BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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Jainism and their educational implication. In. Lesson 4. The need. 9 . and Jain system of education. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Lesson 2. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. discusses the regional educational development in India. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. Lesson 5. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government.

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5.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.6.1.1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.6.1.4.1.3.3.1.5.5.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.2 1.1.1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.1 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.4.1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1.1.1.5 Jain system of education 1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.6 Education during British Era 1.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .LESSON 1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.6.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1.6.1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1.1.5.6.

1. Muslim and British periods. in opinion. 1.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. British system of education presented the modern western model. 1.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.7 1. both present and future. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.1.1. The history of education passed through Buddhist. elucidate the education during British Era.6.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.1. you will be able to: 1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. in morals and in the intellect”. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. has a long past history starting in vedic education. That 12 . Education in India. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.1.1.1. Indian in blood and colour.1.1. but English in taste.3. India.6.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.8 1.1. describe the Jain system of Education 4. “a class of persons.9 1. 1.

8. Forests as Centres of Education. There was. Education of Moral. Method of Study. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. Religious and Spiritual. It was also moral. Role of Travel in Education. 6. Method of Instruction. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. Immediate Aim Vocational. High Status of Teachers. to light. as it is generally considered to be at present. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. the monitorial plan was followed. 13. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. Curriculum. 11. from darkness. with grants of land or money. Teacher as Parents. generally. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Individual Teaching. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. 3. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Residential Schools. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. 4. however. 9. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. 16. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. 5. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. managed entirely by Brahmans. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Pupils were taught. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. questioning by the pupil. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. religious and spiritual. Education was a private affair of the people. The immediate aim of education. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Free and Accessible. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 12. No State Control on Education. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. It was not merely intellectual. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. Where pupils were many.knowledge was real. 10. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. 14. if they thought fit to do so. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. and to agriculture and trade. not en masse by the class method. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. from eternal to immorality 2. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 13 . individually. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. followed by explanation by the teacher.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 .3. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Wide-Spread Education in Women. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. It was freely available to all those who wanted. 1.17. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. 2. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. It was suited to the needs of the society. They were very cordial and intimate. studied Vedas. lived a life of celebacy. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? .1. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils.

1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features.1. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. Right contemplation 1. had the right to receive education. impure conduct. killing of any living being. the student had his head shaved of all hair. Right activity 5. partaking of food at prohibited times. medium of Pali. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. use of cosmetics. the most significant of which were the following 1. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Consequently. disease and death of the human beings. After attaining the age of 20. 2. Right endeavour 7. I take Refuge to Dharma. Right thought 3. in which. which included abstaining from theft. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. etc. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Right speech 4. Right means of livelihood 6.C. watching dances or listening to music. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. use of intoxicating things. the student remained in a state of Shramana. Education was imparted through the.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. I take Refuge to Sangh. dressed himself in yellow clothes. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. It was denied only to the ill. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. taking things without being offered. 15 . 1. Right knowledge 2. except the Chandals. Right memory 8. every class in society. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. the handicapped. he was qualified to become a monk. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education.4. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period.

The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. objectives of human life. etc. elephant lore. 4. knowledge of reviving the dead. On this occasion. 7. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. Later on. commerce. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. approach. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. nature. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. 2. a continuous change creating 16 . arithmetic and religious discussion. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. Whatever its nature and extent. depth and range. women occupied a position inferior to men. 3. nothing is of any permanent consequence. therefore. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. be considered the aim of education It. beg for alms.3. military science. handicrafts. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. After this ritual. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. wear three items. so long as it successfully does so. etc. Even at this stage. agriculture. the presence of the monks was essential. archery. etc. 6. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. bodily gestures. As reality is becoming. 5. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. education was impart in art. Initially. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. geology. of clothes. cottage industries. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. Life is in a flux. changing the goals. eat food thrice a day. has no metaphysical value for life. it is regarded as true”. These are called later Buddhist schools. 8. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology..2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. the science of taming and training animals. archery. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. a change is not only total but also perpetual. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. medicine. meaning. It comprehended education in writing. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. magic. aspirations and. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. animal husbandry. Hence. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. control over sensuous activities. and. along with education in script writing.4. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. assumptions. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. however. 1.

What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. However. therefore. goes to Vardhaman. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. it is much older than the latter. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. Education must.e. and to give it a shape that it has today. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable.. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. its pessimistic outlook on life. 5. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. In fact. 1. such as. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Its chief feature. Validity is effective and consequences. whatever works are true and good.new and peculiar situations. however.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. Write Eight fold path . i. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. and its refusal to believe in supreme God.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Jainism insists 17 . Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1.5.

9. Hence. They are: a) Not to injure. rather than the interpretation of the universe. 18 . thought and deed. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. 8. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 4. more stress on individual aims. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 2. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. c) Right conduct. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. and believe in happiness to all. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. As such. 3. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. 6. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. b) Right knowledge. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. 1.1.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. but on both. 3. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. c) Not to steal. and is to be redeemed and liberated. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant.5. e) To renounce the world. b) Not utter falsehood. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 5. Development of personality as an individual. 7. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. 2. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. it has a foot in both the words. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. 1. d) To lead a celibate life. 10.

4. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. here and now.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. success and love. and should bring happiness to all.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. that would be socially desirable. What are Triratnas ? . Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. Teaching must develop these faculties. 4. 8. 2. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Teaching should be social and tolerant. 3. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. 1. 5. Hence. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. 3. 1. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. Belief in transmigration of soul. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . education should develop sense of discrimination. Jiva is essentially karmic.5.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. education must be action based and ideally oriented. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. practised and not only aspired for. 19 . therefore.

with rally and rout. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. Madras. philosophy and literature of Europe. 1.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report.6.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. To set up separate departments of. 2.1. 1. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. North West Province and Punjab.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. science. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. Bombay. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. 1953). much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler.6. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. However. and not for life.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.6. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. 1.1. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time.6. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. primary 20 . 1. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India.

they named these schools as polytechnic schools. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. • Secondary education. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. The universities dominated the secondary education.6.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. self-respecting and competent. Later on.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. 1. 1. namely. To ensure qualitative improvement. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 .K. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. at the primary level.education was neglected. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools.6. 1. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. secondary education became a step towards university. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. In 1882.6. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. • Universal free primary education. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). At that time M. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937).

Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12.At the primary stage (6-11 years). CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . all children are to have a common curriculum. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. After this stage. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry.1. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education.

arithmetic and religious discussion. followed by explanation by the teacher. military science. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. establishment of universities. 2. science and English language. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. questioning by the pupil. handicrafts. etc. Right contemplation. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. 1. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1. the science of taming and training animals. education was impart in art.1. 4. 6. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. 2. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. It was suited to the needs of the society. Right memory. a. 4. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. archery. b. 3. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools.. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education.education of European literature. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Right activity. 1. Right endeavour. During the Buddhist period. The immediate aim of education. 3. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Right speech. Right knowledge. geology. 5. Right means of livelihood. along with education in script writing. The system of education was well-organised. 23 . Right thought.

(2007). more stress on individual aims. Singh. a. Right knowledge. Improvement of Literature. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.C. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. c. Sharma. a. (2005). Development of Educational System in India.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. b. J.7. (2009). and Nath. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education.C. Y. 8. 9.K. 11. 24 .1. Y. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Right conduct. R. 10. Right faith. (1984). 1882. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Aggarwal. Ltd. 1937 1. b. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Development of personality as an individual. Hence.K. History of Indian Education System. Sargent report 12. Ltd. J. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.

1 University Education Commission 1.3 Kothari Commission 1.2.2.4 1.5 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.1 1.3.LESSON 1. The 25 .2 1.2.2.2.8 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.6 1.3.2.3.7 1.2.2.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.2.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.4 National Policy on Education 1.2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.9 1.2.2.2.2.

Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. National Council for Women’s Education 5.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1.conditions of the teachers. Kothari (1964-66) 8.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1986 1. Post-graduate 26 . Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3. S.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. New Educational Policy. 2. There had been vast institutional expansion. examination system. curriculum. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. National Board of Teacher Education 10. medical and legal education. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. 1.2.2. 1. explosion of enrolment. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. technical. you will be able to: 1. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. secondary and higher education. vocational education. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. expansion of vocational. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. standard of teaching. analyse the progress of education in free India. diversification of courses of studies. girls and women education besides primary. technological engineering.2.

D.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. research et. the chairman of University Grants commission.teaching. 1. 3. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. Kothari. Government of India. 1986. 4. Education is the key to our allround development.3.2. Finally. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. A. A meaningfully Partnership.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. utility and financial outlay. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. quality.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23.2. National System of Education. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. the New National Policy on Education. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2. The Essence and Role of Education. 1966.S. Problems of access. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . accumulated over the years. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar.3.3. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. 1. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. However. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. 2. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. material and spiritual. 1952. in January 1985. Education for Equality. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. quantity. Therefore. 1. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. By working with hands. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. the concepts of work experience.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2.” Thus. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world.2. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. the minorities and the handicapped. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. attitudes. The UNESCO Report. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. It can train practical aptitudes. Thus. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. 28 . They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child.

the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. co-operation and implementation of the scheme.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. it will conduce self. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. the Commission. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. The Education Commission. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. In 1955. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. co-ordinations.” The Mudaliar Commission. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 ." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. As such. if he wishes. The Radhakrishnan Commission.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. “It may be described. Besides. “The aim of these colleges. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. With adequate planning.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. According to. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started.

lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation.ot her. raising the special facilities. Therefore.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. the rigid streaming of courses. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. admission requirements to vocational courses. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n.. In addition. etc. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. for quality of life in the rural areas. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. The Central Advisory Board of Education. the. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. With a view to relating education to the life. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. the semester and credit system. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. Subsequently. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern.

which offer scientific. manual work resulting in either goods or services. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. who conceived the System of Basic Education. The wave of Basic Education. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. In short. technological courses including Agriculture. giving importance to productivity in the national development. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken.and the world of work. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. meaningful. According to committee. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. which swept the country for over two decades. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. etc. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.defined S UP W as “purposive. 31 . The Father of Nation. 1. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past.2. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. Commerce. felt that education should be centred around a craft. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. preferably spinning and weaving.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education.. meaningful. which are useful to the community. aimed at this goal. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000.

Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Work practice. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. 3. Educative and 3. Community work and social service. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. 2. 4. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Culture and recreation 6. tools and techniques and 3. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. 32 . as far as possible. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Health and Hygiene 2. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Food 3. Productive 2. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Experimentation with materials. locally available materials and tools. Some Hints to Teachers 1.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. The teachers should make use of. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. be that the work involved is: 1. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. so that it is educational in essence. Clothing 5. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. Shelter 4.

as far as possible. Productive Work 33 . work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. To make education more realistic. Merits of the Programme 1. improve discipline. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. Education through work The SUPW should. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. etc. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. inculcate a faith. Check on educated unemployed 4.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. 6.2. removal of illiteracy. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience.5. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. slum clearance. the local community should be actively associated. It can become an instrument to build character. 1. Community Service In-1972. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another.

etc. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . should involve itself in the educational effort. offering first aid.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. skills and better future for the children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. helping the adults-in productive work. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. The community. AICTE was set up in year 4. traffic control. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. Define SUPW 34 . in turn. if not productive.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5.

meaningful. f. e. 3. a. which are useful to the community. b.1. 35 . 1. Dr.2. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. Radhakrishnan 2.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 1. manual work resulting in either goods or services.2. c. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.2. d. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 1955 4.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. 1952 3. 6. Write short note on SUPW.

Rao. Singh. Y. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. A. (2007). J.(2005). V. History and Problems of Indian Education. Ltd. : Sharma.H.P. Amala. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2009). 36 .1. (2007).K. and Nath.P.C. Y. B. (2005). Publishing Corporation.2. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. and Rao. History of Indian Education System.K. Anupama.K.D.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi: A. Development of Educational System in India. P. History of Education. R.

3.3. Being the supreme law of the country.3. it came into effect on January 26.3.8 1.7 1.6 1. equality.3. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.3.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. 1949. Besides the English version. and liberty. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.3.4 1.1 1. there is an official Hindi translation. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. 37 .3. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3.369 words in the English language version. assuring its citizens of justice. democratic republic.3. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. directive principles and duties of citizens.5 1.1 Significance of DPSP 1. for a total of 117. establishing the structure.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. containing 395 articles.3. 1950.2 1.3. procedures.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3.9 1. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.

the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. administrative. political. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. The Assembly met. social. According to the constitution. with Dr. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 4. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. 3. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. learn the role of central and state government on education. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. for 166 days. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. the Drafting Committee was appointed.3. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. 1. Dr. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. 1.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. spread over a period of 2 years.3. Through them. 1947. After many deliberations and some modifications. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. 1947.3. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. economic. 2.3. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Two days later. On August 29. in sessions open to public.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. legal and environmental.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.In the August 14. understand our Indian constitution. 1950. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. 38 . you will be able to: 1. 1.

The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. for workers. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Condition for dignity of children. on the basis of equal opportunity. men and women. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. old age. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Protecting health of the workers. Article 41. sickness and disablement. The State shall endeavour to secure. Liking wage etc. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. The State shall. and in other cases of undeserved want. Article 43.government. Article 42. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. Equal justice and free legal aid. Right to work.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Organisation of village panchayat. Article 39A. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Protecting children from exploitation. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Article 40. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. and shall. That the health and strength of workers. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. provide free legal aid. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. 39 . in particular. Minimising inequalities in status. Equal pay for both sex. Appropriate concentration of wealth. No abuse of children.

by suitable legislation or in any other way. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Article 45. 2002 for “45. in particular. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. to all workers. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Article 46. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. in particular. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. agricultural. Participation of workers in management of industries. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. work. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Uniform civil code for the citizens. The State shall endeavour to provide. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. in particular. Note: Subs. Article 48A. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Article 47. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Article 43A. Article 48. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. (Original Article 45. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. [declared by or under law made by 40 . of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. a living wage. industrial or otherwise. See also Article 21A). Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Article 49. and. The State shall take steps. Article 44. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest.

foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another.Parliament] to be of national importance. disfigurement. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. disposal or export. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. 1. may be law determine”. from spoliation. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Separation of judiciary from executive. Promotion of international peace and security. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. 2002.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. destruction.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 50.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article-21A Right to Education. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. as the case may be. Article 45 . Article 51. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. removal.

5. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. 8. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language.” 42 . (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 6. and shall protect them. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. race. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. iii. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. if such person is a minor. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. 2002. language or any of them”. caste. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. and. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. his guardian has given his consent thereto. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. 4. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. 7. in particular. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. from justice and all forms of exploitations. 3. ii. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people.

The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. The central government determines targets and promotes education. Educational Reforms From time to time. & 1. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. for its vocabulary. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 43 . wherever necessary or desirable. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies.9. Article 351 gives importance to 6. and by drawing. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. 2. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. the forms. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”.3.

Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. So as to encourage education on right lines. 5. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. All India Council of Medical Science. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. the state governments. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. etc. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. So that they may work well. 7. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. The following pilot projects. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Production of suitable for children and adults f. private agencies etc. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. 6. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. to achieve the desired ends.. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. 8. 4. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc.3. By starting these projects. Local bodies and private enterprise. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society.

