BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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In. 9 . we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Lesson 2. Lesson 5. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Jainism and their educational implication. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. Lesson 4.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. discusses the regional educational development in India. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. The need. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. and Jain system of education. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt.

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6.6.1.1 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.5.1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.6.1.1.1.5.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.6.5.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1.1.1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1.4.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1.1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.LESSON 1.5 Jain system of education 1.1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.3.1.4.3.1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.6 Education during British Era 1.1.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.6.2 1.5.

in opinion.1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. That 12 .1. India. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. “a class of persons.3.6. elucidate the education during British Era. Muslim and British periods.9 1.1. describe the Jain system of Education 4. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.7 1.1. 1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. in morals and in the intellect”. you will be able to: 1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. 1. but English in taste. The history of education passed through Buddhist.8 1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. British system of education presented the modern western model. has a long past history starting in vedic education. 1.1.1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. Indian in blood and colour. Education in India. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.1.1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. both present and future.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.6.1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.

The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Education of Moral. generally. 3. Pupils were taught. 13. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. 16. questioning by the pupil. not en masse by the class method. Curriculum. Method of Study. Immediate Aim Vocational. There was. 10. No State Control on Education. individually.knowledge was real. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. followed by explanation by the teacher. It was not merely intellectual. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. Forests as Centres of Education. 8. 11. 13 . Teacher as Parents. to light. Free and Accessible. Role of Travel in Education. religious and spiritual. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Residential Schools. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. the monitorial plan was followed. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. and to agriculture and trade. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. from darkness. The immediate aim of education. as it is generally considered to be at present. Religious and Spiritual. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. High Status of Teachers. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 14. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. 9. Individual Teaching. 12. from eternal to immorality 2. 6. Where pupils were many. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Education was a private affair of the people. Method of Instruction. if they thought fit to do so. It was also moral. managed entirely by Brahmans. however. with grants of land or money. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. 5. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. 4. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada.

It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.17. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. They were very cordial and intimate. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. It was freely available to all those who wanted. studied Vedas.3. It was suited to the needs of the society.1.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. 2. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. Wide-Spread Education in Women. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . 1. lived a life of celebacy. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.

1. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. the most significant of which were the following 1. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. killing of any living being. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. which included abstaining from theft. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. dressed himself in yellow clothes. medium of Pali. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. the handicapped. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. 15 . every class in society. It was denied only to the ill. Right thought 3. 1. I take Refuge to Dharma. watching dances or listening to music. Right contemplation 1. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. I take Refuge to Sangh. etc. taking things without being offered. Right means of livelihood 6. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Right speech 4. the student had his head shaved of all hair. Education was imparted through the. except the Chandals. 2. in which. Right knowledge 2. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B.C.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. Right endeavour 7. Consequently.4. he was qualified to become a monk. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. After attaining the age of 20. partaking of food at prohibited times. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. use of intoxicating things. use of cosmetics. had the right to receive education. the student remained in a state of Shramana. Right memory 8. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. impure conduct. disease and death of the human beings. Right activity 5. he had to perform the Pababja ritual.

7. handicrafts. etc. elephant lore. Life is in a flux. wear three items. nothing is of any permanent consequence. These are called later Buddhist schools. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. Hence. 6. After this ritual. control over sensuous activities. beg for alms. along with education in script writing. women occupied a position inferior to men. depth and range. bodily gestures. knowledge of reviving the dead. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. changing the goals. be considered the aim of education It. etc. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. agriculture. Even at this stage. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. assumptions. military science. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. so long as it successfully does so. commerce. magic. and. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. archery. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. it is regarded as true”. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. 2. 3.4. the science of taming and training animals. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. has no metaphysical value for life. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. animal husbandry. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. etc. As reality is becoming. objectives of human life.3. On this occasion. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. Later on. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. a continuous change creating 16 . It comprehended education in writing. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. approach. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. education was impart in art. Whatever its nature and extent. archery. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. 8. however. therefore. aspirations and. eat food thrice a day. 1. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. Initially. 4. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. arithmetic and religious discussion. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. cottage industries. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. nature. 5. geology. of clothes. medicine. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. the presence of the monks was essential. meaning.. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. a change is not only total but also perpetual.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious.

Write Eight fold path . Education must. and to give it a shape that it has today. however. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism.e. such as. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. In fact. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. i. goes to Vardhaman. Validity is effective and consequences. therefore. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. whatever works are true and good. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.. However. 1. it is much older than the latter. Jainism insists 17 . the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. its pessimistic outlook on life.new and peculiar situations.1. 5. Its chief feature. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet.

more stress on individual aims. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. and believe in happiness to all. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. but on both. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. 3. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. 9. 4. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. 6. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. thought and deed.5. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. 10. 3. Development of personality as an individual. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. and is to be redeemed and liberated. 1. c) Not to steal. They are: a) Not to injure. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. As such.1. 18 . 5. 2. 7. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. b) Not utter falsehood. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. 8. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. c) Right conduct. Hence. 1. b) Right knowledge. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. e) To renounce the world. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. 2. it has a foot in both the words. d) To lead a celibate life.

1. 3. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. education should develop sense of discrimination. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. practised and not only aspired for. 4. 8. education must be action based and ideally oriented. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . 5.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. 3. that would be socially desirable. Teaching should be social and tolerant. Jiva is essentially karmic. 1.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. therefore. Belief in transmigration of soul. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. success and love. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Knowledge is through senses and meditation.4. here and now. 2.5. Teaching must develop these faculties. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. and should bring happiness to all. 19 .5. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Hence. What are Triratnas ? .

Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. However. North West Province and Punjab.6. science. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). 1. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”.1.6.6. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. 1. 1953).6. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. 2. with rally and rout. 1. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. Madras. 1.1.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. To set up separate departments of. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. philosophy and literature of Europe. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. Bombay. primary 20 . and not for life.

It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . The universities dominated the secondary education. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. 1. Later on. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. they named these schools as polytechnic schools.K. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education.education was neglected. In 1882. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. • Secondary education.6. 1. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937).6. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. at the primary level. namely.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. secondary education became a step towards university.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. • Universal free primary education. At that time M. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. 1. self-respecting and competent. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools.6. To ensure qualitative improvement. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners.

The report suggested development of adult education scheme. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. After this stage. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. 10. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. all children are to have a common curriculum.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

military science. 1. 1. It was suited to the needs of the society. questioning by the pupil. followed by explanation by the teacher. Right means of livelihood. Right contemplation. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 4. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. the science of taming and training animals. along with education in script writing. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. arithmetic and religious discussion. Right speech. 5. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. a. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Right memory. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. etc. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 6. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. Right activity. 2. Right endeavour.1. b.. education was impart in art. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Right knowledge. 3. The immediate aim of education. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. handicrafts. The system of education was well-organised. 3. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. 2. During the Buddhist period.education of European literature. archery. establishment of universities. Right thought. 4. 23 . science and English language. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. geology.

J. Hence. R. Right knowledge. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Right faith. a. 8. 11. c. (2009).7. J. and Nath. History of Indian Education System. Development of Educational System in India. Ltd. Sharma. more stress on individual aims.K. 10. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. a. (1984). b.K. Sargent report 12.C. 9. Right conduct. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Singh. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Aggarwal. 24 . New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Development of personality as an individual.1. (2005). Ltd. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. b. (2007). 1937 1. Improvement of Literature. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Y. 1882. Y.C.

2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2 1.2.5 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.6 1.3.1 University Education Commission 1.2.2.4 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.2.2.3. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.3 Kothari Commission 1.9 1. The 25 .LESSON 1.2.2.2.8 1.2.2.3.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.3.7 1.1 1.2.

1. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. New Educational Policy. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3.2. examination system. 1986 1. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. standard of teaching. girls and women education besides primary.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. analyse the progress of education in free India. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. There had been vast institutional expansion. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. technical. S.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. expansion of vocational. you will be able to: 1. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. National Council for Women’s Education 5. vocational education. National Board of Teacher Education 10.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1.3. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. technological engineering.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. Kothari (1964-66) 8. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. explosion of enrolment. medical and legal education. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. Post-graduate 26 . secondary and higher education. diversification of courses of studies. curriculum.2.conditions of the teachers. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6.

The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education.3. material and spiritual. Government of India. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. Therefore.3.3. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. The national system of education envisages common educational structure.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. quantity. Problems of access. Kothari.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. However.2. A meaningfully Partnership. Finally. 1. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. 2. National System of Education.2. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. 1. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. Education for Equality. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. in January 1985. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. 1. utility and financial outlay. the New National Policy on Education. accumulated over the years.2. 1986.teaching. 3. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. 4. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. quality. D. A. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23.S. 1952. research et. Education is the key to our allround development. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. The Essence and Role of Education. the chairman of University Grants commission. 1966.

Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Thus. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work.2. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. attitudes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the minorities and the handicapped. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. 28 . The UNESCO Report. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” Thus. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. By working with hands. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. the concepts of work experience. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. It can train practical aptitudes.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills.

The Radhakrishnan Commission.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries.” The Mudaliar Commission. With adequate planning. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. it will conduce self. According to. the Commission. In 1955. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. As such. Besides. “The aim of these colleges.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. if he wishes. “It may be described. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. co-ordinations.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. The Education Commission. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education.

if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. Subsequently. the. admission requirements to vocational courses. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. etc.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. raising the special facilities. The Central Advisory Board of Education. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. Therefore. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. the rigid streaming of courses. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour.ot her. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. the semester and credit system. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. In addition.. With a view to relating education to the life. for quality of life in the rural areas.

The wave of Basic Education. etc. felt that education should be centred around a craft. meaningful. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past.. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. who conceived the System of Basic Education. Commerce.and the world of work. giving importance to productivity in the national development. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions.2. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. aimed at this goal. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. which offer scientific. 1. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. which are useful to the community. which swept the country for over two decades. According to committee.defined S UP W as “purposive. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. meaningful. manual work resulting in either goods or services. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. 31 . technological courses including Agriculture. In short. preferably spinning and weaving. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. The Father of Nation. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject.

Food 3.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. be that the work involved is: 1. 2. as far as possible. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Productive 2. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Educative and 3. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Shelter 4. The teachers should make use of. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Clothing 5. so that it is educational in essence. 4. tools and techniques and 3. Culture and recreation 6. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Experimentation with materials. 3. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Health and Hygiene 2. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. Community work and social service. 32 . Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. locally available materials and tools. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Work practice. Some Hints to Teachers 1.

6. 1.5. To make education more realistic. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. etc. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject.2. Productive Work 33 . allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. It can become an instrument to build character. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. slum clearance. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. inculcate a faith. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. improve discipline. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. Check on educated unemployed 4. removal of illiteracy. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Education through work The SUPW should. Community Service In-1972. as far as possible. Merits of the Programme 1. the local community should be actively associated.

The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . AICTE was set up in year 4. The community. helping the adults-in productive work.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. in turn. etc. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. if not productive. should involve itself in the educational effort. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Define SUPW 34 . What are the work areas in SUPW 6. offering first aid. skills and better future for the children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. traffic control. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work.

1. 3.2. c. 1955 4. b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1952 3. e. manual work resulting in either goods or services. Radhakrishnan 2. 1.2. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. meaningful. a. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. Write short note on SUPW. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 1. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. f.2. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 2.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. which are useful to the community. 6. d. Dr. 35 .

Rao. History and Problems of Indian Education. New Delhi: A. and Rao.K. Y. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Amala.2.(2005). (2007). History of Education.. History of Indian Education System.P.H.K. B.K. : Sharma. A. (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. (2005). V. P. (2009). 36 . Anupama. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.P. Development of Educational System in India. Singh.1. and Nath. J. Publishing Corporation. R.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Y.D.

3. establishing the structure.8 1.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. containing 395 articles. Being the supreme law of the country. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.3. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. 1949.4 1.2 1.3.7 1. democratic republic. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. directive principles and duties of citizens. and liberty. 1950.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. Besides the English version.3. assuring its citizens of justice.3.6 1.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.5 1.3.1 1. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.3.1 Significance of DPSP 1. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.369 words in the English language version. it came into effect on January 26. 37 .LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. there is an official Hindi translation. for a total of 117.3.3. equality.3.9 1.3. procedures.3. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.

