation. friend and guide. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Learning through reading. For this no particular method has been suggested. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. 4. a spiritual guide for the child. should be there. According to idealism. It considers teacher as. The plant can grow. affecting (feeling). an indispensable necessity. Learning through discussion. He sets the environment in which education takes place.3. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. However. So cognition (knowing). He is to be a source of inspiration for the students.
Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. Ross explains. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. In the words of Ross.1.1. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. curricula.4. formal lessons or examinations.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Perfection of Human Machine.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. "Education should make 263 • . 2. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. text books. time tables.preservation.perfection and beauty.
Education should. is based on the nature of the child. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. geography should also be included in the curriculum. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. There is no place for religious and moral education. therefore. Zoology. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Therefore. useful and mature child. It is based on the psychology of the child. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Arithmetic. It emphasises physical and health education 5. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. education should develop the child into Joyous.1. Literature. Chemistry. Biology. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. 264 . “Education finds its purpose. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. It stresses basic sciences.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. • 5. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Art etc are subsidiary subjects.4. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. rational harmoniously balanced. 4. Naturalistic curriculum. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Botany etc Language. subjects like history.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. In all. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation.
“Give your scholar no verbal lesson. a provider of an ideal environment. It discards all rigid. Dalton Plan. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher.1. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. the stage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5.5. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Rousseau says. Learning through observation. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. 2. Learning through experience. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. In the .naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.4. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. he should be taught by experience alone. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. 5.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Heuristic method. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. 4. a supplier of materials and opportunities. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Learning by doing.4.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1.1.
Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Geography. All Round Development of an Individual. is true.5. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. diversified and flexible. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Vocational and 266 . Subjects. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Social Science. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Social Efficiency.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. 5. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based.5. 5.1. The aim of educational development. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Continuous Growth. History. social and moral aspects. intellectual.1. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency.absolutism of idealism. Personal Social Adjustment. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Agriculture. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Physical training. Sciences. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. activities and experience should be integrated properly. should find proper place. alert and resourceful. Learning by Doing.” 5. The subjects. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. He must be trained. He has to be active. a senior partner and a sincere guide. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. 5. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.Technical Education. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher.5.1. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child.5.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. a teacher occupies an important position. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely.
but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Biography Philosophy. 5. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. liberal. Chemistry. History. 3. Study of Subjects like Language. literary or humanistic education. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. It favours child-centered.5. Education is preparation for a complete living. 5. Crafts. 2. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. rich and happy.1. 5. 4. 2. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. intellectual. scientific and psychological education.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. specific.1. Literature. 4. Music and Dance. Art. Astrology. The basic tenets of realism are 1. practical. Psychology. Population Education. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Mathematics. 3.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Biology.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism.1. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life.6. Sex Education. Satisfaction of individual and social needs.6. Education must cultivate scientific outlook.
22.214.171.124.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . easily and pleasantly. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. certainly and clearly.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.
1. Learning through lecturing. Experimentation d. 5. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Learning through discussion. Rousseau 5. Physical training.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 5. 5. pragmatism and realism. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. d. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. b. Learning through questioning.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. & curriculum. a. Geography.1.5. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Learning through experience b. Child centered c. e. has no end other than growth. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Self Realisation b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Languages. 6. Social Science. Vocational and Technical Education. Sciences. Learning through reading. Universal Education 2. a. Learning through imitation. in this lesson. Education according to pragmatism. Agriculture. History. 3.1. naturalism. c. a. Self preservation & Self expression 4. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Tours / Excursion e.
Ltd. (2007). New Delhi : Bhatia. P.P. Narang C. L.1. (2007). O. P. (2004).P. of Pathak. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. K. Foundations of Education. 271 . Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. New Delhi : A. Pahuja. Theory and Principles of Education. Publishing corporation. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. (2003). N.5. R.H.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman.
5.2.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.5.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2.3 Methods of teaching 5.2.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.LESSON 126.96.36.199.2.2 Curriculum 188.8.131.52.2.5.2 Curriculum 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 184.108.40.206 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.3.3 Methods of teaching 272 .2.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.1 Aims of Education 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.220.127.116.11 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2.1 Aims of Education 18.104.22.168.2.3.1 5.4 Views about teacher 5.4 Views about teacher 5.3.2 22.214.171.124.3 Methods of Teaching 5.1 Aims of Education 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.4.
Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.2. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. an artist. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.6 5.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. Gandhiji was primarily a social.2. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.2.7 5.2. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.2. Tagore was a poet.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.8 5.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. 2. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. mind and spirit.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. economic and political reconstruction in our country. 3.2.5. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.2. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.2. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. 5. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. 5. 273 . you will able to: 1. content and methods. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.4 Role of the teacher 5. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.
It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education.2. strength of mind. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. it is education of life. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. nor the gross animals body. righteousness. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. 5.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. 'Man is neither mere intellect. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. 274 .supporting.3. In the words of Gandhiji. "I attach more. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect." Dignity of Labour. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. self-restraint and service of humanity. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. It really provides opportunity for character building. through life and for life. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. His scheme of education is life centred. mind and soul of children He further observed.
development of the whole all were directed: towards. leather work have been suggested. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy.2. the realization of the ultimate reality. Art. General Sciences. "Development of the moral character. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. wood work. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. Only good individual forms a better society. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. Drawing and Hindustani. Music. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 .3. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner.Training for Leadership. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. According to Gandhi.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. gardening.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Individual and Social Aims.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. metal work. 5. Mother-tongue. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving.
3. men of 276 .2.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.trained. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. Basic education is other wise known as 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.2. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. proficient.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. That is why. Education must be child centered. 5. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. He also advocates freedom for the child. 3. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies.knowledge.2.3. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST.
2. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. • Cult of non-violence. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. 5.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. He was deadly against untouchability.K. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. Gandhi in 1937. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . he was a true Vedantist 5.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. • Education should involve manual work. 5. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. He was a true patriot.” Like all other ideals. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.2. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.2.4.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. • Ideal of citizenship.3. He believed in the oneness of humanity. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.
the more dedicated and devoted. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Music.2. sentiment. them solve problems of day to day life. Tagore said. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Zoology. deeper in. International Understanding. stronger in power than ever before. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. (vi) Philosophy. International understanding. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Therefore. complete manhood could be attained. etc. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Dance. he said. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. could help in forging unity among all. It should help the learner have good physique. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. That way only.4. Religion and Psychology. wider in range. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Chemistry. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. "Mankind must realise a unity. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Botany." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Geography.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. Civics. 279 . It should help.Language and Literature .
it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.” He further says. 5.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.4. Tagore rightly says. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.2. 280 .2.4. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.4.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.2. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. 5.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. Activity Method Heuristic Method. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students." 5. In 1921.
Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. It is open to all irrespective of country.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. 281 . Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi.g. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. 10. race. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. 9.
The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Education for Self-reliance. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. 2. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Purity of thought. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge.” 5. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Education should make a person self-reliant. work and deeds come out of it. 3. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. According to him.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. 4.5.2. Book learning. man making.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court.5.2. Education for strong Moral Character. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Freedom. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Education for Self-realization. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says." He was against the theoretical type of education. Concept of Education. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself.
philosopher and guide to the students He. Religion.5.2.2. Swami. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Secondly he wanted Science. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Education for Physical Development. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. 5.the learners on different students in the discussion. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Discussion Method. 6. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. That will serve the purpose of education fully. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one.2. The teacher should be the facilitator. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. 5. 283 . A physically strong person is the need of the society.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study.5. engineering and technical subjects.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Philosophy and Theology. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. And above all.5. 5. Thirdly he wished that games. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other.5. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. Of course. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study.
Gandhiji as a Idealist.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 12. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature.6 LET US SUM UP We have. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. 5. 284 . 5. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. 2. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. 3. Their educational ideas. ears and eyes.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. naturalist.Substantiate your answer. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. in this lesson. of course. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. Write short notes on Basic education. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. legs. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. We have seen that Tagore. and pragmatist . The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands.2. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers.
4. Activity Method b. 5. Meditation and concentration c. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. c. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Cult of non-violence. a. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Teaching while Walking b. e. wood work.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Heuristic Method. f. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. 9. 8. Debate and Discussion Method. gardening.2. 1937 7. Education should involve manual work. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Ideal of citizenship. Self-Study b. metal work. Technique of Correlation 6. Discussion Method 285 . Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. c. Explain Vishwabharathi. Nai Talim 4. b. 10. 11. 2. Basic education. Learning by Doing c. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. leather work have been suggested. 5. Self realization. 5. a. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. d. 3. Activity Method d. a. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. a.
