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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. The need. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Lesson 2.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. In. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. 9 . Jainism and their educational implication. and Jain system of education. Lesson 4. discusses the regional educational development in India. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. Lesson 5.
1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 22.214.171.124.6.1.5 Jain system of education 1.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 126.96.36.199 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 188.8.131.52.1 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .LESSON 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Buddhist system of Education 1.3.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 18.104.22.168 Education during British Era 22.214.171.124.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 Educational implications of Buddhist education 184.108.40.206.
the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.1. both present and future.1. That 12 .1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. British system of education presented the modern western model. India. The history of education passed through Buddhist.6.6. 1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.1.1. describe the Jain system of Education 4.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.9 1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Indian in blood and colour. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. you will be able to: 1.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.3.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.7 1. has a long past history starting in vedic education. in morals and in the intellect”. in opinion.8 1.1. elucidate the education during British Era.1. Education in India. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. “a class of persons. Muslim and British periods.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. 1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. but English in taste. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.1.
It was not merely intellectual. 11. No State Control on Education. Method of Study. Education of Moral. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Forests as Centres of Education. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. The immediate aim of education. 10. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. as it is generally considered to be at present. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. not en masse by the class method. generally. Method of Instruction. Pupils were taught. 6. if they thought fit to do so. There was. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. 14. Education was a private affair of the people. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Free and Accessible. Immediate Aim Vocational. religious and spiritual. from eternal to immorality 2. Teacher as Parents. 4.knowledge was real. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. High Status of Teachers. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. Curriculum. 5. followed by explanation by the teacher. 3. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. 9. with grants of land or money. to light. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. however. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. 13. 13 . the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. 8. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. questioning by the pupil. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. from darkness. Where pupils were many. and to agriculture and trade. managed entirely by Brahmans. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. It was also moral. the monitorial plan was followed. 16. Role of Travel in Education. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. individually. Religious and Spiritual. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Individual Teaching. 12. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Residential Schools. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline.
There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. studied Vedas. Wide-Spread Education in Women. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection.3. lived a life of celebacy. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. It was freely available to all those who wanted.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . 2.17. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.1. They were very cordial and intimate. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It was suited to the needs of the society. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 .
Right thought 3. except the Chandals. the handicapped. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. 15 . etc. had the right to receive education. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. disease and death of the human beings. I take Refuge to Sangh. use of intoxicating things. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. killing of any living being. dressed himself in yellow clothes. It was denied only to the ill. Right knowledge 2. impure conduct. use of cosmetics. Right means of livelihood 6. he was qualified to become a monk. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. 1.1. every class in society. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Right speech 4. He was then ordained to obey ten rules.C. medium of Pali. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. partaking of food at prohibited times. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Right memory 8.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. watching dances or listening to music. the student had his head shaved of all hair. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. I take Refuge to Dharma. After attaining the age of 20. the most significant of which were the following 1. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. the student remained in a state of Shramana. Right activity 5. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Consequently. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. Right contemplation 1. taking things without being offered.4. in which. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. which included abstaining from theft. Education was imparted through the. Right endeavour 7. 2.
objectives of human life. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. 6. the science of taming and training animals. commerce. the presence of the monks was essential. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. These are called later Buddhist schools. Initially. therefore. 2. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. a change is not only total but also perpetual. depth and range. Whatever its nature and extent. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. approach. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. has no metaphysical value for life. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. As reality is becoming. 4. 5. women occupied a position inferior to men.4. so long as it successfully does so. geology. military science. it is regarded as true”. agriculture. control over sensuous activities. After this ritual. etc. of clothes. beg for alms. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years.. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. knowledge of reviving the dead. magic. changing the goals. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. Later on. a continuous change creating 16 . knowledge of animal cries and sounds. etc. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. archery. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. 1. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. nothing is of any permanent consequence. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. education was impart in art. assumptions. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. archery. Life is in a flux. 3. cottage industries. 7. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. Even at this stage. along with education in script writing.3. meaning. handicrafts. It comprehended education in writing. 8. Hence. nature. be considered the aim of education It. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. On this occasion. medicine. elephant lore. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. eat food thrice a day. and. etc. animal husbandry. arithmetic and religious discussion. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. however.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. bodily gestures. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. aspirations and. wear three items. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’.
the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. i. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. In fact. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. However. Education must. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. goes to Vardhaman.5. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Validity is effective and consequences. such as. and to give it a shape that it has today.new and peculiar situations. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. its pessimistic outlook on life. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. therefore. 5. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. whatever works are true and good. Its chief feature. Write Eight fold path . Jainism insists 17 .1. however. it is much older than the latter.e.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him..
3. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 1. rather than the interpretation of the universe. 9. 8. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. b) Not utter falsehood. c) Not to steal. As such. 1. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. c) Right conduct. Development of personality as an individual. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. 4. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. more stress on individual aims. it has a foot in both the words.1. b) Right knowledge. 7. They are: a) Not to injure.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. 10. thought and deed. d) To lead a celibate life. 6. 3. 5. 18 . Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. Hence. and believe in happiness to all. 2. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word.5. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. and is to be redeemed and liberated. e) To renounce the world. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. 2. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. but on both. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter.
the precious principles of life that bring happiness. 8. 19 . education should develop sense of discrimination. education must be action based and ideally oriented. that would be socially desirable. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. success and love.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. 4. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Hence.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 3. Belief in transmigration of soul.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 1. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. 2. and should bring happiness to all. Jiva is essentially karmic. 5. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Teaching must develop these faculties. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter.4. therefore. here and now. 1. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. What are Triratnas ? . Teaching should be social and tolerant. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 3. practised and not only aspired for. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma.
1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. 1953). In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts.6.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854.6. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. science.1. 1.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. 1. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. with rally and rout. To set up separate departments of. 2. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). primary 20 .6. philosophy and literature of Europe.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods.6. and not for life. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. Bombay. 1. North West Province and Punjab. 1.1. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. However. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. Madras. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.
• Secondary education.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 .5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published.education was neglected. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. 1. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. Later on. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. The universities dominated the secondary education. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. secondary education became a step towards university. namely. To ensure qualitative improvement. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. 1. 1.6. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. • Universal free primary education. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success.K.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. self-respecting and competent.6.6. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. At that time M. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. at the primary level. In 1882. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement.
What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? .7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9.At the primary stage (6-11 years). The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial.1. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. all children are to have a common curriculum. 10. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. After this stage.
4. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. 1. military science. Right memory. 6. questioning by the pupil.education of European literature. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. 1. Right knowledge. Right thought.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. geology. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. 2. 23 .. Right endeavour. The immediate aim of education.1. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. education was impart in art. 5. followed by explanation by the teacher.1. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. The system of education was well-organised. Right contemplation. 3. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Right speech. arithmetic and religious discussion. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 4. b. Right activity. a. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. Right means of livelihood. along with education in script writing. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. etc. It was suited to the needs of the society. archery. the science of taming and training animals. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. science and English language. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. During the Buddhist period. establishment of universities. handicrafts. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil.
Development of Educational System in India. Aggarwal. 9. History of Indian Education System. b. Sargent report 12.7. Right knowledge. Y. Development of personality as an individual.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. a. 8. (1984). and Nath. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. more stress on individual aims. 1882. (2007). b. (2009). 24 . c. Singh. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. R. Sharma. Right conduct. Right faith. 10. 11. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Improvement of Literature. Ltd. J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. a.C. J.K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.1. (2005).C. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Hence. Ltd. Y. 1937 1.K.
There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.4 National Policy on Education 220.127.116.11.2.2.1 1.2.8 18.104.22.168.9 1.7 1.3 Kothari Commission 22.214.171.124 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development. The 25 .2 Secondary Education Commission 1.1 University Education Commission 1.2.LESSON 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2 1.4 126.96.36.199 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 188.8.131.52 1.2.6 1.2.3.
understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India.2. Kothari (1964-66) 8. explosion of enrolment. technical. There had been vast institutional expansion. National Council for Women’s Education 5.2. expansion of vocational. 1986 1. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. curriculum. 2. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. S.2.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1.conditions of the teachers. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. you will be able to: 1. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. 1. girls and women education besides primary. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. diversification of courses of studies. analyse the progress of education in free India. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. National Board of Teacher Education 10.3. 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. New Educational Policy. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. examination system. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. secondary and higher education. medical and legal education. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. technological engineering. vocational education. standard of teaching. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. Post-graduate 26 .
the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23.2. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. material and spiritual. 1952. A. D. Government of India. Problems of access. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. in January 1985. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. 1986. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3. Therefore. the New National Policy on Education.2. The Essence and Role of Education. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.2. 2. quality. utility and financial outlay. 4.teaching. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. 3.3. 1.3. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. quantity. Education is the key to our allround development. Kothari. 1966. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. A meaningfully Partnership. research et. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. Finally. 1. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Education for Equality. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency.S. 1. accumulated over the years. the chairman of University Grants commission. National System of Education. However.
the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. The UNESCO Report.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations.2. attitudes. the concepts of work experience. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. 28 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. It can train practical aptitudes. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. Thus. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. the minorities and the handicapped. By working with hands.” Thus. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
With adequate planning. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. As such. In 1955. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. “The aim of these colleges.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. the Commission. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. “It may be described. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. Besides." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. it will conduce self. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. The Education Commission. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. The Radhakrishnan Commission. co-ordinations.” The Mudaliar Commission. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. if he wishes.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. According to.
there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. With a view to relating education to the life. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. Therefore. the rigid streaming of courses. In addition. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. etc. for quality of life in the rural areas.. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. The Central Advisory Board of Education. admission requirements to vocational courses. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). Subsequently. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. raising the special facilities.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further.ot her. the. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. the semester and credit system.
But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. meaningful. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. technological courses including Agriculture. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. According to committee. giving importance to productivity in the national development. manual work resulting in either goods or services. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. which are useful to the community. etc.. which offer scientific. aimed at this goal.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred.defined S UP W as “purposive. meaningful. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education.2. who conceived the System of Basic Education. Commerce. preferably spinning and weaving. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. In short. felt that education should be centred around a craft.and the world of work. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. The Father of Nation. The wave of Basic Education. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. 1. 31 . Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. which swept the country for over two decades.
Community work and social service. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. locally available materials and tools. Culture and recreation 6. Some Hints to Teachers 1. Work practice. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Experimentation with materials. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Health and Hygiene 2. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. as far as possible. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Productive 2. Educative and 3. 2. so that it is educational in essence. 3. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. The teachers should make use of. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. 4. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Clothing 5.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. 32 . The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Food 3. be that the work involved is: 1. Shelter 4. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. tools and techniques and 3.
be allied to the elective chosen by the students. 6. removal of illiteracy. improve discipline. as far as possible.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. inculcate a faith. It can become an instrument to build character. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. the local community should be actively associated. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Check on educated unemployed 4. Education through work The SUPW should. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter.5. slum clearance.2. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. Merits of the Programme 1. 1. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. Productive Work 33 . Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. etc. To make education more realistic. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. Community Service In-1972. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood.
Define SUPW 34 .” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. offering first aid. traffic control. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. The community. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . if not productive. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. in turn. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. helping the adults-in productive work. should involve itself in the educational effort. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. AICTE was set up in year 4. skills and better future for the children. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. etc. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work.
b. which are useful to the community.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Dr. 1. 2. 3. 35 .2. d.1.2. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 1955 4. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. 1952 3. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. meaningful. c.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a.2. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. 6. manual work resulting in either goods or services. 1. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Radhakrishnan 2. Write short note on SUPW. e. f.
(2005). V.. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt.H. R. Y. P. Anupama.P. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Ltd. Publishing Corporation.K.1.2.P. 36 . Development of Educational System in India.K. History and Problems of Indian Education. Amala. and Nath. : Sharma. and Rao.K. (2005). History of Indian Education System. B.C. Y. History of Education. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. New Delhi: A. Rao. Singh.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. A. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2007).D. (2007). J. (2009).
3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.2 1.4 1.7 1.3.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 184.108.40.206 1.1 Significance of DPSP 1. it came into effect on January 26. assuring its citizens of justice. Besides the English version. 37 . It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3.6 1.8 1.5 1.3.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. equality. Being the supreme law of the country. there is an official Hindi translation. for a total of 117.369 words in the English language version.3. 1949.3.3. establishing the structure. containing 395 articles.3. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. directive principles and duties of citizens. democratic republic. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.3.9 1. and liberty. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. procedures.3. 1950.3.
spread over a period of 2 years. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature.3. with Dr. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. According to the constitution. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. 1. learn the role of central and state government on education. administrative. legal and environmental. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. 4. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. political.3. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. in sessions open to public. Two days later. The Assembly met.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. On August 29. you will be able to: 1. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. social.3. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. 2. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian.In the August 14. the Drafting Committee was appointed. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. After many deliberations and some modifications. 1950.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. understand our Indian constitution. Dr. 3. 1947. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. 1. Through them. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. economic. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. 1947. 1. for 166 days. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. 38 . it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy.