1947 meeting of the Assembly. 38 . It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. Through them. with Dr. for 166 days.3. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. in sessions open to public. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. Two days later. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. 2. 1950. administrative. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. political. The Assembly met. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. 1947. 1. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. On August 29. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. understand our Indian constitution. 1947. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy.3. 1. Dr. 3. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee.In the August 14. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. legal and environmental. the Drafting Committee was appointed.3. social. 4.3.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. 1. spread over a period of 2 years. After many deliberations and some modifications. economic. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. you will be able to: 1.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. learn the role of central and state government on education. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. According to the constitution. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution.

sickness and disablement. Equal pay for both sex. make effective provision for securing the right to work.government. provide free legal aid. 39 . Article 42. The State shall. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. for workers. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Protecting health of the workers. Article 39A. on the basis of equal opportunity. men and women. Equal justice and free legal aid. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. That the health and strength of workers. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Organisation of village panchayat. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Article 41. Minimising inequalities in status. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. old age. Right to work. No abuse of children. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. in particular. Liking wage etc. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Protecting children from exploitation. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. and in other cases of undeserved want. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Article 40. Article 43. Condition for dignity of children. The State shall endeavour to secure. and shall. Minimising inequalities of opportunities.

and. Article 46. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Article 47. in particular. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Participation of workers in management of industries. in particular. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. agricultural. Article 48. Article 44. Article 45. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. work. (Original Article 45. The State shall endeavour to provide. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. [declared by or under law made by 40 . for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. The State shall take steps. Note: Subs. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. by suitable legislation or in any other way. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. See also Article 21A). a living wage. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. to all workers. 2002 for “45. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 48A. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Article 43A. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. in particular. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Article 49. industrial or otherwise.

destruction. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. Article 50. Promotion of international peace and security. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. may be law determine”. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Separation of judiciary from executive. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Article 45 . 2002. disfigurement. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.Parliament] to be of national importance.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. Article-21A Right to Education. disposal or export. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Article 51. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. removal. as the case may be. from spoliation.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

3. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. 7. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. caste. 2002. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. ii.” 42 . language or any of them”.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. if such person is a minor. 6. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. iii. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. his guardian has given his consent thereto. 5. in particular. and shall protect them. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. from justice and all forms of exploitations. 4. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. and. race. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. 8.

to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The central government determines targets and promotes education. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. & 1. Article 351 gives importance to 6.3.9. 43 . primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. wherever necessary or desirable. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. for its vocabulary. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. 2. and by drawing. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. the forms. Educational Reforms From time to time.

It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). 8. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Local bodies and private enterprise. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. 5. 7. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc.. So as to encourage education on right lines. All India Council of Medical Science. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. So that they may work well. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Production of suitable for children and adults f. By starting these projects. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. private agencies etc. Merit scholarships in the public schools c.3. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. The following pilot projects. 6. 4. to achieve the desired ends. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. the state governments. etc. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities.

for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. education for women. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. 12. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Material concerning nation-wide interests. 3. are published by it. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. reports etc. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. 1. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. The 45 . The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. 9. 11. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2.3.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. research. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. 1. 4. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. training and statistics. handicapped. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. etc. 10. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. books.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. is the state responsibility.

and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government.3. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Article 45 b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles.3. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 46 . Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . 1. Article 46 4. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. 1. articles in the Directive principles. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Explain Directive principles 2. Write short notes on a. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Article 21A c.

The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 3. Describe the educational role of State Government. 1. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. a. a. Dr.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. may be law determine”. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Clearing House function 9. 2002. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Development of Hindi Language 6. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. b. 2002.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Article 29 and 30 7. Article 45 . Article-21A Right to Education. Article 46 5. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b.5. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. a. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.3. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 47 . b. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Ambedkar 2. 4. The Directive Principles of State Policy.

K. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ghosh. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Dash. N.3. (2007). New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. S. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.1. 48 . Bhatia. (2009). S. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: Shipra Publications.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. B. (2008). K and Narang C. L. (2004).

3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.3.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1. Students should be 49 .4. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.4.4.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.8 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1. Buddhism etc.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.4.7 1.1 Why Moral Education 1.4.6 1.3.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.5 1.4.4.4.1 1.2 1.4.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.4 Moral education 1.4.4.3. religious education should be broad based. Jainism. Christianity. Islam.4.

naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. In the complicated and complex society of today. "In A multireligious society like ours. integrity.and dedication. As result of which.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education.D. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. duty-consciousness. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. state meaning and need for moral education 1.4. beauty and goodness so that 50 . religious education and the concept of secularism. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. India' can produce men of character. you will be able to: 1. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. According to E. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world.. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life.4. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. know the position of religious education in our country 3. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). 1. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends.” Education broadens human outlook. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. Thus.

1947 we achieved our freedom. Hence. castes and creeds. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education.4.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. Children attend these organizations. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. 1. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world.4.3. 1. They thought that any kind of narrow. According to Article 19. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. it is clear that the State has no religion. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. According to Article 22. all citizens are free to follow any creed.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. In short. through religious practices and 51 . at least occasionally. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. Thus. No religious tax can be imposed on them. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full.3. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. As a matter of fact. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. Viewing the defects of religious education. As our country is a country of diverse religions. realizes God in himself.” From the above. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. religion and democracy are same. rancour. if not regularly. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August.

Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice.teachings. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. for the development of the individual and the society. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). If unreleased. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. As a result of which. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. which can mould. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. which help him for the development of his character. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. one fully developed. moral and spiritual values. temperament etc. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. intellectual and physical faculties of children. It is religious education. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. and what is evil. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility..” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. It helps to modify habits attitudes. what is done and what is not done etc. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. aggressive. Good education. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. He also learns about social. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. when he becomes an adult.

In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. towards the society. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Therefore. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. 3. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world.4. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. This should not be allowed to happen. which is the basic need of a democratic life. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided.3. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. 1. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. 53 . All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. If we open the pages of history. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. 2. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument.

10. Life histories of great persons of the world. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6.5. Gurudwara as. churches and mosques 7. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 11. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. List out any two aims of religious education? 3.4.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. 9. Since all religions have virtues. stories of moral greatness. Write Article 22 2. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. fellow-feeling. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. examples of patriotism. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. they should be discussed in the right earnest. For this. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. therefore.

Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Patriotism. 1.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. students. Ahimsa (Non-violence). the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Without moral values. 3. in the home. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Fearlessness. Asvada (Control of palate). Purity. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. 7.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. 2. Self sacrifice. is that which develops moral values. 4. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Non-injury. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 4. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration).acquisitiveness). 6. let men see well of one another. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. The content of the curriculum. 8. the methods of teaching.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. 3. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. It they learn what morality is in their early years. 1. 5. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 7. 2. 5. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Satyam (truth). Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Service to others. therefore. Cultivation of emotions. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Aparigarha (Non.4. 55 . Brahmacharya (celebacy). This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. They will play their role effectively. 8.4. Moral education. 6. “Let all be happy and free from disease. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow.

minutes in the morning for group singing. 4. Discipline. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography.9. religions may be included in the syllabus. In the school programme. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. National unity and Spiritual values. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. 3. Sharivashram (Physical work). Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Good manners. 10. Asatyam (Non-thieving). 3. The School Assembly should be held for a few.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Efficiency. Secondary Stage 1. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. 2. Integrity. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.4. 11. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. 56 . Simple texts and stories concerning different. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Good temper. 1. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Unity of mankind. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. discipline. loyalty and self-sacrifice. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Community singing should also be encouraged 2.

there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. should form a normal part of school programme. patriotism and self-discipline.4. In this connection. 57 . Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. In other words. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 2. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. 5. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. University Stage 1. love of humanity. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 4. Silent meditation should be encouraged.

1. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. In short. the. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. 2.4. 1. 58 . Training of Character 3.4. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Discuss the aims of Religious education. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 1959 5.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. minutes in the morning for group singing. a. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 1.4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. Sri Prakasa 6 . 2. For this. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. 4. a. b. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion.

Publishing Corporation. B.H. (2004). Theory and Principles of Education. K and Narang C. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2008).H. Ltd.4. N.C. N. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Siddiqui. J. New Delhi: A. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2008). 59 . M. Bhatia.P. K. (2003). Pahuja.1. L. P. Dash. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.

but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5.5.1 1.5.2 1. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.7 1.11 1.5.5. i.4 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.5 1.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.9 1.8 1. 60 .3 1.5.10 1.5. Although..5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.e. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.5. disparities between provinces/States.6 1.12 1.5.5.

5. waters. for example. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. you will be able to: 1.1. 1. etc. understand the regional educational development in India 3.5. 3. roads.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. 8. 61 . they take appropriate measures. energy. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 2.5. know the education suited to different environments. 7.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. 1. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. 4. They therefore. 1. work hard towards this end. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. Accordingly. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. 5.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. This leads to separatist movements.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. 6.

Secularism.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. 4. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. 3. 62 . it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. some States became educationally far advanced. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. • Separate States (of course viable States). 2. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. Tight security arrangements should be made. and.5. Therefore.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. some average. while others remained educationally backward. on the basis of regional development may be formed. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets.

the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. etc.After the Planning Process has originated. Funds amounting to Rs. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. while some States like Bihar. Rs. Mizoram. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Even in each State. approved proposals worth Rs. Nagaland and NEHU. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. Silchar. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. Central Universities of Assam. the State Governments. books.g. However. 63 ..5. NERIST.392. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Guwahati. and provision of informal education to enable those.14. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. library buildings.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. After the attainment of independence. the Union Government. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. academic buildings. NIT.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. Tezpur.480.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. 1.84 crore was released in 2005-06. In the Central sector. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. Regional Centres of IGNOU. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. remained under developed.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. Itanagar. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. scholarships. Out of this. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. Jammu and Kashmir. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. etc. since its inception in 1998-99. These projects are in various stages of implementation.

Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Tezpur University.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.57 crore and Rs. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.501.5.261. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.40. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.187. 64 . it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). Out of this an amount of Rs. A provision of Rs.8 per cent in 05). Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.500. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. too.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Government expenditure on education.05 crore and Rs.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. During 2003-04. Moreover. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.

is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Moreover. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. The Chandigarh Administration. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. for instance. notes the study. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). Tamil Nadu. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Karnataka. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Medical education. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. pharma. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Andhra Pradesh. telecom. for which 16 sites.5. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. To add to the woes. Listing the positives. Karnataka.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . health services and welfare of the citizen population. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. too. 1. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Kerala and Gujarat. English. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. too. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. too. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. engineering and R&D.

But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. the interests. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. and so on. Of course. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. the working days: an academic . Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. 66 . there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Then education become realistic and idealistic. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. the vocations. life-oriented and environment slanted. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. the curricular subjects. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. For a learner living in a rural area. the needs. which a non-tribal person cannot do. in which the learners live. the socio-physical conditions. The living conditions. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Hence it is called as need-based. the teaching methods. The working hours of educational institutions. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. even actually looking at the watch. while the former does not. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. taking the average in the middle. when he will not be sure of time.year. In the same manner.

Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.5. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. to suit education to different environments? 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.5. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. 2. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 67 . There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5.

Salim. remained undeveloped 3.5. during the British rule. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. (2002).N. New Delhi: Authors press.K. (2001). Education in Developmental Arena. S. 68 . (2001). Educational Development in India.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Dubey.H. A. some States have become more developed than others b. S. C.G. Education Scenario in India. a. (2008). New Delhi: Anmol Publications. Giridhar. R. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. some of areas which were under the native rulers. 60% 1. and Nair. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.2.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. National Integration. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. school community and mass media. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. 71 .ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. community development. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism.

1.1.3 2.2 2.6.1.1 2.LESSON 2.6.1.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1.1.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.9 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1.5.7 2.4 2.6.6 Education for Secularism 2.1.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.5.1.1.8 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.

socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. understand the concept of democracy. creed.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. 3) Provision of Manual Work. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 2. socialistic and secular state. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. for the people by the people”. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. colour or wealth. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.1.1. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. you will be able to: 1.1. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. socialism and secularism 2.2. 73 . Democracy thus means power of the people. In the matter of admitting students in schools. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. The students may be associated with the management of the school. there should be made no distinction of caste. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. 2. Abraham Lincoln.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. This is the political aspect of democracy. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. socialism and secularism 2. 5) Encouragement to Group Work.

With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. There are different brands of socialism. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. 2. it soon spread all over the world. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. debates. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. 11) Student Parliament.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. declamation contest etc. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. 12) Visits to Legislatures. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression.1.. 74 . What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Democracy means 2. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. may be planned. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.5. the prince and the peasant. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 75 . 2) Socialism aims at equality.1. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. service and cooperation.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. but on the path of non-violence.5. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 7) Special facilities for girls. free from exploitation. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. Under it. oppression and disparity. none high”. 2. the wealthy and the poor.1.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 2. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools.

9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. 11) State schools. Everyone says. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. “India is a secular-country. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. secularism is being propagated. Write any two main features of socialism.1.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. "which seeks the development of physical. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. 2. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students.” In every political and educational corner. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. According to Holydake. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. 76 . Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. 5.

2) It permits freedom of religion. 9) It stress free inquiry. the belief that the state morals. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. “Webster further says. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. Equality. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. fraternity. A large number of people is uneducated. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. should be independent of religion.6. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life.1. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state.1. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. 5) It implies tolerance. That is why. people started believing in regionalism. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Moral values have to be imbibed. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. During the recent past. 2. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. liberty. 3) It permits freedom of worship.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. education etc. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. In this type of prevailing situations. There is need of making the people open minded. 77 . people have narrow mindedness. 8) It believes in co-existence. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines.6. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights.opposed to religious education.

No doubt. 1) Moral Education. Religious Education. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.1. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. that the central string of all religions is one. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. In the hands of such teachers. students belonging to different religions should be associated. Patiala. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions.6. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. While doing so. There should be some internal checking of the material being. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. In the celebration of each such function. tours and trips may be organized. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. education. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. The very sight of the building.presented by the students in the gathering. 2. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions.

Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The term secularism was first used by 8. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The word “Seculum” means 7. No doubt.7 LET US SUM UP 79 .personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions.1. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. Define Secularism 9. 2.