3. etc. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. are published by it. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. 11. training and statistics. 1. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. 12. handicapped. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Material concerning nation-wide interests.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. 9. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. 10. 4. research. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. The 45 . 1. 3. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. books. is the state responsibility. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. reports etc. education for women.

3. 5. 1. Article 46 4. Article 21A c.3. Explain Directive principles 2. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. articles in the Directive principles. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? .7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. 46 . Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 45 b. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Write short notes on a. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.

a. Clearing House function 9. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers.5. Article 45 . (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. Article 46 5. 4. 2002. 3. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. 47 . The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 2002. The Directive Principles of State Policy.3. b. 1. may be law determine”. a. a. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. b. Article 29 and 30 7. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Describe the educational role of State Government. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Article-21A Right to Education. Dr. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Development of Hindi Language 6.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Ambedkar 2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.

L. Dash. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. (2009). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. S.1. S. New Delhi: Shipra Publications.3. B.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. K. (2004). Bhatia. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. N. 48 . K and Narang C. (2007). Ghosh. (2008).

Buddhism etc. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.4.8 1. Jainism.4.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.1 Why Moral Education 1.4 Moral education 1.3 Precautions while introducing 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.3. Students should be 49 .4. Christianity.4.4.4.4.7 1.4. religious education should be broad based.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1. Islam.4.4.4.6 1.3.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.5 1.4.

An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. you will be able to: 1. As result of which. religious education and the concept of secularism. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66).4. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. In the complicated and complex society of today. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. integrity.. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong.and dedication. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. 1. know the position of religious education in our country 3. According to E. "In A multireligious society like ours. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. India' can produce men of character. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. Thus. state meaning and need for moral education 1. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals.D.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. beauty and goodness so that 50 . duty-consciousness. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion.4.” Education broadens human outlook.

"In view of the provision in the Constitution. According to Article 22. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. through religious practices and 51 . Hence.4.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. According to Article 19. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. all citizens are free to follow any creed. it is clear that the State has no religion. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. rancour.” From the above. Viewing the defects of religious education. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. if not regularly. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. In short.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. castes and creeds. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. No religious tax can be imposed on them. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose.3. at least occasionally. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. As our country is a country of diverse religions. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. realizes God in himself. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. 1. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. 1947 we achieved our freedom. Children attend these organizations.3. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. 1. They thought that any kind of narrow. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. Thus. religion and democracy are same. As a matter of fact.4.

It helps to modify habits attitudes. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. moral and spiritual values. temperament etc. for the development of the individual and the society. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 .” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. As a result of which. what is done and what is not done etc. which can mould. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. which help him for the development of his character. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. It is religious education.teachings. intellectual and physical faculties of children. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. aggressive. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. He also learns about social. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. If unreleased. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. when he becomes an adult. and what is evil. Good education. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.. one fully developed. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society.

Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. towards the society. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. This should not be allowed to happen. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. 1. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. 53 . Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. Therefore. 2. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel.4. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life.3. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. 3. which is the basic need of a democratic life. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. If we open the pages of history.

11. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. churches and mosques 7.4. Since all religions have virtues. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Gurudwara as. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.5. Write Article 22 2. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. For this. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. therefore. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. stories of moral greatness. 9. fellow-feeling.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. examples of patriotism. Life histories of great persons of the world. they should be discussed in the right earnest. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. 10.

6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 1. 4. Cultivation of emotions. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. let men see well of one another. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. It they learn what morality is in their early years. therefore. They will play their role effectively. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). students. in the home. Aparigarha (Non. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. the methods of teaching. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. is that which develops moral values. 3. 5. Moral education. The content of the curriculum. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 2. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. 6. Non-injury. Satyam (truth).acquisitiveness). Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Without moral values. 55 . Purity. 5. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. “Let all be happy and free from disease.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Asvada (Control of palate). 1. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Patriotism. 3. 6.4. Ahimsa (Non-violence). 8. 7. 2. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Swadeshi (Patriotism). 4.4. Service to others. Self sacrifice. 8. Fearlessness. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 7.

Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. In the school programme. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. 2. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . 10. Sharivashram (Physical work). The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. 4. 3. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. 56 . The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. religions may be included in the syllabus. 11. The School Assembly should be held for a few.4. National unity and Spiritual values. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 1. loyalty and self-sacrifice. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Efficiency. discipline. Good manners. Discipline. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. 3. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). Unity of mankind. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Integrity. Asatyam (Non-thieving). minutes in the morning for group singing. Secondary Stage 1. Good temper.9.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee.

A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. love of humanity. In other words. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. 2. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . Silent meditation should be encouraged. 5. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. patriotism and self-discipline. 57 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. 3. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. 5. University Stage 1. should form a normal part of school programme. 4. In this connection.

the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Discuss the aims of Religious education. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. 1. a.1. Sri Prakasa 6 . 1959 5. 58 . 2. b. 2.4. 4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. a. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. In short. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. 1. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other.4.4. b. For this. Training of Character 3. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. minutes in the morning for group singing. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. the. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. a.

59 . N. (2004).1.H. L. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. K and Narang C. J. M. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.4. (2008). Publishing Corporation. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. K. N.H. (2003). P. Bhatia.P. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Theory and Principles of Education.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Pahuja. B. (2008). New Delhi: A. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.C. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Siddiqui. Dash. Ltd.

