BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. Jainism and their educational implication. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Lesson 4. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. discusses the regional educational development in India. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. 9 . of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Lesson 2. Lesson 5. In. The need.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. and Jain system of education. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt.

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1.6 Education during British Era 1.1.5.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .1.5.6.1.1.5.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1.6.4.5 Jain system of education 1.6.6.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.6.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.LESSON 1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.3.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.1.1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.3.1.1.1.4.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.1 1.1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1.1.2 1.5.1.1.1.1.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.

elucidate the education during British Era. but English in taste. 1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. That 12 .6.1.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Education in India.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.1. has a long past history starting in vedic education. you will be able to: 1. in morals and in the intellect”. 1.1.7 1.1.1. India.3.8 1. describe the Jain system of Education 4. Muslim and British periods. The history of education passed through Buddhist. 1.6.1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.9 1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. both present and future.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.1. Indian in blood and colour. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.1.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. in opinion. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. British system of education presented the modern western model.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. “a class of persons. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.1. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.

knowledge was real. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. individually. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. 4. Religious and Spiritual. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. if they thought fit to do so. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Method of Study. 13. 5. religious and spiritual. 3. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. 6. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Pupils were taught. from eternal to immorality 2. with grants of land or money. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. and to agriculture and trade. Immediate Aim Vocational. 9. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. 10. There was. 16. Where pupils were many. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. It was also moral. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Individual Teaching. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. as it is generally considered to be at present. The immediate aim of education. however. Education of Moral. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. followed by explanation by the teacher. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. generally. Teacher as Parents. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. No State Control on Education. Education was a private affair of the people. from darkness. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. questioning by the pupil. 12. the monitorial plan was followed. Curriculum. Method of Instruction. It was not merely intellectual. 8. Forests as Centres of Education. 14. Free and Accessible. 13 . High Status of Teachers. not en masse by the class method. to light. Residential Schools. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. managed entirely by Brahmans. 11. Role of Travel in Education. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline.

There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. 2. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Wide-Spread Education in Women.3. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . lived a life of celebacy.1. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. studied Vedas. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.17. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. It was suited to the needs of the society.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1. It was freely available to all those who wanted. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. They were very cordial and intimate.

Right contemplation 1. partaking of food at prohibited times. watching dances or listening to music.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. use of intoxicating things. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. It was denied only to the ill. 15 . After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’.1. etc. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms.4. disease and death of the human beings. 2. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. which included abstaining from theft. Consequently. the most significant of which were the following 1. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. dressed himself in yellow clothes. in which.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. Right activity 5. the student had his head shaved of all hair. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. had the right to receive education. he had to perform the Pababja ritual.C. Right speech 4. After attaining the age of 20. Right knowledge 2. taking things without being offered. Education was imparted through the. Right thought 3. impure conduct. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. the handicapped. 1. except the Chandals. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. I take Refuge to Dharma. Right endeavour 7. the student remained in a state of Shramana. medium of Pali. Right memory 8. every class in society. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. killing of any living being. he was qualified to become a monk. Right means of livelihood 6. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. I take Refuge to Sangh. use of cosmetics. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha.

It comprehended education in writing. 4. After this ritual. commerce. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. animal husbandry..3. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. Whatever its nature and extent. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. nature. nothing is of any permanent consequence. changing the goals. wear three items. eat food thrice a day. etc. approach. etc. 3. beg for alms. geology. handicrafts. so long as it successfully does so. 6. meaning. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. the presence of the monks was essential. education was impart in art. along with education in script writing. Later on. 8. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. be considered the aim of education It. bodily gestures. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. archery. Even at this stage. military science. has no metaphysical value for life. 1. On this occasion. magic. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. control over sensuous activities. aspirations and. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. Life is in a flux. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. the science of taming and training animals. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. 7. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. agriculture. 2. Hence. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. cottage industries. 5. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. medicine. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. knowledge of reviving the dead. elephant lore. etc. a change is not only total but also perpetual. therefore. arithmetic and religious discussion. it is regarded as true”. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. As reality is becoming.4. archery. women occupied a position inferior to men. however. These are called later Buddhist schools. of clothes. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. a continuous change creating 16 . depth and range. assumptions. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. Initially. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. and. objectives of human life.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. i. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. therefore. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. Jainism insists 17 . it is much older than the latter. whatever works are true and good. Write Eight fold path . is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. and to give it a shape that it has today. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed.5. In fact. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. such as. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. its pessimistic outlook on life.new and peculiar situations. Its chief feature. goes to Vardhaman.1.e. Education must.. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. however. However. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Validity is effective and consequences. 1. 5. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6.

and believe in happiness to all. 2.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. e) To renounce the world. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 4. it has a foot in both the words. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 8. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. b) Right knowledge. 3. 1. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. 9. c) Right conduct. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. d) To lead a celibate life. restoring the ideal character of the jiva.1.5. 5. They are: a) Not to injure. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. 2. 10. but on both. Development of personality as an individual. 7. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. c) Not to steal. 1. more stress on individual aims. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. 6. 18 .neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. 3. b) Not utter falsehood. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. thought and deed. Hence. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. As such. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. rather than the interpretation of the universe. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. and is to be redeemed and liberated. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life.

education should develop sense of discrimination.4. Teaching should be social and tolerant. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . 3.5. and should bring happiness to all. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. 5. 3. 2. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. therefore.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. education must be action based and ideally oriented. 4. Jiva is essentially karmic. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence. success and love.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Teaching must develop these faculties. 8. 1. 1. here and now. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Belief in transmigration of soul. that would be socially desirable. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. What are Triratnas ? . 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.5. 19 . practised and not only aspired for. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter.

philosophy and literature of Europe.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. However. with rally and rout. 2.6.1. 1.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. primary 20 . They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. 1.6. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. Bombay. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. science.6. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. To set up separate departments of. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. 1953). To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.1. Madras. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. and not for life. 1. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. North West Province and Punjab. 1. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854.6. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods.

Instead of being a self-sufficient course.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially.6. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). self-respecting and competent. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . 1. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. namely. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. To ensure qualitative improvement. 1. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. • Secondary education. The universities dominated the secondary education. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. • Universal free primary education. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education.6. In 1882. at the primary level. At that time M.K. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. secondary education became a step towards university. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. 1. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools.education was neglected. Later on. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men.6.

The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. After this stage. The objective of education was to provide 22 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. 10.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12.1.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . all children are to have a common curriculum. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians.

It was suited to the needs of the society. The immediate aim of education. 6. education was impart in art.education of European literature.1. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. Right memory. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 3. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. Right activity. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. military science. handicrafts. Right contemplation. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. 23 . the science of taming and training animals. archery. 5. establishment of universities. geology. a. Right knowledge. The system of education was well-organised. arithmetic and religious discussion. 2. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. 4. 3. Right endeavour. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. Right thought.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. Right speech. 1. 2. questioning by the pupil.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. During the Buddhist period. Right means of livelihood. 1. followed by explanation by the teacher. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. 4. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. along with education in script writing.1.. etc. science and English language. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools.

a. (2005). b. Ltd.C. R.7. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Right faith. J. 1882.1.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 10. Ltd. c. History of Indian Education System. 9.C. 11. Improvement of Literature. 24 . Y. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Development of personality as an individual. (1984). J. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Sargent report 12. Singh.K. 1937 1. (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. Hence. and Nath. b. Right conduct. Sharma. Aggarwal. more stress on individual aims. Development of Educational System in India. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 8. Y. Right knowledge. a. (2009).K.

Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.LESSON 1.2.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.2.2.3. The 25 .1 University Education Commission 1.2.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.6 1.9 1.2 1.3.5 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.2.7 1.2.1 1.2.2.4 1. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2.3 Kothari Commission 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2.3.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.8 1.3.2.2.2.

2. Post-graduate 26 .1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. 1. explosion of enrolment. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. There had been vast institutional expansion. National Board of Teacher Education 10.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. expansion of vocational. secondary and higher education. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. New Educational Policy. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. analyse the progress of education in free India. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7.conditions of the teachers. vocational education. S. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. standard of teaching. 1986 1. technological engineering. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. you will be able to: 1. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. 1. examination system. girls and women education besides primary. Kothari (1964-66) 8. 2.2.2. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. technical. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan.3. curriculum. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. National Council for Women’s Education 5. medical and legal education. diversification of courses of studies. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6.

the chairman of University Grants commission. 1. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. Therefore. 4. Education for Equality. 3. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. The Essence and Role of Education. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. accumulated over the years. 2. National System of Education. A.3. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. Government of India.2. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. However. utility and financial outlay. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. 1966. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986.2. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.S.3.3. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1986.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. A meaningfully Partnership. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. research et.2. D. Education is the key to our allround development. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. in January 1985. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. quantity.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. 1952. 1.teaching. Kothari. Finally. material and spiritual. quality. the New National Policy on Education. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . 1. Problems of access.

By working with hands. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. It can train practical aptitudes. attitudes.2. the concepts of work experience.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. the minorities and the handicapped. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. 28 . It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. The UNESCO Report.” Thus. Thus.

but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions.” the Kothari Commission mentioned.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. The Education Commission. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. In 1955. the Commission. if he wishes. it will conduce self.” The Mudaliar Commission. co-ordinations. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. With adequate planning. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. The Radhakrishnan Commission. According to. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . As such.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. “It may be described. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. “The aim of these colleges. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. Besides. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses.

the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. admission requirements to vocational courses. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation.ot her. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. the. Therefore. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. the rigid streaming of courses. for quality of life in the rural areas.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. The Central Advisory Board of Education. With a view to relating education to the life. the semester and credit system. Subsequently. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 .. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. In addition. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. raising the special facilities. etc. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations.

Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level.and the world of work. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. aimed at this goal. meaningful. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred.defined S UP W as “purposive. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject.2. preferably spinning and weaving. who conceived the System of Basic Education. giving importance to productivity in the national development. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. which are useful to the community. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. 1. which swept the country for over two decades. manual work resulting in either goods or services. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. The wave of Basic Education. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. The Father of Nation.. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. technological courses including Agriculture. According to committee. meaningful. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. felt that education should be centred around a craft. which offer scientific. 31 . Commerce. etc. In short. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf.

Shelter 4. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Health and Hygiene 2. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. 4. as far as possible. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. be that the work involved is: 1. The teachers should make use of. Some Hints to Teachers 1. 3. 32 . Food 3. Clothing 5. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Work practice. 2. Culture and recreation 6. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Educative and 3. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Experimentation with materials. Productive 2. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. tools and techniques and 3. so that it is educational in essence. locally available materials and tools. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Community work and social service. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning.

2. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. inculcate a faith. Merits of the Programme 1. Education through work The SUPW should. as far as possible. the local community should be actively associated. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. 1. removal of illiteracy. To make education more realistic. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. 6. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. etc. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. improve discipline. Check on educated unemployed 4. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. be allied to the elective chosen by the students.5. Productive Work 33 . Such activities may include projects of village uplift. slum clearance. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. Community Service In-1972. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. It can become an instrument to build character.

should involve itself in the educational effort. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. traffic control. etc. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. Define SUPW 34 . AICTE was set up in year 4. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. helping the adults in festivals and Functions.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. if not productive. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. offering first aid. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. helping the adults-in productive work. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. in turn. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. skills and better future for the children.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The community.

d. Write short note on SUPW. which are useful to the community.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. meaningful. c. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 2. 3. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5.2.1. 1. 6. b. 35 . 1955 4. f.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.2. 1. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Dr. e. 1952 3. manual work resulting in either goods or services.2. a. Radhakrishnan 2.

and Nath. Publishing Corporation. History and Problems of Indian Education.K. 36 .(2005). V. Ltd. Y. Development of Educational System in India. R.1.P. History of Indian Education System. P.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2007). : Sharma.C. History of Education.. A. Y. Rao. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.D. Singh.K. (2005). Anupama.H. (2009). (2007). New Delhi: A.2. and Rao. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. J. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. B.K. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Amala.P.

and liberty. 1950.9 1. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.6 1.4 1. containing 395 articles. for a total of 117.5 1. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3. Besides the English version.3. Being the supreme law of the country. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.1 Significance of DPSP 1.3.3. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.3. procedures.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3.1 1.3.3.3. there is an official Hindi translation.7 1. equality. directive principles and duties of citizens.369 words in the English language version. democratic republic. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.3.8 1. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.2 1.3.3.3. assuring its citizens of justice.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. establishing the structure. it came into effect on January 26.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. 37 . It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. 1949.

On August 29. 4.3. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. 1947. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. 38 . understand our Indian constitution. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. administrative. 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. 1. for 166 days. 1950. Through them. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. 2. Dr. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee.In the August 14. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. According to the constitution. in sessions open to public. 3.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 1947.3. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members.3. legal and environmental. spread over a period of 2 years. After many deliberations and some modifications. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. political. 1. Two days later.3. learn the role of central and state government on education. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. social. you will be able to: 1.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. the Drafting Committee was appointed. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. The Assembly met. economic. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. with Dr.