In the matter of admitting students in schools. b. b. creed. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. 5. 4. a. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Equal Opportunities for Admission. This present age 7. colour or wealth. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Abraham Lincoln. 4. 2. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. The students may be associated with the management of the school.1. 3.1. a. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Provision of Manual Work. Power of the people 2. c. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. Since socialism stands for equality. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. Respect of Individual Personality. for the people and the people”. d. a. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. Socialism aims at social justice. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. 5. Socialism aims at equality. 6. Tuition free education b. George Jacob Holydake 80 . How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. 3. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. there should be made no distinction of caste.

Dash. Mohanty. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 10. 81 . (2004). New Delhi : Pahuja. L. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C. B. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. It treats all religions on an equal footing. It permits freedom of religion.” 9. should be independent of religion. Bhatia. (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education. J. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ltd. b. the belief that the state morals. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2.1. N. a. Anmol Publications Pvt. K. b. (2007). Ltd. (2008). (2003). a.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. N. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions.8. K and Narang C. J. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. education etc. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. P.

2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.8 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.2 2.10 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2.1 International understanding in the school 2.6.1 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2.4 2.2.2.2.2.7 2.2.3 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .9 2.2.LESSON 2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.2.5.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.6.2.5.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.

They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. 2. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. moral. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. skills.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. who are placed in his custody. It involves physical. understandings. as it is t he aim o f modern education. 2. and 4. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. mental. therefore. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. 3. as learners. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. The developmental roles of children. you will be able to: 1.an instructor of school children. as workers. social and moral aspects. emotional. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. development. 2. as citizens. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is.2. a r e 1. 83 . describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values.2. as persons. social.generation to another. application. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. A teacher is first and foremost. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. aims and objectives of the school.

The students live. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. morally.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. a part of their day in 84 . member of his community at the outset. He has to look after their physical. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. and aesthetically to become. culturally confident. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers.2. 2. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family.All education should lead to better behavioural development. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. experiences and acceptance. intellectually. mentally. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. 3. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. mental. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. 1. He is to become an active member. The following are some of such roles described in brief. morally. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. emotionally. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. physically fit for socially efficient. motivated. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. socially. 2. Teacher as a Citizen Next. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. economically effective. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. inquisitive. social and emotional health.

the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs.2. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. India is a land of many castes. Dr. fine art associations. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. creeds. activities of the society into which he is born. solve them. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. science club. They will be spending with their parents. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. Unless. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. faiths. languages and religions. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the role of teachers towards community development . 2. and most of hours. It 85 .” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. 4.the school being under the custody of teachers. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. photographic clubs. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to.

Nehruji has explained this as. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis.” 2. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. should be emphasised. The only process is the process of education.” Regarding the role of education.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. narrow-minded provincial. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. ‘We should not become parochial. Radhakrishnan. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . social studies. a. Sampurnanand remarked. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. c. with straight backs and look up at the skies. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities.2.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. stand up straight. the citizens of the Republic of India. poems. Let us.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. and make into one strong national unit. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. folklore and teaching of social studies. the study of language and literature. At the primary stage the importance of stories. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. 1.is. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. b.5. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. national anthem and other national songs. therefore. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. It should broaden the outlook. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. this integration of the Indian people.

dramatics and youth festivals. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Student Camps. debates. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. 5. Scouts and Guides. t he st udent s and t he community. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Uniform for School Children. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. symposia. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented.different social sciences. militar y training like the NCC. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. 3. educational excursions. 9. 87 . languages and literature. and picnics. 7. 2. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. Reverence of National Flag. 6. sports. Singing of National Anthem. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. National Days—January 26. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Textbooks. tours. Co-Curricular Activities. Celebrations of National Days. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. 8. 4. ACC. 10. Taking Pledge. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice.

Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. 13. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. 16.2. iv. region or religion. ways of thinking and doing things. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc.11. 14. iii.5. ii. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. 15. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. 12. Educational and Travel Documentaries. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. flora and fauna. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. Admissions to schools. Open-Air Dramas. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. School Projects. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Students Exchange and Tours. Admissions. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. v. Recognition of Institutions. 2. colour. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. language. 88 .

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. Define National Integration 3. viii. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . 2. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. vii. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes.vi. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. irrespective of national boundaries. cultures and races on equal bases. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . ix. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. camps. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Community dinners.

2. 2. if it happens. Teachers 90 .e. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.2.6. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. that war. (c) fairly tales. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. patriotism is not enough. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.friendships between children of different countries. 4. Therefore. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. 6. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war.F.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism.. 5. Organising of debates and. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. 2. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. the international level. of his body and mind. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. Radhakrishnan states. and the healthy development. This. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs.6. (b) stories of children of other lands. C. therefore. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. In a very real sense. often in connection with anniversaries. Strong has observed.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. Dr.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. 3.as important as that of a national citizenship.” 2.

a German. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Russian.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. an Englishman. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. Impartial in their Treatment.” Well Informed About World Situations. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Indian and American. They should not be propagandists.

It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 .Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. which results in agitation and aggression language. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. 4. leading to. As the school is but a miniature society. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. the education function can be carried. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. Defects of the educational System . Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. It does not prepare students for life.Another major. Chronic Poverty . Wide Spread Frustration . 2. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. Devaluation of Values . understand and indiscipline: 1.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. there is wide spread frustration among all people.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties.2.2. 3. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . If this is done. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. majority of people are. and help the students to over . The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. 5.

sympathy and good will among the nations. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. fellow feeling. 2. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. 3. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. co-operation. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.2. List out six characteristics of a good teacher.democratic nature. 2. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. 4. etc. love. community development.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . 93 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. In fact. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Moreover. Museums.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation.V. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Crow and Crow write. Define community. He taught his students orally. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. led to the printing of books.3. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Then came newspapers. Emphasising this thing. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. To make them achieve their aim. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. are increasingly used in education. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. the invention of the printing press. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Hence. periodicals. During the course of time. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. “All the citizens of the community.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. art galleries. 2. Now internet is being used. books.

A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well.3. for the teacher through school broadcasts. current affairs and other areas. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. “Listening participation” in current history. social studies. art. Effective means of presenting music. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. It is also an important source of entertainment. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. Thus. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Various talks.classroom teachers. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. music. 2. dram appreciation. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. It enlightens public opinion. Thus. languages. 101 . Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. politics. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. rather than on picture. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. In the emphasis is on sound. It stimulates curiosity and interests. A lot of work by way of pre. Reynolds. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science.telecast. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. Students listen various talks. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. the place of importance. the teacher still occupies. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. 2.6.G. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. Important happening inventions. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. In collaboration with the experts. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers.

Team-teaching demonstrations. style. projects or creative activities. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. fol classical music. at play. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. travel talks. at recreational centers. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. School concerts. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. speech. at drawing room. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. mathematics. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. development of lessons. At present. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. 102 . Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. at any place. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. Participation of local teachers and pupils. 3. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. audibility and presentability. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Making learning an open system. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. 4. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Before presenting the programme. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. informal and non-formal education. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. 5. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. plays.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

7 2.4.8 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.3.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.2 2.4.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.3.4.4.1 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.3.4.4.LESSON 2.3.4 Non formal educational system 2.4.3 Advantages of formal education 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.5 2.6 2.4.4 Limitations of formal education 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.4.4.4.4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.

7. 2. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Education organised by some agency. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education.3. 6. the mass media et. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.4. To realize this objective of education. open university. Education. 2. the community.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. it was mostly. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college.2. the temple. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. the learner are acquainted. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. In ancient time in India. 2. imparted at the residence of the teacher. 3.4. 9.4. 3. 8. 2. compare formal and non formal system of education.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1.. 4. the family. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. starting and ending at -a particular age. 5. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. 2. 110 . Education associated with a degree or certificate. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. open school. you will be able to: 1. School is.4. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. the most important agency of formal education. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. 4. say the Government or the private enterprise. his mental alertness.

capacity. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. the elements of language are first learned. also called tertiary.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. In general. or post secondary education.4. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Concepts of proportion. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Some education systems have separate middle schools. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Through early formal education.4. such as a high school or secondary school. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. as well as vocational education and training. Higher Education: Higher education. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. diplomas. third stage.3. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . depending on the jurisdiction. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. structured education. 2.3. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start.a secondary education. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . or academic degrees.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them.2.

3.4. late beginners etc. What are levels of formal educational system? . Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. children with disabilities. 2. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. 3. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system.which will help for nation's development. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. 4. is an important agency of formal education.4. 2. Agencies can be classified as 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and remote dwellers.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs.

Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work.formal education. Non-formal education includes adult education. Therefore. “Non-formal education should 113 . Adiseshiah. It unlocks the doors of development plans. adults as well as children. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. According to Malcolm A. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. financially supported life formal education. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. it has its own valid claim to reality. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. Open university. etc.e. It is functional.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. continuing education and on the job oriented education. admissions.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. open learning. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. curriculum. systematic. to help themselves. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. It is much more responsive to needs and change. Thus.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured.learning client take some learning objectives. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. it is a more effective tool for rural development. It is deliberate.. staffed. until 1970 it had not been defined. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. systematic. planned. place of instruction. adding up to a true learning society. i. one could say that non-formal education is an active. However.

2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.4.4. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. 114 . Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.learning pattern. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. age.S. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. To help industrial workers to better their skills.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. curriculum.4.e. the Ideas of citizenship. place of education. co-curricular activities.renewal. admissions. i. 4. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills.” According to H. self. 6. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. Covering life span of an individual. socialism. 2.4. Part-time education. 7. evaluation etc.S. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. national integration. 5. It should lay emphasis on the self. international understanding. Lawrence. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. Preparation for future needs.” 2. exploring. 3. 2. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. Flexibility in various aspects of education. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. Process of sharing. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. To develop in the student. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. modes of teaching.be marketable and vocationalised.

5. working adults.4. 7. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. 2. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. publication and information dissemination. 2. 3. Senior Secondary. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 3. 4. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. Universalisation of primary education.4. 6.4. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. 115 . • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. school dropouts. 4.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 5. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. Eradication of adult literacy. To offer Secondary. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge.4. Technical. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 9. 8. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 10. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. • 2. in villages and those who live in towns.

2. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. if organised in isolation. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . To make if. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. 2. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. library. etc. training centres in factories. farm.4. Institutions for formal education.4.full time to learners – can be home. 2. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. centres of correspondence education. others are formal and informal. Radio and television. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. All-round development i.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. 3.4. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.. factory. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . public libraries. Therefore. To better qualifications. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. Again. To increase knowledge and 2. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. etc. effective in modern societal context. 4. self-employment iii. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. open space.

Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Written tests. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Teaching to face teaching. radio. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. institution.V. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Correspondence lesson. 117 . Give examples of non formal education? . List out any two aims of non formal education. . period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. . 7. Face Contact programmes. 6. Lecturing T. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Define non formal education.

7. 2. Higher Secondary level and University level. 3. Formal and Non Formal 2. adults as well as children. b.4. Pre-school level. 2. The school. systematic.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. 118 . Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. a. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.4. Open University.2. Secondary level. b. 4. Primary level. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. a. 4. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. School 3.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Open School. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. 5.” 6. the college and the university come under this category. 2. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Explain the different levels of formal system of education.4.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.

(2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. L. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. N. New Delhi : 119 . Modern Trends in Indian Education. Bhatia. Mohanty. (2008). Ltd. (2003). Ltd. J. (2005). P. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2004).4. (2008). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. S. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. B.2. Dash. K and Narang C.C. Education in Emerging India. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Gupta. Pahuja. Anmol Publications Pvt. Theory and Principles of Education. J. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. N. K.

4.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .5.5.5.5.3.5.5.5.5.5.3 Objectives of Open University 2.1 2.4.2 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.4.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5 2.4.7 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.3.4.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.3.5.3.6 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.LESSON 2.5.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5.5.5.4 Need for Open University 2.5.4 Open University 2.

farmers. It is a continuous process.5. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. industries. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. Thus.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. economic field or such other fields. Under these circumstances. know the need and objectives of open university. This knowledge may be in political field. continuing education is a boon. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. you will be able to: 1. Any person.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. For them. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. It is a lifelong process. 2. 2.3. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. characteristics of open university 4. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. However. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3.2.5. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. labourers and half educated individuals. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. give the meaning.5.5. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. 2. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon.

Doctors. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi.3. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. On the other hand. Radio. T. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Persons engaged in health services. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. cultured and progressive. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas.directly related to his job. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Radio and T. Throughout the country. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest.5.V. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. deteriorating to his character and personality. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. Thus. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. 2. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Cinema. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. After the achievement of independence. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. On the other hand.literate person. are also contributing their might for the purpose.V. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. For them too continuing education is essential. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. if he gets opportunity to develop them. Block Development Officers. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons.

(6) folk stories. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. (10) first aid. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as.3. 4. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely.5. Of course. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. 2. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. 5. habits of people of other lands. we have not been able to achieve our targets. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 2. 123 .5. (13) psychology of child behaviour. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. 7. 3. (8) psychology of adults. 2.V. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. and Radio.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (17) modern international and national events. (15) music.. (14) information about bringing up young children. (7) folk songs. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. especially women. (16) liking.3. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. 6.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. These books are not very useful. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. Inspite of the great efforts. (2) basic religious matters. (1) ancient history.

restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. of educational opportunities. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y.5.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University.4.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. NLM was launched in the year 2. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. lack of time etc. 2. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University.5. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . attendance restrict ion.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. the higher the degree of openness. No one is too old or too late to learn. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. it makes use of educational techno logy. IGNOU was established in the year 6. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. and in teaching. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. 4. its education is not class room based but home based. b. Education is not a once for-all process. c. Which was the first open university in India? . 2.5. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a.4. d. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. e.unobserved. but 125 .