Article 43. The State shall. Protecting children from exploitation. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Article 41. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self.government. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. The State shall endeavour to secure. provide free legal aid. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. Right to work. Minimising inequalities in status. in particular. Protecting health of the workers. on the basis of equal opportunity. Organisation of village panchayat. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Equal pay for both sex. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. 39 . Article 39A. old age. Liking wage etc. Condition for dignity of children. That the health and strength of workers. Article 42. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Article 40. sickness and disablement. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Equal justice and free legal aid. No abuse of children. men and women. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. for workers. and shall. and in other cases of undeserved want. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength.
Participation of workers in management of industries. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Article 45. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. work. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. in particular. to all workers. Article 43A. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. (Original Article 45. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. See also Article 21A). in particular. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. industrial or otherwise. Article 48. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. [declared by or under law made by 40 . The State shall endeavour to provide. a living wage. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Article 47. Note: Subs. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Article 49. by suitable legislation or in any other way. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. agricultural. The State shall take steps. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Article 46. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. Article 44. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Uniform civil code for the citizens. and. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Article 48A. in particular. 2002 for “45.
2002. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. Article-21A Right to Education. Article 45 . disposal or export. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . 2. 1. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. removal. destruction. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. disfigurement. Article 51. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. from spoliation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Parliament] to be of national importance. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Separation of judiciary from executive. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. as the case may be. Article 50. Promotion of international peace and security. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. may be law determine”. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus.
Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. 3.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 7. race. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. his guardian has given his consent thereto. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. and. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. iii. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. 6. 2002. language or any of them”. 4. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. and shall protect them. 5. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. ii.” 42 . Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. caste. 8. in particular. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. from justice and all forms of exploitations. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. if such person is a minor. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion.
Educational Reforms From time to time. 2. wherever necessary or desirable. 43 . The central government determines targets and promotes education. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.3. Article 351 gives importance to 6. the forms. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. & 1. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. for its vocabulary. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. and by drawing. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies.9. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country.
Merit scholarships in the public schools c. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. The following pilot projects. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. 7. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). 5. etc. 4. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. 6. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. By starting these projects. So that they may work well.. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training.3. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. the state governments. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. So as to encourage education on right lines. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. to achieve the desired ends. Production of suitable for children and adults f. Local bodies and private enterprise. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. All India Council of Medical Science. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. private agencies etc. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. 8.
Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. 3. training and statistics. is the state responsibility. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. 1.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. 9. etc. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. 10. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. books.3. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. 4. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. Material concerning nation-wide interests. are published by it. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. education for women. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. reports etc. The 45 . From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. 11. research. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. 12. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. handicapped. 1.
1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Write short notes on a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. articles in the Directive principles. 5.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Explain Directive principles 2. 46 . Article 45 b. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Article 46 4. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. 1. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45.3. Article 21A c. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
3. Development of Hindi Language 6.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The Directive Principles of State Policy. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. b. Article 45 . 2002. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article-21A Right to Education. 4. b. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. 2002. 1.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. a. Ambedkar 2. a. may be law determine”. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Article 29 and 30 7. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Describe the educational role of State Government. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. a. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Article 46 5.3.5. Dr. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 47 . Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Clearing House function 9.
Ghosh. L. B.3. Dash. (2009). (2004). K. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. (2007).1. Education in Emerging Indian Society. S.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. 48 . Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. S. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. N. Bhatia. K and Narang C. (2008). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Education in Emerging Indian Society.
4.4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4 Moral education 1.5 1.1 Why Moral Education 1.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.4. religious education should be broad based.4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1. Christianity.2 1.8 1.1 1.4.4. Islam.3.7 220.127.116.11.4.3. Jainism.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism. Buddhism etc.4.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.6 1.4. Students should be 49 .3.
3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. integrity. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline.D. According to E. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions.4. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. duty-consciousness. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. religious education and the concept of secularism. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. As result of which. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. "In A multireligious society like ours.. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. you will be able to: 1. enumerate the aims of religious education 4.” Education broadens human outlook. state meaning and need for moral education 1. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. 1. know the position of religious education in our country 3. India' can produce men of character.and dedication. beauty and goodness so that 50 .4. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). Thus. In the complicated and complex society of today.
through religious practices and 51 . idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. According to Article 22. As our country is a country of diverse religions. No religious tax can be imposed on them. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. rancour. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. castes and creeds. at least occasionally. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. As a matter of fact. Hence. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education.3.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education.3. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. if not regularly. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. They thought that any kind of narrow. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity.4. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. realizes God in himself.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. 1. all citizens are free to follow any creed. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. 1947 we achieved our freedom. Viewing the defects of religious education. religion and democracy are same. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. it is clear that the State has no religion. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world.4. Children attend these organizations.” From the above. 1. According to Article 19. In short. Thus.
From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. one fully developed.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. He also learns about social. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. what is done and what is not done etc. As a result of which. temperament etc. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. moral and spiritual values. which help him for the development of his character. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna).. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. which can mould. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. aggressive. It helps to modify habits attitudes. for the development of the individual and the society. intellectual and physical faculties of children. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. when he becomes an adult. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. Good education.teachings. If unreleased. It is religious education. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. and what is evil. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 .
Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. If we open the pages of history.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. which is the basic need of a democratic life. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. 53 . It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. 2. This should not be allowed to happen. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly.4. 1.3. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. towards the society. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Therefore. 3. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way.
service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. therefore. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Write Article 22 2. 11. stories of moral greatness. Gurudwara as. fellow-feeling. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Life histories of great persons of the world. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. churches and mosques 7.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 10. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. examples of patriotism. For this. Since all religions have virtues. 9. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1.
5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. 8. Service to others. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Aparigarha (Non. 7. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 6. 4. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. therefore. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Brahmacharya (celebacy). They will play their role effectively. 4. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 3. Without moral values. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Cultivation of emotions. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Patriotism. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Satyam (truth). let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. 7. 2. Moral education. 1. 8. students.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. the methods of teaching. 55 . 5. It they learn what morality is in their early years. 5.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 3. Self sacrifice.acquisitiveness).4. 6. in the home. Asvada (Control of palate). Fearlessness. 2. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. is that which develops moral values. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. The content of the curriculum. Swadeshi (Patriotism). personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. 1. “Let all be happy and free from disease. Non-injury. let men see well of one another. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Purity.4.
One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. 3. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. 3.9. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. 10. In the school programme. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Sharivashram (Physical work). Simple texts and stories concerning different. loyalty and self-sacrifice. discipline. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Discipline. Good temper. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. 1. 2. Efficiency. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . 4. Integrity. National unity and Spiritual values. Secondary Stage 1. 56 . The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. minutes in the morning for group singing. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Good manners.4. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. religions may be included in the syllabus. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. 11. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Unity of mankind. Asatyam (Non-thieving).
3. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. 4. In this connection. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. University Stage 1. 5. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. 57 . The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In other words. love of humanity. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. Silent meditation should be encouraged. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. 2. 5. should form a normal part of school programme. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. patriotism and self-discipline. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme.
Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. 2. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. a. 1959 5. In short. Training of Character 3. 2.4.4. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. a. minutes in the morning for group singing. 1. the. Sri Prakasa 6 . Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. b. 58 . saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.4. Discuss the aims of Religious education. 1.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also.1. 4. a. b. For this. The School Assembly should be held for a few. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education.
New Delhi: A.4. J. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. K and Narang C. L. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Bhatia.P. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. B. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2008). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. M. Pahuja.C.1. Publishing Corporation. (2004). (2003). 59 . Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2007). N.H. Anmol Publications Pvt. Theory and Principles of Education. K.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. N. New Delhi : Siddiqui. Dash. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.H. Ltd. P. (2008).
disparities between provinces/States.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5.11 1.12 1.9 1. 60 .e.5.10 1.5 1.7 1. i. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.5.6 1.5.4 1.2 1..1 18.104.22.168 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.8 1. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5. Although.5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5.
1. 61 . 3. for example. 2. Accordingly. 6. Selfishness of the regional political leaders.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 1.5. understand the regional educational development in India 3. know the education suited to different environments. 4. waters.5. 7. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. This leads to separatist movements. you will be able to: 1. energy. work hard towards this end.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. they take appropriate measures.5. roads.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. etc. They therefore. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.5. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. 1. 8. 1. 5. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies.
and. 2. 3. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. Tight security arrangements should be made. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. while others remained educationally backward. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. 62 .6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. 4. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. on the basis of regional development may be formed. • Separate States (of course viable States). and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. Therefore. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. some States became educationally far advanced. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions.5. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. Secularism. some average. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds.
Guwahati. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. Regional Centres of IGNOU. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education.5.g.14. library buildings. etc.After the Planning Process has originated. approved proposals worth Rs. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Funds amounting to Rs. However. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. Mizoram. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. NIT. books. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. Even in each State. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. etc. academic buildings. 1. Itanagar. 63 .392. Out of this. NERIST. Jammu and Kashmir. since its inception in 1998-99. while some States like Bihar. Rs. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. and provision of informal education to enable those. In the Central sector.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. After the attainment of independence. Tezpur. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. remained under developed. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. Central Universities of Assam. the State Governments. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. Silchar. Nagaland and NEHU.. These projects are in various stages of implementation. scholarships.480.84 crore was released in 2005-06. the Union Government. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities.
64 . is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.8 per cent in 05).42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University.187.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.500. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Government expenditure on education.261.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). Moreover. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. too. Out of this an amount of Rs. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.501. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.40.05 crore and Rs.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. A provision of Rs. During 2003-04. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.57 crore and Rs. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.5. Tezpur University.
for instance. notes the study. Listing the positives. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. too. for which 16 sites. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Kerala and Gujarat. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. Karnataka. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. engineering and R&D. pharma. too. Moreover. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. too. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Karnataka. To add to the woes. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. Medical education. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. 1. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Tamil Nadu. English. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats.5. health services and welfare of the citizen population. telecom. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Andhra Pradesh. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21).A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. The Chandigarh Administration.
life-oriented and environment slanted. the needs. the curricular subjects. 66 . They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. For a learner living in a rural area. Hence it is called as need-based. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. The working hours of educational institutions. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. the working days: an academic . Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. the interests. even actually looking at the watch. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. when he will not be sure of time. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. the teaching methods.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. In the same manner. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. Then education become realistic and idealistic. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal.year. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. which a non-tribal person cannot do. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. and so on. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. while the former does not. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. Of course. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. The living conditions. in which the learners live. taking the average in the middle. the vocations. the socio-physical conditions.
Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. 67 . What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5. to suit education to different environments? 1. 2. 1.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.5. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2.5.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.
some States have become more developed than others b. Salim. A. R. (2008). S. Educational Development in India. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Education in Developmental Arena. (2001). and Nair.5.2. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. C. Dubey. 68 . New Delhi: Authors press. (2002). during the British rule. some of areas which were under the native rulers. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.H. (2001).13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S. a.G.N. Giridhar.K. remained undeveloped 3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Education Scenario in India. 60% 1.
UNIT – II 69 .
community development. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. secularism and democracy through Indian education. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. 71 . Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. school community and mass media. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. National Integration. semi literate and illiterates.
6.7 2.4 2.1.5. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 22.214.171.124 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.5.8 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 126.96.36.199.1 Main features of Socialism 188.8.131.52 Education for Secularism 184.108.40.206 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1.2 2.1.9 2.1 2.1.LESSON 2.1.6.
there should be made no distinction of caste. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. In the matter of admitting students in schools. 73 . Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. you will be able to: 1. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. 5) Encouragement to Group Work.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. The students may be associated with the management of the school. socialism and secularism 2. 2. creed. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. 3) Provision of Manual Work. socialistic and secular state. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and.1. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. 2. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. for the people by the people”. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.1.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.1. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. understand the concept of democracy.1. socialism and secularism 2. This is the political aspect of democracy. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Abraham Lincoln.2.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. colour or wealth. Democracy thus means power of the people.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together.. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 74 . debates. 11) Student Parliament. declamation contest etc.1. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. 2. it soon spread all over the world. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. 12) Visits to Legislatures. Democracy means 2. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. There are different brands of socialism. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. may be planned. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 2. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. Under it. none high”. 2. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections.5. service and cooperation. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. the prince and the peasant. 75 . oppression and disparity. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. the wealthy and the poor.1. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. but on the path of non-violence.1. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 7) Special facilities for girls. free from exploitation. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production.5.
Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Everyone says. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. 76 . Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. 11) State schools. “India is a secular-country.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. secularism is being propagated. 2. According to Holydake.” In every political and educational corner. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. Write any two main features of socialism. 5. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. "which seeks the development of physical. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.1.
Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. Moral values have to be imbibed.1. A large number of people is uneducated. 5) It implies tolerance. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. 77 . people started believing in regionalism. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. the belief that the state morals. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. 2. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. That is why.opposed to religious education. should be independent of religion.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. liberty. 8) It believes in co-existence. 2) It permits freedom of religion. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. Equality. In this type of prevailing situations. education etc. fraternity. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. There is need of making the people open minded. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 9) It stress free inquiry. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society.6. “Webster further says. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. 6) It has faith in rational thinking.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities.6.1. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. During the recent past. 3) It permits freedom of worship. people have narrow mindedness.
Religious Education. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. In the celebration of each such function. students belonging to different religions should be associated. 2. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions.1.presented by the students in the gathering. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. While doing so. There should be some internal checking of the material being. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. that the central string of all religions is one. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. 1) Moral Education. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. education. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Patiala. In the hands of such teachers. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. No doubt.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. tours and trips may be organized.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children.6. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. The very sight of the building. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other.