Equal justice and free legal aid. Appropriate concentration of wealth. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Article 40. That the health and strength of workers. Organisation of village panchayat. 39 . and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength.government. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. on the basis of equal opportunity. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. for workers. Article 41. in particular. Right to work. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. The State shall. Condition for dignity of children. Article 42. and in other cases of undeserved want. The State shall endeavour to secure. Article 43. Liking wage etc. No abuse of children. provide free legal aid. Protecting health of the workers. old age. Protecting children from exploitation. Equal pay for both sex. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Article 39A. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. men and women.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. make effective provision for securing the right to work. and shall. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. sickness and disablement. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Minimising inequalities in status.

Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Article 43A. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. to all workers. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Article 46.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. industrial or otherwise. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. agricultural. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Participation of workers in management of industries. Article 48. Uniform civil code for the citizens. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. work. [declared by or under law made by 40 . The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. in particular. Article 49. a living wage. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. See also Article 21A). Article 44. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. in particular. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The State shall take steps. 2002 for “45. Note: Subs. Article 48A. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. (Original Article 45. Article 45. The State shall endeavour to provide. Article 47. by suitable legislation or in any other way. in particular. and. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and.

removal. Separation of judiciary from executive. 2002. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. disposal or export. Article 45 . The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. disfigurement. may be law determine”. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Article 50.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. as the case may be. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Promotion of international peace and security. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. destruction. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. 2. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. from spoliation. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article-21A Right to Education. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. 1.Parliament] to be of national importance. Article 51.

Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. 2002. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. his guardian has given his consent thereto. race. ii. 3. 7. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. and shall protect them. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. in particular. caste.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 4. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. iii. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. 5.” 42 . Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. 8. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. 6. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. from justice and all forms of exploitations. if such person is a minor. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. language or any of them”. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. and.

Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. the forms. Article 351 gives importance to 6. 43 . wherever necessary or desirable. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The central government determines targets and promotes education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. & 1. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies.3. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. 2.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. Educational Reforms From time to time. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. and by drawing. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.9. for its vocabulary.

Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. Production of suitable for children and adults f. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a.. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. 4. private agencies etc.3. By starting these projects. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. to achieve the desired ends. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. The following pilot projects. etc. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. 7. Local bodies and private enterprise. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. 6. So that they may work well. So as to encourage education on right lines. the state governments. 5. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. 8. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. All India Council of Medical Science.

From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. is the state responsibility. 1. research. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. training and statistics. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. 3. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. handicapped. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. 4. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. reports etc.3. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. etc. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 10. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. 11. are published by it. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. education for women. The 45 . Material concerning nation-wide interests. 9. 12. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. 1. books. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose.

Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. articles in the Directive principles. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Article 21A c. Write short notes on a. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles.3. 5. Article 45 b. Article 46 4. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain Directive principles 2. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 46 . and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. 1. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45.

Article 29 and 30 7. Article 45 . Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers.3. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Article 46 5. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Dr. a. Development of Hindi Language 6. a. Clearing House function 9. a. 2002. The Directive Principles of State Policy. b. 2002. Ambedkar 2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act.5. b. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Article-21A Right to Education. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. 4. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. may be law determine”. 3. 47 . Describe the educational role of State Government.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 1.

Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. 48 . Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2004).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. Dash.3. N. Bhatia. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ghosh. S. Education in Emerging Indian Society. (2007). B. (2008). New Delhi: Shipra Publications. L. K and Narang C. K.1. (2009). S. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.

4.3.1 Why Moral Education 1.4. Islam.4.1 1. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.3. religious education should be broad based.4.4.4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.7 1.4.2 1.4 Moral education 1.4.3.4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. Students should be 49 .4.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.6 1.4. Buddhism etc.5 1. Jainism.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.8 1.4. Christianity.4.4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.4.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.

3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education.D. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. According to E. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. you will be able to: 1. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends.. beauty and goodness so that 50 . In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66).4. As result of which. 1. In the complicated and complex society of today. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. Thus. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. religious education and the concept of secularism. integrity. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. duty-consciousness. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. state meaning and need for moral education 1. know the position of religious education in our country 3.4.” Education broadens human outlook. "In A multireligious society like ours. India' can produce men of character. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions.and dedication. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion.

castes and creeds. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. 1.4. if not regularly. all citizens are free to follow any creed. 1. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education.4.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate.3. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. religion and democracy are same. Viewing the defects of religious education. According to Article 19. through religious practices and 51 . Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal.3. at least occasionally. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. According to Article 22. As our country is a country of diverse religions. Thus. They thought that any kind of narrow. No religious tax can be imposed on them. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. Hence. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. As a matter of fact.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August.” From the above. 1947 we achieved our freedom. realizes God in himself. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. In short. Children attend these organizations. rancour. it is clear that the State has no religion.

purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. It is religious education. when he becomes an adult. which can mould. temperament etc. one fully developed. As a result of which. which help him for the development of his character. and what is evil. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . and other impulses are often denied direct expression. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. moral and spiritual values. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance.teachings. intellectual and physical faculties of children. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. for the development of the individual and the society. aggressive. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise.. what is done and what is not done etc. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. Good education. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. He also learns about social. It helps to modify habits attitudes. If unreleased. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment.

3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. which is the basic need of a democratic life. Therefore. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. If we open the pages of history. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. towards the society. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. 1. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. 3. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided.3. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. 53 .about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. 2. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. This should not be allowed to happen.4. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible.

5. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. therefore. Gurudwara as. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Since all religions have virtues. examples of patriotism. they should be discussed in the right earnest. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. churches and mosques 7. 9. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school.4. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 10. Life histories of great persons of the world. stories of moral greatness. 11. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. For this. fellow-feeling. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Write Article 22 2. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.

Without moral values. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 4. Patriotism. Service to others. let men see well of one another.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture.4.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 4. Brahmacharya (celebacy). This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Asvada (Control of palate). Aparigarha (Non. 5. Cultivation of emotions. 1. 8. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. “Let all be happy and free from disease. 1. 3.4.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Satyam (truth). 2. 6. in the home. 7. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. Moral education. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). 8. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. 7. 5. The content of the curriculum. students. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. therefore. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. 6. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Fearlessness. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. 2. is that which develops moral values. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels.acquisitiveness). It they learn what morality is in their early years. Self sacrifice. Swadeshi (Patriotism). Purity. They will play their role effectively. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 55 . Non-injury. the methods of teaching. 3.

The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Integrity.4. In the school programme. 2. 56 . Asatyam (Non-thieving). 11. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Secondary Stage 1.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. 3. religions may be included in the syllabus. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Good temper. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Good manners. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. minutes in the morning for group singing. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Sharivashram (Physical work). discipline.9. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. Discipline. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Efficiency. The School Assembly should be held for a few. 10. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. 3. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. 4. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Unity of mankind. National unity and Spiritual values. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. 1.

3. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage.4. 4. 5. 57 . The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In other words. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. 5. should form a normal part of school programme. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. 2. In this connection. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. University Stage 1. love of humanity. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Silent meditation should be encouraged. patriotism and self-discipline.

The School Assembly should be held for a few. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. 1. In short. a. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. Training of Character 3. 1.4. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. a. 4. minutes in the morning for group singing. 58 . saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. 2. 2.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion.1.4. a. b. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Sri Prakasa 6 .10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully.4. Discuss the aims of Religious education. 1959 5. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. For this. b. the.

1. 59 . (2004). J. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi: A. (2008).H. L. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.H. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K. Publishing Corporation. Anmol Publications Pvt. M. New Delhi : Siddiqui. Dash. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2008). Pahuja. N. P. Bhatia. B. K and Narang C. Ltd.P.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.4. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2003).C.

6 1.5.7 1.8 1.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.9 1.4 1.10 1. 60 .5.5 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context. i.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5.5.5.5.12 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.5.2 1.5.5.5. Although.3 1.5.11 1. disparities between provinces/States.1 1.e.5..LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.

2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. etc. 8. roads. 7. know the education suited to different environments. 3. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. understand the regional educational development in India 3.5. They therefore. energy. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times.1. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. This leads to separatist movements. 1.5. Accordingly. 1. they take appropriate measures. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. 61 . you will be able to: 1. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. waters. 1. 6.5. 5.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. for example. work hard towards this end.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics.5. 4.

• All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. 3.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. on the basis of regional development may be formed. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. while others remained educationally backward.5. 2. 62 . Secularism.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. and. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. 4. Therefore. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. some average. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. Tight security arrangements should be made. • Separate States (of course viable States). some States became educationally far advanced. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets.

Regional Centres of IGNOU. Funds amounting to Rs. while some States like Bihar. 63 . library buildings. Mizoram. Nagaland and NEHU. and provision of informal education to enable those. Silchar. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. NIT.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums.g. After the attainment of independence. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. etc. Out of this. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. In the Central sector. academic buildings. These projects are in various stages of implementation. remained under developed. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. scholarships.84 crore was released in 2005-06. Even in each State. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. Central Universities of Assam. Jammu and Kashmir. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e.14.480. since its inception in 1998-99. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. the Union Government.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. Tezpur. approved proposals worth Rs. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. NERIST.392. the State Governments. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. Itanagar. Guwahati.5. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. However. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects.After the Planning Process has originated. books. etc. 1.. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. Rs.

Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.5. Moreover.57 crore and Rs. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.05 crore and Rs. During 2003-04.500. Government expenditure on education.40. Tezpur University. A provision of Rs. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.8 per cent in 05). Out of this an amount of Rs. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. 64 . is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu.501.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.187. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. too.261. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.

Tamil Nadu. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. English.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself.5. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. too. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. for which 16 sites. The Chandigarh Administration. Karnataka. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. Moreover. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. notes the study. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. pharma. health services and welfare of the citizen population. too. Karnataka. Andhra Pradesh. for instance.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. To add to the woes. too. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. engineering and R&D. Kerala and Gujarat. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. telecom. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. 1. Listing the positives. Medical education. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside.

Of course. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. life-oriented and environment slanted. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. the curricular subjects. In the same manner. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. the socio-physical conditions. which a non-tribal person cannot do.year. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. taking the average in the middle. Then education become realistic and idealistic. The living conditions. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. the vocations. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. even actually looking at the watch. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. the interests. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. and so on. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. the working days: an academic . The working hours of educational institutions. the needs. when he will not be sure of time. Hence it is called as need-based. while the former does not.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. in which the learners live. For a learner living in a rural area. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. the teaching methods. 66 .

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. 67 .10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.5. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. to suit education to different environments? 1. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. 2. 1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

R. S. A. S.K.G. Education Scenario in India. C. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Dubey. (2001). a.H.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.N.2. Education in Developmental Arena. 60% 1. some of areas which were under the native rulers. some States have become more developed than others b. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. and Nair. remained undeveloped 3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Educational Development in India. (2008). during the British rule. Giridhar. New Delhi: Authors press. 68 .5. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. Salim. (2001). (2002).

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. 71 . secularism and democracy through Indian education. community development. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. school community and mass media. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. National Integration. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education.

6.2 2.7 2.5.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.6.LESSON 2.1.1.1.3 2.1.1 2.1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.8 2.1.1.1.9 2.6 Education for Secularism 2.1.1.4 2.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.6.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.1.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .5.

So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. 3) Provision of Manual Work. for the people by the people”.1. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group.1. socialism and secularism 2. socialistic and secular state.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. Abraham Lincoln. socialism and secularism 2. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality.1. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. creed. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. there should be made no distinction of caste. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. This is the political aspect of democracy. 2. understand the concept of democracy. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 73 .1. In the matter of admitting students in schools. The students may be associated with the management of the school. 2. colour or wealth.2. Democracy thus means power of the people. you will be able to: 1.

Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. There are different brands of socialism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. debates. it soon spread all over the world. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia.1. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. 12) Visits to Legislatures.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. 2. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. may be planned.. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. 74 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Democracy means 2. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. declamation contest etc. 11) Student Parliament. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression.

the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 7) Special facilities for girls. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.5. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. Under it. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. free from exploitation. stationary and uniforms to the needy students.1. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 2. the prince and the peasant.5. but on the path of non-violence. 2) Socialism aims at equality. none high”. 75 . 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. oppression and disparity.1. 2. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. service and cooperation.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. the wealthy and the poor.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections.

5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary.” In every political and educational corner. "which seeks the development of physical.1. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. 11) State schools. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two main features of socialism. 2. Everyone says.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. secularism is being propagated. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. According to Holydake. 76 . “India is a secular-country.

Moral values have to be imbibed. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. 5) It implies tolerance. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values.6. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. 2) It permits freedom of religion.1. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. fraternity. 77 . liberty. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. 8) It believes in co-existence. There is need of making the people open minded. 3) It permits freedom of worship. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. the belief that the state morals.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. people have narrow mindedness. 2. A large number of people is uneducated.1.6. That is why. people started believing in regionalism. During the recent past.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. should be independent of religion. 9) It stress free inquiry. In this type of prevailing situations.opposed to religious education. education etc. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. “Webster further says. Equality.

The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . tours and trips may be organized. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University.6. Patiala. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. In the celebration of each such function. No doubt. There should be some internal checking of the material being. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. The very sight of the building. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. 1) Moral Education.1. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. 2. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. While doing so. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. that the central string of all religions is one.presented by the students in the gathering. students belonging to different religions should be associated. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Religious Education. In the hands of such teachers. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. education.