It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books.who did not get it.5. 2. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 2. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 2. who were deprived of t he same earlier. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. supplementing the existing provision. 4. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. it a ims at wider and hig her. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. cho ice o f co ur ses. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. or who realised too late that they need it.4. 2. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. 126 .5. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. 5.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes.4. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 3. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 6. 4. 3. Mo re o ver. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities.

8. a state or nation. In the present day world. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 127 . Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Every day. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. school drop outs. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. you have learnt the concept. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. Therefore. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. 3. Laboratory works. a society.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. 1.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . cha ng e t heir life compet ence. 5. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . 7. 2.2.5. 6. Tutor Comments. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. 8. 4. semi – literates. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost.5. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. List out any four methods of Open University? . 2. Self instructional materials. Correspondence tuition.4. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University.

b. 2. a. 8. Broad casting lectures c. its education is not class room based but home based. (2) basic religious matters. 128 . need and characteristics of Open University. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. agricultural and industrial workers.5. 4. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. a. 6.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. 3. P r int med ia b. cho ic e o f co u r ses. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. unskilled workers and other professionals.5. 2. (1) ancient history.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. 9. Explain the objectives. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 7. d. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. b. 8. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. a. aspirants for continuing education. (4) the fundamentals of economics. which may include house wives. 1985. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. Television Lessons. 7. youth.ambitious learners. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. 1988.

K and Narang C. R.5. (2001). Modern Problems of Education. Ltd. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. Udaiveer. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. (2004). 129 . (2004). Teacher and Education in Indian Society.K.S. K. S. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.2. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Reddy..8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2007). L.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. All which is the need of the hour. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. In Lesson 2. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. its causes and remedial measures. which may claim the attention of those concerned. the education of women. wastage and stagnation. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. examination. Examination reform. 133 . Training teachers for all levels of education. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. and teacher education.

134 .

3 New initiatives. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.1.1.1.8 3.7 3.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1 3. 135 .9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.LESSON 3.4 3.2 EFA – How? 3.1.1.1.1.6 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1.1.3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.2 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.1.5 3.3.

The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. you will be able to: 1. 2. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. economic or cultural. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. (EOI) 2.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. therefore. may be political. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. directed that. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). education received added importance and significance. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. On the other hand.3. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI).1. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. “The State shall 136 . Continuing Education (CE) 1. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. understands the country.1. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). Eradication of Illiteracy. social. Therefore.

After the attainment of independence. rights and responsibilities. Universalization of Enrolment. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. the national Government under. It enables the parents to send their children to School. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Three Stages for Universalization. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Continuing Education (CE). Due to the adoption of democratic system. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Therefore. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Universalization of Retention. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. 137 . As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. 3.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education.endeavour to provide. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls .

1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need.1. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society.3. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. later to 1988. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. 3. This target had to be revised to 1970. UNESCO Bulletin states. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. present and future. Therefore. It is safe to assure. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. 138 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write Article 45. educational enterprise. 1995 (for upper primary stage). 1990. then to 1976. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2.

The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. nutrition education and sports and games.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. By undertaking survey. 5. NAEP. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. Apart from primary education. the art of preparing fruit-juice. sex. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. 3. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. 10. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. 8. In order to make the programme of education for all community. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). Education of the Impaired.1. their enrolment and retention. their social economic status and occupations.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. and Women’s education programme should be improved. 139 . To implement the programme of education for all UEE. 3. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. The Social Education. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. adolescent and adult. FELF. 12. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. Disabled. 6. Emphasis must be given on health education. Jams and Jellies. problem of literacy. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. 11. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Early childhood education should be streamlined. Education of Girls. 9. rural areas. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). etc. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children.3. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. creed. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. slum areas.

e.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Wastage and Stagnation.3. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. 4. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3.3. Expand MLL and SSA . According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.1.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. 3. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.1.

The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.first stage of education.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . it is considered as wastage. School Factors . Familial Factors .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. Social Factors . Personal Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.

Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. . .occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. 7. 142 . Define Wastage. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2.The following factors. They are described hereunder :1. Societal Factors .The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.1. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 . are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.3. relating to home. rural or urban 3. school or society. School Factors . It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. Family Factors . in his home. Personal Factors .

etc. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. mid-day meals. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . 144 . Define Stagnation? 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. uniforms. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. stationary. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education.

b.1. a. directed that. 4. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA.” 3. Universalization of Enrolment c. “The State shall endeavour to provide.3. 145 .1. 2. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all.. improvement of curriculum. therefore. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. a. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. 4. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. a.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Universalization of Provision b. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. 3. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. 3. 6. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. Universalization of Retention 2.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment.1. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Hartog Committee.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 3. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.

Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Personal Factor b. Familial Factors c.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.7. improve examination system.1. Social Factors 8. School Factors d. a. (2008). Hemchand. 3. b. T. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi: 146 . (2007). Crescent Publishing Corporation. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.K.N. S. S. 9.K. a. (2001). introduce graded curriculum. Sharma. Problems of Elementary Education.

5.2.4 Question banks 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2.4.5.LESSON 3.2.4.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.5.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2.3.5.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.2.4.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2.2.3.2 Grade System 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2.7 Open book examination 3.2.2.1 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .6.5.2.5.2.5 New evaluation procedures 3.5.2 3.2.2.2.1 Problems of examination 3.2.

They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2.2. 3. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.2.3. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.2. 3. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . Besides.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.3. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. but on the other.2. 3. 3.8 3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2. 4.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. suggest the new evaluation procedures.9 3. you will be able to: 1.2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.

6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. etc. They develop secondary sex characteristics. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes.. They may cause problems relating to discipline.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. which the educational authorities have to face. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. The following steps should be taken up. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each.2. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. etc. 149 . many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. waiting rooms for girl students. etc. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. 3.3. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. If the students are in sufficient number. hostel facilities. schools for them wherever necessary. roadside Romeoism.

Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. conduct of internal examinations.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. appointment of paper-setters. It is considered as a major sub-system. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. teachers. assessment and Finance. the examination system has an important role to play. Instruction. public administrators and statesmen. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. 150 . With the mass growth of educational enterprise. public interested in education.2.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.2. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them.

invigilators. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. introducing objective-based testing. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. scrutinizers. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. etc. etc. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . training of examiners. establishing reliability. payment of remuneration to paper-setters.printing and distribution of question papers. validity and practicability. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. etc. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. 3. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. tabulators. announcement of results.2. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. values. etc. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation.4. etc. examiners.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members.

The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. 2) From the angle of content of education. 7) In connection with the question papers. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils.4. which they are expected to study. Rote memorisation. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. it s a common experience that subjectivity.. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. Vagaries in making. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. Subjects. 3) With respect to method of teaching. may also discredit them. do not appeal to the students and parents. stereotyped questions. lack of objectivity etc. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview.2.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally.. takes the place of comprehensive learning. 3. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. 152 .. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. halo-effect.

Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions.develop true love for education. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. . revaluation. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. 153 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.a part of internal assessment. Spot valuation. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination.. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. 4. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. may be introduced. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Question Books may be developed in all schools. List any two merits of examination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. re-numbering of answer scripts.

1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth.5.3.5. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Their interests. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. In actual practice. attitudes. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. In this system. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. The new scheme of assessment.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . The students can take any course offered in any department. Every paper is treated equal. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. skills are given importance. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. It is complicated. 3.2. When a person chooses to work extra. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure.2. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there.2. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. he is given extra credit points.

instead of specifying number of paper/courses. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. poor. In the new system. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. v. This system reduces comparison of marks. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. These weightages are called credits. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. 3. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4.discipline. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development.good. An example is a seminar. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 .2. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. Groupism is encouraged.5. only the total credits to be earned is specified. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses.poor. or as a 4 credit course. While designing syllabus. courses can have weightages defined. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning.

measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. However.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. 3. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling.2. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.5.5. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. 156 . Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. 3.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.2.5. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.2. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. 3. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible.

Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. recruitment. What is the reason for introducing grade system? .7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization.2. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.3. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. 3. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. List any four new evaluation procedures. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.5. Therefore. There are no proper procedures for selection. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • .6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. In the hierarchy. However. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.2. . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 6.

playgrounds. school buildings. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. 3. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. finding out whether the prescribed text. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. taking up the follow-up programmes. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. library books.qualified personnel. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. assisting the schools in their qualitative development.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. staff. qualifications.6. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. interpersonal relationships and so on. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. 1. When they are fully realised. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. in a sense. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. requirements. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. whether the syllabus has been covered. Academic inspection. submitting of the inspection reports. etc. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. They are. disciplinary problems. in contrast.. being realised as two different functions. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. 158 . complaints and compliments. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is.2. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. wherever necessary. laboratory equipment. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. etc. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools.. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. finding out the adequacy of. of late. inspecting the class-room teaching. books are followed.

to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. courses. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. or. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. once in five years. Similarly.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. course in either educational. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors.. M. aptitude. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments..2. Insistence on specialisation in the B. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. In the light of these conceptualisation. 3. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. 159 . Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. modern.Ed. their professional knowledge. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field.Ed. In the case of departmental candidates. at least. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection.

2. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Instruction. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. b. Grade System. 3. 3. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 160 .7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. a. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. b. d. a. 3. 5.2. Administration. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. 3. assessment and Finance. 3. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.2. a. c. 4. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. b. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education.

Open book examinations.2. K. b. Vaidya. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. S. New 161 . K. (2002). 3. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. a. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. a. Educational Reforms. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.4. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. a. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. b. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Multiple sets of question paper. 7. Problems of Education in India. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. History and Problems of Education in India. R and Sharma. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. (2004). Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . c.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. b. (2005). Question banks. 5.a part of internal assessment.

Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities. 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. you will be able to: 1.4 3. 5. 162 .11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.5 3.3.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. identify the needs of rural India and social.7 3.10 3.3. 2.3 3.3.3.6 3. 4.3.3.2 3.3.8 3.1 3.3.3.9 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.LESSON 3. 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3.

the Banaras Sanskrit College. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education.specialisation programmes 3. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . e. 10 years of general Secondary Education. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination.e. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta... Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.e. and 3 years of First Degree Course..3. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. The. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course.3. 2. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. i. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. in Andhra Pradesh. Similar is the case with some other States.g. University Education. The Calcutta Madras. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. etc.. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. 8 years of general education. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Consequent on the recommendations. Commission emphasised to continue. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education.

6. educational channels. 10. social. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 8.confidence in students. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. economical and political. to prepare. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. is also a plus point . b. who desire to change from one stream to another. 3. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. 7. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved .a sense of dignity of labour. historical. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. to imbibe. 5) to help for the social. cultural and economic development of the country. and. 5. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.3. Provision for transfer of credits to students. However. habits of hard work and develop . It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures.

The General Educational Spectrum. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. international understanding..5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum.national integration. Sociologically it is undesirable. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. cultural and' religious tolerance. etc. 3.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. to develop national character. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. democratic living. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. and that required to enter the tertiary level. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. on one hand.3. social justice. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. Psychologically. cooperativeness. and. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. at the other. 1. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. Philosophically it is not the conception. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 .

the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. In the vocational spectrum. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. chemistry. Agriculture is the main occupation. 166 . the rural areas have suffered very much. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. vegetable growing. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. horticulture. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. industrial agricultural production is growing. 2. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. Science. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. medical plants. All these need for an.3. fish culture. or other machinery. In the matter of language. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. In our country. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. technological. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Commerce and other disciplines. India is a land of villages. rural health. 3. commerce. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. such as Agriculture. technical. professional. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. and vocations based on dairy-farming.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. educational and cultural services.— tube-wells. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Biology. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. commerce. physics or mathematics. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education.

social justice. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . interests and aptitudes of the students. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. In this it may be concluded. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. There had been favourable reaction from the students.. and 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States.3. In this way. can be ensured. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. In time. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. the local resources available. and the needs. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . 4.. 3.etc.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India.

N. b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. b.C. Ltd. Mohanty.3. a. to imbibe. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Dash. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. J. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. General Educational Spectrum and b. we studied the history. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.K. 3. New Delhi : 168 .9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.a sense of dignity of labour. habits of hard work and develop . (2007). 3. Vocational Sepctrum. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. a.3. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. Anmol Publications Pvt. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. objectives. (2008). B. (2001). Calcutta University Commission 2.3.3. Modern Trends in Indian Education. 2.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 3. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2005). curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. J. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. a. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. S. 3.

4.4.11 3.8 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.10 3.12 3.4.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.3 3.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.5 3.2 3.4.4.1 3.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal. Education contributes to human development.4.4.13 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4.7 3. social and 169 .4.4. but the lighting of a fire”.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.4.LESSON 3.6 3.9 3.4.4.