List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Define Secularism 9. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. The term secularism was first used by 8. The word “Seculum” means 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . No doubt. 2.
4. a. This present age 7. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. for the people and the people”. In the matter of admitting students in schools. 6. Socialism aims at equality. 5.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Socialism aims at social justice. Equal Opportunities for Admission.1. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. a. 2. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. there should be made no distinction of caste. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. b. 4. c. Provision of Manual Work. Since socialism stands for equality. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. Power of the people 2. b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. Tuition free education b.1. d. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. a. 3. Respect of Individual Personality. colour or wealth.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. 3. George Jacob Holydake 80 . it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. creed. Abraham Lincoln. 5.
Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. B. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. b. L. J.1. Dash.C. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. K.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2003). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Pahuja. a. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. 10. should be independent of religion.” 9. K and Narang C. b. Anmol Publications Pvt. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2.8. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. N. J. 81 . P. Bhatia. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Ltd. N. (2008). Mohanty. a. Theory and Principles of Education. the belief that the state morals. (2005). education etc. It permits freedom of religion. It treats all religions on an equal footing. (2004). (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
4 220.127.116.11 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.5.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.9 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2 2.10 18.104.22.168 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.8 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 22.214.171.124.7 2.2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 126.96.36.199 2.LESSON 188.8.131.52.2.2.2.
you will be able to: 1. who are placed in his custody. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. 83 . The developmental roles of children. therefore. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. as workers. 2. moral. as citizens. It involves physical. aims and objectives of the school. as it is t he aim o f modern education. understandings. emotional. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. as learners. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. A teacher is first and foremost.2. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3.2.generation to another. as persons.an instructor of school children. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. and 4. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. skills. 2. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. application. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. a r e 1. development. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. mental. 3. social. 2. social and moral aspects. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils.
The following are some of such roles described in brief. economically effective. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. 2. morally.2. emotionally. mentally.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. Teacher as a Citizen Next. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. He has to look after their physical. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs.All education should lead to better behavioural development. 2. 3. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. intellectually. socially. morally. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. He is to become an active member. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. physically fit for socially efficient. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. culturally confident. mental. The students live. experiences and acceptance. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. a part of their day in 84 . 1. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. member of his community at the outset. motivated. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. and aesthetically to become. social and emotional health. inquisitive.
activities of the society into which he is born. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. List out the role of teachers towards community development . They will be spending with their parents. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly.2. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. India is a land of many castes. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 4. creeds. science club. faiths. and most of hours. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. languages and religions. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. solve them. fine art associations. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. 2.the school being under the custody of teachers. It 85 . the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. Dr. Unless. photographic clubs.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
should be emphasised. The only process is the process of education. Let us. narrow-minded provincial. with straight backs and look up at the skies. Radhakrishnan. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. folklore and teaching of social studies. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. therefore. At the primary stage the importance of stories. c.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. a. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. stand up straight. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. and make into one strong national unit. the study of language and literature. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961.2.” 2. ‘We should not become parochial. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities.5. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform.” Regarding the role of education. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . Nehruji has explained this as. poems. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. the citizens of the Republic of India. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 .1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. b. this integration of the Indian people. social studies. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. national anthem and other national songs. It should broaden the outlook. Sampurnanand remarked. 1.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity.is.
t he st udent s and t he community. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. symposia. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. 10. militar y training like the NCC. Uniform for School Children. 6. 87 . 2. 8. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. 3. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. sports. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. Reverence of National Flag. 9.different social sciences. tours. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. debates. Scouts and Guides. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. 4. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Celebrations of National Days. educational excursions. dramatics and youth festivals. Student Camps. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. Taking Pledge. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. National Days—January 26. Textbooks. 5. Co-Curricular Activities. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. 7. Singing of National Anthem. languages and literature. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. ACC. and picnics. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice.
For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. 13. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. iv. 2. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. v.2. Recognition of Institutions. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . School Projects. 15. colour. Admissions. 88 . Admissions to schools. Open-Air Dramas. iii. 16. language. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. 12. ii. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. ways of thinking and doing things. 14. Educational and Travel Documentaries.5.11. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. region or religion. flora and fauna. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Students Exchange and Tours.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. camps. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.2. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. 2. Community dinners. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 .6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. ix. viii. irrespective of national boundaries. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Define National Integration 3. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. vii. cultures and races on equal bases.vi.
Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. if it happens. the international level. Strong has observed.F. Teachers 90 . patriotism is not enough. therefore. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. 2. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. (c) fairly tales. 3.6. 5. that war.e.friendships between children of different countries. Organising of debates and. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. C. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.6. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.. In a very real sense.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. Dr.as important as that of a national citizenship. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen.” 2. 2. Therefore. of his body and mind. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. 6.2. often in connection with anniversaries. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. This. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. and the healthy development. (b) stories of children of other lands. 4.2. Radhakrishnan states.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1.
They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Impartial in their Treatment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. They should not be propagandists. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Indian and American. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. an Englishman. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . Russian.” Well Informed About World Situations. a German. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts.
leading to. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.Another major.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. understand and indiscipline: 1. the education function can be carried. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . 3. As the school is but a miniature society. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. 2. It does not prepare students for life. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. 5.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. If this is done.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. Wide Spread Frustration .2. and help the students to over . students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous.2. Chronic Poverty . It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. 4. Defects of the educational System . which results in agitation and aggression language. Devaluation of Values . out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. majority of people are. there is wide spread frustration among all people. Soon after they leave their educational institutions.
5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.2. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. 93 . co-operation.democratic nature. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. etc. 2. 3. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. 4. fellow feeling.2.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. 2. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. 2. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. sympathy and good will among the nations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. love. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . community development. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 184.108.40.206 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 220.127.116.11 Functions and role of schools in the society 18.104.22.168 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 22.214.171.124 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 126.96.36.199 Radio as an agency of education 188.8.131.52 Television as an agency of education 184.108.40.206 Press as a medium of education 220.127.116.11 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
18.104.22.168 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 22.214.171.124 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
126.96.36.199 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
188.8.131.52 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Museums. led to the printing of books. Now internet is being used. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Define community. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. art galleries. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. periodicals. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. He taught his students orally. are increasingly used in education. In fact. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children.V.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. Hence. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. To make them achieve their aim. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. “All the citizens of the community. Crow and Crow write. the invention of the printing press. Moreover. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. During the course of time.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Emphasising this thing. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. books. Then came newspapers.
Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. for the teacher through school broadcasts. 101 . “Listening participation” in current history. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Thus. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. 2. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. 2. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. politics. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. A lot of work by way of pre.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. current affairs and other areas. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. It is also an important source of entertainment. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom.6. Reynolds. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. languages.G. art. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. In the emphasis is on sound.3. Thus. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. Students listen various talks. rather than on picture. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. the place of importance. social studies. It enlightens public opinion. Effective means of presenting music. the teacher still occupies. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. music.classroom teachers. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries.telecast. dram appreciation. In collaboration with the experts. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. Various talks. Important happening inventions. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them.
at play. speech. 3. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. fol classical music. at any place. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. at recreational centers. 4. School concerts. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. plays. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. travel talks. audibility and presentability. mathematics. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. Participation of local teachers and pupils. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Team-teaching demonstrations. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. Making learning an open system. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. 5. at drawing room. style. 102 . projects or creative activities. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. informal and non-formal education. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. At present.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. development of lessons. Before presenting the programme. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 184.108.40.206 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
220.127.116.11 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 18.104.22.168 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
22.214.171.124 Advantages of formal education 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.LESSON 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.6 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 18.104.22.168.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.7 2.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.3.1 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.2 22.214.171.124 2.
Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. 6.2. 110 . say the Government or the private enterprise. Education.4. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. In ancient time in India. the mass media et. 8. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 4.3. the community. 9. open university. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. you will be able to: 1.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. the temple. compare formal and non formal system of education. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. 3. 2.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. School is. 3. 4. 2. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. it was mostly. the most important agency of formal education. Education organised by some agency. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2.4. imparted at the residence of the teacher. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. open school. To realize this objective of education. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. the family.4. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 2. the learner are acquainted. starting and ending at -a particular age. 7. his mental alertness.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. 2. 5.4..
In general. Some education systems have separate middle schools.2. Higher Education: Higher education. as well as vocational education and training. third stage. depending on the jurisdiction.4.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. Through early formal education. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. 2.3. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 .3. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. also called tertiary. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. or academic degrees. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. the elements of language are first learned. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. such as a high school or secondary school. diplomas.4. Concepts of proportion. structured education. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. capacity. or post secondary education.a secondary education. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen.
4. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. and remote dwellers. 4. late beginners etc. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. What are levels of formal educational system? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system.4. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . 3. children with disabilities.which will help for nation's development. Agencies can be classified as 2. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . 2. is an important agency of formal education.3.
Thus. etc. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. one could say that non-formal education is an active. It is functional.learning client take some learning objectives. “Non-formal education should 113 . staffed. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. It is much more responsive to needs and change. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. financially supported life formal education. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. Open university. continuing education and on the job oriented education. planned. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Adiseshiah.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. It is deliberate. it has its own valid claim to reality. systematic. However.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. Therefore. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. open learning. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. place of instruction. adults as well as children. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. Non-formal education includes adult education. until 1970 it had not been defined. According to Malcolm A. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. to help themselves.e. it is a more effective tool for rural development.. systematic. admissions.formal education. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. It unlocks the doors of development plans.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. i.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. adding up to a true learning society.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. curriculum.
114 . 2. 7. 4. 3. It should lay emphasis on the self.” 2. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. 5. international understanding.be marketable and vocationalised. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Covering life span of an individual. national integration. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs.4. Process of sharing. evaluation etc. co-curricular activities. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills.e.4.learning pattern. i. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things.” According to H. 2. place of education. Lawrence. curriculum.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs.S. 6.renewal. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.4. Part-time education. Preparation for future needs. admissions. To develop in the student. To help industrial workers to better their skills. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.S.4. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. age. modes of teaching. self. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. Flexibility in various aspects of education. socialism. the Ideas of citizenship. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. exploring.
Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 115 . Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. To offer Secondary. 9. 4. • 2. 5. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Senior Secondary. 7. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2.4. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 10.4.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. 2. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. working adults. 3. school dropouts. in villages and those who live in towns. 8. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. Meeting the omissions of formal education. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. Universalisation of primary education.4. Technical. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 3. 4. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. 5. publication and information dissemination. 6. Eradication of adult literacy. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. 2.4.
farm. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.4. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. Institutions for formal education. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. centres of correspondence education. effective in modern societal context. public libraries.4. etc. To make if. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute.. To increase knowledge and 2.full time to learners – can be home. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 .4. others are formal and informal. if organised in isolation. 2. factory. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. open space. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. 3. 2. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment.2. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. Therefore. Again. training centres in factories. All-round development i.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. etc. Radio and television. self-employment iii.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. 4. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. To better qualifications. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. library.
radio. institution. Define non formal education. 117 .6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. 6. Correspondence lesson. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Give examples of non formal education? . Written tests. Face Contact programmes. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. List out any two aims of non formal education. Teaching to face teaching.V. . Lecturing T. 7. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.
Primary level. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. systematic. Secondary level. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. School 3. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. b.4.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Higher Secondary level and University level.2. a. Pre-school level. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 3. a. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education.4.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. 4. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. adults as well as children. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. 2. 118 .8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. b. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.4. The school. 4. Formal and Non Formal 2. 7. Open School. 2. the college and the university come under this category.” 6. 5. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. Open University.
(2003). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2005). (2008). B. Theory and Principles of Education. (2008).C. L. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2004). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K and Narang C. Ltd.2. (2007). S. P. Pahuja. N. Bhatia. Education in Emerging India. K.4. Ltd. J. Gupta. Mohanty. New Delhi : 119 . J. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. N. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Dash. Anmol Publications Pvt.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.
1 126.96.36.199.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 188.8.131.52.5.5.LESSON 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 18.104.22.168 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.2 2.4 Need for Open University 2.4.7 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .3.5 2.4.4 Open University 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.3 Objectives of Open University 2.5.6 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 126.96.36.199 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.
Under these circumstances.5. It is a lifelong process. give the meaning. Any person. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools.5. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. characteristics of open university 4. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. continuing education is a boon. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. For them. This knowledge may be in political field. However. know the need and objectives of open university. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. farmers. 2. you will be able to: 1. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts.5. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. 2. Thus.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person.3. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. economic field or such other fields. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. 2.2.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. It is a continuous process. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies.5.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. industries. labourers and half educated individuals.
V. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education.5. Throughout the country. if he gets opportunity to develop them. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Persons engaged in health services. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . On the other hand. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. For them too continuing education is essential. Radio and T. Thus. After the achievement of independence. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Radio. Doctors. cultured and progressive. Block Development Officers. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. T. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation.V. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature.directly related to his job. Cinema. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened.literate person. deteriorating to his character and personality. On the other hand. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. 2. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. are also contributing their might for the purpose.3. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas.