7 LET US SUM UP 79 . Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. 2. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Define Secularism 9.1. No doubt. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The word “Seculum” means 7. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. The term secularism was first used by 8.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. George Jacob Holydake 80 . a. Tuition free education b. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. creed. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. 2. 4. 5. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary.1. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. Provision of Manual Work. d. Power of the people 2. Since socialism stands for equality. Respect of Individual Personality. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. b. a. The students may be associated with the management of the school. 3. Equal Opportunities for Admission. 4. for the people and the people”. c. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. b. Abraham Lincoln. Socialism aims at social justice. a.1. colour or wealth. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. 5. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. Socialism aims at equality. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. 6. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. This present age 7. there should be made no distinction of caste. 3. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

New Delhi : Shipra Publications. a. New Delhi : Pahuja. education etc. L. P. should be independent of religion. a. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2007). It permits freedom of religion. Ltd. It treats all religions on an equal footing. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. N. b. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2004). (2003). (2008). Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. K and Narang C.1. 10. (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education. J. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Bhatia. B. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ltd.8. Dash. 81 . the belief that the state morals. Theory and Principles of Education. b. N.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Mohanty. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.” 9. Anmol Publications Pvt.C. K.

2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2.2 2.2.6.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.5.5.2.2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.4 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.1 2.2.2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.LESSON 2.3 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .10 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.7 2.2.6.9 2.2.8 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.

It involves physical. who are placed in his custody. social and moral aspects. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. as workers. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. and 4. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach.an instructor of school children.2. mental. as citizens. you will be able to: 1. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. 2. development. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. a r e 1. 3. as persons. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. emotional.2. understandings.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. therefore. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. skills. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. A teacher is first and foremost. 2.generation to another. social. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. as it is t he aim o f modern education. The developmental roles of children. aims and objectives of the school. 83 . A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. as learners. application. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. moral.

He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. emotionally. mentally. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. motivated. morally. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. physically fit for socially efficient. morally. member of his community at the outset. and aesthetically to become. social and emotional health.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. mental. 1. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically.All education should lead to better behavioural development. culturally confident.2. 3. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. 2. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. Teacher as a Citizen Next. experiences and acceptance. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. 2. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. a part of their day in 84 . Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. The students live. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. He has to look after their physical. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. inquisitive. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. socially. economically effective. intellectually. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. He is to become an active member. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. The following are some of such roles described in brief.

the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. They will be spending with their parents. science club. creeds. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. List out the role of teachers towards community development . Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 4. activities of the society into which he is born. languages and religions. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. faiths. It 85 . 2. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. India is a land of many castes. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly.the school being under the custody of teachers. Unless. solve them. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Dr.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to.2.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. photographic clubs. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. fine art associations. and most of hours. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them.

‘We should not become parochial. this integration of the Indian people. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. Sampurnanand remarked. b. 1. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 .2. c. social studies. stand up straight. folklore and teaching of social studies. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. narrow-minded provincial. Nehruji has explained this as. The only process is the process of education. therefore. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. national anthem and other national songs. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state.” 2. the citizens of the Republic of India.5. should be emphasised. and make into one strong national unit.” Regarding the role of education. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . poems. Let us. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961.is. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. a. At the primary stage the importance of stories. It should broaden the outlook. with straight backs and look up at the skies. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. the study of language and literature. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. Radhakrishnan.

August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. Uniform for School Children. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. Taking Pledge. 4. ACC. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. sports. 3. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Co-Curricular Activities. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. symposia. 2. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. 10. and picnics. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. National Days—January 26. Textbooks. 87 . one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Student Camps. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. 5. tours. dramatics and youth festivals. Scouts and Guides. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. 9. Celebrations of National Days. t he st udent s and t he community. languages and literature. 8. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Reverence of National Flag. militar y training like the NCC. Singing of National Anthem. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. 7. educational excursions. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. 6.different social sciences. debates. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country.

ways of thinking and doing things. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. Students Exchange and Tours. iv. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. 15. 2. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. 13. Educational and Travel Documentaries. Admissions to schools. Recognition of Institutions. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. 16. region or religion. language. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. Admissions. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. iii.2. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. colour. School Projects. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. 14. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. Open-Air Dramas. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. 12. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. flora and fauna.11.5. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. 88 . v. ii. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste.

vii. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.vi. ix.2. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. camps. cultures and races on equal bases. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. irrespective of national boundaries. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Define National Integration 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. viii. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Community dinners.

if it happens. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged.2. that war. (c) fairly tales. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. Radhakrishnan states.2. the international level. C. often in connection with anniversaries. In a very real sense. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. Teachers 90 . 2.6. 4. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries.F..” 2.friendships between children of different countries. Organising of debates and. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. 2. Dr.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. Strong has observed. therefore. 5.6.as important as that of a national citizenship. This.e. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. 3. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. and the healthy development. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. patriotism is not enough. 6. Therefore. (b) stories of children of other lands. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. of his body and mind.

They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. a German. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Russian. an Englishman. They should not be propagandists. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew.” Well Informed About World Situations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. Indian and American. Impartial in their Treatment.

It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. 2. leading to. 3. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. 4.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. It does not prepare students for life. majority of people are.2.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. Chronic Poverty . The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. which results in agitation and aggression language. Defects of the educational System . Devaluation of Values . If this is done. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. As the school is but a miniature society.Another major.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. 5. Wide Spread Frustration . Soon after they leave their educational institutions. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them.2. understand and indiscipline: 1. there is wide spread frustration among all people. and help the students to over . These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . the education function can be carried.

5. 2. sympathy and good will among the nations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. 3. 2.2. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.democratic nature.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. 93 . fellow feeling. List out the factors causing social tension in schools .2. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. co-operation. 2. etc. love. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. community development. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 4.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. are increasingly used in education.V. Moreover. He taught his students orally. Hence. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. periodicals.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. books. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. the invention of the printing press. Crow and Crow write. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. Now internet is being used. art galleries. Then came newspapers. During the course of time. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. “All the citizens of the community. In fact. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Emphasising this thing. led to the printing of books. Museums. To make them achieve their aim. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. Define community. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided.3. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children.

3. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. languages. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. It enlightens public opinion. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. music. In the emphasis is on sound. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. dram appreciation. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. rather than on picture. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. “Listening participation” in current history. Students listen various talks. 2.6. social studies. It is also an important source of entertainment. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Various talks. 2. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. Important happening inventions. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. Thus. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers.classroom teachers. art. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. for the teacher through school broadcasts. politics. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. the place of importance. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. 101 . In collaboration with the experts. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. the teacher still occupies.G. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. Thus. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. current affairs and other areas. A lot of work by way of pre. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. Reynolds. Effective means of presenting music.telecast.

but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. Participation of local teachers and pupils. 3. at drawing room. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. speech. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. 4. plays. Team-teaching demonstrations. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. Before presenting the programme. Making learning an open system. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. mathematics. at play. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. development of lessons. informal and non-formal education. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. 5. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. fol classical music. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. At present. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. travel talks. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. at any place. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. at recreational centers. projects or creative activities. style. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. School concerts. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. 102 . audibility and presentability.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4.4.8 2.4.1 2.4.3.4 Non formal educational system 2.4.3.4.4.4.4.7 2.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.4.2 2.4.5 2.4.4.4.4.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.3.LESSON 2.4.4.6 2.4.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.3.4.4 Limitations of formal education 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.3 Advantages of formal education 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.

the temple. 110 .3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. open school. 3. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. it was mostly. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 4. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school.3. 2. 2. 3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. 5.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness.. 8. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. the mass media et.2. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. 6. 2. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 2.4. School is.4. To realize this objective of education. open university. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. the learner are acquainted. 2. In ancient time in India.4. Education organised by some agency.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. 4. the family. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. compare formal and non formal system of education. the most important agency of formal education. his mental alertness. you will be able to: 1. imparted at the residence of the teacher. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. the community. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 7. Education. starting and ending at -a particular age. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. say the Government or the private enterprise.4. 9.

and relations are formed and developed through normal play.4. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. third stage. as well as vocational education and training. Some education systems have separate middle schools. depending on the jurisdiction.3.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education.3. such as a high school or secondary school. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates.a secondary education. diplomas. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. or post secondary education. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. 2. usually between the ages of zero or three and five.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. Concepts of proportion. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. also called tertiary. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. capacity. Higher Education: Higher education.2. In general.4. structured education. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. or academic degrees. Through early formal education. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. the elements of language are first learned. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling.

which will help for nation's development. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system.4. 3. and remote dwellers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. 2. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. is an important agency of formal education. Agencies can be classified as 2. 4. children with disabilities. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. What are levels of formal educational system? . Write any two characteristics of formal education? .3. late beginners etc. 2.

work and the opportunity to put learning to use. Thus. financially supported life formal education. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. It is functional. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. until 1970 it had not been defined. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction.learning client take some learning objectives. continuing education and on the job oriented education. “Non-formal education should 113 . the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. open learning. it has its own valid claim to reality.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’.e. systematic. staffed. adults as well as children. According to Malcolm A.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. Adiseshiah.formal education. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. It is much more responsive to needs and change. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. However.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. admissions.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. Non-formal education includes adult education. adding up to a true learning society. It unlocks the doors of development plans.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. curriculum. systematic. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. i. Therefore. planned. It is deliberate. etc. it is a more effective tool for rural development. Open university.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. to help themselves. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. one could say that non-formal education is an active.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system.. place of instruction. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.

4. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. socialism. evaluation etc. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. exploring. curriculum.” 2. the Ideas of citizenship. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status.be marketable and vocationalised.e. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. Part-time education. co-curricular activities.S. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. self. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. 114 .4.S. modes of teaching.4. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. 3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Lawrence. To help industrial workers to better their skills. 5. 2.renewal.learning pattern. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. Process of sharing. place of education. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. 2. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. It should lay emphasis on the self. national integration. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. 6. i. age. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. To develop in the student. Flexibility in various aspects of education. Covering life span of an individual. international understanding.” According to H.4. admissions. 4. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. Preparation for future needs. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. 7.

• To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 5.4. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. Universalisation of primary education. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge.4. Senior Secondary. 10. Technical. 4. 8. 2.4. working adults. 4.4. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. To offer Secondary. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 115 . Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 6. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. school dropouts. • 2. 3. Meeting the omissions of formal education. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 9. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 5. Eradication of adult literacy. in villages and those who live in towns. 7. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. 2. 3. publication and information dissemination.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans.

factory. if organised in isolation. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. Again. All-round development i.full time to learners – can be home. others are formal and informal. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. open space. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute.2. etc. Therefore. centres of correspondence education.. To better qualifications. Radio and television. Institutions for formal education. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. farm. self-employment iii.4. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . effective in modern societal context.4. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . etc. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. training centres in factories.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. 3. To increase knowledge and 2. public libraries. To make if. library.4. 4. 2. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. 2. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1.

Give examples of non formal education? . very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Teaching to face teaching. Correspondence lesson. institution. List out any two aims of non formal education. Face Contact programmes. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. 117 . . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. . period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 6. 7. Lecturing T. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods.V. Define non formal education. radio. Written tests.

is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. 118 . Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. 4. Secondary level.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 7. a. adults as well as children. 3. b. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.4.4.” 6. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. 2. Pre-school level. The school.2. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. 2. Open School. Open University. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. b. 5. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. systematic.4. Higher Secondary level and University level. a.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. School 3. the college and the university come under this category.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Formal and Non Formal 2. Primary level. 4.

Modern Trends in Indian Education. J.2. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Pahuja. (2008). Ltd. Anmol Publications Pvt. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2003). (2007). P. Gupta. N. (2004). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. K. (2008). S. (2005).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.C. N.4. K and Narang C. New Delhi : 119 . L. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Theory and Principles of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Bhatia. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. B. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. Dash. Mohanty. Education in Emerging India. J.

5.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.7 2.4 Need for Open University 2.5.5.3.3.5.4.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.4 Open University 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .3.3 Objectives of Open University 2.5.4.4.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.6 2.5.5.5.5.LESSON 2.2 2.5.4.1 2.5.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.4.5.5.5 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.3.

characteristics of open university 4. labourers and half educated individuals. farmers.5. give the meaning. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. continuing education is a boon. However.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. 2.5. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. you will be able to: 1. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. industries. 2. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. 2. This knowledge may be in political field. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture.2. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . Any person.3. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. It is a lifelong process. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. economic field or such other fields. It is a continuous process.5. Thus. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.5. Under these circumstances. know the need and objectives of open university.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. For them.

They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. if he gets opportunity to develop them. Persons engaged in health services. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. After the achievement of independence. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. 2.V. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 .5.literate person. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi.3. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Radio. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Radio and T. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. On the other hand. cultured and progressive.directly related to his job. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas.V. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. are also contributing their might for the purpose. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Throughout the country.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. Doctors. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. Thus. Cinema. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. For them too continuing education is essential. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. On the other hand. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Block Development Officers. deteriorating to his character and personality. T.