Foundations of Education. on Bhatia. Ltd. C. K.P. (2007). Publishing Corporation. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.H. (2003). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Pahuja. (2004). P. New Delhi : Aggarwal. Dhiman. N.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash.5. (2007). J. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. L. P. Anmol Publications Pvt. N. New Delhi : A. O. Theory and Principles of Education.2. K and Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. (2002). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. 286 . B.
9 5.10 5.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3.5 5.7 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.3.1 5.8 5. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.LESSON 5.3 5.6 5.3.2 5.3.11 5.3.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’. In this lesson. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.126.96.36.199 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.
One is the individual process and the other is the social process.A. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion.under the direction of the school.3. there is a large number of communities. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. 5. in the form of new experience. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. Since the demands. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. Then in a big country like India. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture.3. the desert area. in Russia or in Japan. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. curriculum signifies situations for learning. Both the processes are integrated. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. Curriculum is intimately related to education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. curriculum. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. While education is a process.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. is a means to the process. in the U. In the former sense.3. present behaviour may be modified. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”..3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. In the words of Kerney and Cook. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. the plain area. in fact . It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. it is identical wit h socializat ion. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. 5. In it. maintained or eliminated. From the latter point of view. state the meaning of curriculum 2. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. living in the hilly area. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. While education is learning. you will be able to: 1. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. new behaviour may be acquired.S. A g o o d curricu lu m. the plateau area and 288 .
A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. democratic and socialistic country. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. studying therein. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. therefore. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. too. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. differs from individual to individual. Besides craft. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. according to modern trends in the educational process. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. 5. customs and needs. In fact . the learning capacity of children. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. it is. Again. irrespective of their needs and environment. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. and 289 . that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. environment. It must differ from locality and from society to society. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. However.3. From a slave-country we became secular. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it.
3. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . They are visionary goals e. Understanding Objective. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals.. emotional. e. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.g. Goals of Secondary Education.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals.. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. eg. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. 4. Vocational Efficiency.. 290 . Goals of Primary Education. they depend on the political. They may be ultimate or proximate.. in instructional objectives. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. individual or Social and so on. moral. of classroom. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. 1. They speak of perfect goals. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical.. etc. aims. So it is inadequate. They are achievable. etc. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. 3. They speak of immediate purposes of education. etc.g. The word “Curere” means 2. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. social. National Integration. which may or may not be attained. Knowledge Objective. aesthetic and spiritual development. tangible. 5. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. general or specific. unambiguous and functional. Application Objective. unsatisfactory. Self Realisation. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. social. remote or immediate. 2.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. specific. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed.g. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. uninspiring and unscientific. e.
5. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. on the playing fields. educationists.3. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. Raymont rightly says. The interests. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. abilities. capacities. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. According to Crow and Crow. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. in the class rooms. heavy fire. but it includes the totality of experiences.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. Crow and Crow remarks. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. finding them very interesting and captivating. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. needs. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future.” 291 .” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced.
curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. Due to these variations and differences. mental. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. aptitudes. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. capacities and abilities. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. tendencies.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. They often waste it or rather kill it. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. urges. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. moral. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. time in a useful manner.
Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials.curricular. 293 . 3. organized.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. administrative programme need be planned. 2. phased preparation. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. development of professional capability at all levels. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. To ensure success of the process. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. Similarly. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes.
10. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. 11. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. 5.3. 17. 12. 1937 19. laboratory. Child Centred Education b. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. in the class room. Relation with Life c. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Run.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. workshop.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . 18. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.3. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. library.3. principles of curriculum construction.
S. (2001). Innovations in Education. New Delhi : Authorspress. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. D.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. P. Lakshmi. (2007). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. (2007). N. Bhalla. (2007). 295 . S.5. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. New Delhi : Isha Books. Curriculum Development. and Sarita Kumari.S. Curriculum and Instruction.K.3.
4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 188.8.131.52 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.LESSON 184.108.40.206.4.6.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.8 5.4.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.5 5.7.2 220.127.116.11 5.1 5.4.3 5.10 5.4.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4.7 Scientific Attitude 126.96.36.199 Developing scientific outlook 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .
2. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.during the second half of this century. 5. superstition or emotion. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. explain the concept of scientific attitude. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. newer and newer industries started growing. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. 3. Gradually. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons.5. you will be able to: 1. know the importance of science education. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes.4.4. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking.4. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . 4. We mean curiosity. open-mindedness. 5. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. honesty. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . in the economic reconstruction of society.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. 297 . Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. tolerance for the opinions of others.