The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. (6) folk stories. 3. and Radio. 4.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. Inspite of the great efforts. especially women. 6.3. 7. habits of people of other lands. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy.5. (1) ancient history. (7) folk songs. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (10) first aid. (13) psychology of child behaviour. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (16) liking. (4) the fundamentals of economics. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. (9) fundamentals of philosophy.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. (8) psychology of adults. (2) basic religious matters. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. These books are not very useful.5. Of course. (14) information about bringing up young children. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (15) music. (17) modern international and national events. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. 2. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. we have not been able to achieve our targets. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. 123 . 5. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements.V. 2.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.. 2.3. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons.
5.5.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. 2. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. attendance restrict ion. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . NLM was launched in the year 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. of educational opportunities. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. lack of time etc. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc.
5. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system.5. and in teaching. Education is not a once for-all process. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. d.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. its education is not class room based but home based. e. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. b. IGNOU was established in the year 6. 2. but 125 . 3. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. it makes use of educational techno logy.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. c. 4. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. the higher the degree of openness. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. No one is too old or too late to learn. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.unobserved. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Which was the first open university in India? . it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education.4. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning.
b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. 2. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 2. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities.4. 2. it a ims at wider and hig her.who did not get it. who were deprived of t he same earlier.5. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. Mo re o ver. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 6.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 4. supplementing the existing provision. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. 2. or who realised too late that they need it. annu al wr it t en examinat io n.4. 3. 3.5. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. 126 . 4. 5. cho ice o f co ur ses.
cha ng e t heir life compet ence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a state or nation. school drop outs. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n .5. Self instructional materials. 2. In the present day world. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. 127 . They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. 3.2. 4. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 8. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 8. Tutor Comments. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 2. Laboratory works. 6.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. 5. you have learnt the concept. Every day. Therefore. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. 7. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . 1. List out any four methods of Open University? . semi – literates.5. Correspondence tuition. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. a society.
its education is not class room based but home based. agricultural and industrial workers. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 1985. unskilled workers and other professionals. (2) basic religious matters. 7. a. youth. 8. 3.ambitious learners. 2. 4. P r int med ia b. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 8. 9. 6. need and characteristics of Open University.5. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. (1) ancient history. Explain the objectives. which may include house wives. a. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. Broad casting lectures c. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. b. 2. d. Television Lessons. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. aspirants for continuing education.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 1988. cho ic e o f co u r ses. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 128 . a.5. b. 7.
Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Udaiveer. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 129 .K. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). Ltd.S. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. R. S.5.. L. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Modern Problems of Education. (2004). (2004). K. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K and Narang C. Reddy.2.
UNIT – III 131 .
In Lesson 2. 133 . wastage and stagnation. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. Examination reform. examination. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. Training teachers for all levels of education. All which is the need of the hour. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. and teacher education. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. its causes and remedial measures. which may claim the attention of those concerned. the education of women.
1.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1 EFA – For whom? 3. 135 .1.2 EFA – How? 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.4 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.5 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.7 3.1 3.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.6 220.127.116.11 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.3 New initiatives. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.8 3.1.1.LESSON 3.3.1.
Therefore. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. (EOI) 2. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). therefore. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. education received added importance and significance. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. economic or cultural. directed that. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. On the other hand.1. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950.3.1. 3. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. social. 2. may be political. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. “The State shall 136 . Eradication of Illiteracy.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. Continuing Education (CE) 1. understands the country.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. you will be able to: 1. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy.
rights and responsibilities. After the attainment of independence. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Therefore. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Universalization of Retention.endeavour to provide. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Continuing Education (CE). Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. It enables the parents to send their children to School. 137 . the national Government under. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. Three Stages for Universalization. 3. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Universalization of Enrolment. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Due to the adoption of democratic system. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. Even then we have not yet achieved the target.
we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. 1990. 138 . 1995 (for upper primary stage). later to 1988.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is safe to assure. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. present and future. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country.1. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. This target had to be revised to 1970. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. educational enterprise. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. Write Article 45. UNESCO Bulletin states. Therefore. 3. then to 1976.
3. problem of literacy. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. and Women’s education programme should be improved. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. their social economic status and occupations. 6. Education of the Impaired. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). the art of preparing fruit-juice. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. 3. 12. Disabled. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. slum areas. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. 5. By undertaking survey. 139 .1. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. 10. Jams and Jellies. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. rural areas.3. 11. Emphasis must be given on health education. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. Early childhood education should be streamlined. their enrolment and retention. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. sex. nutrition education and sports and games. Education of Girls. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. In order to make the programme of education for all community. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. etc.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. NAEP. Apart from primary education. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. 8. 9. The Social Education. creed. FELF. adolescent and adult.
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.3. 3. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Expand MLL and SSA . 4.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Wastage and Stagnation.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3.1. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.e.
Personal Factors . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.first stage of education. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. Familial Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. School Factors . Social Factors . it is considered as wastage.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.
Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. 142 . can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . 7. Define Wastage. . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Enumerate the causes of Wastage.
Societal Factors . Personal Factors .The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.The following factors. school or society.1.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. School Factors . They are described hereunder :1. Family Factors . relating to home. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . in his home.3. rural or urban 3.
appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. mid-day meals. Define Stagnation? 9. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. uniforms. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 144 . stationary. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . etc. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education.
b. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.3. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. Universalization of Retention 2. 6. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community.1. 3. 3. Hartog Committee. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all.. therefore.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. a. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. 145 . for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. 2. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. Universalization of Enrolment c. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. Universalization of Provision b.1. 4. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. improvement of curriculum. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc.1. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Minimum Levels of Learning b. directed that.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. “The State shall endeavour to provide. 3.” 3. a.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. a. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.
Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.7. Social Factors 8. (2001). improve examination system. Hemchand. Sharma.1. S. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Crescent Publishing Corporation. S. Personal Factor b. (2007).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. 3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. School Factors d. Problems of Elementary Education. a.K. (2008).K. Familial Factors c. New Delhi: 146 . introduce graded curriculum. 9. T. b. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. a.N.
1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.5.2 Grade System 3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124.7 Open book examination 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.1 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.1 Problems of examination 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .1 Choice Based Credit System 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 126.96.36.199 Modern reforms of examination 188.8.131.52.3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.LESSON 184.108.40.206.2.2.6 Inspection and Supervision 220.127.116.11 Question banks 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168.2.5 New evaluation procedures 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.5.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.
2.2.3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.2. 3. you will be able to: 1. 3.2.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.2.3. suggest the new evaluation procedures. 3. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.2.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. 4. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. 3. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.9 3.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. but on the other. Besides.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.8 3. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.2. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.
They develop secondary sex characteristics. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. etc. The following steps should be taken up. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. If the students are in sufficient number. which the educational authorities have to face. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. etc. 149 .2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing.. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt.3. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided.2. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. roadside Romeoism. hostel facilities. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. They may cause problems relating to discipline. etc. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. schools for them wherever necessary. waiting rooms for girl students. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. 3.
3. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. the examination system has an important role to play. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. 150 .1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. public interested in education. It is considered as a major sub-system.2. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. assessment and Finance.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. teachers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Instruction. conduct of internal examinations. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. appointment of paper-setters. public administrators and statesmen.4. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.2.
Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. examiners. etc. training of examiners. scrutinizers. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. tabulators. invigilators. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. introducing objective-based testing. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. etc. etc.2. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. etc.printing and distribution of question papers.4. reducing the domination of knowledge objective.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. etc. establishing reliability. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. validity and practicability. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . pursuing objective-oriented instruction. values. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. 3. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. announcement of results.
lack of objectivity etc. Vagaries in making. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. halo-effect. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. 2) From the angle of content of education. Rote memorisation.. 7) In connection with the question papers.. 3) With respect to method of teaching. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. do not appeal to the students and parents. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc.4. Subjects. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. 3. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. which they are expected to study. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. may also discredit them. takes the place of comprehensive learning. 152 . make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation.2. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. it can be said that they become examination-oriented.. stereotyped questions. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. it s a common experience that subjectivity. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview.
List any two merits of examination. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. re-numbering of answer scripts. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .a part of internal assessment. etc. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3.. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. revaluation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.develop true love for education. . Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. may be introduced. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 153 . Spot valuation. 4. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions.
2. Every paper is treated equal. In this system.2. Their interests. The new scheme of assessment. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. attitudes. When a person chooses to work extra. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. 3.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success.3. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .2. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. skills are given importance. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. It is complicated. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. The students can take any course offered in any department.5. In actual practice. he is given extra credit points. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper.5. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination.
only the total credits to be earned is specified. This system reduces comparison of marks. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. In the new system.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . or as a 4 credit course. These weightages are called credits. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. v. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents.poor. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course.5.discipline. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. Groupism is encouraged. 3. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. An example is a seminar. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. While designing syllabus.2. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. courses can have weightages defined. poor.good. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester.
2. 3. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. the need for re-evaluation should not arise.5. 3. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.2.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. 3. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education.5.2. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. However. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992.5. 156 .4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization.3. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. 6. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.2. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. recruitment. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors.5. What is the reason for introducing grade system? .2. There are no proper procedures for selection. In the hierarchy. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Therefore. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. However. 3. List any four new evaluation procedures.
wherever necessary. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. books are followed. Academic inspection. They are. playgrounds. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. of late. complaints and compliments. disciplinary problems. inspecting the class-room teaching. laboratory equipment. When they are fully realised.qualified personnel. staff. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. 158 . Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties.. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. finding out whether the prescribed text. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. school buildings. being realised as two different functions. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. interpersonal relationships and so on. etc. in contrast.2.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. library books. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. qualifications. requirements.6. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. etc. 3. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. in a sense. finding out the adequacy of. submitting of the inspection reports. 1. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools.. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. whether the syllabus has been covered. taking up the follow-up programmes.
giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments.Ed. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. courses. In the light of these conceptualisation. 3.. modern. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. In the case of departmental candidates.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. course in either educational. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. 159 . their professional knowledge. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors.Ed. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. M.. at least. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. Similarly. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. or. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. once in five years. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. Insistence on specialisation in the B. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought.2. aptitude.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Grade System. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. a. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Administration.2.2.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. 160 . examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. 5. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. d. assessment and Finance. a. a. b. b. Instruction. 3. 2. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. c. b. 4.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3. 3. 3. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System.
Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. (2005).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. b. 3. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Question banks.2.4. b. (2002). Problems of Education in India. Multiple sets of question paper. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. K. New 161 . K. (2004). Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. a. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. a. Open book examinations. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. History and Problems of Education in India. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. b. 5.a part of internal assessment. a. R and Sharma. S. Educational Reforms. Vaidya. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. c. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. 7.
3.3.7 3.9 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.4 3.8 3. 188.8.131.52.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.1 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. impact of Higher Secondary Education. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. 4.3.3. 2.LESSON 3.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. you will be able to: 1. 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 184.108.40.206 3. identify the needs of rural India and social.10 3.3. 162 .3.5 3. 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3 3.3.
3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857..3. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre.. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 .3. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. The. e. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. and 3 years of First Degree Course. 10 years of general Secondary Education. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. 2. in Andhra Pradesh. Consequent on the recommendations. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. i. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i.e. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta.. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course.g. The Calcutta Madras. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education.specialisation programmes 3. the Banaras Sanskrit College. Commission emphasised to continue. 8 years of general education. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1.e. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Similar is the case with some other States.. University Education. etc. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education.
It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . 7. is also a plus point . it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. historical. 5. However.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . to imbibe. b. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. who desire to change from one stream to another. social. Provision for transfer of credits to students.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. cultural and economic development of the country. educational channels. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. economical and political. 5) to help for the social.confidence in students. habits of hard work and develop . It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. 10. to prepare. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. and. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.3. 3. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 6. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. 8. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities.a sense of dignity of labour.
to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. Here the choice of subjects is provided for.. democratic living. and that required to enter the tertiary level. on one hand. international understanding.national integration. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. 3. cultural and' religious tolerance. to develop national character. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. The General Educational Spectrum. Philosophically it is not the conception. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. and. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing.3. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. Sociologically it is undesirable. 1. Psychologically. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. social justice. cooperativeness. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. etc. at the other. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only.
trade and public services are expanding rapidly. Agriculture is the main occupation. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. 2. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. such as Agriculture. industrial agricultural production is growing. commerce. and vocations based on dairy-farming. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity.3. Commerce and other disciplines. Biology. physics or mathematics. In the vocational spectrum. chemistry. vegetable growing. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. medical plants. or other machinery. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. fish culture. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. technical.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. commerce. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. the rural areas have suffered very much. 3.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. rural health. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. India is a land of villages. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. In the matter of language. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. educational and cultural services. professional. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. technological. All these need for an. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. Science. 166 . In our country. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels.— tube-wells. horticulture. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character.
Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. can be ensured. In this it may be concluded.etc. In this way. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. the local resources available. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. and 5. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? .. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. etc. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. There had been favourable reaction from the students. interests and aptitudes of the students.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging.. In time. and the needs. 4. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 .3. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. social justice.
a. Anmol Publications Pvt. Mohanty. a.K. Vocational Sepctrum.3. (2007). S. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. Dash. Modern Trends in Indian Education.3. N.3. (2001). habits of hard work and develop . Ltd.3. a. (2008). J. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal.C. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. objectives. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. (2005). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. 3.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. we studied the history. General Educational Spectrum and b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.a sense of dignity of labour. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. Calcutta University Commission 2. 2. J. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. New Delhi : 168 . 3.3. b. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. 3. to imbibe. B.