12 1.7 1.2 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5. Although. disparities between provinces/States..5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.1 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5.5.5.e.5.10 1.5.5 1.5.3 1. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also. i.8 1.11 1.5.9 1.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1. 60 .6 1.5.5.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.4 1.

1. 1. etc. roads. energy. 8. 61 . 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. 4.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region.5. 6. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. This leads to separatist movements. understand the regional educational development in India 3. they take appropriate measures. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. 5. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. know the education suited to different environments.5.5. 7. 1. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. you will be able to: 1.5.1. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. for example. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. work hard towards this end. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. waters.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. They therefore. Accordingly.

education as a fundamental human right was recognized. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. 3. and. 62 . 2. on the basis of regional development may be formed. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. 4. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. some average. Therefore.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. Secularism. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. while others remained educationally backward. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions.5. • Separate States (of course viable States). Tight security arrangements should be made. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. some States became educationally far advanced.

Central Universities of Assam. Funds amounting to Rs. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. scholarships. Silchar. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. These projects are in various stages of implementation.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. remained under developed. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. Nagaland and NEHU. Jammu and Kashmir. However. In the Central sector. Guwahati. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development.5. After the attainment of independence. Regional Centres of IGNOU. NERIST. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. Itanagar.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. while some States like Bihar. NIT. the State Governments. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects.84 crore was released in 2005-06. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. approved proposals worth Rs. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. since its inception in 1998-99. books. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters.. etc. Rs. and provision of informal education to enable those. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments.392. 1. academic buildings. Mizoram.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. library buildings. 63 .480.After the Planning Process has originated.g. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. etc.14. Out of this. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. Tezpur. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. Even in each State. the Union Government.

05 crore and Rs. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.501.5. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.187.500. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. During 2003-04. Tezpur University.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.8 per cent in 05).57 crore and Rs.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). A provision of Rs.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. 64 . Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. Out of this an amount of Rs. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.261. Moreover. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west).40. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. too. Government expenditure on education.

And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. for which 16 sites. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). pharma. Listing the positives. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. notes the study. Tamil Nadu. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. The Chandigarh Administration. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South.5. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. for instance. too. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. engineering and R&D. too. To add to the woes. Karnataka. Medical education. English.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . Kerala and Gujarat. Karnataka. telecom. Moreover. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. 1. too. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Andhra Pradesh.

the curricular subjects. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. which a non-tribal person cannot do. the teaching methods.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. while the former does not. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. in which the learners live. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. The working hours of educational institutions. taking the average in the middle. Of course. the interests. Hence it is called as need-based. the socio-physical conditions. the vocations. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the working days: an academic . which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. even actually looking at the watch. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Then education become realistic and idealistic. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. life-oriented and environment slanted. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. The living conditions. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. 66 . Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. the needs. In the same manner. and so on. when he will not be sure of time. For a learner living in a rural area.year.

10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. to suit education to different environments? 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? .12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.5. 2. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.5. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. 67 . Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. (2008). (2001).5. (2001). during the British rule. a.G. New Delhi: Authors press. some of areas which were under the native rulers. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.H. Educational Development in India.N. A. some States have become more developed than others b. C. Education Scenario in India. and Nair. (2002).13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Salim. S. R. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Giridhar. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. S. Dubey. 60% 1. 68 .K.2. Education in Developmental Arena. remained undeveloped 3.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. 71 . school community and mass media.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. semi literate and illiterates. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. community development. National Integration. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. secularism and democracy through Indian education. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept.

1.8 2.3 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.7 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 2.1.1.6.1.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.LESSON 2.1.6.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.9 2.6.1 2.4 2.6 Education for Secularism 2.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .5.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.5.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1.

socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. This is the political aspect of democracy. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. understand the concept of democracy. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. socialism and secularism 2. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. for the people by the people”. 2. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. colour or wealth.1. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. there should be made no distinction of caste. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.1. socialism and secularism 2.1.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. you will be able to: 1.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. 73 . socialistic and secular state. 3) Provision of Manual Work. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Democracy thus means power of the people.2. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. In the matter of admitting students in schools. 2. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. creed. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Abraham Lincoln.1.

1. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students.. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. 74 . 8) Opportunities for Social Service. 2. declamation contest etc.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. There are different brands of socialism. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. it soon spread all over the world. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. debates.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. Democracy means 2. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. 11) Student Parliament. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. may be planned. 12) Visits to Legislatures.

2. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. the prince and the peasant.5. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 7) Special facilities for girls. 75 . free from exploitation. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 2. service and cooperation.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections.1. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. oppression and disparity. 2) Socialism aims at equality. none high”. the wealthy and the poor. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. the employer and the employee are all on the same level.5. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. but on the path of non-violence. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote.1. Under it. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books.