Thinking and memory develops.So that. Selection for science education. 2. 4. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. 3. 4.4. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. 5. 6. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. seminars and symposiums. Through examinations. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Through newspapers. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Devotion towards nature increases. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. 5. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. as well as of the society. After such experience and training.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Principles are formulated. Central science workshop. Promotion of science clubs. 5. stipends and appreciations in various ways. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people.4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Schemes of teaching science. 6. 5. 7. Organisation of science fairs. 2. Love for truth enhances. 3. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work.
which is essential for developing scientific outlook.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. essential that teachers. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. Training of science teachers. 7. should provide opportunities to. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 5. therefore. In the inquiry approach.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. They encounter many social events as they grow. 5. After presenting the problem. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. Write any two advantages of Science Education. They ask many questions about the objects they see. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative.4. objectivity. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon.6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. For laboratory and workshop techniques. Enquiry teaching is. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life.4. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. sex or religion. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. They experience natural phenomenon. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. each child to “enquiry skill building”.needs and conditions. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other.
. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Adopting creative models of teaching. 3. 6. Giving less directions. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . Evidence. 300 . . Social sciences. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. to ask questions and experience things.4.4.Herma Wouk. 5.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. test. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 5. commands or orders. 2.books. Appreciating pupils ideas. 5. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. 3. stern pursuit of accurate data. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. It requires consistent thinking.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. if they like.6. 4. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences.
Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. neighbourhood. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. it must be encouraged. friends. (Vaidya 2007). Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. 5. and emphasized during the learning process . For instance. These include open mindedness. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. The students observation.7.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. To achieve this we should understand what it means.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions.4. of vast resources running waste. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. school and society at large. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. critical thinking and suspended judgments. to develop among the learners. therefore should be unbiased and objective. practiced. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning.(Smith 2008). It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. keen observation. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation.
Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. he studies all aspects of it. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. (Das. 2007). looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.4. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. 5. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. think and work it”. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. The intention to respect another’s point of view. 302 . they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. In considering a situation or a problem. intuition or wishful thinking”. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. rumor.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. or superstitions. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. He is patient and reserved in his judgement.7.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. understanding and logic.
4.7. 5.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. • 5. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.7. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.4. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. but to begin only after careful planning. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .
practiced and emphasized during the learning process. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. 5. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. 304 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. it must be encourages. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. 5.4. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.
What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. Adopting creative models of teaching. 16. 2. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.4. a. objectivity.B (2008). b. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Rao. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 305 .S. Vaidya. 4. a. a. Proper example of the teacher c. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs.4. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. N. 5. (2008). 3. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. D. Planning of activities 5. 5. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Study of superstitions d. (2006). Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. (2000).5. M. b. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. S. Love for truth enhances. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Yadav. a.4. b. Reflections on Scientific attitude. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Wide reading b.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop.
5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.1 5. actively. 2. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5. state the concept. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.10 5.5.11 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.5.LESSON 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.7 5.5. areas of institutional planning.5 5.3 5.5. 188.8.131.52.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5. you will be able to: 1.9 5. 306 .5.8 5.5.5. objectives and characteristics.
each teacher. Institution should be regarded as the unit. and supplement planning from above. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. 5. 5. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. and each student are regarded as separate entities. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.3. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. and. and every student in the process of educational planning.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. every parent. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. State and national levels from below. which become the bases for further planning at the district. teachers and students is not lost sight of. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions.5.5. • to make planning development-oriented. • To make institutional planning more successful. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. in the task of educational planning. executive as well as public. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . • to involve teachers and school administrators. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. every teacher.
and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. Examinations. 308 .5. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. which will be discussed in the general. it becomes the basis for school inspection. 5. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. (2) Co. council and.5. and Personnel services. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. (3) TeachingLearning Aids.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers.• implemented. Syllabus. Co-curricular activities. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. etc.curricular Activities. approved after making necessary modifications. Classwork. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.