Education .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. In the post —independence period.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. There is a close connection between education and development. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. During the year 1937.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. Home Economics. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. 3. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. family. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. While women constituted only 9. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. analyze the women and distance education. For the first time in the history of India. higher education of girls developed immensely. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. economic. particularly 170 . A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . cultural and political development of the individual. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. The relevance of women’s education to social. Dr.4. Teaching and Fine Arts.4. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. community and nation is universally acknowledged. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. although we have miles to go.higher education in particular. 3. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. you will be able to: 1. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. These courses were. Nursing. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women.

meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Yet.women. Even today.0 16.4. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.9 27. Mumbai.65 lakhs in 1994-95. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). out of 9200 and odd colleges. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.0 32. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. In 1950-51. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.N. Coimbatore. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. Kodaikanal. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.1 24. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 .T Women University. The idea of women’s education for equality. we have more than 1200 institutions. 3.2 22. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. 3. levels and professions. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. Mother Teresa Women University. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. in our country.2 29.9 14.1 31.0 Today.D.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.0 43.4.4. In the rest of the country.

1 and 14.56 64. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .83 47.47 65. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.73 10.44 35. 2.46 82.34 33. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.53 34.54 12.4.that of boys. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.63 Female % 34. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.4%) prefer Arts subjects.27 89.1 respectively.4. 3.17 52.36 3.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.66 66. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3.

marriage is a very common I factor. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. particularly. promoted and increased. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. In every third family. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. curriculum not suited to their requirements. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. 3. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. she will only learn fashion. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. In college. distance of the college or university from home. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. Thus. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. what is the need for higher education for her.4. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. Also. 173 . They gave up their studies to enter home life.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. irrelevance of the content of education. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized.hinders the girls from getting higher education. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. etc. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Book banks should be established. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. The major hurdles. financial difficulty of the parents. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. and coeducation may spoil her character. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. According to a survey.

Full-time employment. and the limitations of the conventional education system. Geographic distance of educational institutions. 3. It is a productive investment.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. is the only tool for realising empowerment. There are constraints of time.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Empowerment in a nutshell. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. It enables to study. space. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Education. resources and socio .4. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. It also brings about 174 . Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests.economic disabilities faced by women. Distance education is a boon to women. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. 3.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.4. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges.

which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. Women are partners in development. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. 3. higher learning. on their own. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. for full development of our human resources. The major objectives of women's higher education. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. education of women is of paramount importance. This can be achieved through reflection. education of women must be given priority in national plans. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them.4. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. empowerment means being assertive. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. legal awareness and economic independence. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. Empowerment is an active. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 .conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment.

which is pending for a long time. The local administration. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. But their number is small. especially so in the developing countries. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. has to be implemented at the earliest. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. The educational institutions. Reservation for women. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. will encourage them to venture new grounds.4. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. 176 .GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. who are eager to take up courses. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. Better opportunities. 3. Scholarships and concessions for women. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . which had been the sole domain of men. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim.

especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Also. IDP Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Chief Executive. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations.000 women in the country.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem.8%).She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. especially in developing countries like African countries. capacities etc. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. Australia.. But.1%) and architecture and building (38. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). talents. engineering and related technologies (16. According to Lindy Hyam.3 percent. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. 3. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.9%). It also must help women to discover their latent abilities.

Pattanaikj. 3. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. SNDT Women’s University. SNDT Women’s University. S. individuals and society b. R. A. R. Mumbai. Rajasthan 5. 4. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Mumbai.K. create the right attitude towards life. 4. a. (2007). Annakodi. Women Education. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. 3. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. 2. Women and Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Mishra. 178 . Rao. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. (2008). S. 3.C.to the family. A. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. (2005). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Centre for Women’s Studies.4. Women Education. and Suryalatha. Coimbatore. Mother Teresa Women University. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.4.R. R. (2000). Kodaikanal. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. 43% 6. community and the nation.4.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. and Swain. Coimbatore.

Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.7 3.1 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. They should be trained. whole.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.2 3.10 3.8 3.11 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.5 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5.4 3.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5.LESSON 3.3 3.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.personality of children in and out of school.6 3.5.5.5.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.9 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.5.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.

international. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. equality and justice. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. social and emotional integration. 4. 180 .the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. Dearth of new technology of teaching. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. you will be able to: 1. 5. know the pre service and in service training facilities. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. understand the training teachers for Primary. Lack of physical facilities. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. Shorter working hours. and national character. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. understanding and strong desire for international peace. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. national consciousness. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2.5.5. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. 3.

Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. the centre. inservice and extension education programmes. and M. higher secondary teacher education. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities.. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education.. At the diploma level. students. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . 3. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. 3. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them.Ed. levels. it is called the Extension teacher Education. (NCERT) New Delhi. the primary teacher education. who have not been trained earlier.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. Lop-sided curriculum. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. Depending on the levels. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. and the collegiate teacher education. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service.Less qualified teacher educators.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. etc. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. the state Government. the secondary teacher education. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. it is called the In-service teacher education. Inadequate training in practical skills.5.5. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 .Ed. a Diploma course and a Degree course. If the student teachers are working teachers.

HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . etc. state Institutes of Educat ion. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . depart ments etc. Science Education units. Educational teehnology cells. are established. extensio n service. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. collegiate cells. Expand NCERT 2. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Education cells. Also Guidance Bureaux. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Evaluation unit. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? .. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. non-formal.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3.

to prescribe conditions for recognition. primary and secondary school teachers. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission..Ed. degree. and 183 . which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. to ensure teacher competence. despite its vast expansion. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. which help breaking isolation from one another . through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. should be improved on a top priority basis. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. and so on. material conditions relating to libraries. which should include experience in the primary schools too.. audio visual aids. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers.Ed. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities .• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . schools and sister institutions. laboratories. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . to improve curricular programmes. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . to offer consultative services. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life..

Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Organisation of Content Courses. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. though no pre-service training. and XII. etc. 184 . Agriculture. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. Psychology of Students. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education.secondary education.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. The problem. whether they should have professional education or. Meanwhile. Modern Techniques of Teaching. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Hence. Modern Methods of Evaluation. not came up once again. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. etc. To meet this exigency. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. Workshops. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. methodology and evaluation. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. Induction Courses.

For re-orienting the teachers. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.. (Education) are organized by 185 .7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. Pre-service training is for those.Ed.Ed..D. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. All B Ed.Ed.. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Degree. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. 3. State Institutes of Education.’s for Ph. Ajmer.Ed. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore..S. Degree and M.. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. M. (Education) and M.. These facilities are available for regular students. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.’s are elig ible for M.Ed. Courses leading to B. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. Post-Graduates also undergo B. Point out two defects in primary teacher training .A. courses and M. training. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. in Education. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.A. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates.5.Ed.

4. What is the role of ERIC? .A. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.some Faculties of Education of some Universities.A.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. established by tradition and teachers of the past. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (Ed). Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and .List any two code of conduct for teachers? .5. they should be conscientious . However.. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. 6. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. 5. Hence the employability of M. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. (Ed. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned.). 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. . 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. of conduct—written or unwritten. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. 186 . and B.

Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. 3.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. b. National Council of Educational Research and Training. 3. a. Ajmer.5. a. 2. Dearth of new technology of teaching. b. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 5. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. However. 2. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 187 .5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain code of conduct for teachers.5. they should be conscientious.3. 3. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Shorter working hours.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. Discuss the problems of teacher education. 3. 4. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. Bhopal. a. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. The necessity is however this. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 6.

Teacher Education. (2003).12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. (2010). P. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . and Teacher Education.N.5. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Ltd Aggarwal. (2009). B. Tewari. A. Teacher Education. Publication Pvt.D. J. Corporation. Mohanty.3.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

Lesson 5 explains the meaning. the focus is on the school health programmes. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. Since food is the source of nutrients. In lesson 4. objectives and role of the physical education. If the diet is poor. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. The person’s environment is equally important. communicable diseases and their prevention. common ailments of children. objectives. 191 . ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important. preservation of nutrients. objectives. economic and educational developments. nutritional deficiency diseases. In lesson 1.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. our attention shifts to physical education – its need.

192 .

1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.1.10 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.2 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.LESSON 4. It is a miniature society.11 4.1.8 4.5 4.1. emotional and social. physical. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody.e. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.9 4.1. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. 193 . mental.1.1.1. The programmes of school health education are quite important.6 4.3 4.1.1 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.4 4.7 4.1.1.

know the need for sex education. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. 4. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. To develop healthy health habits among children. 11. 8. e. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. training of teachers and evaluation. 4. 2. to his family and to the community at large. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community.. 6. list the common ailments of children 3. To give information regarding health rules.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student.1. Instruction. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. training in first aid and etc. explain the importance of First aid 5. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 194 . 7. cleanliness and healthful living. 9. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 4. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 10. understand school health programmes 2. 5. you will be able to: 1. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. To develop certain skills concerning health.g. content of health education. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health.

inoculation against cholera.C. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 .4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. Arranging better transportation facilities. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. 3. direct lighting. (xl) mental health. “Play-for-all” programmes. minimizing the travelling distance. B. organisation of school health days. vaccination.. cleanliness weeks. 2. First aid facilities should be made readily available. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. is imperative.1.. Triple Antigen Vaccination. 2.coming or absence. 4.4. excusing late. proper doors and windows. etc. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. (v) safety education. There should be regular water supply. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. (ii) communit y healt h. ( iii) sanit at io n. (xii) smoking education etc. 5. (viii) first aid. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. The school buildings should be spacious. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. The flooring should not be damp. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. B. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. typhoid. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. play festivals. The surroundings of schools should be clean. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene.G. as described below 1. (vi) nutrition education. There should be good drainage facilities. suitable furniture. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. Vaccination for small pox. (x) choice aid use of health services and products.

fainting (epileptic fit). Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. D. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. • Have adequate rest and sleep. • Close the schools. isolate and notify. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. 196 . Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Take nutritious food. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. C. etc. • Keep all rooms clean. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. cuts. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. bleeding. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. insect stings. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. if epidemic is wide-spread. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. burns. dislocations. fractures.. • When sleeping in groups. poisons. scalds. and other accidents. • Find out the cases. wounds. drowning. sports and games in the interest of their health.

. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . water or bodily contact. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. headache. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. measles etc.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. fever. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. polio. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. cough. List out the Health curriculum 3. asthma. These diseases are called communicable diseases. 4.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. which are – cold. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. chicken pox. backache. 4. There are three stages in any communicable disease. Mention the school health programmes.1. They are: i) The incubation stage. Once these germs get into the body. pain in the joints. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. tuberculosis. So they easily get illnesses.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection.

Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. There may also be fever accompanied by cough.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Tonsilitis . In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Measles . Some suffer cold due to allergy. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. The symptoms include cold. eating food which is not clean. sugar and water. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Others make the children very weak.This disease is caused by bacteria. After three or four days of fever. Common Cold . Children catch cold from persons having cold. Ear Infections . Hence liquid diet is recommended. The following are the common communicable diseases. Diarrhoea . The virus is present in the secretions of throat.It is caused by measles virus. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. cough and fever.When a child suffers from scabies. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. 198 . head-ache and cough. etc. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. unhygienic living conditions. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Scabies . Cold is usually accompanied by running nose.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. The child may have fever.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. This is caused by cold virus.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. unhygienic bottle feeding. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Throat is affected.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Hence it is called a killer disease. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Mumps . One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands.

• • • • Chicken Pox . These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. As the disease progresses. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Shortly. It begins with fever. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. Typhoid . Expand DPT . 199 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. face and waist. the child may die. Enlist the common ailments of children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. If proper treatment is not given. the child is not able to breathe. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. separate. The child may also have diarrhoea. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. raised pink spots appear on head. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. 5.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. By scratching he causes secondary infections. What are communicable diseases? 6. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. Diphtheria . The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day.

5. fainting. It is both biological and psychological.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. head injury. and Community Work and Social Service. 3. eye injury. wounds.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. 4.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. drowning. exciting and body-oriented. Cuts and Bruises .Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. and films.1. scorpion stings. fiction. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future.g. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. it is a subject of art.1. In such cases. snakebites. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. Drowning . Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. bruises.4. so-called sex books and periodicals. 2. simple fractures. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. Sex is popular. Wounds . etc. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. man-woman behaviours. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. bleeding. cuts. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Sprains . sprains. 200 . swelling. It has its rightful place in education too. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. sprains. films and jokes. 4. dislocation.

who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. the religious organisations. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. 2. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. they would be treading the path of sure doom. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. B. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. health. In secondary schools. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught.old values. sex education is being recommended in schools. 3. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. In today's liberal and interactive society. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. celibacy are age. but preserve them from disaster and disease. the school. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. The home. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. The values of life.. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Hence. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. in their ignorance. try experimenting with their bodies. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. Should the boys and girls. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers.

If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. common ailments of children.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. communicable diseases and their prevention. 4. What are the major components of Sex Education. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. first aid and sex education. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. hence. the school health programmes. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. there will no crisis in its implementation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. C. Teacher education institutions are. 202 . when the courses are already overloaded.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 209 . What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Mention the food nutrients 2. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4.

6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.2. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. minerals.4. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . Let us talk about each of these aspects. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. 210 . If you look at the definition carefully. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.2. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned.

Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. activity level and physiological stress. Preferences/customs are also important. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. In the case of adults. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately.2. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e.6. paratha and poori.sedentary. the social and religious practices of that region. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . sex. There is no point. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). People in the east of our country prefer rice. 4. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning.one in the morning and the other at night. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. it is also specific to a given activity level .g. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. construction labourer). Even within given States there is considerable variation. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. A balanced diet is specific firstly. for example.g. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). moderate or heavy work. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. dosa are typical of the south.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. In other words. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. These are: region where the person resides and income. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires.

the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. One must. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. Even among flesh foods. while another may hate them. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. Including these 212 . however. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. taboos related to food may play an important role. fat and sugar tend to increase. As you read this discussion. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. however. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. As income increases.planning the diet. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Judicious selection of food is. for example. If you think of your own religious group. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. One person may be fond of milk products. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. Among the social factors. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. However. as important for the rich as for the poor. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. customs. income plays a vital role. vegetables and fruits. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. In addition to these. nuts and dry fruits. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. however. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. Having more money. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. These determine the acceptability of foods.

213 . Define balanced diet. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. mouth. meat. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. 8) Walk a while after eating. green leaves. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. List out any two healthy food habits. 7) One should eat what is needed to live .milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. if the teachers have good food habits. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. etc. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits.eating is hazardous. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. For this. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. fruits. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. eggs . over-eating or under. 8. but they should be thrown away. 17. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

Keratomalacia 3. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. good nutrition is essential for good health. Vitamin D 5. e.4. b. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. 4. Night blindness. In fact. Conjuctival xerosis. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. When the diet is inadequate. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. Explain food nutrients 4. c.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life.2. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. d.2. preservation of nutrients.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. a.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Beri Beri 4. Discuss good food habits. Corneal xerosis. 4. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Bitot’s spots.

C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s.2. (2008). U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . R. b. Health and Nutrition Education. Chopra.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. mouth. (2005). Nutrition and Dietetics. 8. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. a . New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . (2008). Food and Nutrition Education. a. Hands.6. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. 4. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. R. P. 7. Nutrition Science. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. Sri Lakshmi B. S. (2004). plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru.N. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Food should be consumed after eating well. Food and Nutrition Education.C. A Text Book of Foods.M. (2009). minerals. b.

3. 216 .4 4.3.13 4.3 Impact on Education 4.1 4.12 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.6.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.2 4.3.3.3.3.7 4.3.5 4.6.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.3.9 4.3.3.3.6.11 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.LESSON 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3.3.3.10 4.8 4.3 4.

population characteristics. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. It is a much wider co ncept.3.3.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. the causes of population change. Population Education. objectives and need for population education 2. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. aims at providing the younger generation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. family planning and sex education etc. his family. 217 . on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. state the meaning. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. describe the impact of population growth on social. characteristics and changes for himself.4. 4. understand the importance of small family norm 5. and the consequences of these processes. you will be able to: 1. 4. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. the stress is. There is some difference. Whenever we talk of sex education. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. It is not sex education. community. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. his societ y and the world. economic and educational development 3.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control.3. therefore. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4.

2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. the nation and the world. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. Define Population Education 2. 4. the family. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.3. List out any two objectives of Population Education.3. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.4.

4. which will not be possible without population control. With the larger families. 4. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. 219 . Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Every second two thousand children are being born.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. health and happiness of its citizens. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. economic and educational development of the country. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. When the family is small. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood.3. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed.6. Family is considered as a social unit. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. the family programmes are also handicapped.3. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner.

facility for drinking water. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. Swollen cities. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. there is an inverse relationship between population and development.6.e. 4. Many students herded in a small room. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. The gulf between them is widening further. i. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends.3. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. in buses and trains. In developing countries. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. 4.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy.6. unemployment. 220 . pollution of the environment. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. lack of proper health care. teacher index.. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production.3. and so on. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. organization index and material index. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. toilets.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. in cinema halls and theatres. heavy intern I migration etc. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. in parks and other places of public gatherings.

all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. even text books would be in short supply. less budget for education. can be taken up. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. essays. Hindi and English.. can be studied in science and health education. reproduction. bar graphs etc. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. family planning etc. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. There would be poor library facilities. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. Social Studies Statistics on population education. 221 . less space facilities. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Regional Language. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. and laboratory equipments. There would be very few audiovisual aids.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. thus. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. blank verses etc.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers.

9.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. Children with the help of parents. 13. 5. 4. 3. Canada.4. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). West Bengal. 12. area and average density of population. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 8. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Children may compare two families. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Uttar Pradesh. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 10. 11.3. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. United States of America. Brazil. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Bihar. 2. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. 14. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 7. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. China. causes of deaths etc. deaths. 15. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. They may arrange them as per average density of population.

The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. values and role children etc. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4.3. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. Comparing life in various respects in two families. age at marriage. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. The question. 16. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. preferences for sex. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage.be opened in their schools. 18. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. we have no right to stop 223 . Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. 17. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole.

4.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. especially the expansion of child immunization services . however.. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. on an overall basis. Since the program's inception. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . continued . The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. “He who is responsible for population growth. The Family Welfare Program. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. should be overcome at the intellectual levels.4-6. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. More than 45 years ago.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.3. at varying places in different regions. which education can only do.to emphasize family planning services. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).were implemented 224 . and the child survival components of the news: program. the total fertility rate decreased from 6.their entry into the world”. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.

Local programs vary in their approaches. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. In October 1997. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. and the World Conference on Women. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers.earlier than the safe motherhood components. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. reliance on local women as community health workers. Moreover. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. men. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. At these meetings. expansion of services to unmarried women. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. a focus on health promotion. and nominal fees for services. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. Therefore. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. In April 1996. the community appears willing to pay for services. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program.

to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. 4. economic and educational development 4. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. nation and the world. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. involving the community.3.emphasizing the needs of the client. Its main purposes are to create awareness. What are the goals of RCH? 4. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. Describe the impact of population growth on social. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. community. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. 3.3. 226 . 1997). What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. family.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.

6. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. 5. 7. bar graphs. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. a. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 4. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. less administrative initiative and leadership talents.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. area and average density of population. characteristics and changes for himself. Brazil. and the consequences of these processes. the causes of population change.4. b. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. less space facilities. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. his family. 227 . China. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. population characteristics. a. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. his society and the world.” 2. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages.3. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Canada. less budget for education. United States of America. 3. b. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. a.

(2002). New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Centre for Women’s Studies. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Bhende. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Reddy. Ltd.3. (2005). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). N. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. 228 . (2004). T. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Kantikar. (1992). Udaiveer. Coimbatore. V. A. Principles of Population Studies.K. Modern Problems of Education.4. Ltd. Jayapoorni. J.

4.4.3 4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.4.9 4.2 Major games 4.2 4.4.8.4.4.4.8.4.4.7 4.10 4.4.8.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.4.4.1 4.LESSON 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .6 4.4 Lead up games 4.11 19.1 Minor games 4.3 Indigenous games 4.8.4 4.5 4.4.4.

understand the importance of Physical Education 4. classify the different types of games. 4. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. leadership and balance in defect. 4. which forms its most valuable assets.4. moral fitness and emotional fitness. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. as it should 230 . explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. the youth of the country. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. team spirit.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. The concept of physical education has been made broader. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. social fitness. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications.4. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. perseverance. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools.4. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. full records of physical activities should be maintained.4. mental alertness. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education.

school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. obedience to rules. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. leadership.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Therefore. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Every individual is a part of society. They go hand in hand. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. The educational efforts at home. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. They are inseparably united together. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. team spirit. To be more precise. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child.

” Montaigue writes. Physical exercises. pleasing manners.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. mo ral. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. Regarding the significance of physical education. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. Buck has observed that 232 .4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. H. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. ment al.” The Secondary Education Commission. 4. Just like Education. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. Rousseau states. game and sports. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal.4. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. nor body but the whole man. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. a sound health. C. “Physical education does neither train up the soul.

4. initiative. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. efficiency and character. etc. resourcefulness and smartness. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. flexibility and power. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. elegance. 233 . in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. endurance.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief.a properly directed physical education should result in health. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. Froebel says. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. we must exercise the whole human being. happiness.” In brief. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. strength. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. “If we wish to develop the whole being.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. coordinative abilities.” 4. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. speed. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength.

Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. 234 (i) (ii) . Tournaments foster this sentiment. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Every age has its artists. While wars. including all racial groups and historical ages. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. they may form gangs.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. poetry and painting. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. its adherents and its enemies. these fundamental things have always been present. in greater or lesser degree. systems of government. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. plagues and famines.

235 . Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. respect for rules. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. B.sacrifice. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. etc. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. 3. self. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. obedience. bravery and interest in games and sports.\ to develop perseverance. Write any two importance of Physical Education. to develop tolerance. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly.

Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. 5. Emergency care procedures should be followed. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Be self-confident. 236 1. 15. injuries among pupils should be made.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Be punctual. Posture screening should be done. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Usually parents. and. Be in the uniform. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 14. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Always keep the whistle ready. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 11. 6. Haag. 4. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health.H. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. 3. defects. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Be sportive. 4. At least now its importance should be duly recognized.4. is essential.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 9. 12. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. and readmission after they have recovered. Be well-prepared. . 13.4. 7. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. 16. Act as a leader. 10. Inform health principles. students.4. 2. 8. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Keep the field ready for the activities.

Moreover. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. 1. 237 .4. their development is handicapped. less equipment and less expense. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. Lead up games. 4. 4. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. the play.8. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Indigenous games. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Such inst incts as imitation. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. frolic and jo y. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 3. 4.4. As such they are well enjoyed by children.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. chasing.

couple tag. under ball pass Relay. muffling. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. the games can be modified according to convenience. trapping. Except a few games. Dodging. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. stopping. catching. bowling etc. some of them are played indoors. dribbling. Khokho. the number of players and substitutes. with implements or without implements. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. Volley Ball. 238 . Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. These games require varied skills such as running. hitting. Tennis. Ball Badminton. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Cricket. 4. They are played for a shorter duration. heading. Hockey. Hopping. finding the partner. They are rules approved by the International Associations. While many of them are played in the open playfields. Jumping. on sea-shore. Shuttle Badminton. On lawns. Basket Ball. wherever the kids assemble. on hard courts.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. on mountain tops and on river beds. boosting. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. over ball pass Relay. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children.. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. Tennikoit.4. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. the play equipment. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. zig zag relay. skipping. driving. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. pitching. For each game the rules are many. Kabaddy etc. Throwing. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Jump the stick clay and so on.With a very few rules. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level.8. benefit in playing minor games. Soft Ball. women take part most of the games. spiking. The dimension of the posts and nets. snatching the kerchief.

Kho-kho. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Games may be classified as 6. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game.8. these games being popular. festivals connected with religion and public functions. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. 4. 7. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. List out some major games. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. death. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. An example for indigenous game is 8. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. they are in existence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They have an abundant social value. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game.4.4. All the fundamental tactics. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. On occasions like marriage.8. For example. and . While observing the players in action.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . birth.

4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Minor and Major 240 . a. aims and objectives and need of physical education. Briefly discuss the different types of games. the role of physical education teachers and types of games.4. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. 5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. to develop physical stamina. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. 3. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. a. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. b. a. physically and emotionally fit and alert. 2. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. b. to secure physical health b.4. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. b. 3. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Posture screening should be done. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. c. 4. 4. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education.4. 2. 4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. d. a.4.

Physical Education and Sports. Hockey. (2008). Tennis. G. (2009). Krishna murthy. Tennikoit. Khokho 8. Basket Ball. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. 241 .4. Health. Soft Ball. J. Cricket. 4. Kabaddy 7.6.C.K. Mohanty. Shuttle Badminton. Handbook of Physical Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Aggarwal. Modern Trends in Indian Education. J. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. (2008). New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Foot-ball. Ball Badminton. Khokho. Volley Ball. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2005). J.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Ltd.

Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .10 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.2 4.11 4.8 4.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.5.5.5.5.1 Natural Environment 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.5.5.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.LESSON 4.7 4.5.1 4.3 4.4 4.5.5.5.5.9 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5.6 4.

5. The best place to start such learning is school. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. 5. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Details are given below: I. Attitude. 243 .4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. list out the types of environment 3. population explosion and resource depletion could be. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. political. 4. Knowledge. 4. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 2. economic. 2. 3. Skills. social.5. 6. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. Broadly. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. education about the environment and education through the environment. 3. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. 4. Essential knowledge about the Environment. it covers the following elements: 1. aesthetic and educational factors. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. you will able to: 1. Evaluation Ability.educat ion for the environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A.5. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Participation. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Awareness.

a. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. 244 . Oxidants Other pollutants. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. • Biological magnification E. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. 2. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. F. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle.B. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. D. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle.

Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Control of population growth a. economic. Intrauterine device iii. 4. Family planning ii. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. The pill ii. B. Abortion iv. Persuasion: i. Socio-economic measures. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. 2.3. Birth control through education b. Sterilisation. III. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Use of medical science i. The human ecosystem II. 3. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. 2. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . c.

2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. (UNESCO. 3. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. 1983). Air pollution abatement ii. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. e) Recycling. Water pollution abatement.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Define Environmental Education. 246 . Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment.