4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.12 3. Education contributes to human development.4.LESSON 3.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1 3.9 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.6 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.11 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”.4.7 3.5 3.8 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge. social and 169 .2 3.4.3 3.10 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.13 22.214.171.124.4.
although we have miles to go. For the first time in the history of India. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. higher education of girls developed immensely. family. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . community and nation is universally acknowledged. you will be able to: 1. During the year 1937. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. analyze the women and distance education. Teaching and Fine Arts. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. There is a close connection between education and development. In the post —independence period. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education.higher education in particular. Education . Nursing. 3. economic.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. These courses were. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. Dr. 3. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. The relevance of women’s education to social. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. While women constituted only 9. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. particularly 170 .4. cultural and political development of the individual. Home Economics. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states.
1 24. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.women. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.0 43.4. in our country. The idea of women’s education for equality. levels and professions.N. we have more than 1200 institutions.4. Even today. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .2 29.T Women University. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.0 16. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. out of 9200 and odd colleges.65 lakhs in 1994-95. In 1950-51. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.9 27.2 22. Yet. 3.0 32. Coimbatore.1 31. 3.0 Today. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Mother Teresa Women University. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Kodaikanal.D. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. Mumbai. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.4.9 14. In the rest of the country.
47 65. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .53 34.36 3.1 respectively.56 64.1 and 14. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.27 89. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.17 52. 2.4. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.46 82.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.66 66.73 10.83 47.44 35.that of boys. 3.63 Female % 34.4%) prefer Arts subjects. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . 3. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? . The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.54 12. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .4.4.34 33.
The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. 173 . Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. particularly. irrelevance of the content of education. Book banks should be established. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. 3. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. she will only learn fashion. promoted and increased. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. They gave up their studies to enter home life. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. and coeducation may spoil her character. The major hurdles. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are.hinders the girls from getting higher education. In every third family. According to a survey. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. Thus.4. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. etc. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. curriculum not suited to their requirements. what is the need for higher education for her. financial difficulty of the parents. marriage is a very common I factor. distance of the college or university from home. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. Also. In college. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities.
Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Education. 3.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. It also brings about 174 . which is the most dynamic factor of development. Distance education is a boon to women. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Geographic distance of educational institutions. 3. space. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. It enables to study. Full-time employment. resources and socio .Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. It is a productive investment. Empowerment in a nutshell.4. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. and the limitations of the conventional education system. is the only tool for realising empowerment. There are constraints of time. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously.economic disabilities faced by women. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women.4. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.
This can be achieved through reflection. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. on their own. empowerment means being assertive. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. for full development of our human resources. higher learning. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. education of women is of paramount importance. 3. The major objectives of women's higher education. Women are partners in development. legal awareness and economic independence. Empowerment is an active. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation.4. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. education of women must be given priority in national plans. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society.
which is pending for a long time. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. Reservation for women. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. has to be implemented at the earliest.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. especially so in the developing countries. who are eager to take up courses. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. will encourage them to venture new grounds. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. The educational institutions. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. which had been the sole domain of men. 176 . More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. The local administration. Scholarships and concessions for women. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. But their number is small. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. 3. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. Better opportunities. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena.4. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out.
International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.3 percent. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. IDP Education. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. According to Lindy Hyam.4.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Chief Executive.. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 .1%) and architecture and building (38. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8%). Also.9%). Australia. But. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. talents. capacities etc. especially in developing countries like African countries. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%).000 women in the country. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. engineering and related technologies (16.
Mother Teresa Women University. Pattanaikj. individuals and society b.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3.C. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Mishra. 4. 3.4. 43% 6. SNDT Women’s University.4. and Suryalatha. A. and Swain. Women Education. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. R. R. 178 . (2008). Women Education. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. 4. a. 3. SNDT Women’s University. Women and Education. (2000). Rao. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. (2007). Annakodi.R. Centre for Women’s Studies.4. R. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Coimbatore. (2005). New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. community and the nation.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Coimbatore. Kodaikanal. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Mumbai. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Rajasthan 5.K. 2.to the family. Mumbai. S. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. S. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. A. 3. create the right attitude towards life.
5.10 3. whole.1 3.7 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4 3.9 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.11 3.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .6 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.5.5.personality of children in and out of school.126.96.36.199.2 3.5.5 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. They should be trained.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5.8 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.LESSON 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.5.3 3.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.
equality and justice. 3. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. 5. 180 . All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. social and emotional integration. 3. national consciousness. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. international. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. you will be able to: 1. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. know the pre service and in service training facilities. 4. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. understand the training teachers for Primary. understanding and strong desire for international peace. and national character.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary level.5. Shorter working hours. Lack of physical facilities.5.
(NCERT) New Delhi. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. 3.Less qualified teacher educators. levels. Depending on the levels. Inadequate training in practical skills. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. inservice and extension education programmes. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. it is called the In-service teacher education. the state Government. higher secondary teacher education. students. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. etc.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. 3. Lop-sided curriculum. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . who have not been trained earlier.. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching.5. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. At the diploma level. If the student teachers are working teachers. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them.Ed. the centre. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. the secondary teacher education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. it is called the Extension teacher Education. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities.5.Ed.. a Diploma course and a Degree course. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. and M. the primary teacher education. and the collegiate teacher education. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier.
• the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Evaluation unit. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. non-formal. 3. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? .6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . are established. Education cells. Also Guidance Bureaux. etc. Science Education units. depart ments etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Expand NCERT 2. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. state Institutes of Educat ion.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education.5. extensio n service. collegiate cells. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Educational teehnology cells.
material conditions relating to libraries. should be improved on a top priority basis.Ed. and so on. to ensure teacher competence. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B.. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B.Ed. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. to prescribe conditions for recognition. and 183 . degree. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . primary and secondary school teachers. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. which help breaking isolation from one another .. to improve curricular programmes. which should include experience in the primary schools too. to offer consultative services. schools and sister institutions.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and .. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. audio visual aids. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. laboratories. despite its vast expansion. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas.
Induction Courses. though no pre-service training.secondary education. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. The problem. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. To meet this exigency. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. Agriculture.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. whether they should have professional education or. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. and XII. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. Modern Techniques of Teaching. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. Meanwhile. etc. Modern Methods of Evaluation. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Workshops. Organisation of Content Courses. Psychology of Students. 184 . etc. Hence. not came up once again. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. methodology and evaluation.
. Degree.’s for Ph. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education...Ed. Pre-service training is for those. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. All B Ed.A.’s are elig ible for M. Degree and M.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications... Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.A.5. Ajmer. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.Ed. M. courses and M. For re-orienting the teachers. 3. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. Courses leading to B... Post-Graduates also undergo B. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.D. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.Ed.. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. in Education. training.Ed. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. (Education) and M. State Institutes of Education.Ed. (Education) are organized by 185 . Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.S. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. These facilities are available for regular students.Ed. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.
and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. (Ed). they should be conscientious .A. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.A. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and B. established by tradition and teachers of the past.some Faculties of Education of some Universities.. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . 186 . However. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned..).List any two code of conduct for teachers? . 5. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . .5. Hence the employability of M. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. What is the role of ERIC? . Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. of conduct—written or unwritten. (Ed. 4. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. 3. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. 6.
Shorter working hours. 2. National Council of Educational Research and Training.5. b. 187 . no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. Dearth of new technology of teaching. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Ajmer. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. a. 3. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. Bhopal. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. Discuss the problems of teacher education. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. The necessity is however this. 4. 4.5. 6. 2. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. However. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. 3. 5. they should be conscientious.5. a.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.3. b. Explain code of conduct for teachers. 3. 3.
Tewari. Corporation. (2003). New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . B. Teacher Education. J. Mohanty.3. (2009). Publication Pvt. P.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. (2010).5.D.N. A. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Ltd Aggarwal. and Teacher Education. Teacher Education.
UNIT – IV 189 .
Since food is the source of nutrients. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. communicable diseases and their prevention. the focus is on the school health programmes. If the diet is poor. consuming the right amounts becomes important. 191 . objectives and role of the physical education. In lesson 1. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. The person’s environment is equally important. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. preservation of nutrients. In lesson 4. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. objectives. objectives. economic and educational developments. nutritional deficiency diseases. common ailments of children. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients.
2 4.7 4.6 4. physical. mental.5 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.1.11 4. emotional and social.1.8 4.1. 193 . It is a miniature society. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.3 4.4 4.e.1. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1.1 4.9 4.1.10 4. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.188.8.131.52. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. for giving health education to the children under its custody. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.LESSON 4.
know the need for sex education. e.. To develop certain skills concerning health. To give information regarding health rules. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. understand school health programmes 2. 9.g. 10. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community.1. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. 4.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. explain the importance of First aid 5. 3. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. to his family and to the community at large. To develop healthy health habits among children. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. cleanliness and healthful living. 5. training in first aid and etc. 8. 7. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. 6.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. content of health education. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 194 . To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. list the common ailments of children 3. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. Instruction. 2. 4. you will be able to: 1. training of teachers and evaluation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. 4. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 11.
Triple Antigen Vaccination. There should be good drainage facilities. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. B. excusing late. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp.G.coming or absence. organisation of school health days.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body.C. direct lighting. 2. (v) safety education. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. ( iii) sanit at io n. The surroundings of schools should be clean. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled.1. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. 4. proper doors and windows. Vaccination for small pox. The school buildings should be spacious. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. (xii) smoking education etc. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. suitable furniture. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. First aid facilities should be made readily available. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. (vi) nutrition education. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. 3. Toilet rooms should be amply provided.4. (xl) mental health. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. The flooring should not be damp. inoculation against cholera. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. cleanliness weeks. (ii) communit y healt h. etc. Arranging better transportation facilities. (viii) first aid. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. play festivals. is imperative. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. vaccination. 2. as described below 1.. There should be regular water supply. “Play-for-all” programmes. minimizing the travelling distance.. B. 5. typhoid.
• Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. fainting (epileptic fit). • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. sports and games in the interest of their health.. • Have adequate rest and sleep. burns. • When sleeping in groups. wounds. dislocations. if epidemic is wide-spread. poisons. fractures. • Close the schools. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. and other accidents. 196 .• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. D. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. • Find out the cases. C. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. scalds. isolate and notify. drowning. etc. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. insect stings. • Take nutritious food. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. • Keep all rooms clean. cuts. bleeding. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics.
From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. List out the Health curriculum 3.1. So they easily get illnesses. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. pain in the joints. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people.. polio. cough. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. They are: i) The incubation stage. backache. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. 2. chicken pox. tuberculosis. which are – cold. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. water or bodily contact. They have less resistence to diseases than adults.1. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. fever. These diseases are called communicable diseases. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Once these germs get into the body.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. headache. Mention the school health programmes.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. There are three stages in any communicable disease. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. asthma. measles etc.
Important salts and water are lost in this process.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Scabies . The symptoms include cold.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Tonsilitis . Children catch cold from persons having cold. The child may have fever. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Ear Infections . The following are the common communicable diseases. This is caused by cold virus. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body.This disease is caused by bacteria. head-ache and cough. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. unhygienic living conditions.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Measles . Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. unhygienic bottle feeding. etc. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Common Cold . In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. eating food which is not clean.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Some suffer cold due to allergy.It is caused by measles virus. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. sugar and water. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Hence it is called a killer disease. Diarrhoea . After three or four days of fever. Others make the children very weak. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. 198 . There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops.When a child suffers from scabies. cough and fever. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Throat is affected. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Mumps . nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air.
the child is not able to breathe. Expand DPT . raised pink spots appear on head. If proper treatment is not given. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. As the disease progresses. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. By scratching he causes secondary infections. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. It begins with fever. Diphtheria . Enlist the common ailments of children. separate. What are communicable diseases? 6. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings.• • • • Chicken Pox .This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Typhoid . They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. face and waist. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. 199 . Shortly. 5. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. The child may also have diarrhoea. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the child may die.
drowning. fiction. 4. fainting. films and jokes. In such cases. so-called sex books and periodicals. cuts.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. 5. dislocation. exciting and body-oriented.1. Wounds . man-woman behaviours. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. Drowning . bruises. sprains. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. Sprains . wounds.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. it is a subject of art.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. etc. It has its rightful place in education too. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. 2. 4. simple fractures. bleeding. Sex is popular. swelling. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. scorpion stings. snakebites. head injury.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. 200 .1. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. Cuts and Bruises . It is both biological and psychological.g.4. and Community Work and Social Service.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. eye injury. 3.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. and films. sprains.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation.
Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. 2. Should the boys and girls. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. B.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. but preserve them from disaster and disease. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education.. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. The values of life. In today's liberal and interactive society. in their ignorance. celibacy are age. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. 3.old values. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. the religious organisations. In secondary schools. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. the school. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. they would be treading the path of sure doom. sex education is being recommended in schools. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. The home. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. health. try experimenting with their bodies. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. Hence. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life.
Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. hence. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. C.1. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. when the courses are already overloaded. 202 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. first aid and sex education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. Teacher education institutions are. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. 4. common ailments of children. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. there will no crisis in its implementation. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. communicable diseases and their prevention. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. the school health programmes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. What are the major components of Sex Education. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 184.108.40.206 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 209 . What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Mention the food nutrients 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients.2. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s .4. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. If you look at the definition carefully. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. 210 . minerals. Let us talk about each of these aspects. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day.2. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a.
Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. In other words. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. A balanced diet is specific firstly. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress).g.one in the morning and the other at night. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. Even within given States there is considerable variation. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. These are: region where the person resides and income. for example.g. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. construction labourer).2. People in the east of our country prefer rice.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. sex. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. moderate or heavy work. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. In the case of adults. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. it is also specific to a given activity level . The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati.6.sedentary. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. the social and religious practices of that region. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . activity level and physiological stress. dosa are typical of the south. paratha and poori. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. Preferences/customs are also important. 4. There is no point. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals .
income plays a vital role. In addition to these. while another may hate them. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. Judicious selection of food is. One person may be fond of milk products. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. Even among flesh foods. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. These determine the acceptability of foods. customs. taboos related to food may play an important role. As you read this discussion. nuts and dry fruits. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. vegetables and fruits. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese.planning the diet. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. One must. However. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. fat and sugar tend to increase. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. As income increases. Among the social factors. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. as important for the rich as for the poor. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. however. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. however. for example. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. If you think of your own religious group. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. Having more money. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. however. Including these 212 .
but they should be thrown away. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables.eating is hazardous. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. List out any two healthy food habits. For this. mouth. fruits. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. if the teachers have good food habits.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. etc. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . 17. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. 8) Walk a while after eating. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. green leaves. 8. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. meat. over-eating or under. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. eggs . 213 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . Define balanced diet.
Corneal xerosis. In fact. e.4. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Keratomalacia 3. Explain food nutrients 4. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. Bitot’s spots. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. good nutrition is essential for good health.2. When the diet is inadequate.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. preservation of nutrients. c. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. b. 4. d. a.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Vitamin D 5.2. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Conjuctival xerosis. 4.2. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Night blindness. Beri Beri 4. Discuss good food habits. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A.
R.2. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Food should be consumed after eating well. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. S. Chopra. R. Nutrition Science. P. b. (2009). (2004). Food and Nutrition Education. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . Nutrition and Dietetics. (2005). b. 8. (2008).6. Sri Lakshmi B. Food and Nutrition Education.M. a. (2008). 4.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. A Text Book of Foods. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. a .N. minerals.C. Health and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. 7. mouth. Hands.
220.127.116.11. 216 .13 4.3.5 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.18.104.22.168.2 Impact on economic development 4.9 4.LESSON 4.6.2 4.8 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 22.214.171.124 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.7 4.3 Impact on Education 126.96.36.199.11 4.10 4.3.3 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3.12 188.8.131.52.1 4.
It is not sex education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the stress is. economic and educational development 3.3. therefore.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. and the consequences of these processes. his societ y and the world.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. Whenever we talk of sex education.3. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.3. his family.4. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. state the meaning. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. family planning and sex education etc. It is a much wider co ncept. 217 .1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. describe the impact of population growth on social. you will be able to: 1. aims at providing the younger generation. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. understand the importance of small family norm 5. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. 4. the causes of population change. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. population characteristics. There is some difference. objectives and need for population education 2. Population Education. 4. characteristics and changes for himself. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. community.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two objectives of Population Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. the family.4. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. the nation and the world.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .3. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. the society.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Define Population Education 2. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. 4.
the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. With the larger families. Family is considered as a social unit.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood.3. which will not be possible without population control. When the family is small. Every second two thousand children are being born. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age.3. 4. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race.6. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. the family programmes are also handicapped.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. 4. economic and educational development of the country. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. 219 . health and happiness of its citizens. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country.
and so on. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. facility for drinking water.3. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. Swollen cities. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development.. in parks and other places of public gatherings. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. toilets. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils.6. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth.3. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. The gulf between them is widening further. teacher index. pollution of the environment. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets.6.e. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. 4. In developing countries. there is an inverse relationship between population and development.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. in buses and trains. heavy intern I migration etc. in cinema halls and theatres. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. organization index and material index. i. lack of proper health care. Many students herded in a small room. 4. unemployment. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. 220 .
there will be lacuna in many other spheres. essays. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. family planning etc. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. less budget for education. can be taken up. can be studied in science and health education. There would be poor library facilities. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. Social Studies Statistics on population education. There would be very few audiovisual aids. bar graphs etc. less administrative initiative and leadership talents.. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. and laboratory equipments. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects.3. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. blank verses etc. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. reproduction. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. less space facilities. 221 .3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Regional Language. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. Hindi and English. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. even text books would be in short supply. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. thus.
They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. 2. Brazil. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. deaths. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 12.4. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 14. United States of America. area and average density of population. Children with the help of parents. West Bengal. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Children may compare two families. 15. Canada. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. causes of deaths etc. 11. 4. 9. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Uttar Pradesh. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. 10. 7. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 8. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. China. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children.3. 3. 5. 13. Bihar.
It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. 17. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. values and role children etc. The question. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. age at marriage. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. preferences for sex. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Comparing life in various respects in two families.be opened in their schools. 18.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. we have no right to stop 223 . These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size.3. 16. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people.
need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.4-6. at varying places in different regions. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. fertility levels have declined throughout the country.to emphasize family planning services. More than 45 years ago. 4.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.their entry into the world”..sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . should be overcome at the intellectual levels. “He who is responsible for population growth. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. Since the program's inception. on an overall basis. which education can only do. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).3. especially the expansion of child immunization services .4 births per woman in mid-1990s. and the child survival components of the news: program. continued . however. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage.were implemented 224 . The Family Welfare Program.
Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. and the World Conference on Women. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. reliance on local women as community health workers. a focus on health promotion. In October 1997. In April 1996. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. Moreover. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. and nominal fees for services. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. men. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. Local programs vary in their approaches. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. Therefore. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. expansion of services to unmarried women. At these meetings.earlier than the safe motherhood components. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. the community appears willing to pay for services.
improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. Its main purposes are to create awareness. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. 1997).12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. 3. 226 . The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training.3. 4. family.emphasizing the needs of the client. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Describe the impact of population growth on social. involving the community. community.3.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. What are the goals of RCH? 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. nation and the world. economic and educational development 4. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. bar graphs. 3.” 2.4. China. characteristics and changes for himself. 227 . Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Canada. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. his family. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. area and average density of population. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. b. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. United States of America. a. 4. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. population characteristics. 6. less budget for education. 5.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. and the consequences of these processes. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. less space facilities. 7. the causes of population change. b.3. Brazil. a. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. a. his society and the world. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.
K. Reddy. (2005). T.4. (2002). (2004). (1992). Kantikar. N. 228 . “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Principles of Population Studies. Ltd. (2005). Udaiveer. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.3. A. Centre for Women’s Studies. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. J. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Ltd. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Coimbatore. V. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Bhende. Jayapoorni. Modern Problems of Education.
4.4.6 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.11 19.2 4.3 Indigenous games 18.104.22.168 4.7 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .1 4.3 4.4 4.2 Major games 4.4.1 Minor games 4.4.9 4.4.4 Lead up games 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4.LESSON 22.214.171.124.10 4.4.4.
The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. the youth of the country. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. moral fitness and emotional fitness. classify the different types of games. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities.4. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. state the meaning of Physical Education 2.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country.4. as it should 230 .4. The concept of physical education has been made broader.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. social fitness. you will be able to: 1.4. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. full records of physical activities should be maintained. perseverance.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. which forms its most valuable assets. team spirit. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. 4. 4. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. mental alertness. leadership and balance in defect. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.
Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. obedience to rules. They are inseparably united together. leadership. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. To be more precise. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Every individual is a part of society. team spirit. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. moderation in victory and balance in defeat.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Therefore. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. They go hand in hand. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. The educational efforts at home.
4.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. a sound health. Buck has observed that 232 .” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. Just like Education. ment al. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. C. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field.” The Secondary Education Commission. nor body but the whole man. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. H. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. mo ral. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. 4. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action.” Montaigue writes. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. game and sports. Rousseau states. Physical exercises. pleasing manners. Regarding the significance of physical education. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks.
Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. “If we wish to develop the whole being.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. speed. initiative.4. elegance. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. flexibility and power. 233 . happiness. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life.a properly directed physical education should result in health. resourcefulness and smartness. Froebel says. etc. coordinative abilities.” In brief. efficiency and character. endurance. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. strength. we must exercise the whole human being. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process.” 4. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.
If no opportunity is provided to the students. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. While wars. systems of government. should help in the spiritual development of the student.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. poetry and painting. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Every age has its artists. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. in greater or lesser degree. its adherents and its enemies. Tournaments foster this sentiment. including all racial groups and historical ages. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. plagues and famines. these fundamental things have always been present. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. they may form gangs. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. 234 (i) (ii) . because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music.
Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 235 . to develop tolerance. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. B. obedience. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. 3. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.sacrifice. etc. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. 2. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. respect for rules. Write any two importance of Physical Education. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination .(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements.\ to develop perseverance. bravery and interest in games and sports. self.
Be punctual. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. 7.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 12. Usually parents. 11. 6. and. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. . Posture screening should be done.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Act as a leader. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 5. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed.4. 3. Be self-confident. 16. defects. Keep the field ready for the activities. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. injuries among pupils should be made. Emergency care procedures should be followed.4. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Be well-prepared. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 9. 13. 8. is essential. 2. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Always keep the whistle ready. students. 10. Be in the uniform. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 15. Inform health principles.H. 4. 14.4. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. and readmission after they have recovered. Haag. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Be sportive. 236 1.
less equipment and less expense. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. their development is handicapped. 4. Lead up games. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. the play. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Indigenous games.4. Such inst incts as imitation. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. frolic and jo y. 1. Moreover.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. chasing. 237 . Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten.4. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. 3. 4. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. As such they are well enjoyed by children. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. 4. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.8. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play.
Throwing. catching. Tennikoit. the play equipment. spiking. Hockey. They are played for a shorter duration. Khokho. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. 4.With a very few rules. stopping. Hopping. skipping. wherever the kids assemble. driving. over ball pass Relay. The dimension of the posts and nets. 238 . Kabaddy etc. the games can be modified according to convenience. zig zag relay. Cricket. Soft Ball.8. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Dodging. on mountain tops and on river beds. with implements or without implements. snatching the kerchief. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. boosting. hitting.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. trapping. Volley Ball. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Shuttle Badminton. Tennis. bowling etc. On lawns.4. Except a few games. Jump the stick clay and so on. Jumping. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. benefit in playing minor games. While many of them are played in the open playfields. couple tag. muffling. Basket Ball. For each game the rules are many.. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. pitching. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. under ball pass Relay. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. heading. finding the partner. the number of players and substitutes. on sea-shore. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. on hard courts. Ball Badminton. These games require varied skills such as running. women take part most of the games. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. some of them are played indoors. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. dribbling.
4. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu.4.8. they are in existence. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. While observing the players in action. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. birth. festivals connected with religion and public functions. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. For example. 7. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 .4.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. death. On occasions like marriage. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. All the fundamental tactics.8. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. and . Kho-kho. They have an abundant social value. 4. Games may be classified as 6. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. these games being popular. An example for indigenous game is 8. List out some major games. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.
4. 5. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. c. a. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. 4. a. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. b. to develop physical stamina. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. b. 2.4. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 3. 3. a. Posture screening should be done. Minor and Major 240 . the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. aims and objectives and need of physical education.4. to secure physical health b. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. d.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. physically and emotionally fit and alert.4. 4. 4. b. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 2.
Basket Ball. G. Khokho 8. Health. (2009). 4. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Handbook of Physical Education. Shuttle Badminton. (2005). Ball Badminton. Mohanty. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Physical Education and Sports.6. Krishna murthy. J.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Cricket. Soft Ball. Kabaddy 7. (2008).4. (2008).C. Hockey. Foot-ball. J. Ltd. Khokho. Tennis. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Tennikoit. Volley Ball. 241 . J. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.K. Aggarwal.
3 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .6 126.96.36.199 4.5.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .10 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.11 188.8.131.52 Manmade Environment 4.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.2 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 184.108.40.206.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4 4.1 Natural Environment 4.8 4.5.LESSON 4.1 4.5.9 4.5.5.
Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. list out the types of environment 3.5. Broadly. 6. Awareness. Skills. social. role of teacher in environmental conservation. political. population explosion and resource depletion could be. 3. 243 . Attitude. 4.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. education about the environment and education through the environment. 2. 4. you will able to: 1. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. Evaluation Ability. Details are given below: I. Knowledge. 5. The best place to start such learning is school. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.educat ion for the environment. 2. it covers the following elements: 1. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. 4. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution.5. aesthetic and educational factors.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1.5. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. Essential knowledge about the Environment. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Participation. 3. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. economic. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems.
Oxidants Other pollutants. heat sink and wind flow in cities. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system.B. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. a. D. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. 244 . 2. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. F. • Biological magnification E. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle.
3. 4. Family planning ii. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. c. Birth control through education b. 3. Control of population growth a. Socio-economic measures. Abortion iv. The pill ii. Sterilisation. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. B. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. III. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Use of medical science i. 2. The human ecosystem II. Persuasion: i. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. 2. economic. Intrauterine device iii.
1983). Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Define Environmental Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. e) Recycling. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. 3. 2. Water pollution abatement. (UNESCO. 3. Air pollution abatement ii. 246 . Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i.