Preparation of models. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. etc. Organising play-for-all programmes. scientific and historical excursions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. Undertaking remedial instruction services.No. Conducting of educational. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Preparation of instructional material. 2. Courts. 1. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Equipping of laboratory and library. Editing the school magazine. Improving the internal assessment. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. etc. Organisation of Students’ Association. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Organisation of class-room libraries. hobby-centres. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Organisation of Pupils. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. charts and apparatus. etc. etc. Organisation of Self-Government Days. etc. Fair distribution of syllabi. Running science clubs.
co-operation. parents.5. administrator-pupil. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. etc. teacher-teacher. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. parent-teacher associations. which are divided as the in. ii. teacherinspector. understanding.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. teacher-managing body. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. involving mainly human materials. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. science teachers’ associations. and —pupil-pupil. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations.” The human relationships in. pupil310 . If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. teacher-State. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. students’ associations.5. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. administrator-administrator. pupils. and solidarity. teacher-pupil. teachers. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. headmasters associations. administrator-supervisor. Administrator-State.
pupil-non-official functionaries. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. pupil-parent. teacher-parent. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. According to C.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. social sciences and other disciplines. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. teacher-community leader. pupil-community leader. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. V. superintendence. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. administrator. pupil-inspector. etc. To administer means to manage. to attend. Good.State. now-a-days. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes.5. organisation and management. 311 . educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. supervision. organisation. and to serve. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. It covers personnel and material management. supervision and superintendence. to carry out. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is also being modernized to become a technique. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. control. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. to accomplish. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer.
9.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. He should be an artist in human relationships. Rapport between the Management and Employees .The manager should have leadership traits. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. 11. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. 10.Any good management will always have good public relations. 5.Of all the approaches. Better Human Relationships . The relationship should change from master. Democratic Management . Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. If it is more. 4. Liasion with the Public . Communication .Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. 7. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. 3.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. Socio-Scientific Approach . He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. Economic Management . Worker Participation . 2. Cost-Benefit Analysis . He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. 8.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. who occupy the managerial positions. it is not worth-while. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 6. This is the latest democratic trend in management.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. 13. low. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. 12.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. Decision Making . Motiviation . Leadership . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. Those. If the cost benefit ratio is less.
g. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. to improve the quality of education it provides. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions.These two are. 18. and cooperative performance should be ensured. improvement of teaching methods. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. 313 . The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. enrichment of curricula.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. 5.5. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. 19. 14. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17.too. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. objective. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education.5. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management.
Educational Administration. (2003). e. Tarachand and Prakash. c. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. S. a. b. 4. a. f. Instruction. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. a. Co-curricular activities. H. (2001). APH Publishing Corporation. In group and Out group 5.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.5. (1995).5. b. Examinations. Singh. Classwork. NUEPA. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Fundamental of Educational Management.M. Communication 5. and Personnel services. Syllabus. Decision Making b. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. Leadership c. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. 2. R.5. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. 314 . New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House.K.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Motiviation d. b. d. a.
5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Healthy Food Habit 4.CORE PAPER .1 Inculcation of Socialism. Common ailments of Children.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.I. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . physical education and environmental education 5. Balanced diet. Community and Mass Media 2. 1.2 Nutritional deficiencies. First Aid.1 School Health Programme.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .Religious and Modern Education 1. women education and teacher education in India. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Examination reforms. wastage and Stagnation 3. Buddhist and Jain system of education.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Economic 315 . nutritional requirement.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. Sex-education 4. social Impact 3. Communicable diseases .2 Secondary Education : Co-education. 2. Realized the problems of school education. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.Article 45 .2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .3 Directive Principles .Preventive measures. population education. Code of conduct for teachers. School. Inspection and Supervision 3. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. New evaluation procedures. 4. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.1 Gurukula system of education.1 Primary Education : Education for all.teachers should have : 1.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .Pre-service and In-services facilities.3 Educational Influences of Home.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. higher education. Preservation of nutrients.5 Regional Educational Development in India .Imbalances and Variations in different environment.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.4 India's Secular Policy .
K.C.K. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. 7. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. 5.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. T. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. and Human Development. (2004) Problems of Education in India. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Ghanta R.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Curriculum and national goals . Pandy V. B. Mahatma Gandhi. R. Saraswathi T. Socialization.1 Idealism.N.S. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Sharma. and Dash B.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Realism. Tagore 5. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.N. and Mohanty R. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.K. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. (2005) Foundations of Education. New Delhi: NCERT 3.4 4. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. REFERENCE 1.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Taneja V.4.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. (1999) Culture. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Delhi : University Publications 2. and Sharma R. Hemchand.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Ram S.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5.Aim. 316 . Naturalism and Pragmatism . Prof. Kalan Paper Packs 10.K.R. Mishra.
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