5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.5. They interact with each. telex.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4.5. to his needs. b. -other. includes the plants. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. He modifies according”.other components of the environment. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. These are biotic components. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. way is called environmental or ecological factor. Biological environment The biological environment. 4. a. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions.5.5.4.5. fax agricultural apparatus. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . Any constituent or condition of the environment. animals and other organisms (biotic). Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. A change in one brings about a change in the other.5. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.

Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. explosion deforestation. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. preserving the watersheds. air pollutants from industries. wars and hazards of war. alternate sources of energy. mineral survey. change in climate may be added. noise control. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. need for conservation.. water scarcity. nuclear warfare. maintaining the ecological diversity. excellent recreation sites. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. of civilizations. solar cookers. evolution. desertification 248 . natural way of controlling pests. river systems. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. are the topics which may be taught in History. (ii) Air pollution. population. extinction of species. sources. effects o f CFC. use of pesticides. noise pollution. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. etc. need for bio-diversity. History The rise and fall. role of trees in building economy. t heir role in preventing pollution. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. industrial survey. food chain and food-web. importance of nitrogen cycle. industrial pollut io n. balance of nature. windmills. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. use of medicinal plants. biogas plants. etc. effects. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . preventing siltation of dams. nuclear energy. reasons. sources of pollut ion. relation between population and pollution. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. social studies. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. ozone layer deplet ion. ozone depletion. supplying timber for various uses. acid rain. trees reducing noise pollution. over exploitation of ground water. greenhouse effect.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science.

Organising Social Service and Community service programmes.may be inc ded in Geography. Organising conferences. aims and scope. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. 13. 9. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. group discussions and seminars. 12.5. 10. 2. Providing. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. 14. 4. 11. Developing habits of cleanliness among students.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 4. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. 6. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Peepal and Tulsi. 8. 249 . Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 3. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 5. animal and plants. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 7. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Developing awareness about environmental issues.

Don’t burn any waste. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Never put any left over chemicals. it will cause pollution.Send their waste oil. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. 5. especially plastics. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. World Environmental falls on 250 . Use public transport wherever it is possible. 6. used oils down the drain. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. If it is done. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Reuse carrier bags. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. all these can cause serious pollution. as the smoke may contain polluting gases.

To arrange for visiting speakers. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. depletion of ozone. To arrange visits or expeditions. orderliness and beauty). etc. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions.).4. To provide materials needed for practical work. Harmony with the nature . concern for others). (cleanliness. Att itudes of balance towards nature. To provide reference materials for children’s use. etc. rather than conquest and mastery. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. potable water. Concern for species. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. loss of bio-diversity. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. diversity and stability. and 251 . viz. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes.. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature.mat erials. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. nuclear wars. CFCs. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. Conservation of natural resources. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. dest roying nat ural habitats. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. values and habits.5. deforestation. developing desirable attitudes. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. Social responsibilit y (common good. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . The groups may exchange. To discuss the approach to problems or topics.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. 8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. 4.5. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. 4.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. preserving natural cycles. 252 . 4. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

2.. ozone layer deplet ion. 5. a.\ 4. Environmental Education. 3.K. explosion deforestation. effects. Providing. a. population. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Rapid population growth. sources. Nanda. New Delhi : Authors Press. Environmental Education. To provide materials needed for practical work. To provide reference materials for children’s use. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. importance of nitrogen cycle. b. acid rain. relat ion between population and pollution. 6. over exploitation of ground water.5. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.K. S. (2004). 4. Education for values. sources of pollution. b. water scarcity. Publications Pvt. b. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Organising conferences. greenhouse effect. b. reasons. (2007).K. concern for others). Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. S. (1997). Ltd. new problems from science and technology. a. a. Knowledge. 8. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . (ii) Air pollution. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Anmol Publications Pvt. June 5 7. Environment and Human Rights. Kuldeep. Udaiveer. Awareness. Social responsibilit y (common good. Ltd.K.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. New Delhi : Sharma. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. T. (2007). group discussions and seminars. air pollutants from industries. Y. Modern Problems of Education. importance of trees in the production of oxygen.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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It is self-realisation. moral. Spiritual Development." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. promote and transmit it to rising generation. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. Therefore. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. enrichment and transmission of culture. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. the emancipation of spirit.our life. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. man is essentially a moral being. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man.1.3. Education according to idealism. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. should be universal in nature.” 5. According to Rusk'. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. Education must contribute to development of culture. in fact. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. Universal Education. The universe is regarded as a thought process. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve.

no doubt. So health. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. so subjects like Religion. Learning through lecturing. subjects like Languages. Herbert advocated instruction method.3. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. The plant can grow. History. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. 5. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. Science. He sets the environment in which education takes place. 3. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. So he should embody. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. According to Frobel. a spiritual guide for the child. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. and collation (striving) should find due place. For this no particular method has been suggested. According to idealism. It considers teacher as. However. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection.” He is thus. Learning through imitation.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. For intellectual development. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. Mathematics etc. an indispensable necessity. 2.1. friend and guide. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality.3. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . He is to be a source of inspiration for the students.1.” 5. Learning through reading. affecting (feeling). He carries the child from darkness to light. should be there. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. So cognition (knowing). Philosophy. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. 5.the spiritual qualities of mankind. hygiene. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. 4. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. the school is a garden. Ethics. Learning through questioning. Learning through discussion.

time tables. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. Perfection of Human Machine.preservation. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. text books. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. formal lessons or examinations.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. 5. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.1. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. 5.4. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. "Education should make 263 • . curricula.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.perfection and beauty. In the words of Ross. Ross explains.1.

Arithmetic. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Literature. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. In all. “Education finds its purpose. Naturalistic curriculum. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Education also aims at helping the individual t. It emphasises physical and health education 5. It stresses basic sciences.4.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Education should. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Therefore. geography should also be included in the curriculum. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. • 5. Chemistry. education should develop the child into Joyous. useful and mature child. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. Botany etc Language. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Zoology. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. subjects like history. Biology. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. his interests and inborn tendencies 2.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose.1. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. is based on the nature of the child. There is no place for religious and moral education. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. rational harmoniously balanced. It is based on the psychology of the child. 4.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. therefore. 264 . The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society.

Learning through observation. the stage. It discards all rigid. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Rousseau says. a provider of an ideal environment.1. Learning through experience.4. Learning by doing. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. a supplier of materials and opportunities.5.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. he should be taught by experience alone. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. 2.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. In the . Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.1. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by .4. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher.1. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Heuristic method. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. 5. 3. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Dalton Plan.

Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. 5. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. All Round Development of an Individual. of human personality is in terms of his physical.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Social Efficiency. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Sciences.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements.5. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. intellectual. Agriculture. Physical training. 5. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. diversified and flexible. Social Science. Subjects. History. Continuous reconstruction of Experience.1. social and moral aspects. Continuous Growth. Geography. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences.absolutism of idealism. The aim of educational development.1. Personal Social Adjustment. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. The individual has not only to adjust himself.5. is true. Vocational and 266 .

Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Methods of teaching should not be fixed.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The subjects. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Learning by Doing.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. a senior partner and a sincere guide. 5. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. He has to be active. should find proper place.” 5. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. In different situations he remains a friend and helper.1. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. alert and resourceful. a teacher occupies an important position.Technical Education.5. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely.1. activities and experience should be integrated properly. He must be trained.

practical.1.1. Psychology. Art. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. 3. liberal. 5. Education is preparation for a complete living. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Sex Education.6.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things.1. 2.5. Biography Philosophy. scientific and psychological education. rich and happy. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Population Education. Astrology. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. 4. It favours child-centered. 3. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. 5. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. History.6. literary or humanistic education. intellectual. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. specific.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Study of Subjects like Language. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Crafts. Literature. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Chemistry. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Biology. 2. Music and Dance. 5. 4. Mathematics.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.1. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. certainly and clearly. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . easily and pleasantly.6.5.

5. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Social Science. Learning through questioning. naturalism. Vocational and Technical Education.5. Learning through experience b. 5. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life.1. Learning through discussion. Languages. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. d. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Self Realisation b. Learning through imitation. Geography. Education according to pragmatism. Experimentation d. Sciences.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. a. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. c.1. Learning through reading. Learning through lecturing. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. pragmatism and realism.7 LET US SUM UP We have. 5. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. a. Physical training. in this lesson. b. Agriculture. e. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Rousseau 5.1. 6. Tours / Excursion e. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. History. Child centered c. Universal Education 2. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Self preservation & Self expression 4. & curriculum. 3. has no end other than growth.

L. Pahuja. P. Foundations of Education. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. (2007). Ltd.P. (2007). P. N.1. (2004). New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Publishing corporation. 271 . K. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2003). K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.P. of Pathak. New Delhi : A.5.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. New Delhi : Bhatia. R. Theory and Principles of Education. O.H. Narang C.

2.2.3.2.4 Views about teacher 5.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.1 Aims of Education 5.2.5.2 Curriculum 5.2.2.4.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.2.2.3.3.2.2.3 Methods of Teaching 5.3.5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.4.1 5.3.LESSON 5.4.4 Views about teacher 5.2.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.1 Aims of Education 5.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.4.2.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2 Curriculum 5.2.2 5.3 Methods of teaching 5.2.3 Methods of teaching 272 .2.2.3.4.

6 5. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. 2. 5. economic and political reconstruction in our country. Gandhiji was primarily a social.8 5.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. mind and spirit. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. content and methods.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.2.2. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.5.2. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.7 5. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.4 Role of the teacher 5. 3. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. 273 . an artist.2. you will able to: 1.2. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.5.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Tagore was a poet. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. 5. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.2. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.2. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.2.

through life and for life.3. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. "I attach more. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. self-restraint and service of humanity. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. nor the gross animals body. 274 . 'Man is neither mere intellect." Dignity of Labour. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. strength of mind. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. This can be matched with any modern concept of education.intellectual and physical faculties of the children.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words.2. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. In the words of Gandhiji. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. It really provides opportunity for character building. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. mind and soul of children He further observed. 5. righteousness. it is education of life. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education.supporting. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. His scheme of education is life centred.

Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Only good individual forms a better society. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Music. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. 5. "Development of the moral character. Drawing and Hindustani. General Sciences.3. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Art. gardening.Training for Leadership. the realization of the ultimate reality. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. wood work.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 .Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme.2. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. metal work. Mother-tongue. Individual and Social Aims. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. leather work have been suggested. According to Gandhi.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered.

It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Basic education is other wise known as 4.2. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.3.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.2. proficient.trained. men of 276 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.3. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. 3. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. That is why. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education.knowledge. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies.2. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Education must be child centered. He also advocates freedom for the child. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 .

1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.4. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. • Ideal of citizenship. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.K. • Cult of non-violence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . • Education should involve manual work. Gandhi in 1937. 5. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. He believed in the oneness of humanity. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. He was a true patriot. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. he was a true Vedantist 5. He was deadly against untouchability. 5.2. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.” Like all other ideals.2.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.3. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.

stronger in power than ever before.Language and Literature . Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Chemistry. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. It should help. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. complete manhood could be attained. International Understanding. 279 . (vi) Philosophy. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. "Mankind must realise a unity. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. That way only. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Civics. them solve problems of day to day life. Zoology.2. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. sentiment.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. International understanding. etc. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Religion and Psychology. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Geography. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Botany. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. could help in forging unity among all.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Therefore. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Music. Tagore said. deeper in. wider in range.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. the more dedicated and devoted. he said. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts.4. Dance. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. It should help the learner have good physique.

4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. 5.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. Activity Method Heuristic Method. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.4. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.” He further says. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.2. In 1921." 5. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.2. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.2.4. 5. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. 280 .4. Tagore rightly says. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.

Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. It is open to all irrespective of country. 281 . Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. race. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5.g. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore.

1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education should make a person self-reliant. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. Book learning. 3. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. According to him. work and deeds come out of it. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only.2. Education for Self-realization. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Freedom.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says.5.” 5. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life.2. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. man making. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. Concept of Education. 4. Education for Self-reliance." He was against the theoretical type of education. character forming and assimilation of ideas. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. 2.5. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Purity of thought. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Education for strong Moral Character. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 .

Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Education for Physical Development. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. 5. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. 6. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Swami. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. Education should help in the physical development of an individual.2. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta.5. 5. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one.the learners on different students in the discussion. That will serve the purpose of education fully.5.5. engineering and technical subjects. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. A physically strong person is the need of the society. 5. Secondly he wanted Science. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. And above all. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. philosopher and guide to the students He. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . 283 .2. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. The teacher should be the facilitator. Philosophy and Theology.2. Discussion Method. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Of course. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Thirdly he wished that games. Religion.

Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and pragmatist .Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. Gandhiji as a Idealist. ears and eyes. naturalist. Write short notes on Basic education. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands.2. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda.Substantiate your answer. of course. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. 2. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. 5. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature.2. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. 3.6 LET US SUM UP We have. in this lesson. 12. We have seen that Tagore. 284 .” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. legs. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. Their educational ideas.

a. f. Debate and Discussion Method.2. 8. Ideal of citizenship. Education should involve manual work. 1937 7. Cult of non-violence. 3. c. 5. Self realization. 5. Activity Method b. a. Explain Vishwabharathi. Meditation and concentration c. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 2. e. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. gardening. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Discussion Method 285 .4. Basic education. a. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Learning by Doing c. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. a. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Teaching while Walking b. Activity Method d. Technique of Correlation 6. d. Nai Talim 4. 11. 9. 10. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. 5. Self-Study b. b. wood work. leather work have been suggested. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Heuristic Method. c. metal work.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2007). Foundations of Education. P. New Delhi : A. (2003).P. Anmol Publications Pvt.5. L. O. (2004). (2007). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Dhiman. K and Narang C. B. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. P. K.H. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. on Bhatia. N. Pahuja. N.2. 286 . (2002). Theory and Principles of Education. Publishing Corporation. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ltd. C. New Delhi : Aggarwal.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. J.