3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (1) ancient history. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (17) modern international and national events. (10) first aid.5. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (8) psychology of adults.. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. 5. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (6) folk stories. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. 7. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (15) music.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. (14) information about bringing up young children. These books are not very useful. 2. (2) basic religious matters. 2. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. especially women.3.V. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 3. (16) liking. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. 4. habits of people of other lands. 2.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (7) folk songs. Inspite of the great efforts. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. Of course. 123 . (4) the fundamentals of economics. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. 6.5. and Radio.3. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (13) psychology of child behaviour. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. we have not been able to achieve our targets.

4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. NLM was launched in the year 2. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. lack of time etc. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. of educational opportunities.4.5. attendance restrict ion. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It also attempts to pr ovide equality.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5.

it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. 3. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. IGNOU was established in the year 6.4. Education is not a once for-all process. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. the higher the degree of openness. c. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. 5. b. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . 4. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. 2. Which was the first open university in India? . 2. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. its education is not class room based but home based. d. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. e. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. No one is too old or too late to learn. but 125 .unobserved. it makes use of educational techno logy.5. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. and in teaching.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

3. 2. who were deprived of t he same earlier. Mo re o ver. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n.who did not get it. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 5. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 2. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. cho ice o f co ur ses. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. 126 . 3. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 6.4. 2. or who realised too late that they need it. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. 2. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. 4. 4. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. it a ims at wider and hig her.5. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l.5. supplementing the existing provision.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1.4. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education.

4. 1. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. 7. semi – literates. 127 . 2. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. a society. Correspondence tuition. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. school drop outs. Laboratory works. 6. you have learnt the concept. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3.2. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Self instructional materials. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Every day. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? .no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n .5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. 2.5. a state or nation. 8. Therefore.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 8. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . cha ng e t heir life compet ence. 5. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. In the present day world. Tutor Comments. List out any four methods of Open University? . new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored.5.

ambitious learners. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. need and characteristics of Open University. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. a. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 6. 2.5.5. 3. (1) ancient history. aspirants for continuing education. its education is not class room based but home based. 7. a. youth. unskilled workers and other professionals. Broad casting lectures c. cho ic e o f co u r ses.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 7. agricultural and industrial workers. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. d. Television Lessons. 128 . it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. 2. (2) basic religious matters. 9. 1985. which may include house wives. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain the objectives. 1988. 8. P r int med ia b. (4) the fundamentals of economics. b. 4. a. b. 8.

(2007).S.K.. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.5. K and Narang C.2. Ltd. (2004). K. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. S. Modern Problems of Education. L. (2004). Reddy. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2001). Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 129 . Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. R. Udaiveer.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. In Lesson 2. wastage and stagnation. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. which may claim the attention of those concerned. 133 . Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. examination. All which is the need of the hour. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. Training teachers for all levels of education. and teacher education. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. the education of women. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. Examination reform. its causes and remedial measures.

134 .

1.3 New initiatives.6 3.1 3.1.3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1.1.1.1.1.2 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.LESSON 3.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.4 3.1.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly. 135 .1.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.5 3.7 3. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.2 EFA – How? 3.1.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.8 3.3.

3. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. Therefore. education received added importance and significance. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. understands the country. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). 2. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly.1. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. therefore. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. you will be able to: 1. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. directed that.1. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. (EOI) 2. social.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. Eradication of Illiteracy. 3. may be political. “The State shall 136 . Continuing Education (CE) 1. economic or cultural.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. On the other hand.

Three Stages for Universalization. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. Universalization of Retention. After the attainment of independence. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. Therefore. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Universalization of Enrolment. 3. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. the national Government under. It enables the parents to send their children to School. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Continuing Education (CE). 137 .endeavour to provide. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Due to the adoption of democratic system. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. rights and responsibilities.

1995 (for upper primary stage). UNESCO Bulletin states. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. Write Article 45. present and future.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1990. It is safe to assure. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. then to 1976. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. This target had to be revised to 1970. Therefore. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment.3. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. 138 . that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence.1. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. later to 1988. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. educational enterprise.

educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. The Social Education. sex.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. their enrolment and retention. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. 8. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). 11. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. Education of the Impaired. the art of preparing fruit-juice. etc. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. Early childhood education should be streamlined. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children.1. 139 . colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. Jams and Jellies. slum areas.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. 3. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste.3. 3. adolescent and adult. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. nutrition education and sports and games. their social economic status and occupations. Disabled. In order to make the programme of education for all community. 6. NAEP. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. Apart from primary education. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 9. and Women’s education programme should be improved. FELF. 12. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. creed. problem of literacy. Emphasis must be given on health education. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Education of Girls. 5. rural areas. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). 10. By undertaking survey.

District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Wastage and Stagnation. Expand MLL and SSA . If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4.3 NEW INITIATIVES.1. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.e. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.3.1. 4.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.

first stage of education. School Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Personal Factors . Familial Factors .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Social Factors . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. it is considered as wastage.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. . 142 . Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. . Define Wastage. 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage.

Personal Factors .1. rural or urban 3. Family Factors . a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. They are described hereunder :1.The following factors.The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. in his home. Societal Factors .The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. school or society.3. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. relating to home.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. School Factors .

discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. stationary. Define Stagnation? 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 144 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. uniforms. mid-day meals. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? .

3. 145 . you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Universalization of Provision b.3.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Universalization of Enrolment c. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Universalization of Retention 2. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. a.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. improvement of curriculum. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. directed that. 6. 2. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community.1. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.” 3. 4.1. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. “The State shall endeavour to provide.1. 3.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. 4. a. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. a. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. therefore. Hartog Committee. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation.. 3.

introduce graded curriculum. Problems of Elementary Education. b. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Familial Factors c. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. a. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.K. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.1. S. Personal Factor b. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Crescent Publishing Corporation. Hemchand. T. improve examination system.N. S. 3. 9.7. (2001). (2007). New Delhi: 146 . Sharma.K. (2008). Social Factors 8. a. School Factors d.

1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2.LESSON 3.5.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.2.5.7 Open book examination 3.1 3.2.4 Question banks 3.5.2.2.2.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.1 Problems of examination 3.2.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .2.4.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.3.2.2.5.2.4.2.2.5.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.5 New evaluation procedures 3.5.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2.3.2 3.2.4.2 Grade System 3.2.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2.2.6.

Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.8 3.2. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. 3. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. Besides. 3. 4. but on the other.2.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2.9 3. you will be able to: 1. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.2. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.3. 3.2. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.3. 3.2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. suggest the new evaluation procedures.2. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.

3. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 149 . separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. waiting rooms for girl students. hostel facilities.. etc. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. etc. They may cause problems relating to discipline. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. schools for them wherever necessary. The following steps should be taken up. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. which the educational authorities have to face. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. They develop secondary sex characteristics. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes.2. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. etc.3.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. roadside Romeoism. If the students are in sufficient number.

1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. public interested in education. conduct of internal examinations.4. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. 150 . With the mass growth of educational enterprise.2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is considered as a major sub-system. 3. appointment of paper-setters.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. teachers. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. the examination system has an important role to play. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. assessment and Finance. public administrators and statesmen. Instruction. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations.

establishing reliability. 3. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. tabulators. etc.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. invigilators.4. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. scrutinizers. etc. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. introducing objective-based testing. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. examiners. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. validity and practicability. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. values. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. etc. etc. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. etc. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation.printing and distribution of question papers. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. training of examiners.2. announcement of results.

it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. 3) With respect to method of teaching.. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. which they are expected to study. Subjects. lack of objectivity etc. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. takes the place of comprehensive learning. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. 2) From the angle of content of education. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. may also discredit them. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public.. halo-effect. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. Vagaries in making. Rote memorisation. it s a common experience that subjectivity. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education.2.4. 152 . Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation.. 7) In connection with the question papers. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. do not appeal to the students and parents.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. stereotyped questions. 3.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education.

Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . 4. revaluation.develop true love for education. 153 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. may be introduced..Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. List any two merits of examination. re-numbering of answer scripts. Question Books may be developed in all schools. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Spot valuation. . Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. etc. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3.a part of internal assessment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination.

Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. The new scheme of assessment. Their interests. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. The students can take any course offered in any department. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times.2. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. In this system. attitudes.2. he is given extra credit points. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. Every paper is treated equal.5. skills are given importance. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. 3.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. When a person chooses to work extra. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 .1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success.5. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. It is complicated.3. In actual practice.2.

Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. In the new system. While designing syllabus. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. An example is a seminar.poor. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . 3. courses can have weightages defined. This system reduces comparison of marks. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. poor. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses.good. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal.5. v. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. only the total credits to be earned is specified. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. These weightages are called credits. or as a 4 credit course.2. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. Groupism is encouraged. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development.discipline. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4.

in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. 3. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.2. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5. 3. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. However. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.2.5. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment.2. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. 156 . the need for re-evaluation should not arise.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992.5. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. 3. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately.5. recruitment. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. 6. List any four new evaluation procedures.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Therefore. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. In the hierarchy. However.2.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. There are no proper procedures for selection. .7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.3. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . 3. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.

playgrounds. finding out whether the prescribed text. qualifications.2. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. Academic inspection. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. laboratory equipment. wherever necessary.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is.. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. disciplinary problems. in a sense. inspecting the class-room teaching.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. whether the syllabus has been covered. requirements. being realised as two different functions. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. finding out the adequacy of. of late. books are followed. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. There has been dearth of properly trained and well.qualified personnel. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. They are. school buildings. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. taking up the follow-up programmes. etc. in contrast. When they are fully realised. interpersonal relationships and so on. etc. complaints and compliments. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. submitting of the inspection reports. 1. library books. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. 3.. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. 158 .6. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. staff. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner.

Ed. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. M. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field.Ed. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. their professional knowledge. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. modern. Insistence on specialisation in the B. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. In the case of departmental candidates. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. at least. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. Similarly. or. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors.. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. In the light of these conceptualisation. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. once in five years. aptitude.. 3. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. courses. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. 159 .2. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. course in either educational. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought.

2. c. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 5. assessment and Finance.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. Instruction. a. Administration. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 4. a. 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. 3. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. b. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 3. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System.2. Grade System. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. 2. b. d. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 160 . b. examination reforms and supervision and inspection.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. a.

5. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. (2004). (2005). Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. c. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. a.4.2. Educational Reforms. K. b. Vaidya. Multiple sets of question paper. 3. b. S. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. (2002).a part of internal assessment.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. R and Sharma. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Open book examinations. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . a. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. 7. Problems of Education in India. a. Question banks. b. K. New 161 . and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. History and Problems of Education in India. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.

identify the needs of rural India and social.4 3. 162 .3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3. 4. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.3.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3. 5.3.6 3.3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3.5 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities. 3. 3.8 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.9 3.10 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3.LESSON 3. 2.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3.3. you will be able to: 1.7 3.

i. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. e. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. 8 years of general education.e. the Banaras Sanskrit College. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines.e. University Education. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. 10 years of general Secondary Education. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country.. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. The. Commission emphasised to continue.g. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. in Andhra Pradesh.specialisation programmes 3. Consequent on the recommendations. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. Similar is the case with some other States. etc..3.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. and 3 years of First Degree Course. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education.. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. The Calcutta Madras. 2. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission.. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage.3. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 .

who desire to change from one stream to another. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. However. 7. educational channels. 8. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. 6. and. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. cultural and economic development of the country.a sense of dignity of labour. 3. to prepare. 5. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. habits of hard work and develop . to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . b.3. 10. to imbibe. is also a plus point . to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. historical. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. 5) to help for the social.confidence in students. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. social. economical and political. Provision for transfer of credits to students.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4.

but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. Sociologically it is undesirable.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. and that required to enter the tertiary level.3. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as.. international understanding. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. cultural and' religious tolerance. Psychologically. democratic living. on one hand. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. Philosophically it is not the conception. cooperativeness. The General Educational Spectrum. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. to develop national character. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. 1. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. and. 3. etc.national integration. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. at the other. social justice.

Agriculture is the main occupation. the rural areas have suffered very much. medical plants. technological. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. Commerce and other disciplines. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. horticulture. 3. physics or mathematics. chemistry. rural health. such as Agriculture. Science. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. vegetable growing. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. India is a land of villages. Biology. and vocations based on dairy-farming. industrial agricultural production is growing. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. In the matter of language. All these need for an. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs.— tube-wells. commerce. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. professional. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. In the vocational spectrum. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. fish culture.3. technical. 2. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. or other machinery. 166 . Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. commerce. educational and cultural services. In our country. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. semi-skilled and unskilled levels.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. and the needs. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. There had been favourable reaction from the students. interests and aptitudes of the students.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. and 5. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. the local resources available. can be ensured. etc. 4. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. In this it may be concluded.etc.. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. social justice.3. 3. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely .. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. In time. In this way. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? .

Vocational Sepctrum. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. General Educational Spectrum and b.3. b. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. J. S.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi : 168 . N. objectives. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2008). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2007). (2005).C.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Ltd. we studied the history. 3. to imbibe. 3. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. a. b.3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. habits of hard work and develop . Anmol Publications Pvt.3. 3. Calcutta University Commission 2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Mohanty. 3.3.a sense of dignity of labour. (2001).3. 2. Dash. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. B. J. a.K. a. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Modern Trends in Indian Education. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4.

but the lighting of a fire”.9 3.11 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.2 3.12 3.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.1 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge. Education contributes to human development.4.4.4.LESSON 3.8 3.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.6 3.13 3.4.4.4.4.10 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.5 3.4.4.4.4.4.4.3 3.7 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail. social and 169 .4.4.