It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. to his needs. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.5.4. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.5.5. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . These are biotic components.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. Biological environment The biological environment.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. a.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. fax agricultural apparatus. includes the plants. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. telex. 4. way is called environmental or ecological factor. A change in one brings about a change in the other. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. Any constituent or condition of the environment. He modifies according”.5. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. animals and other organisms (biotic). -other.5.5.other components of the environment. b.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. They interact with each.
of civilizations. noise pollution. need for bio-diversity. wars and hazards of war. food chain and food-web. desertification 248 . Physics Topics like conservation of energy. river systems. use of medicinal plants. supplying timber for various uses. social studies. effects. balance of nature. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. role of trees in building economy. use of pesticides. evolution. t heir role in preventing pollution. mineral survey. greenhouse effect. nuclear warfare. windmills. nuclear energy. preventing siltation of dams.. sources. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. maintaining the ecological diversity. excellent recreation sites. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. water scarcity. importance of nitrogen cycle. extinction of species. industrial pollut io n. explosion deforestation. sources of pollut ion. ozone depletion. over exploitation of ground water. relation between population and pollution. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject .either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. ozone layer deplet ion. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. biogas plants. solar cookers. effects o f CFC. noise control. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. change in climate may be added. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. acid rain. alternate sources of energy. etc. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. need for conservation. (ii) Air pollution. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. History The rise and fall. reasons. air pollutants from industries. population. are the topics which may be taught in History. preserving the watersheds. natural way of controlling pests. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. industrial survey. trees reducing noise pollution. etc.
12. animal and plants. 7.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 13. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Organising conferences. 2. aims and scope. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 3. Providing. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 249 . Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. 11. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 14. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. 4. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Developing awareness about environmental issues. group discussions and seminars.may be inc ded in Geography. 5. 8. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 4. 10. Peepal and Tulsi. 9. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 6. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan.5. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material.
Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. all these can cause serious pollution. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Don’t burn any waste. World Environmental falls on 250 . it will cause pollution. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. used oils down the drain. Never put any left over chemicals. especially plastics. 5. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. 6. Use public transport wherever it is possible. If it is done. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Reuse carrier bags. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry.Send their waste oil.
Conservation of natural resources. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. To arrange for visiting speakers. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. (cleanliness.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. Concern for species. Att itudes of balance towards nature. To provide materials needed for practical work.. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. orderliness and beauty). nuclear wars. To arrange visits or expeditions. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Harmony with the nature . To initiate and develop discussion and debate. depletion of ozone. etc. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. values and habits.). diversity and stability. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. deforestation.mat erials. dest roying nat ural habitats.5. concern for others). CFCs. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem.4. Social responsibilit y (common good. The groups may exchange. and 251 . their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. rather than conquest and mastery. potable water. To provide reference materials for children’s use. viz. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. developing desirable attitudes. etc. loss of bio-diversity.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.5. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 252 . Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. 4. preserving natural cycles.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. 8. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. 4.
a. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. b. sources of pollution. acid rain. Kuldeep. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. reasons. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. S. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Rapid population growth. (ii) Air pollution. New Delhi : Authors Press. air pollutants from industries.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. effects.K.\ 4. a. To provide materials needed for practical work. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Awareness. New Delhi : Sharma. Education for values. b.5. Modern Problems of Education.K. Knowledge. Organising conferences. a. 3.K. over exploitation of ground water. Environmental Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . water scarcity. explosion deforestation. b. population. Environment and Human Rights. Environmental Education. S. greenhouse effect. Y. relat ion between population and pollution. June 5 7. Publications Pvt. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. 4. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Nanda. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. b.. Providing. (2007). 5. a. (1997). group discussions and seminars. 8. 6. Udaiveer. ozone layer deplet ion. new problems from science and technology. sources. Ltd. (2007). Ltd. Social responsibilit y (common good. (2004).K.2. T. concern for others). importance of nitrogen cycle.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 220.127.116.11 Idealism and aims of Education 18.104.22.168 Idealism and Curriculum 22.214.171.124 Idealism and methods of teaching 126.96.36.199 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 188.8.131.52 Naturalism and aims of Education 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and Curriculum 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and methods of teaching 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 22.214.171.124 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
126.96.36.199 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 188.8.131.52 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. Education must contribute to development of culture. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. in fact. According to Rusk'. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . Therefore. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. promote and transmit it to rising generation. Education according to idealism. should be universal in nature. It is self-realisation. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. The universe is regarded as a thought process. moral. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. Spiritual Development. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man.3. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. the emancipation of spirit.” 5. man is essentially a moral being. enrichment and transmission of culture.our life. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. Universal Education.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum.1.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism.
3. an indispensable necessity.” He is thus. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct.1. 2. Herbert advocated instruction method. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. 4. Learning through lecturing. History. 5. However. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . Ethics. Science. Learning through questioning. According to idealism. and collation (striving) should find due place. 5. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race.1. So cognition (knowing). the school is a garden.” 5. no doubt. a spiritual guide for the child.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. should be there. So he should embody. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. friend and guide. It considers teacher as. so subjects like Religion. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. affecting (feeling). hygiene. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality.the spiritual qualities of mankind. He carries the child from darkness to light. For this no particular method has been suggested. Philosophy. The plant can grow. Learning through discussion. So health. He sets the environment in which education takes place.3. Mathematics etc. 3. For intellectual development. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. subjects like Languages. Learning through reading. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. According to Frobel. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. Learning through imitation.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types.
5. text books. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.preservation. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. formal lessons or examinations. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self.perfection and beauty. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. In the words of Ross. Ross explains.1. curricula. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. 5.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. "Education should make 263 • .4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2. time tables. Perfection of Human Machine.1.
Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Naturalistic curriculum. It is based on the psychology of the child. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Chemistry. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. his interests and inborn tendencies 2.4. 4. It emphasises physical and health education 5. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. therefore. Education also aims at helping the individual t.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. • 5. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. “Education finds its purpose. Arithmetic. is based on the nature of the child.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. useful and mature child. geography should also be included in the curriculum. It stresses basic sciences. subjects like history. 264 . There is no place for religious and moral education. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. Literature. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. In all. Education should. Zoology. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Therefore. Botany etc Language. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. rational harmoniously balanced.1. education should develop the child into Joyous. Biology. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment.
Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Learning through experience.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . 3. 4. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Dalton Plan. a supplier of materials and opportunities. Rousseau says. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. 2. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4.1. he should be taught by experience alone. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Learning by doing. It discards all rigid. Heuristic method. the stage. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning.4. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Learning through observation. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. a provider of an ideal environment. 5. In the . Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism.1. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.4.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. 5. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Here the emphasis is on the individual method.
5. Subjects. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. History. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Continuous Growth. 5.absolutism of idealism. All Round Development of an Individual. Vocational and 266 . Physical training. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons.5. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices.1. Geography. is true. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Personal Social Adjustment. diversified and flexible. Agriculture.5. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Social Efficiency. Social Science. social and moral aspects. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Sciences. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. intellectual.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. The aim of educational development. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed.1. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency.
4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. a teacher occupies an important position. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. should find proper place.5. He has to be active. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. The subjects.1.” 5. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.Technical Education. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Learning by Doing. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. alert and resourceful. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life.1. a senior partner and a sincere guide. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. activities and experience should be integrated properly. He must be trained.5. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences.
2. 4. scientific and psychological education. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. The basic tenets of realism are 1.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Music and Dance. 4. 3. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Art. Crafts.5. Study of Subjects like Language.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Mathematics. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Chemistry. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. intellectual. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. specific. Astrology. 3. Sex Education. Population Education. 5. History. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. rich and happy. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Education is preparation for a complete living.6. literary or humanistic education. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. 5. It favours child-centered. liberal. 2. practical. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society.1. Psychology.1. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind.6. Biology.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Literature. 5.1. Biography Philosophy. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism.
6.1.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. certainly and clearly. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. easily and pleasantly. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .
discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Tours / Excursion e. in this lesson. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Geography. 5. c. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Learning through imitation. Experimentation d.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Learning through reading.1. Sciences. 6. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Learning through experience b. a. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Languages. Vocational and Technical Education. Learning through questioning. has no end other than growth. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Social Science. 3. Learning through lecturing. a. Child centered c.5. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Learning through discussion. 5. d. b. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Education according to pragmatism.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Universal Education 2. Self Realisation b. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. naturalism. Agriculture. e. 5. History.1. pragmatism and realism.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Physical training. a.1. & curriculum. Rousseau 5.
Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. (2007). Anmol Publications Pvt. Publishing corporation. O. (2004).5.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Theory and Principles of Education. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A. N.H. Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education.P. (2007).P. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. (2003). K. Ltd. L. R. of Pathak. P. New Delhi : Bhatia. P. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 271 . Pahuja.1.
5.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.3.3 Methods of teaching 272 .2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2.1 Aims of Education 184.108.40.206 Curriculum 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.2 Curriculum 220.127.116.11 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.4 Views about teacher 5.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.3.2.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 18.104.22.168 5.4 Views about teacher 5.2.3 Methods of teaching 5.3.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.1 Aims of Education 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.LESSON 184.108.40.206.5.2.1 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.
6 5.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. 5. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. 5.2.2. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.4 Role of the teacher 5. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.5.2.7 5.2. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.8 5. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. content and methods. 273 .5. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.2.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. economic and political reconstruction in our country. mind and spirit. 3. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. Tagore was a poet.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. an artist.2. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.2. 2. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. Gandhiji was primarily a social.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.2. you will able to: 1.
development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. 274 . through life and for life. strength of mind.3. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. 5. It really provides opportunity for character building.2. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. His scheme of education is life centred.supporting. In the words of Gandhiji. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. "I attach more.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality." Dignity of Labour. righteousness. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. 'Man is neither mere intellect. self-restraint and service of humanity. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. mind and soul of children He further observed. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. it is education of life. nor the gross animals body.
Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . General Sciences. Only good individual forms a better society. gardening. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Individual and Social Aims. "Development of the moral character. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Mother-tongue. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. Art. Music.Training for Leadership. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. metal work. leather work have been suggested. According to Gandhi. 5. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 .3. wood work. the realization of the ultimate reality. Drawing and Hindustani.2. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. development of the whole all were directed: towards.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered.
Basic education is other wise known as 4.2. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.3. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.2. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. men of 276 .trained. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. proficient.
Education must be child centered. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. 3. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. He also advocates freedom for the child. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.2. 5. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1.knowledge. That is why. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST.
4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.2.2. • Ideal of citizenship. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.” Like all other ideals. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. 5. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.4. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. he was a true Vedantist 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.2. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. He was a true patriot. • Education should involve manual work. He was deadly against untouchability.K. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . He believed in the oneness of humanity. • Cult of non-violence. Gandhi in 1937. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. 5.
he said. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Geography. the more dedicated and devoted. 279 .Language and Literature . International understanding. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study ." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Civics. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Religion and Psychology. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics.2. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. It should help the learner have good physique. That way only.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. them solve problems of day to day life. sentiment. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts.4. etc. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. stronger in power than ever before. Dance. "Mankind must realise a unity. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. Botany. It should help. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. (vi) Philosophy. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Tagore said. complete manhood could be attained. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. deeper in. could help in forging unity among all. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Music. Chemistry. Therefore. wider in range. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. International Understanding. Zoology.
It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. 280 .2. 5.4. 5.” He further says.2. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. Tagore rightly says. In 1921. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. Let individualised methods be used for teaching.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.4.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.2." 5. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.4. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. Activity Method Heuristic Method.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”.
Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. 281 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. It is open to all irrespective of country. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. race.g. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. 9. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. 10.
Book learning. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him.2. Purity of thought. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. Education for Self-reliance. 4. Education should make a person self-reliant." He was against the theoretical type of education. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education.5. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. According to him.5. Concept of Education. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. character forming and assimilation of ideas. man making. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Education for strong Moral Character. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Freedom.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.2. 2. 3.” 5.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Education for Self-realization. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. He believed in to learning or selflearning. work and deeds come out of it. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life.
5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study.5. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.2. Swami. Religion. A physically strong person is the need of the society. Thirdly he wished that games. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. 5. Discussion Method.5. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things.2. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. That will serve the purpose of education fully. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . engineering and technical subjects. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses.the learners on different students in the discussion.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend.5. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Of course. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. Philosophy and Theology. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. 6. philosopher and guide to the students He.5. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. 5. And above all. Every individual should be trained for concentration. 283 . There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. The teacher should be the facilitator. Secondly he wanted Science. Education for Physical Development.2. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more.
broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1.2. 284 . If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. in this lesson. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. 2. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. 3. We have seen that Tagore.Substantiate your answer.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. of course. ears and eyes. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. Their educational ideas.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. naturalist. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. and pragmatist . legs. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. Gandhiji as a Idealist.2. Write short notes on Basic education. 5. 12. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher.6 LET US SUM UP We have.
A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Heuristic Method. a. Education should involve manual work. Discussion Method 285 . Self-Study b. 1937 7. Debate and Discussion Method. a. 5. Cult of non-violence. 11. 9. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. b. 3. 8. c. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. 2. Self realization. a. Nai Talim 4. Basic education. Ideal of citizenship. 10. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.2. Teaching while Walking b. leather work have been suggested. e.4. f. Explain Vishwabharathi. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Activity Method b. wood work. 5. 5. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. metal work. a. d. gardening.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. c. Learning by Doing c. Meditation and concentration c. Activity Method d. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Technique of Correlation 6.
Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. New Delhi : A.P. P. (2004).H. Publishing Corporation. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2002). Ltd. 286 . L. Foundations of Education.2. C. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2007). K. N. (2003). J. Dhiman. B.5.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. New Delhi : Aggarwal. K and Narang C. P. Pahuja. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2007). on Bhatia. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. O. N.
4 5.LESSON 5.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3 5.3.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .6 5.3.9 5.5 220.127.116.11 5.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.10 5.11 5.1 18.104.22.168 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.22.214.171.124. In this lesson.2 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.8 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.
ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. In it. In the former sense. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. living in the hilly area. Both the processes are integrated.A. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Since the demands. While education is learning. you will be able to: 1..under the direction of the school.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. A g o o d curricu lu m. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. present behaviour may be modified. the desert area. is a means to the process. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. there is a large number of communities. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. the plateau area and 288 . adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. new behaviour may be acquired. 5. curriculum signifies situations for learning. While education is a process.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. it is identical wit h socializat ion. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. in Russia or in Japan. in the form of new experience. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. maintained or eliminated.3. the plain area. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. 5. In the words of Kerney and Cook. in fact .S. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. curriculum. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . state the meaning of curriculum 2. Curriculum is intimately related to education. From the latter point of view. Then in a big country like India.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static.3. in the U.
and 289 . The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. studying therein.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. democratic and socialistic country. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. However. It must differ from locality and from society to society. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. too. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. environment.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. customs and needs. In fact . it is. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. Again. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. From a slave-country we became secular. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. therefore. Besides craft. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. according to modern trends in the educational process. irrespective of their needs and environment. differs from individual to individual. 5. the learning capacity of children. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education.3.
tangible. They are visionary goals e.g.3. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes.. social. Goals of Primary Education. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical.. in instructional objectives. The word “Curere” means 2. National Integration. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. etc. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. aims. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. They are achievable.. moral.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. unambiguous and functional. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . emotional. 5. Goals of Secondary Education. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. etc. specific. individual or Social and so on. remote or immediate.. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. which may or may not be attained. e. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. Understanding Objective. They may be ultimate or proximate. Application Objective. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. they depend on the political. 3. etc. Vocational Efficiency. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. eg. e. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. of classroom. Knowledge Objective. general or specific.. Self Realisation. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. So it is inadequate. 2. 290 .g. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. They speak of perfect goals. aesthetic and spiritual development.g. 4. unsatisfactory. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1. social. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. They speak of immediate purposes of education. uninspiring and unscientific.
” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. Raymont rightly says.5. capacities. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. The old and prevalent curriculum is under.” 291 . “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. abilities.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. Crow and Crow remarks. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.3. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. finding them very interesting and captivating. heavy fire. on the playing fields. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. needs. but it includes the totality of experiences. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. in the class rooms. educationists. The interests. According to Crow and Crow.
Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. tendencies. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. They often waste it or rather kill it. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. urges. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. aptitudes. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. time in a useful manner. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. moral. Due to these variations and differences.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. capacities and abilities. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. mental. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical.
curricular. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. 2. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. administrative programme need be planned. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. Similarly. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. organized. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. To ensure success of the process. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. 3. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. phased preparation. 293 .: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. development of professional capability at all levels.
in the class room. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. 12. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . Run. library. workshop. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. 11. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. 1937 19. 18.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. laboratory. 10. principles of curriculum construction. 5. Relation with Life c. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation.3. 17. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee.3.3. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. 5. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. a.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Child Centred Education b.
D. Lakshmi. Curriculum and Instruction. P.K. New Delhi : Isha Books. S. (2007). 295 . (2001).5. S.S. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Innovations in Education. N. and Sarita Kumari. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2007). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. Curriculum Development. New Delhi : Authorspress. (2007).3. Bhalla.
7.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.6.9 126.96.36.199 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 188.8.131.52.1 5.3 5.4.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 184.108.40.206.8 5.4.LESSON 5.7.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .6.2 5.4 5.10 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.5 5.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4.7 Scientific Attitude 5.
yet real advancement in this area was achieved . 4. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. 2.4. honesty. know the importance of science education. tolerance for the opinions of others. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age.5.during the second half of this century. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. newer and newer industries started growing. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . 297 . We mean curiosity.4.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. in the economic reconstruction of society.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations.4. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. Gradually. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. you will be able to: 1. open-mindedness. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. 5. explain the concept of scientific attitude. 5. 3. superstition or emotion. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students.
These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Through newspapers. Central science workshop. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Principles are formulated. seminars and symposiums. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. 5. 3. 2. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Selection for science education. Thinking and memory develops. Organisation of science fairs. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 4.4. Through examinations. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life.So that. Love for truth enhances. 6. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. 6. Promotion of science clubs. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. 2. 5. models and scientific instruments for laboratories.4. as well as of the society. stipends and appreciations in various ways. 4. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Schemes of teaching science. 7. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 3. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. After such experience and training. 5. Devotion towards nature increases. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 5.
5. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. should provide opportunities to. They experience natural phenomenon. 5. It is. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste.6. objectivity.4. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 7. essential that teachers. They encounter many social events as they grow. In the inquiry approach. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. After presenting the problem. Write any two advantages of Science Education. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. sex or religion. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. therefore. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. Training of science teachers. They ask many questions about the objects they see.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. which is essential for developing scientific outlook.needs and conditions.4. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. each child to “enquiry skill building”. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. For laboratory and workshop techniques. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. Enquiry teaching is. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.
Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. if they like.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 5. 6. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. 2.4. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook.6. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. . stern pursuit of accurate data. Adopting creative models of teaching. Evidence. commands or orders. 3. 5. Social sciences. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions.4. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. Giving less directions. 5. test. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. It requires consistent thinking.books.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. . Appreciating pupils ideas. to ask questions and experience things.Herma Wouk. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. 300 .
The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. of vast resources running waste. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. 5. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. to develop among the learners.4. critical thinking and suspended judgments. These include open mindedness. friends. and emphasized during the learning process . The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. The students observation. it must be encouraged. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”.(Smith 2008). There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. (Vaidya 2007). Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. For instance. To achieve this we should understand what it means. practiced. neighbourhood. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. These characteristics of any scientific 301 .7. school and society at large. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. keen observation. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. therefore should be unbiased and objective. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning.
they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. In considering a situation or a problem. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. He is patient and reserved in his judgement.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. he studies all aspects of it. understanding and logic. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. intuition or wishful thinking”.4. 5. 2007). Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge.7. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. (Das. 302 . An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. or superstitions. think and work it”. The intention to respect another’s point of view. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. rumor. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth.
Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.4. but to begin only after careful planning. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.7.7.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. 5. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry.4. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . • 5. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.
and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. 5. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory.4. it must be encourages. 304 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude.
3. Proper example of the teacher c. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. a.4. 4. Rao. b. 305 . Vaidya. Planning of activities 5.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. b.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa.S. Wide reading b. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. 2. S. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Love for truth enhances. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. D. Study of superstitions d. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. b. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics.4. (2006). Discuss the importance of science education 14. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.B (2008). objectivity. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. 16. a. M. a. (2000). 5. 5. (2008).4. Reflections on Scientific attitude. a. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. The intention to respect another’s point of view. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools.5. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Adopting creative models of teaching. Yadav. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. N.
2 5.5.10 5.5 5.5. areas of institutional planning.LESSON 5. objectives and characteristics. 5. 306 .4 5. 2.8 22.214.171.124.3 5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.11 5.5.5. state the concept.9 5. actively.5.6 126.96.36.199 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.5.5.5. you will be able to: 1.1 5.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.
each teacher.5. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly.3. every teacher. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level.5. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. which become the bases for further planning at the district. 5. • to involve teachers and school administrators. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . 5. • to make planning development-oriented. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. executive as well as public. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. in the task of educational planning.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. teachers and students is not lost sight of. and supplement planning from above. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. and every student in the process of educational planning. State and national levels from below. and. • To make institutional planning more successful. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. and each student are regarded as separate entities. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. every parent. Institution should be regarded as the unit.
having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion.5. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. which will be discussed in the general. Examinations. and Personnel services. (2) Co. Classwork. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. etc. approved after making necessary modifications. it becomes the basis for school inspection.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. 5.• implemented. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. council and. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs.5. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. 308 . Syllabus.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.curricular Activities. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. Co-curricular activities.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Fair distribution of syllabi. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. 1. Improving the internal assessment. Organisation of class-room libraries. charts and apparatus. 2. etc. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Preparation of instructional material. etc. etc. etc. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Editing the school magazine. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare.No. Equipping of laboratory and library.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. etc. Organisation of Students’ Association. hobby-centres. Organisation of Pupils. Conducting of educational. scientific and historical excursions. Preparation of models. Running science clubs. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Courts. Organising play-for-all programmes. 3.
parents. teacher-pupil.5. which are divided as the in. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. Administrator-State. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. co-operation. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. science teachers’ associations. involving mainly human materials.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. teacher-nonofficial functionaries.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. etc. ii. understanding. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. parent-teacher associations. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators.5. teacher-State. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. students’ associations. teacher-teacher.” The human relationships in. administrator-administrator. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. and —pupil-pupil. administrator-pupil. teacher-managing body. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. pupils. teacherinspector. pupil310 . administrator-supervisor. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. teachers. headmasters associations. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. and solidarity. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe.
Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. 311 . control. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is also being modernized to become a technique. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. Good. organisation and management. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. It covers personnel and material management. pupil-community leader.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. to attend. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. to carry out. To administer means to manage. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. supervision. pupil-non-official functionaries. V. superintendence. etc. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. to accomplish. teacher-parent. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. administrator. pupil-parent. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences.5. pupil-inspector. supervision and superintendence. organisation. teacher-community leader. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. social sciences and other disciplines. According to C. and to serve. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. now-a-days. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies.State.
Better Human Relationships . who occupy the managerial positions. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. low.The manager should have leadership traits. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. Those. 8. Motiviation .Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. without this the efficacy will be handicapped.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . 12. it is not worth-while. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. Cost-Benefit Analysis . 13.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. Decision Making . it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. Communication . 7. 2.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . 4. If it is more.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. Liasion with the Public . Democratic Management . Rapport between the Management and Employees .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.Of all the approaches. Economic Management . 3. 5. Socio-Scientific Approach . should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. He should be an artist in human relationships. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. 11. 10. 9. Worker Participation . This is the latest democratic trend in management. If the cost benefit ratio is less. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. Leadership .Any good management will always have good public relations.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . 6. The relationship should change from master. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.
Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. 5.5. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. 14. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. and cooperative performance should be ensured.too. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. 18. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. enrichment of curricula. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. to improve the quality of education it provides.g. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. objective. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. improvement of teaching methods.These two are.5. 19. 313 .
to introduce decentralization of educational planning. a. H. APH Publishing Corporation. Singh. Co-curricular activities. b. Syllabus. S. Instruction. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. Classwork. and Personnel services. Educational Administration. 4. 314 . f. a. R. it becomes the basis for school inspection. Leadership c.K. d. a. (2003). Communication 5.M. Tarachand and Prakash. c. b. (1995). a. 2. NUEPA. Motiviation d. b.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.5. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. (2001). Examinations. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. e. Decision Making b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.5.5. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Fundamental of Educational Management. In group and Out group 5.
Sex-education 4. 2.1 School Health Programme.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.3 Educational Influences of Home. social Impact 3.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.1 Inculcation of Socialism. Code of conduct for teachers. Inspection and Supervision 3. population education. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. 1.Pre-service and In-services facilities. Economic 315 . First Aid.5 Regional Educational Development in India .4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Examination reforms. 4. Community and Mass Media 2. physical education and environmental education 5. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Education by Christian Missionaries 1.teachers should have : 1.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.Religious and Modern Education 1. higher education. Realized the problems of school education.Article 45 . Healthy Food Habit 4.4 India's Secular Policy .Preventive measures. women education and teacher education in India. Common ailments of Children. School. Communicable diseases . (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Balanced diet.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Preservation of nutrients.2 Nutritional deficiencies. New evaluation procedures. nutritional requirement.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. Buddhist and Jain system of education. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.I.1 Gurukula system of education. wastage and Stagnation 3.1 Primary Education : Education for all.CORE PAPER . Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.3 Directive Principles .
316 . (2004) Problems of Education in India. New Delhi: NCERT 3.R. Hemchand.Aim.K.4 4. 5.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. (2005) Foundations of Education. Ram S.N. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Sharma.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.K. 7. and Human Development.K. Socialization. Naturalism and Pragmatism . Mishra. (1999) Culture. Delhi : University Publications 2.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. REFERENCE 1.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. and Dash B. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. B.C.S. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Realism. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. R. Pandy V. Tagore 5. Saraswathi T. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. T. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. Mahatma Gandhi. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. and Mohanty R. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. and Sharma R. Kalan Paper Packs 10. Prof. Taneja V. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. Ghanta R.4.1 Idealism. Curriculum and national goals .4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5.N.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.K.
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