2. "which seeks the development of physical. Write any two main features of socialism. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. 5. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. secularism is being propagated. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. “India is a secular-country.” In every political and educational corner. Everyone says. 76 .1. 11) State schools.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. According to Holydake. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. people have narrow mindedness.6. 77 . 3) It permits freedom of worship.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. 9) It stress free inquiry. During the recent past. fraternity. liberty. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Moral values have to be imbibed. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. 2. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. education etc. 2) It permits freedom of religion. should be independent of religion. Equality. the belief that the state morals.1. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity.1. 6) It has faith in rational thinking.6.opposed to religious education. There is need of making the people open minded. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. In this type of prevailing situations. A large number of people is uneducated. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. people started believing in regionalism. 8) It believes in co-existence. 5) It implies tolerance. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. That is why. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. “Webster further says. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities.

There should be some internal checking of the material being. that the central string of all religions is one. 1) Moral Education. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions.1. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. tours and trips may be organized. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. Religious Education. students belonging to different religions should be associated. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. education. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. Patiala. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other.6. The very sight of the building. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. While doing so. In the hands of such teachers. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution.presented by the students in the gathering. In the celebration of each such function. 2. No doubt.

Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . Define Secularism 9. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. No doubt. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. The word “Seculum” means 7.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. The term secularism was first used by 8.1. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

a. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. a. 6. Socialism aims at equality.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Since socialism stands for equality. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. a. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. 5. there should be made no distinction of caste. b. Socialism aims at social justice.1.1. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Respect of Individual Personality. c. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. 4. George Jacob Holydake 80 . 4. Power of the people 2. Provision of Manual Work. 5. Equal Opportunities for Admission. Tuition free education b. b. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. The students may be associated with the management of the school. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. creed. 3. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. Abraham Lincoln. colour or wealth. In the matter of admitting students in schools. 2. for the people and the people”. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. 3. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. This present age 7.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. d.

N. J. P. b. (2003). Dash. Modern Trends in Indian Education. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. N. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Pahuja. Bhatia. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 81 . 10. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.” 9. Anmol Publications Pvt. b. (2004). K and Narang C. (2005). It permits freedom of religion. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. Ltd. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.1. J. education etc.8. It treats all religions on an equal footing. Mohanty. a. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. a. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. the belief that the state morals. K.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. L. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. B. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007).C. Ltd. (2008). should be independent of religion.

2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.5.LESSON 2.2.2.3 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .10 2.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.4 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.2.2.2.2.2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.5.7 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.2.1 2.2.1 International understanding in the school 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.8 2.2 2.2.2.9 2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.6.6.2.

as persons. as learners. you will be able to: 1. 3. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. mental. social. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. application. skills. It involves physical. A teacher is first and foremost. as workers. and 4. emotional. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. 83 . necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge.2. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. aims and objectives of the school. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children.an instructor of school children. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. who are placed in his custody. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. 2. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3.2. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school.generation to another. The developmental roles of children. moral. 2. understandings. social and moral aspects.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. therefore. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. as citizens. 2. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. development. a r e 1. as it is t he aim o f modern education.

morally. morally. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. mentally. socially. social and emotional health. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. 2. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. 3. 1. physically fit for socially efficient. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. mental. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. He is to become an active member. a part of their day in 84 .2. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence.All education should lead to better behavioural development. inquisitive. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. intellectually. and aesthetically to become. economically effective. culturally confident. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. The students live. motivated. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. experiences and acceptance. He has to look after their physical. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. Teacher as a Citizen Next. emotionally. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. member of his community at the outset. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. 2. The following are some of such roles described in brief.

it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. Unless. 4. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. solve them. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community.the school being under the custody of teachers. India is a land of many castes. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. faiths. activities of the society into which he is born. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. photographic clubs. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. fine art associations. It 85 . Dr. science club. languages and religions. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance.2. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. creeds. List out the role of teachers towards community development . They will be spending with their parents. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. and most of hours.

” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. poems. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. narrow-minded provincial.is.” Regarding the role of education. with straight backs and look up at the skies.” 2. stand up straight. It should broaden the outlook. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. Nehruji has explained this as.2. Radhakrishnan.5. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . social studies. the study of language and literature. Let us. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. b. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. ‘We should not become parochial. Sampurnanand remarked. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. therefore. c. folklore and teaching of social studies. a. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. At the primary stage the importance of stories. 1. the citizens of the Republic of India. and make into one strong national unit. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. national anthem and other national songs. this integration of the Indian people. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. The only process is the process of education. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. should be emphasised. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things.

National Days—January 26. Student Camps. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. tours. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. 87 . 6. 5. 10. Taking Pledge. Singing of National Anthem. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. sports.different social sciences. languages and literature. 7. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. educational excursions. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. militar y training like the NCC. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. dramatics and youth festivals. 4. 9. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. Uniform for School Children. symposia. and picnics. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. 3. ACC. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Reverence of National Flag. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Celebrations of National Days. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. debates. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Scouts and Guides. 8. t he st udent s and t he community. 2. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. Textbooks. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. Co-Curricular Activities.

Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. Students Exchange and Tours. 15. 13. language. colour. Open-Air Dramas. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. 88 . ways of thinking and doing things. v.5. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. 12. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 14.11. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. iv. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. School Projects. region or religion. Admissions. Admissions to schools. 16. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. flora and fauna.2. iii. Educational and Travel Documentaries. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. Recognition of Institutions. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. ii. 2. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and .