Home Economics. economic. particularly 170 . Nursing. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. community and nation is universally acknowledged.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877.4.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. In the post —independence period. 3. While women constituted only 9. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. 3. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. There is a close connection between education and development. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity.higher education in particular. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. The relevance of women’s education to social. you will be able to: 1. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. although we have miles to go. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. During the year 1937. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .4. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. cultural and political development of the individual. Education . the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. Dr. These courses were. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. Teaching and Fine Arts. analyze the women and distance education. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. family. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. higher education of girls developed immensely. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. For the first time in the history of India. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states.

4. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.0 43. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. Kodaikanal.women.4.2 22. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. The idea of women’s education for equality. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.4. in our country. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . Mumbai.1 31.65 lakhs in 1994-95. levels and professions. Mother Teresa Women University. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. we have more than 1200 institutions. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. 3. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines.0 16. In the rest of the country. In 1950-51. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.9 14.T Women University. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. Yet. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.0 32. out of 9200 and odd colleges.D.2 29. Even today.0 Today.N. 3. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).1 24.9 27. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. Coimbatore.

3. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.83 47. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.36 3.27 89.53 34.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.34 33.66 66. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.that of boys.44 35.63 Female % 34. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? .5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .4. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .54 12.1 respectively.56 64.17 52. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.47 65. 2.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.73 10.46 82.1 and 14. 3.4%) prefer Arts subjects.

75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. financial difficulty of the parents. Also. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. marriage is a very common I factor. particularly. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. The major hurdles. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. 173 . Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. what is the need for higher education for her.hinders the girls from getting higher education. They gave up their studies to enter home life. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided.4. etc. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. she will only learn fashion. According to a survey. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. In every third family. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. distance of the college or university from home. promoted and increased. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. irrelevance of the content of education. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. and coeducation may spoil her character. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. Book banks should be established. Thus. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. curriculum not suited to their requirements. 3. In college. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized.

Full-time employment. Education.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. and the limitations of the conventional education system. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. space. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. It enables to study. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. It also brings about 174 .8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Geographic distance of educational institutions. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace.economic disabilities faced by women.4. is the only tool for realising empowerment.4.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. It is a productive investment. 3. 3. resources and socio . is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Distance education is a boon to women. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. There are constraints of time. Empowerment in a nutshell. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development.

9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level.4. education of women must be given priority in national plans. education of women is of paramount importance. empowerment means being assertive.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . legal awareness and economic independence. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. Empowerment is an active. higher learning. on their own. Women are partners in development. This can be achieved through reflection. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. The major objectives of women's higher education. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. for full development of our human resources. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. 3. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them.

4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. The educational institutions. which had been the sole domain of men. Scholarships and concessions for women. The local administration. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. which is pending for a long time. has to be implemented at the earliest. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. Reservation for women. Better opportunities.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men.4. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. especially so in the developing countries. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. who are eager to take up courses. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. will encourage them to venture new grounds. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. 3. But their number is small. 176 .2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community.

000 women in the country. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.8%). especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations.4. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education.1%) and architecture and building (38. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. capacities etc. 3. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. But. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. Also. engineering and related technologies (16. talents.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. IDP Education. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3 percent. According to Lindy Hyam. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 .11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century.9%). the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem.. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. Chief Executive. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. especially in developing countries like African countries. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Australia.

3. S. Women and Education.R. create the right attitude towards life.4. (2007). Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. 178 . New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.4.4. Mumbai. Centre for Women’s Studies. A. Women Education. Pattanaikj. and Swain. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. and Suryalatha. Kodaikanal. 4. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Mumbai. 2. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Women Education. SNDT Women’s University. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3.to the family.C. Mishra. Coimbatore.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. individuals and society b. 43% 6. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Rajasthan 5. A. SNDT Women’s University. (2008). community and the nation. 4.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. R. R. (2005). Rao. Mother Teresa Women University. Annakodi. Coimbatore. a. 3.K. 3. (2000). S. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. R.

10 3.LESSON 3.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5.5.8 3.1 3.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5.personality of children in and out of school. They should be trained.5.5.2 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3 3.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .6 3. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5.5 3.5.9 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.7 3. whole.11 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.4 3.

Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. you will be able to: 1.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. equality and justice. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. 180 . international. social and emotional integration. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. national consciousness. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. Lack of physical facilities. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. and national character.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. know the pre service and in service training facilities. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers.5. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. Dearth of new technology of teaching.5. Shorter working hours. 4. understanding and strong desire for international peace. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. 3. 3. understand the training teachers for Primary. 5. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2.

Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers.Less qualified teacher educators.Ed. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. the centre. higher secondary teacher education. students. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. Depending on the levels. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education..Ed. it is called the Extension teacher Education. the secondary teacher education. it is called the In-service teacher education. the primary teacher education. and the collegiate teacher education. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. and M. inservice and extension education programmes. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors.. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. etc. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years.5. levels. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. If the student teachers are working teachers. a Diploma course and a Degree course. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels.5. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Lop-sided curriculum. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. At the diploma level. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. who have not been trained earlier.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. 3. Inadequate training in practical skills. (NCERT) New Delhi. 3. the state Government. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 .

• good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Expand NCERT 2.. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. non-formal. Evaluation unit. Science Education units. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. collegiate cells. Education cells. state Institutes of Educat ion. depart ments etc. are established. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 .Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. extensio n service. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Also Guidance Bureaux. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Educational teehnology cells. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . 3. etc.

they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre.Ed.. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. and 183 . every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . to ensure teacher competence. schools and sister institutions. degree. despite its vast expansion. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life.Ed..post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission.. to prescribe conditions for recognition. which help breaking isolation from one another . should be improved on a top priority basis. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. primary and secondary school teachers. to improve curricular programmes.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. material conditions relating to libraries. audio visual aids. laboratories. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. which should include experience in the primary schools too. to offer consultative services. and so on.

The problem. Organisation of Content Courses. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. Workshops. To meet this exigency. and XII. though no pre-service training.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. etc. 184 . the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. Hence. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Induction Courses. Modern Techniques of Teaching. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. methodology and evaluation. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . etc. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. Meanwhile. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. whether they should have professional education or. not came up once again. Agriculture. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Psychology of Students.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively.secondary education. Modern Methods of Evaluation.

Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. For re-orienting the teachers. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. courses and M.’s for Ph. (Education) and M.Ed.Ed.. Post-Graduates also undergo B. Degree and M. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.Ed. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. These facilities are available for regular students.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.Ed. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.A. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. Ajmer.Ed.. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.5. Point out two defects in primary teacher training .S. Courses leading to B. All B Ed. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.’s are elig ible for M. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. State Councils of Educational Research and Training.Ed. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented... 3. training. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.. (Education) are organized by 185 . The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. State Institutes of Education. M.. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. Degree. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.D. in Education. Pre-service training is for those.. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career..A. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. What is the role of ERIC? . So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics.. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. 186 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession.. Hence the employability of M. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. and B. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them.).some Faculties of Education of some Universities. (Ed). CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. 5. However. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . 6.5. 3. 4. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. established by tradition and teachers of the past. of conduct—written or unwritten. they should be conscientious .A.A.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . (Ed. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. .

a. 187 . and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. a. Ajmer.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 5. Explain code of conduct for teachers. 3. 6. 2.5. The necessity is however this. 2. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. National Council of Educational Research and Training. a.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. Bhopal. 3. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore.5. However. Shorter working hours. 3. b. they should be conscientious. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. b. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training.5. 4. 4.3. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. 3. these problems are not as such cannot be solved.

B. J. Teacher Education. (2010). Mohanty. Publication Pvt. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .3. Teacher Education. Corporation.N. A.5. (2009). (2003).D. and Teacher Education. Ltd Aggarwal. P. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. Tewari.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

communicable diseases and their prevention. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. economic and educational developments. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. common ailments of children. nutritional deficiency diseases. preservation of nutrients. Since food is the source of nutrients. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. In lesson 4. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. The person’s environment is equally important. objectives and role of the physical education. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. the focus is on the school health programmes. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. consuming the right amounts becomes important. If the diet is poor. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. objectives. 191 .HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. objectives. In lesson 1.

192 .

8 4.9 4.4 4.1.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community. for giving health education to the children under its custody.1.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.1. mental.1 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.2 4.1.1.6 4.10 4.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1. physical.1. 193 .1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.LESSON 4. emotional and social.e. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.11 4.5 4.3 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important.7 4. It is a miniature society. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1.1.1.

understand school health programmes 2.1. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. Instruction. e. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. 194 . 4. 11. 9. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community.1. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. know the need for sex education. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. 3. training in first aid and etc. 4. To give information regarding health rules. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 4. training of teachers and evaluation. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. content of health education. To develop healthy health habits among children. 8.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. 6. 7. explain the importance of First aid 5.. 10.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. list the common ailments of children 3. To develop certain skills concerning health. 2.g. to his family and to the community at large. you will be able to: 1. cleanliness and healthful living. 5. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students.

B.G.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. 5. play festivals. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. 3. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. The flooring should not be damp. (viii) first aid.1.coming or absence. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games.. typhoid. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. vaccination. (xl) mental health. 2. inoculation against cholera. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. There should be good drainage facilities. minimizing the travelling distance. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . direct lighting. ( iii) sanit at io n. The surroundings of schools should be clean. Arranging better transportation facilities.C. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. 4. cleanliness weeks. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. 2. (vi) nutrition education.. is imperative. etc.4. (v) safety education. (ii) communit y healt h. B. Triple Antigen Vaccination. suitable furniture. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. The school buildings should be spacious. First aid facilities should be made readily available. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. organisation of school health days. proper doors and windows. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. “Play-for-all” programmes. excusing late. (xii) smoking education etc. Vaccination for small pox. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. as described below 1. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. There should be regular water supply.

fractures. • Keep all rooms clean. • Find out the cases. scalds. sports and games in the interest of their health. dislocations. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. fainting (epileptic fit).• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. if epidemic is wide-spread. wounds. D. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Have adequate rest and sleep. insect stings. drowning. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. • Close the schools. etc. 196 . • Take nutritious food. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. bleeding. • When sleeping in groups. poisons. cuts. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. burns. and other accidents.. C. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. isolate and notify.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. fever.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. headache. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. Once these germs get into the body. chicken pox. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. asthma. which are – cold. tuberculosis. backache. So they easily get illnesses. There are three stages in any communicable disease. Mention the school health programmes. measles etc. List out the Health curriculum 3. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. pain in the joints.. They are: i) The incubation stage. polio. 2. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. cough. 4. 4. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. These diseases are called communicable diseases. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . water or bodily contact. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school.1.

One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. head-ache and cough.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. unhygienic living conditions. The symptoms include cold. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Scabies . The child may have fever. Throat is affected.When a child suffers from scabies. Mumps . Children catch cold from persons having cold.This disease is caused by bacteria. Measles . In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. eating food which is not clean. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. 198 . Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Diarrhoea . Ear Infections . unhygienic bottle feeding. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Common Cold . Others make the children very weak. Tonsilitis . Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. After three or four days of fever. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. cough and fever. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands.It is caused by measles virus. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. The following are the common communicable diseases. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. sugar and water. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. etc. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. This is caused by cold virus. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Hence it is called a killer disease. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted.

By scratching he causes secondary infections. separate.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. The child may also have diarrhoea. Typhoid .It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. the child is not able to breathe. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. raised pink spots appear on head. 5. Enlist the common ailments of children. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. face and waist. Shortly. 199 . What are communicable diseases? 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. As the disease progresses. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. If proper treatment is not given. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. Expand DPT .Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. Diphtheria . It begins with fever. the child may die.• • • • Chicken Pox . These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism.

sprains. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. 4. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. In such cases.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. etc. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.1.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. and films. It has its rightful place in education too. eye injury. drowning. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. it is a subject of art. Cuts and Bruises . bruises. Sex is popular.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. fainting. man-woman behaviours.1. 5.4. snakebites. wounds. cuts.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. sprains. It is both biological and psychological. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. Wounds . 4. so-called sex books and periodicals. head injury. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. Sprains . fiction. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. films and jokes. 2. bleeding. dislocation. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. scorpion stings. 3. 200 . simple fractures.g.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. swelling. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. Drowning . and Community Work and Social Service.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. exciting and body-oriented.

they would be treading the path of sure doom. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. 3. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. the school. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. The home. the religious organisations. try experimenting with their bodies. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. sex education is being recommended in schools. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. 2. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. In secondary schools. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. but preserve them from disaster and disease. Hence. health. In today's liberal and interactive society. celibacy are age.old values. B. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. in their ignorance. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common.. Should the boys and girls. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. The values of life. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world.

3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. What are the major components of Sex Education. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. Teacher education institutions are. 202 . If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects.1. hence. communicable diseases and their prevention. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. 4. C. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. first aid and sex education. there will no crisis in its implementation. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. common ailments of children. when the courses are already overloaded. the school health programmes.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. 209 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Mention the food nutrients 2.

minerals. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s.2. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s .2. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s .4. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. If you look at the definition carefully. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. 210 . is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Let us talk about each of these aspects. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.