10 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.7 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3.3.3.LESSON 5.3.3.8 5.6 5.5 5.2 5. In this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.9 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3.3.3.11 5.1 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3 5.3.3.4 5.3.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.

analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. maintained or eliminated. In the words of Kerney and Cook.3. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. state the meaning of curriculum 2. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”.S. A g o o d curricu lu m. the plain area. Curriculum is intimately related to education. new behaviour may be acquired. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. living in the hilly area. While education is learning. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. 5. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. curriculum signifies situations for learning.under the direction of the school.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. in the U. 5. In the former sense. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. in the form of new experience. Then in a big country like India. the desert area.. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. From the latter point of view. you will be able to: 1.3. curriculum. Since the demands. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. In it.3.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. in fact . It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. present behaviour may be modified. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . there is a large number of communities. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. is a means to the process. it is identical wit h socializat ion.A. While education is a process. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. the plateau area and 288 . “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. Both the processes are integrated. in Russia or in Japan.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes.

differs from individual to individual. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. studying therein. From a slave-country we became secular. irrespective of their needs and environment. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. it is. In fact . And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. However. according to modern trends in the educational process. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. the learning capacity of children. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. too. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. Besides craft. therefore. and 289 . After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. environment. It must differ from locality and from society to society. 5.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. Again. customs and needs. democratic and socialistic country. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils.3. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour.

The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. individual or Social and so on. They are visionary goals e.g. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. aims. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. uninspiring and unscientific. remote or immediate. They may be ultimate or proximate. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. they depend on the political. Vocational Efficiency. Understanding Objective. They speak of immediate purposes of education. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. Self Realisation. So it is inadequate. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. Goals of Secondary Education.. specific... Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. The word “Curere” means 2. which may or may not be attained. unambiguous and functional. 2. social. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. unsatisfactory.. 3.g. National Integration. social.g. eg. etc.3. etc. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. in instructional objectives. general or specific. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. e.. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. 1. Knowledge Objective. of classroom. They speak of perfect goals. Application Objective. moral. They are achievable. aesthetic and spiritual development. tangible. emotional. etc. Goals of Primary Education.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. 5. e. 290 . Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education.

Crow and Crow remarks. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. but it includes the totality of experiences. According to Crow and Crow. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. heavy fire.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. The interests. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. abilities. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced.5. Raymont rightly says. on the playing fields. finding them very interesting and captivating. in the class rooms. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects.” 291 . educationists. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. capacities. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. needs. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit.3.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.

Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. moral. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. They often waste it or rather kill it.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. time in a useful manner. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. urges. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. capacities and abilities. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. tendencies. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. aptitudes. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. Due to these variations and differences. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. mental.

there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. Similarly. administrative programme need be planned. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. development of professional capability at all levels. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives.curricular. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. To ensure success of the process. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. organized. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. 2. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. 3. phased preparation. 293 . supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. analysis and concretise the curricular elements.

5. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. Relation with Life c. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school.3. Run. principles of curriculum construction. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee.3.3. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. workshop.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . laboratory. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. 12. library. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. a. 18. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. 17. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. 11. in the class room. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. 1937 19. 5. Child Centred Education b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. 10. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils.

Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. New Delhi : Authorspress. (2007). Bhalla.3. Curriculum Development. N. P. Lakshmi. and Sarita Kumari. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.5. (2007). 295 . Innovations in Education.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2001). S. (2007). New Delhi : Isha Books.K. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited.S. S. Curriculum and Instruction. D.

1 Developing scientific outlook 5.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.4.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .7.4.3 5.4.4.4.LESSON 5.2 5.4.8 5.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.7.7.6.7.9 5.1 5.10 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4.4.4.4.5 5.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.6.4.4.4.4.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.

you will be able to: 1. tolerance for the opinions of others. newer and newer industries started growing. superstition or emotion. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. 2. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century.during the second half of this century.4. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. 3. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. explain the concept of scientific attitude.4. 5. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. open-mindedness. honesty.5.4. Gradually. 297 . 5. know the importance of science education. We mean curiosity.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. 4.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. in the economic reconstruction of society. yet real advancement in this area was achieved .

These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work.4. 2. 3. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. 7. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. seminars and symposiums. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 6. Principles are formulated. Thinking and memory develops. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. as well as of the society. Love for truth enhances. 5.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. 2. 3. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Schemes of teaching science. 5. Through examinations. stipends and appreciations in various ways. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. Central science workshop. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Organisation of science fairs. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. After such experience and training. Promotion of science clubs. Through newspapers.4.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Devotion towards nature increases. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 4.So that. Selection for science education. 4. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. 5. 6. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. 5.

Training of science teachers. In the inquiry approach. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. each child to “enquiry skill building”. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. objectivity. It is.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. After presenting the problem. therefore.6. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. They encounter many social events as they grow. Enquiry teaching is.needs and conditions.4. should provide opportunities to. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 7. They experience natural phenomenon. Write any two advantages of Science Education. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. For laboratory and workshop techniques. essential that teachers.4. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. They ask many questions about the objects they see.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. sex or religion. 5.

. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Social sciences. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. commands or orders. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. test. 5. Evidence. 3.books. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? .4. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. 3. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. stern pursuit of accurate data. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. . Giving less directions. if they like. 5. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.6. Appreciating pupils ideas. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. 6. 5. 2.Herma Wouk. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Adopting creative models of teaching. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. 4. 300 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to ask questions and experience things. It requires consistent thinking.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1.

In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role.7. (Vaidya 2007). The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. school and society at large. of vast resources running waste.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. keen observation. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. These include open mindedness. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. therefore should be unbiased and objective. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. to develop among the learners. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. To achieve this we should understand what it means. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. neighbourhood. For instance. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude.4. and emphasized during the learning process . The students observation. critical thinking and suspended judgments. practiced. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. 5. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. friends.(Smith 2008). it must be encouraged. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.

think and work it”. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. 2007). or superstitions.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. In considering a situation or a problem. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. (Das. understanding and logic.7. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. intuition or wishful thinking”. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. rumor. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. 5. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. 302 . Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. he studies all aspects of it. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.4. The intention to respect another’s point of view. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias.

but to begin only after careful planning.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. 5.7. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.7.4.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.4. • 5.

• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. it must be encourages. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. 5. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. 304 .4. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. 5.

N.B (2008). D. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. b. 5. (2006).S. 305 . b. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Wide reading b. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. Vaidya.4. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. M. Reflections on Scientific attitude. 4. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Study of superstitions d. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. 16. (2000). (2008). objectivity. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Rao. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. Proper example of the teacher c. Yadav. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. The intention to respect another’s point of view.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. a. 5. Discuss the importance of science education 14.4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 2. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. S. a. b. Adopting creative models of teaching. a.5. 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Planning of activities 5. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Love for truth enhances. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.4. a.

1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.6 5. objectives and characteristics.5.11 5. areas of institutional planning.7 5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5.5.4 5.5.8 5.9 5.5. state the concept. actively. you will be able to: 1. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5 5.5.5.5. 2. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.3 5.5.2 5.5.1 5.10 5. 5.5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 306 .5.LESSON 5.5.

executive as well as public. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . and every student in the process of educational planning. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. • to make planning development-oriented. which become the bases for further planning at the district. every teacher. 5. • To make institutional planning more successful. each teacher.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. • to involve teachers and school administrators. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. every parent. in the task of educational planning. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. and each student are regarded as separate entities. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. State and national levels from below. teachers and students is not lost sight of. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. and.3. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions.5.5. and supplement planning from above. Institution should be regarded as the unit. 5. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.

Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. Examinations. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5.curricular Activities. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. (2) Co. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. 308 . There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. which will be discussed in the general. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. council and. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. it becomes the basis for school inspection. and Personnel services. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. 5. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. etc. Syllabus.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers.• implemented.5. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. Classwork. Co-curricular activities. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.5. approved after making necessary modifications. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes.

scientific and historical excursions. 1. Courts. Preparation of models. Celebrating of national and international festivals. 2. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Improving the subject competence of teachers. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Organisation of class-room libraries. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Equipping of laboratory and library. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Editing the school magazine. Improving the internal assessment.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Preparation of audio-visual aids. charts and apparatus. Fair distribution of syllabi. Preparation of instructional material. etc. Organisation of Pupils. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. etc. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Organisation of Students’ Association. etc. hobby-centres. Running science clubs. Conducting of educational.No. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Organising play-for-all programmes.

teacher-nonofficial functionaries. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. pupil310 . and solidarity. administrator-pupil. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. parents. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. teachers. headmasters associations. administrator-administrator. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. understanding. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. teacher-managing body. teacher-teacher. administrator-supervisor. which are divided as the in. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. teacher-pupil. etc. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. and —pupil-pupil. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. science teachers’ associations. parent-teacher associations. Administrator-State.” The human relationships in.5.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. co-operation. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. teacherinspector. involving mainly human materials. pupils.5. teacher-State. ii. students’ associations. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations.

School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. It covers personnel and material management. etc." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. It is also being modernized to become a technique. According to C. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. supervision and superintendence. organisation. administrator. social sciences and other disciplines. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies.State. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. superintendence. organisation and management. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. V. Good. and to serve. pupil-non-official functionaries. supervision. pupil-parent. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. teacher-parent. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. 311 . pupil-inspector.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. pupil-community leader. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. to accomplish. now-a-days. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. to attend. teacher-community leader. to carry out. To administer means to manage. control.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

Better Human Relationships . without this the efficacy will be handicapped. Decision Making . Rapport between the Management and Employees .Management should be efficient and economical 312 . 10.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow.Any good management will always have good public relations. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. 8. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. 4. Socio-Scientific Approach . 5.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . Worker Participation . Motiviation . Economic Management .Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.Of all the approaches. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. This is the latest democratic trend in management. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .The manager should take his subordinates into confidence.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. He should be an artist in human relationships. Communication . who occupy the managerial positions. Leadership . Cost-Benefit Analysis . 9. 6.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. If it is more. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. Democratic Management . The relationship should change from master. 7. 12. it is not worth-while. Liasion with the Public . He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. Those. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. If the cost benefit ratio is less. 13. 11. 3. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. 2.The manager should have leadership traits. low. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques.

18. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too.g. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. 14. 5. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.too. enrichment of curricula. to improve the quality of education it provides. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance .5. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work.These two are. 19. and cooperative performance should be ensured.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. improvement of teaching methods. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. 5. 313 . Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. objective. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education.5.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept.

5. a. b. R. In group and Out group 5. b. 314 . f. a. it becomes the basis for school inspection. d. Educational Administration. b. Classwork. (1995). Communication 5. a.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2001).M. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.5. Examinations. 4. e. APH Publishing Corporation. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. (2003). Instruction. to introduce decentralization of educational planning.K.5. 2. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. H. a. Syllabus. c. NUEPA. Co-curricular activities. Fundamental of Educational Management. Motiviation d.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Tarachand and Prakash. and Personnel services. S. Decision Making b. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Singh. Leadership c.

4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. Sex-education 4. Realized the problems of school education.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. Buddhist and Jain system of education. Common ailments of Children. Communicable diseases . Examination reforms. Inspection and Supervision 3. New evaluation procedures. Preservation of nutrients. population education. Economic 315 . Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. women education and teacher education in India. nutritional requirement. Community and Mass Media 2. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.2 Nutritional deficiencies.1 Inculcation of Socialism. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.I. Code of conduct for teachers. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. social Impact 3.1 Primary Education : Education for all. higher education.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .CORE PAPER . UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.Article 45 . Balanced diet. School. First Aid.3 Directive Principles .Pre-service and In-services facilities. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.4 India's Secular Policy .3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . 4.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .5 Regional Educational Development in India .1 Gurukula system of education. physical education and environmental education 5.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. wastage and Stagnation 3.Preventive measures.Religious and Modern Education 1.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. 1. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.teachers should have : 1. 2.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. Healthy Food Habit 4.1 School Health Programme. Education by Christian Missionaries 1.3 Educational Influences of Home.

Mahatma Gandhi.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.S. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.C. Mishra. Hemchand. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.K.K. Ghanta R.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. and Dash B. Saraswathi T. Sharma. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. R. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Socialization. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. Prof. Naturalism and Pragmatism . and Human Development. Delhi : University Publications 2. and Sharma R.Aim. Pandy V. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. 316 .K. (1999) Culture. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.N. Curriculum and national goals . (2005) Foundations of Education. Tagore 5. T. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. B. 7.4 4.1 Idealism.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Realism. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. and Mohanty R.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. REFERENCE 1. (2004) Problems of Education in India. Ram S.R. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Taneja V.K.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . 5.N.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.4. Kalan Paper Packs 10. New Delhi: NCERT 3. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5.

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