The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. moderate or heavy work. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age).g. paratha and poori. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. These are: region where the person resides and income. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress).1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. activity level and physiological stress.one in the morning and the other at night. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. Even within given States there is considerable variation. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. In other words. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. 4.2. A balanced diet is specific firstly. construction labourer). This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. People in the east of our country prefer rice. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. for example. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. sex.6. There is no point. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age.g.sedentary. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . dosa are typical of the south. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex).Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. Preferences/customs are also important. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. In the case of adults. the social and religious practices of that region. it is also specific to a given activity level .

One person may be fond of milk products. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. taboos related to food may play an important role. for example. As you read this discussion. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. Including these 212 . Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. Even among flesh foods. income plays a vital role. fat and sugar tend to increase. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. In addition to these. As income increases. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. One must. however. however. If you think of your own religious group. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. nuts and dry fruits.planning the diet. However. Judicious selection of food is. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. These determine the acceptability of foods. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. however. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. as important for the rich as for the poor. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. while another may hate them. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. vegetables and fruits. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. Among the social factors. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. customs. Having more money.

meat. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students.eating is hazardous. mouth. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . 17. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. over-eating or under. 8) Walk a while after eating. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. Define balanced diet. List out any two healthy food habits. For this. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. 213 . 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. if the teachers have good food habits. eggs .7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. green leaves.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. fruits. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. 8. etc. but they should be thrown away.

Corneal xerosis. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. d. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Explain food nutrients 4. a. Night blindness. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Beri Beri 4.4. Discuss good food habits. Conjuctival xerosis.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies.2. Vitamin D 5. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. 4. b. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer.2. e.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. When the diet is inadequate. c. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A.2. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Keratomalacia 3. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Bitot’s spots. good nutrition is essential for good health. 4. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . preservation of nutrients. In fact. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.

Health and Nutrition Education. minerals. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Food and Nutrition Education. (2004). (2009).6. Hands. (2008). Nutrition Science.2.C. 7. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. S. Food should be consumed after eating well. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. b. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum.N. a. 8. Chopra. mouth. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Nutrition and Dietetics. R. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. a . (2008). (2005). b. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. Sri Lakshmi B. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . 4. A Text Book of Foods. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. P. R. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 .M. Food and Nutrition Education.

3.2 4.11 4.3.4 4.12 4.6.3.3.6.3.5 4.9 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3 4.3.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.8 4.3.3.3. 216 .3.1 4.3.3 Impact on Education 4.3.13 4.7 4.3.10 4.3.2 Impact on economic development 4.LESSON 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3.6.3.

Population Education.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. It is a much wider co ncept. objectives and need for population education 2. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India.3. population characteristics. 4. describe the impact of population growth on social. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. the stress is. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. aims at providing the younger generation. family planning and sex education etc.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. therefore. his family. the causes of population change.4. economic and educational development 3. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. state the meaning. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family.3.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. 4. and the consequences of these processes. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. his societ y and the world. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. community. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. Whenever we talk of sex education. 217 . There is some difference.3. you will be able to: 1. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. It is not sex education. characteristics and changes for himself. understand the importance of small family norm 5.

the society.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 4. the family. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any two objectives of Population Education.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.4.3. Define Population Education 2. the nation and the world.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.

Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. 4.3. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom.6. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. 4.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty.3. Every second two thousand children are being born. the family programmes are also handicapped. When the family is small. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. With the larger families. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. health and happiness of its citizens. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. economic and educational development of the country. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. Family is considered as a social unit. 219 . which will not be possible without population control.

Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index.6. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. 4.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets.. in parks and other places of public gatherings. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils.3.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. The gulf between them is widening further. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. in cinema halls and theatres. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. in buses and trains. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. teacher index. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. In developing countries. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified.3. 220 . It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher.e. 4. organization index and material index.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. toilets. Many students herded in a small room. and so on. pollution of the environment. lack of proper health care. facility for drinking water. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. i. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. unemployment.6.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. Swollen cities. heavy intern I migration etc.

material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. less space facilities. family planning etc. blank verses etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. bar graphs etc. essays. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue.3. can be studied in science and health education. can be taken up. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. less administrative initiative and leadership talents.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. reproduction. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. Hindi and English. thus. 221 . Regional Language. there will be lacuna in many other spheres.. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. less budget for education. even text books would be in short supply. There would be poor library facilities. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. and laboratory equipments. Social Studies Statistics on population education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. There would be very few audiovisual aids. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. It has got to be integrated with other subjects.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4.

Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. They may arrange them as per average density of population. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. 12. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 7. 4. Brazil. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Children may compare two families. China. United States of America. 2. 11. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 9. 15. Children with the help of parents. West Bengal.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 13. area and average density of population. 8. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. 5. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 .4. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. 14. Canada. Uttar Pradesh. 10. Bihar. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan.3. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. causes of deaths etc. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. deaths. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. 3.

These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised.3. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. 16.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. Comparing life in various respects in two families. values and role children etc. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. age at marriage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.be opened in their schools. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. The question. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. 18. we have no right to stop 223 . 17. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. preferences for sex.

“He who is responsible for population growth.3. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. More than 45 years ago. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. especially the expansion of child immunization services .6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. 4. at varying places in different regions. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. which education can only do.to emphasize family planning services.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.their entry into the world”. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . continued . The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. Since the program's inception. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). and the child survival components of the news: program. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. however.4-6.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. The Family Welfare Program.were implemented 224 . is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. on an overall basis.

and the World Conference on Women. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. and nominal fees for services. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. expansion of services to unmarried women. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. reliance on local women as community health workers. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. At these meetings. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. In October 1997. Therefore. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. a focus on health promotion. In April 1996. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. the community appears willing to pay for services. Local programs vary in their approaches. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. men.earlier than the safe motherhood components. Moreover.

to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the goals of RCH? 4.emphasizing the needs of the client. economic and educational development 4. involving the community. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training.3. 1997). Describe the impact of population growth on social.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. nation and the world. 4. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. 226 . improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. community. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.3. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. 3. Its main purposes are to create awareness. family.

increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. b. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. bar graphs. 4. 6. less budget for education. 7. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.” 2. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. 3. China. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. less space facilities. a. a. his family. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. a. area and average density of population. the causes of population change. 227 . They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. b. his society and the world. characteristics and changes for himself. population characteristics. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. less administrative initiative and leadership talents.3. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Brazil. United States of America.4. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. Canada. and the consequences of these processes. 5.

(2005). (2005). Modern Problems of Education. (2002).14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development.3. (2004). Principles of Population Studies. Reddy. T. Jayapoorni. N. Ltd. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. V. A. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. J. Bhende. 228 . Modern Trends in Indian Education.K. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.4. Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Centre for Women’s Studies. (1992). Kantikar. Udaiveer. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Coimbatore.

3 4.4.4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.6 4.8.4.4 Lead up games 4.4.2 4.4.4.4.4.9 4.1 Minor games 4.3 Indigenous games 4.8.10 4.4.8.4 4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4.8.4.2 Major games 4.4.4.1 4.LESSON 4.11 19.5 4.4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.7 4.

Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. 4. mental alertness. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. full records of physical activities should be maintained. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. which forms its most valuable assets. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. team spirit. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. as it should 230 . classify the different types of games. perseverance. 4. you will be able to: 1.4.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education.4. The concept of physical education has been made broader.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4. the youth of the country. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. moral fitness and emotional fitness. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3.4. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. leadership and balance in defect. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. social fitness.

contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Every individual is a part of society. The educational efforts at home. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. team spirit. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. They go hand in hand. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. obedience to rules. To be more precise. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Therefore. They are inseparably united together. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . leadership. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual.

A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. nor body but the whole man. Buck has observed that 232 .P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. Regarding the significance of physical education. game and sports. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain.” Montaigue writes. C.” The Secondary Education Commission. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. Just like Education. pleasing manners. a sound health. Physical exercises. H.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. Rousseau states. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. ment al. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers.4. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. mo ral. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. 4. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.

5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. coordinative abilities. strength. efficiency and character. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. initiative. happiness. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society.” 4. “If we wish to develop the whole being. Froebel says. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.a properly directed physical education should result in health. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.4. etc.” In brief. resourcefulness and smartness. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. we must exercise the whole human being. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. 233 . elegance. speed. endurance. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. flexibility and power.

” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. plagues and famines. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. they may form gangs. poetry and painting. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. 234 (i) (ii) . Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. While wars. Every age has its artists. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. in greater or lesser degree. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Tournaments foster this sentiment. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. systems of government. including all racial groups and historical ages. these fundamental things have always been present. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. its adherents and its enemies.

3. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. 235 . B.sacrifice. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. bravery and interest in games and sports. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. Write any two importance of Physical Education. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. to develop tolerance. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. obedience.\ to develop perseverance. respect for rules. self. 2.

students. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 6. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Usually parents.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 15. Always keep the whistle ready. and readmission after they have recovered. and. Be self-confident. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 3.4. 9. 7. is essential.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 5. 12. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 14.4. 8. Inform health principles. 13. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Be well-prepared. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. .4. 16. Posture screening should be done.H. injuries among pupils should be made. 4. Keep the field ready for the activities. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. defects. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 10. 236 1. 4. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Haag. Be punctual. Be sportive. 2. Be in the uniform. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 11. Act as a leader.

1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. 237 . less equipment and less expense. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Indigenous games. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten.8. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. Such inst incts as imitation. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. the play. 1. their development is handicapped. As such they are well enjoyed by children. 4. frolic and jo y. 3. 2. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. 4. chasing. 4. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4.4. Moreover. Lead up games.

snatching the kerchief. Ball Badminton.8.With a very few rules. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. hitting. Jumping. Tennis.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. with implements or without implements. benefit in playing minor games. catching. Volley Ball. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Khokho. Cricket. finding the partner. 4. on mountain tops and on river beds. Throwing. 238 . on hard courts. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. zig zag relay. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. women take part most of the games. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Basket Ball. pitching. boosting. couple tag. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. on sea-shore. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. Hopping. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Shuttle Badminton.4. under ball pass Relay. Hockey. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Jump the stick clay and so on. heading. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. Kabaddy etc. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. muffling. Tennikoit. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Except a few games. bowling etc. the play equipment. These games require varied skills such as running. They are played for a shorter duration. For each game the rules are many. wherever the kids assemble. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. They are rules approved by the International Associations. stopping. spiking. On lawns. some of them are played indoors. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles.. trapping. dribbling. driving. The dimension of the posts and nets. over ball pass Relay. Soft Ball. the games can be modified according to convenience. While many of them are played in the open playfields. the number of players and substitutes. skipping. Dodging.

8. They have an abundant social value. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial.8. On occasions like marriage. death.4. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. these games being popular. 4. 7. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.4. birth. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. they are in existence. and .4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Kho-kho. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. All the fundamental tactics. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. For example. An example for indigenous game is 8. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . While observing the players in action. festivals connected with religion and public functions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. List out some major games. Games may be classified as 6.4.

d. 4. 3. to develop physical stamina. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. a. Briefly discuss the different types of games. a. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. a. 2. 3.4. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. aims and objectives and need of physical education. physically and emotionally fit and alert.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. 2. 4.4. c. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. to secure physical health b.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 5.4. b. a.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 4. Minor and Major 240 . It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Posture screening should be done. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.4. b.

C. Shuttle Badminton. Ball Badminton. Tennis. Soft Ball. Modern Trends in Indian Education.K. Ltd. Health. Khokho. (2009). Foot-ball. 4.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. J. J. Volley Ball. Physical Education and Sports. (2008). Mohanty.4. Krishna murthy. (2008). New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Kabaddy 7. Basket Ball. G. Aggarwal. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Handbook of Physical Education. Tennikoit. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Cricket. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Khokho 8.6. 241 . J. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2005). Hockey.

5.8 4.LESSON 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.5.3 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.6 4.9 4.5.1 Natural Environment 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.2 4.5.7 4.11 4.5.5.10 4.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.5.5.5.5.5.1 4.4 4.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.

4. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 3. Attitude. you will able to: 1. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. education about the environment and education through the environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. 6. Knowledge. list out the types of environment 3.5. economic. 2. 5. social.5. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. Details are given below: I. political. 4. The best place to start such learning is school. 2. it covers the following elements: 1. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. Essential knowledge about the Environment. 243 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Skills.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. population explosion and resource depletion could be. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. role of teacher in environmental conservation. aesthetic and educational factors. 4. Awareness. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.5. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. Participation. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological.educat ion for the environment. 3. Broadly. Evaluation Ability.

Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. 2. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. • Biological magnification E. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. F. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. heat sink and wind flow in cities. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur.B. 244 . Oxidants Other pollutants. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. D. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. a. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle.

3. III. Socio-economic measures. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Sterilisation. Abortion iv. The pill ii. Persuasion: i. Use of medical science i. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Control of population growth a. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. 2. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. B. Family planning ii. economic. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. The human ecosystem II. Intrauterine device iii. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1.3. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . c. 4. 2. Birth control through education b.

Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Define Environmental Education. Water pollution abatement.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 3. (UNESCO. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. e) Recycling. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. 1983). 2. Air pollution abatement ii. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. 246 .

which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. to his needs. Biological environment The biological environment. 4. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. fax agricultural apparatus. telex. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .5.4. A change in one brings about a change in the other. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. -other.5.5.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.5.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. includes the plants. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. He modifies according”.5. b. animals and other organisms (biotic). They interact with each. a. These are biotic components. way is called environmental or ecological factor.other components of the environment. Any constituent or condition of the environment. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.5. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 .

population. greenhouse effect. effects.. are the topics which may be taught in History. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. History The rise and fall. sources. use of pesticides. ozone depletion. desertification 248 . effects o f CFC. balance of nature. reasons. acid rain. evolution.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. excellent recreation sites. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. river systems. relation between population and pollution. etc. explosion deforestation. industrial survey. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. air pollutants from industries. preserving the watersheds. sources of pollut ion. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. preventing siltation of dams. of civilizations. need for bio-diversity. role of trees in building economy. need for conservation. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . wars and hazards of war. supplying timber for various uses. natural way of controlling pests. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. importance of nitrogen cycle. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. mineral survey. noise control. use of medicinal plants. windmills. noise pollution. social studies. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. water scarcity. ozone layer deplet ion. change in climate may be added. food chain and food-web. alternate sources of energy. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. (ii) Air pollution. extinction of species. solar cookers. etc. industrial pollut io n. nuclear energy. trees reducing noise pollution. nuclear warfare. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. over exploitation of ground water. t heir role in preventing pollution. biogas plants. maintaining the ecological diversity.

Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Peepal and Tulsi. 7.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 11. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 4. animal and plants. 12. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. 249 . Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 8. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Organising conferences.may be inc ded in Geography. 5. 3. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 6. 4. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 2. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’.5. group discussions and seminars. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. 10. 14. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 9. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Providing. Developing awareness about environmental issues. 13. aims and scope. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant.

If it is done. Never put any left over chemicals. 6. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. used oils down the drain. it will cause pollution. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. or form a car pool for everyday travel. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Reuse carrier bags. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Send their waste oil. all these can cause serious pollution. World Environmental falls on 250 . Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. especially plastics. Don’t burn any waste. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. 5.

developing desirable attitudes. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. viz. loss of bio-diversity. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. To provide materials needed for practical work. Concern for species. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. depletion of ozone.mat erials. diversity and stability. The groups may exchange. etc. nuclear wars. deforestation. Social responsibilit y (common good. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem.5. values and habits. potable water. orderliness and beauty). To arrange visits or expeditions. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. To provide reference materials for children’s use. etc. dest roying nat ural habitats. (cleanliness. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature.). Harmony with the nature ..4.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. CFCs. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . and 251 . their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. concern for others). minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Conservation of natural resources. To arrange for visiting speakers. rather than conquest and mastery. Att itudes of balance towards nature. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information.

5. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.5. preserving natural cycles. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. 252 . 8.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.

To provide reference materials for children’s use. Kuldeep. 4. relat ion between population and pollution.K. T. b. (ii) Air pollution. (1997). (2007). New Delhi : Anmol 253 . New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Rapid population growth. concern for others). Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Knowledge. sources. Environment and Human Rights. population. a. ozone layer deplet ion. greenhouse effect. To provide materials needed for practical work. acid rain. reasons. water scarcity. effects. Education for values. Y. S.. (2007). Modern Problems of Education. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Ltd. sources of pollution.K. 5. a. New Delhi : Sharma. Providing.K.2. importance of nitrogen cycle. Organising conferences. Awareness. Udaiveer. b. Publications Pvt. 3. Environmental Education. a. New Delhi : Authors Press. b. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 6.\ 4. (2004). a. S. air pollutants from industries. b. Environmental Education. explosion deforestation.K.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. Social responsibilit y (common good.5. June 5 7. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. new problems from science and technology. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Ltd. over exploitation of ground water. 8. Anmol Publications Pvt. group discussions and seminars. Nanda.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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According to Rusk'. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. Spiritual Development. enrichment and transmission of culture. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. The universe is regarded as a thought process. Therefore. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm.3. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. in fact. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 .1. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. should be universal in nature. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. promote and transmit it to rising generation. moral. the emancipation of spirit.” 5. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. Education according to idealism." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. Education must contribute to development of culture.our life.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. Universal Education. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. man is essentially a moral being. It is self-realisation. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality.

Learning through reading. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. Mathematics etc. so subjects like Religion. Philosophy. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only.” He is thus. subjects like Languages. the school is a garden. should be there. So cognition (knowing).1. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. It considers teacher as. 2. Learning through lecturing. a spiritual guide for the child. hygiene. So health. So he should embody.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man.1. an indispensable necessity. Learning through imitation. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . Science. For this no particular method has been suggested. The plant can grow. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. Ethics.3. According to idealism. Herbert advocated instruction method. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. However. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. affecting (feeling).the spiritual qualities of mankind. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. and collation (striving) should find due place. He carries the child from darkness to light. 5. According to Frobel. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. 3. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method.3. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. 4. Learning through questioning. 5. He sets the environment in which education takes place. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types.” 5. Learning through discussion. no doubt. History. friend and guide. For intellectual development.

1.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. formal lessons or examinations. time tables. Perfection of Human Machine. In the words of Ross. 2. "Education should make 263 • . 5. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Ross explains.1.4. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. text books. curricula.preservation.perfection and beauty.

In all. education should develop the child into Joyous. Arithmetic. Chemistry. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Education also aims at helping the individual t.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. geography should also be included in the curriculum. useful and mature child. Zoology. Literature. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. 264 . by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. is based on the nature of the child. Punishment is given by nature in its own way.1. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. There is no place for religious and moral education. It is based on the psychology of the child. Naturalistic curriculum. subjects like history. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. It stresses basic sciences.4. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. therefore. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Therefore. rational harmoniously balanced. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. “Education finds its purpose. 4. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. It emphasises physical and health education 5. • 5. Botany etc Language. Biology. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Education should.

a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. 5. 5. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. a supplier of materials and opportunities.1. Learning by doing. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. 3. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Naturalism has made very significant contribution.1. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Dalton Plan. a provider of an ideal environment. the stage. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. 2. 4. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development.1. It discards all rigid.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. Rousseau says.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology.4. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Heuristic method.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. In the . he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. he should be taught by experience alone. Learning through observation. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. Learning through experience. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.4.5. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 .

Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. social and moral aspects. All Round Development of an Individual.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. 5. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. History.absolutism of idealism. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Subjects. Sciences. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Physical training. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. The aim of educational development. Personal Social Adjustment. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Social Efficiency. Social Science.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Agriculture. Continuous Growth.5. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Geography. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. diversified and flexible.5. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency.1.1. is true. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Vocational and 266 . 5. intellectual. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems.

Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. He has to be active.” 5.1. alert and resourceful.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. The subjects. activities and experience should be integrated properly. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. a senior partner and a sincere guide.1. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 5. Learning by Doing.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. He must be trained.Technical Education. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. a teacher occupies an important position. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 .5. should find proper place.5. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

rich and happy. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing.6. Astrology. Mathematics. Music and Dance. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. 2. Chemistry. Literature.5. Study of Subjects like Language. Population Education. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind.1. Sex Education. History. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. specific.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Art. Geography are unnecessary 268 . “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. intellectual. 3. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. 4. 2. 5. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. literary or humanistic education. Biology. The basic tenets of realism are 1. 4.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1.6. practical. Education is preparation for a complete living. 5. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. 3. scientific and psychological education. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. 5. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Crafts. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. liberal.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education.1. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. It favours child-centered.1. Psychology. Biography Philosophy.

6.1.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.6. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . easily and pleasantly. certainly and clearly.

We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. a. Self Realisation b. Sciences. Tours / Excursion e. Learning through lecturing. Physical training. Social Science. Learning through experience b. History. d. Learning through reading. Agriculture. & curriculum. b.1. Rousseau 5. a. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. pragmatism and realism.5. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Universal Education 2. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Child centered c. Self preservation & Self expression 4. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. 3. naturalism. Geography. Learning through discussion. Learning through imitation.7 LET US SUM UP We have. c. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Vocational and Technical Education. in this lesson. 5.1. 5. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Education according to pragmatism. Learning through questioning.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1.1. Languages. 6. e. Experimentation d. 5. a. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. has no end other than growth.

L. New Delhi : A. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Theory and Principles of Education. (2004).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. New Delhi : Bhatia. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.1.5.H. Pahuja. O.P. Anmol Publications Pvt.P. P. (2007). (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. Ltd. Foundations of Education. 271 . P. (2003). R. K. N. of Pathak. Publishing corporation. Narang C.

2 Curriculum 5.2.2.2.2.1 Aims of Education 5.4.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.4.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2.2.4.2.2.3.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.5.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.3 Methods of teaching 5.LESSON 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.3.5.2 5.2.3.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.2.2.2.1 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.4.4 Views about teacher 5.2.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.2.3.3.5.3.4.3 Methods of teaching 272 .4 Views about teacher 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2 Curriculum 5.

mind and spirit. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.2.4 Role of the teacher 5.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.2. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. 5.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. you will able to: 1. economic and political reconstruction in our country.2.7 5. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life.2.8 5. Gandhiji was primarily a social.2.5. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.6 5. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. content and methods. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. 273 .” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Tagore was a poet. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.5. 3. 5. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2.2. an artist. 2.2. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.

development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. righteousness. it is education of life. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. strength of mind. 274 . mind and soul of children He further observed. 5. nor the gross animals body. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. It really provides opportunity for character building. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. In the words of Gandhiji. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji.supporting. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. self-restraint and service of humanity.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education.2. 'Man is neither mere intellect. His scheme of education is life centred. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. "I attach more. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. through life and for life. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect." Dignity of Labour. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.3. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor.

the realization of the ultimate reality. leather work have been suggested. Individual and Social Aims. 5. wood work. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Music. gardening. According to Gandhi.Training for Leadership.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. General Sciences. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. metal work. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. Art.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. "Development of the moral character. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Mother-tongue. Only good individual forms a better society.3. Drawing and Hindustani. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme.2. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies.

all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.2. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.trained.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. proficient. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.2. men of 276 . Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. Basic education is other wise known as 4.3.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.

knowledge. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. 3.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. That is why. He also advocates freedom for the child. Education must be child centered. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 .3.2. 5.

2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Gandhi in 1937.2. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.4. • Cult of non-violence.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. 5. He was a true patriot. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.2. He was deadly against untouchability. He believed in the oneness of humanity. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. • Ideal of citizenship.3.” Like all other ideals. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. • Education should involve manual work.K. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. he was a true Vedantist 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.

he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. the more dedicated and devoted. wider in range. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. Civics. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. etc. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. sentiment. Music.4. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. he said.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . International Understanding. Zoology. Therefore. That way only. could help in forging unity among all. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Tagore said. complete manhood could be attained. them solve problems of day to day life. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Chemistry. Geography.Mother tongue and other Indian languages.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. Dance. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Botany. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. "Mankind must realise a unity. International understanding. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. (vi) Philosophy. It should help. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Religion and Psychology. 279 .Language and Literature . General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. deeper in. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. stronger in power than ever before. It should help the learner have good physique.2.

2. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”." 5.” He further says. In 1921. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. 280 . Let individualised methods be used for teaching. Activity Method Heuristic Method. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.2.4. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.4. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. 5. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. 5.2. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.4.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. Tagore rightly says.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service.

10. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. race. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. It is open to all irrespective of country. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4.g. 9. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. 281 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11.

1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. According to him. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Purity of thought. Education should make a person self-reliant.5.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. 2. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. man making. Book learning.5. Education for strong Moral Character. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. 4. Education for Self-realization. Freedom. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. character forming and assimilation of ideas.2. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. 3. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education." He was against the theoretical type of education. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man.2. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Concept of Education.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court.” 5. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. work and deeds come out of it. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Education for Self-reliance.

There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Discussion Method. Philosophy and Theology. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts.5. Thirdly he wished that games. Secondly he wanted Science. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. And above all. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and .5. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. 283 . 5. 5.the learners on different students in the discussion. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Religion. That will serve the purpose of education fully.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend.5. A physically strong person is the need of the society. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. Every individual should be trained for concentration. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Swami. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. 6. Of course.2.5. Education for Physical Development. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. engineering and technical subjects.2. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. philosopher and guide to the students He. The teacher should be the facilitator. 5.2.

7 UINT END EXERCISES 1.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 12. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. in this lesson. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. legs. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. 2.6 LET US SUM UP We have. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda.2. We have seen that Tagore. 284 . curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. Gandhiji as a Idealist. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. 3.2. and pragmatist . 5. of course. ears and eyes. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. naturalist.Substantiate your answer. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. Write short notes on Basic education. Their educational ideas.

a. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.2. 5. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. 11. Education should involve manual work. c. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Explain Vishwabharathi. 1937 7. Learning by Doing c. e. Cult of non-violence. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. 9. a. Self-Study b. leather work have been suggested. a. c. Meditation and concentration c. 8. f. 5. 10. wood work. a. metal work. 5. Debate and Discussion Method. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discussion Method 285 . Activity Method b. 2. Activity Method d. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Heuristic Method. Ideal of citizenship. 3. b.4. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Technique of Correlation 6. d. Nai Talim 4. gardening. Basic education. Self realization. Teaching while Walking b.

(2004). O. Dhiman. New Delhi : Aggarwal. Pahuja. L. B. (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.2. P. N. on Bhatia. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. (2003). Ltd. Foundations of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.5. Anmol Publications Pvt. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. P. (2007). 286 .P. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. K and Narang C. N. K. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : A.H. C. J. (2002).

Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.10 5.3 5.5 5.2 5.3.3.3.LESSON 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 . In this lesson.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3.6 5. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.3.9 5.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3.1 5.3.3.7 5.3.8 5.11 5.4 5.3.

Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. in the U. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. you will be able to: 1. in the form of new experience. it is identical wit h socializat ion. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”.S. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. Curriculum is intimately related to education. in fact .4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. the desert area. present behaviour may be modified.3. maintained or eliminated. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. While education is a process. in Russia or in Japan. state the meaning of curriculum 2.under the direction of the school. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . Since the demands. In the words of Kerney and Cook. 5. While education is learning. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India.3. From the latter point of view. 5. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4.3. curriculum. is a means to the process. living in the hilly area. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. Both the processes are integrated. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. new behaviour may be acquired.. Then in a big country like India. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the plateau area and 288 . ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. curriculum signifies situations for learning. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5.A. the plain area. In it. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. A g o o d curricu lu m. there is a large number of communities. In the former sense.

customs and needs.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. irrespective of their needs and environment. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. the learning capacity of children. differs from individual to individual. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. and 289 . And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. it is. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. In fact . from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. environment. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. 5.3.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. However. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. Besides craft. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. It must differ from locality and from society to society. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. democratic and socialistic country. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. Again. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. studying therein. according to modern trends in the educational process. therefore. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. too. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. From a slave-country we became secular.

.g. uninspiring and unscientific. individual or Social and so on. 3. They speak of perfect goals. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. They are achievable. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. in instructional objectives. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. 290 . Goals of Primary Education. remote or immediate. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . 1. Application Objective. which may or may not be attained. Understanding Objective. aims. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process.. etc. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. 2. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. etc.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country.. National Integration. Self Realisation.g.3. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. They may be ultimate or proximate. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals.. Vocational Efficiency. e. Goals of Secondary Education.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. aesthetic and spiritual development. 4. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. So it is inadequate.g. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. social. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. of classroom. social. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. Knowledge Objective. 5. general or specific. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. they depend on the political. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. emotional. e. tangible. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. They are visionary goals e. They speak of immediate purposes of education. eg.. etc. unambiguous and functional. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. specific. The word “Curere” means 2. moral. unsatisfactory.

“The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. abilities. According to Crow and Crow. finding them very interesting and captivating. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. Raymont rightly says. capacities. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum.3. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. needs. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. educationists. heavy fire. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.5. on the playing fields. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. but it includes the totality of experiences. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus.” 291 . in the class rooms. The interests. Crow and Crow remarks.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down.

Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. tendencies. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. aptitudes.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. mental. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. moral. Due to these variations and differences. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. urges. They often waste it or rather kill it. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . time in a useful manner. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. capacities and abilities.

infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. 293 . phased preparation. development of professional capability at all levels. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. 2. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. To ensure success of the process. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. administrative programme need be planned. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials.curricular. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. 3. organized. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. Similarly.

3. principles of curriculum construction. 12. 10. 17. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. a. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. Relation with Life c.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. in the class room.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. 5. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. library. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. Child Centred Education b. workshop. 18. 11. laboratory. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . Run. 1937 19. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school.

Curriculum and Instruction. S. 295 . New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. (2001). New Delhi : Authorspress. New Delhi : Isha Books. (2007). (2007).5. S. P. Lakshmi. N. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.S. (2007). Innovations in Education.K. Bhalla. and Sarita Kumari. D. Curriculum Development.3.

5 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.7.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.6.4.4.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4.8 5.4.1 5.4.4.6.9 5.4.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.4.4 5.7.4.7.3 5.4.LESSON 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.4.4.4.7.2 5.10 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.

side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. 5. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. know the importance of science education. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. superstition or emotion. 3. in the economic reconstruction of society. 297 .4.5. 4. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. newer and newer industries started growing. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. 5. 2.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not.4. explain the concept of scientific attitude. you will be able to: 1.4. tolerance for the opinions of others. Gradually. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. We mean curiosity.during the second half of this century. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. open-mindedness.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. honesty.

Promotion of science clubs.4.4.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Principles are formulated. Central science workshop. 5. Thinking and memory develops. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 2. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 6. seminars and symposiums. 3. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. After such experience and training. 2. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 4. 5. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. 7. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. 3. 4. Selection for science education. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 5. 5. Through examinations. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. as well as of the society. Love for truth enhances. Schemes of teaching science. 6. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children.So that. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Devotion towards nature increases. Organisation of science fairs. Through newspapers. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO.

each child to “enquiry skill building”. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. In the inquiry approach.6. For laboratory and workshop techniques.4. Enquiry teaching is. essential that teachers. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. should provide opportunities to. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. therefore. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. They experience natural phenomenon. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. After presenting the problem. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 .6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. 5. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. They ask many questions about the objects they see. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. objectivity. They encounter many social events as they grow.4.needs and conditions. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two advantages of Science Education. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 7. It is. Training of science teachers. sex or religion.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. 5.

4.Herma Wouk. 300 . Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. . It requires consistent thinking.books. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 5. to ask questions and experience things. 2.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Adopting creative models of teaching. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . 3. Giving less directions. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. test. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 4. 5. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Evidence. 5. if they like. Appreciating pupils ideas.6. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. stern pursuit of accurate data. Social sciences.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. 6. 3. commands or orders.

(Smith 2008). In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. These include open mindedness. school and society at large. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning.4. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. friends. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. practiced. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. To achieve this we should understand what it means. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. For instance. The students observation. critical thinking and suspended judgments. (Vaidya 2007). These characteristics of any scientific 301 . of vast resources running waste. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents.7. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. it must be encouraged. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. to develop among the learners.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. therefore should be unbiased and objective. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. neighbourhood. 5. keen observation. and emphasized during the learning process . Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits.

Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. rumor. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. or superstitions.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. 302 . Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live.7. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias.4. 5. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. he studies all aspects of it. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. think and work it”. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. 2007). Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. The intention to respect another’s point of view. (Das. In considering a situation or a problem. intuition or wishful thinking”.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. understanding and logic. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country.

4.4.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.7. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity.7. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. but to begin only after careful planning. 5. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. • 5.

The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.4. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. 5. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. it must be encourages. 304 . List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. 5. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude.

(2008). Rao. 4. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Reflections on Scientific attitude. b. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. Planning of activities 5.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Adopting creative models of teaching.S.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13.5. Study of superstitions d. S. a. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. a. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 5. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. objectivity. Proper example of the teacher c. D. Love for truth enhances. 5. 3. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. Yadav. a. M. (2000). Vaidya. The intention to respect another’s point of view. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15.B (2008). 16. a. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. (2006).4. Wide reading b. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. b.4. 305 . N. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. 2.

5.5.5.5. 2.8 5.LESSON 5. 5. 306 .5.7 5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.5.5. you will be able to: 1.10 5.4 5.5.5. objectives and characteristics.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. actively.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. state the concept.5.1 5.2 5.9 5.6 5.11 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population. areas of institutional planning.5.5 5.5.3 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.

By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. teachers and students is not lost sight of. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. 5. 5. State and national levels from below. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. • to involve teachers and school administrators.5.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. every parent. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. in the task of educational planning. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. and. • to make planning development-oriented. each teacher. every teacher. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. • To make institutional planning more successful. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. and every student in the process of educational planning. Institution should be regarded as the unit.3. executive as well as public. which become the bases for further planning at the district. and supplement planning from above.5. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 .3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. and each student are regarded as separate entities.

and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. (2) Co. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. approved after making necessary modifications. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. council and. Classwork. etc. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. 308 . There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. Co-curricular activities.curricular Activities.5. Syllabus. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. Examinations. and Personnel services. it becomes the basis for school inspection.5. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. which will be discussed in the general. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. 5.• implemented.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services.

Organisation of Pupils. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Improving the internal assessment. Organisation of Students’ Association. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Celebrating of national and international festivals. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Organisation of class-room libraries. etc. Preparation of instructional material. Improving the subject competence of teachers. 1. etc. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. etc. hobby-centres. Conducting of educational. Organising play-for-all programmes. Preparation of models. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. scientific and historical excursions. 3. etc. etc. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. 2. Fair distribution of syllabi. Running science clubs. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning.No.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Equipping of laboratory and library. charts and apparatus. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Editing the school magazine. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Courts. Preparation of audio-visual aids.

5. ii. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. students’ associations. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. teacher-managing body. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. and —pupil-pupil. teacherinspector. pupils. which are divided as the in. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning.5. parents. co-operation. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. administrator-pupil. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. Administrator-State. teacher-teacher. teacher-State. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. administrator-supervisor. etc. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. pupil310 . The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. teachers. science teachers’ associations. and solidarity.” The human relationships in. teacher-nonofficial functionaries.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. administrator-administrator. understanding. headmasters associations. parent-teacher associations. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. teacher-pupil. involving mainly human materials.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships.

organisation and management. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. To administer means to manage. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. organisation.State. now-a-days. supervision. pupil-inspector." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer.5. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. control. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. pupil-parent. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. superintendence. to accomplish. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. etc. Good. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. pupil-non-official functionaries. According to C. and to serve. to attend.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. social sciences and other disciplines. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. It covers personnel and material management. teacher-community leader. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. It is also being modernized to become a technique. administrator. to carry out. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. V. supervision and superintendence. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. pupil-community leader. 311 . It relates to administration of a single educational institution. teacher-parent. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. Management may be taken as a narrow concept.

It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. 4. Democratic Management . 11. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . If the cost benefit ratio is less. This is the latest democratic trend in management. 5. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. Motiviation .The manager should have leadership traits. He should be an artist in human relationships.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. Rapport between the Management and Employees . Leadership . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . 8.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . it is not worth-while. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. Liasion with the Public .This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. 6.Any good management will always have good public relations. Decision Making .Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. low. Cost-Benefit Analysis . it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. Communication . who occupy the managerial positions. Those. 12.Of all the approaches.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Better Human Relationships . If it is more. Socio-Scientific Approach . 9. The relationship should change from master. 10. Economic Management . Worker Participation . the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. 2. 7. 13. 3.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.These two are. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. and cooperative performance should be ensured. improvement of teaching methods. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. to improve the quality of education it provides. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution.too. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance .5. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. 19.g. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. 5. 5. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. 14.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. 313 . objective. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. 18. enrichment of curricula.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.

b. e. b.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. (2001). APH Publishing Corporation. Examinations. Communication 5. Educational Administration. it becomes the basis for school inspection. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. Decision Making b. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. R. Motiviation d. a. Fundamental of Educational Management. Syllabus. In group and Out group 5. 314 . a. d. a. a. (2003). Leadership c. H. Classwork. c. S. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. b. to introduce decentralization of educational planning.5. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.5.K. 4. Tarachand and Prakash. Singh. NUEPA.M. (1995). Instruction. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.5.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. 2. f. and Personnel services. Co-curricular activities.

3 Directive Principles .2 Secondary Education : Co-education.I. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.1 School Health Programme. 1. social Impact 3. Community and Mass Media 2. Communicable diseases . Inspection and Supervision 3. Economic 315 . Sex-education 4.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . Education by Christian Missionaries 1. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.4 India's Secular Policy . School. 4.1 Primary Education : Education for all. nutritional requirement. Buddhist and Jain system of education.5 Regional Educational Development in India .Preventive measures.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.3 Educational Influences of Home.teachers should have : 1.1 Inculcation of Socialism.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. Healthy Food Habit 4.Article 45 . UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Balanced diet. population education. Code of conduct for teachers.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Preservation of nutrients. Common ailments of Children.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . higher education.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Realized the problems of school education. Examination reforms. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .CORE PAPER .4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. New evaluation procedures. First Aid. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.1 Gurukula system of education. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. women education and teacher education in India.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3.Religious and Modern Education 1. 2. wastage and Stagnation 3.2 Nutritional deficiencies. physical education and environmental education 5.Pre-service and In-services facilities.

Mishra.N. Realism. 5. Ghanta R. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Sharma. 7. 316 . Socialization. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. curriculum and teacher's role 5.C. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. T.Aim. Hemchand.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5.4. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. (1999) Culture. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Curriculum and national goals . and Human Development. Naturalism and Pragmatism .4 4.K. and Dash B.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Meerut : Surya Publication 6. Prof.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Kalan Paper Packs 10. and Mohanty R.N.1 Idealism. B. New Delhi: NCERT 3. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5.K. Saraswathi T. REFERENCE 1. Taneja V. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. and Sharma R. Mahatma Gandhi. (2005) Foundations of Education. Ram S.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.R. Tagore 5.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Pandy V. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.S. Delhi : University Publications 2. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.K. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9.K. (2004) Problems of Education in India. R.