The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . camps. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. vii. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. irrespective of national boundaries. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. viii. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. cultures and races on equal bases. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . 2.2.vi. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Define National Integration 3. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. ix. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Community dinners.

either plunged in or overshadowed by war. patriotism is not enough. This.2. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. 4. (b) stories of children of other lands. of his body and mind.” 2.F.6. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. In a very real sense. C. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism.e. the international level. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. and the healthy development. Strong has observed. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations.. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. (c) fairly tales. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . 6. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.2. Dr. Teachers 90 .1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. that war. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. 3. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies.as important as that of a national citizenship. 5. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes.friendships between children of different countries.6. Radhakrishnan states. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. 2.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. often in connection with anniversaries. if it happens. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. 2. Organising of debates and. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. Therefore. therefore.

They should not be propagandists. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. Russian. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. an Englishman. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Indian and American. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Impartial in their Treatment. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. a German. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries.

2. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. the education function can be carried. there is wide spread frustration among all people. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. As the school is but a miniature society. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. It does not prepare students for life. Defects of the educational System . majority of people are. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. Chronic Poverty . 2. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. which results in agitation and aggression language. 4. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . Wide Spread Frustration . Devaluation of Values .Another major. If this is done. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. and help the students to over . 3. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. understand and indiscipline: 1. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . leading to. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully.2.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. 5.

List out six characteristics of a good teacher.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development.2. sympathy and good will among the nations. etc.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. community development. 93 . Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. fellow feeling. 2. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. co-operation. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. 5. 2.democratic nature. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. 4. 3. 2. love.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. During the course of time. art galleries. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Then came newspapers. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. periodicals.V. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. “All the citizens of the community. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Now internet is being used.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. He taught his students orally. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 .Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. books. Crow and Crow write. the invention of the printing press. led to the printing of books. Emphasising this thing. Museums.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. 2.3. Moreover. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Define community. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. To make them achieve their aim. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. Hence. In fact. are increasingly used in education. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. citizens and school leaders must co-operate.

telecast. Effective means of presenting music. 2. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. Thus. for the teacher through school broadcasts. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. 101 . Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science.6. Important happening inventions. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Thus. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. social studies. 2. It is also an important source of entertainment.G. Students listen various talks.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. rather than on picture. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. In the emphasis is on sound. languages. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching.3. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries.classroom teachers. the place of importance. In collaboration with the experts. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. politics. Various talks. the teacher still occupies. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. current affairs and other areas. music. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. It enlightens public opinion. “Listening participation” in current history. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. art. Reynolds. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. dram appreciation. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. A lot of work by way of pre.

informal and non-formal education. Participation of local teachers and pupils. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. audibility and presentability. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. 5. At present. Making learning an open system. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. at recreational centers. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. 3. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. projects or creative activities. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. fol classical music. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. 102 . The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. Before presenting the programme. plays. development of lessons. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. travel talks. 4. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. style. School concerts. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. at drawing room. Team-teaching demonstrations. at any place. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. speech. at play. mathematics. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. Educational radio excels through dramatisation.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

8 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.1 2.4.4.5 2.4.3.4.LESSON 2.4 Non formal educational system 2.3.4.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4.3.4.4.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.6 2.2 2.4.4.4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.7 2.4.4.4.4.3 Advantages of formal education 2.4.4.3.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.4.4.4.

7. the learner are acquainted. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 2. School is. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. say the Government or the private enterprise. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the community. 8. 2. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. the family. the most important agency of formal education. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.. 4. 2. 3. open university.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. Education.4. starting and ending at -a particular age. In ancient time in India. Education organised by some agency. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. 3. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and.2. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 110 .1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1.4. the mass media et. imparted at the residence of the teacher. compare formal and non formal system of education. open school.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. it was mostly. the temple. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college.4. 5. you will be able to: 1. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. 9.4. 6.3. 2. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. 2. his mental alertness. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. To realize this objective of education.

Some education systems have separate middle schools.a secondary education. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation.4. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. diplomas. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. Higher Education: Higher education. or academic degrees. Through early formal education. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. structured education.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. third stage. In general. as well as vocational education and training. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. such as a high school or secondary school. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. or post secondary education. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 .2. depending on the jurisdiction.3. also called tertiary. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . Concepts of proportion.4. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them.3. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. the elements of language are first learned. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. capacity. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. 2.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. is an important agency of formal education. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. 2. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. 4. What are levels of formal educational system? . Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.4.3. late beginners etc. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.which will help for nation's development.4. Agencies can be classified as 2. 3. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . and remote dwellers. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. children with disabilities.

According to Malcolm A. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. systematic. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. one could say that non-formal education is an active. admissions. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education.. Thus. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. systematic. to help themselves. adults as well as children.learning client take some learning objectives. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. It unlocks the doors of development plans.e. open learning.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. “Non-formal education should 113 . educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.formal education. It is functional. i. place of instruction. it is a more effective tool for rural development. adding up to a true learning society. curriculum.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. etc. It is deliberate. Adiseshiah. Therefore. it has its own valid claim to reality. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. continuing education and on the job oriented education. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. Open university. work and the opportunity to put learning to use.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. Non-formal education includes adult education. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. staffed. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. until 1970 it had not been defined. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. financially supported life formal education. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. planned.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. However. It is much more responsive to needs and change.

are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. 7. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. 4. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. socialism. i.learning pattern. international understanding. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. Part-time education. To help industrial workers to better their skills. 6.4. curriculum. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. the Ideas of citizenship. Covering life span of an individual. evaluation etc. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. place of education. national integration. It should lay emphasis on the self.” 2. age. Lawrence. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. 3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.4. co-curricular activities. Flexibility in various aspects of education. Preparation for future needs. exploring. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. self. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields.4. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them.e. modes of teaching.renewal. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs.4. 5. Process of sharing. 2. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. 114 .2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.S. To develop in the student. admissions.be marketable and vocationalised. 2.” According to H.S.

Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. 2. 10. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. publication and information dissemination. in villages and those who live in towns. 5. Meeting the omissions of formal education. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances.4. To offer Secondary. 2.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. Technical. Eradication of adult literacy. 3. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. working adults. 3. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. Senior Secondary.4. 8. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. school dropouts. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • 2. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. 4. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 7. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. 4. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 9.4. Universalisation of primary education. 6. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. 115 .4. 5.

2. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. training centres in factories. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. public libraries. Institutions for formal education. farm. effective in modern societal context. Again.. library. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. All-round development i. open space.4.4.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1.4. others are formal and informal. Therefore. centres of correspondence education. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. self-employment iii. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. 2. To better qualifications. if organised in isolation. 2. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies.full time to learners – can be home.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. 3. etc. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. factory. Radio and television. etc. To make if. To increase knowledge and 2. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . 4. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.

6. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Give examples of non formal education? . Define non formal education. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Teaching to face teaching. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. radio. Correspondence lesson. 7. . 117 . Written tests.V. institution. Face Contact programmes. Lecturing T. . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. List out any two aims of non formal education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

Higher Secondary level and University level. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. adults as well as children. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. the college and the university come under this category. Secondary level. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. 4. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Pre-school level. Open School. Open University. 118 . Explain the different levels of formal system of education. b. The school.2. 2.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal.4. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society.” 6. 7.4. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Formal and Non Formal 2.4.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Primary level. systematic. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. 2.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. 2. a. 5. b. 3. School 3. a. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. 4.

K and Narang C. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2005). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Pahuja. New Delhi : 119 . Ltd. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Education in Emerging India. Bhatia. J. N. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.C.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. L. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. N. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.4. Mohanty. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K. (2007). S. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2008). J.2. B. P. (2003). Gupta. Ltd. Theory and Principles of Education. Dash. (2004). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2008).

1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.3.3.5.5.4 Open University 2.5.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.5.4 Need for Open University 2.3.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.6 2.5.5.4.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.5.4.1 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.LESSON 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.4.5.3.5.7 2.4.5 2.2 2.5.3 Objectives of Open University 2.5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.4.5.5.5.

For them. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. farmers. It is a lifelong process. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. 2. labourers and half educated individuals.3.2.5. Thus. industries. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 .3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. However. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. Under these circumstances.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person.5. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. you will be able to: 1. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. give the meaning. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. It is a continuous process. 2. characteristics of open university 4. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. Any person. 2. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. This knowledge may be in political field. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. Education is for refinement and enlightenment.5. know the need and objectives of open university. economic field or such other fields.5. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. continuing education is a boon.

It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. Throughout the country. On the other hand. After the achievement of independence.5. T. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Radio and T. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. deteriorating to his character and personality. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. Cinema. On the other hand. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education.literate person. For them too continuing education is essential. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons.V. cultured and progressive. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education.directly related to his job.3. Doctors. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress.V. 2. if he gets opportunity to develop them. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. Block Development Officers. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Thus. are also contributing their might for the purpose. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Radio. Persons engaged in health services. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi.

(3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 5. (13) psychology of child behaviour. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. These books are not very useful. (8) psychology of adults. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. 7. 3. (1) ancient history. (4) the fundamentals of economics. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy.. we have not been able to achieve our targets. 123 . This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life.3. (17) modern international and national events.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (2) basic religious matters. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. 2. habits of people of other lands. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (15) music. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. especially women. (6) folk stories.3. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme.5. (7) folk songs. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. 2. Inspite of the great efforts. 2.V. Of course. (16) liking. and Radio.5. 4. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. (14) information about bringing up young children. (10) first aid. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. 6.

4. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. NLM was launched in the year 2.5. 2. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 .5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. of educational opportunities. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. attendance restrict ion. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. lack of time etc.

Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . IGNOU was established in the year 6. 4. the higher the degree of openness. 2. Which was the first open university in India? . The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world.5. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. but 125 . 3. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. its education is not class room based but home based. 2. b. d.4. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. and in teaching. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. 5. it makes use of educational techno logy.unobserved. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. No one is too old or too late to learn. c. Education is not a once for-all process. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. e. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing.

who were deprived of t he same earlier. 4. it a ims at wider and hig her. 5.4. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 2. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 3. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. 3. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n .5. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 6. Mo re o ver.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. 2. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education.4. 126 . met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc.who did not get it. 2. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. or who realised too late that they need it. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. supplementing the existing provision. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1.5. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 2. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. cho ice o f co ur ses. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 4.

no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. Self instructional materials. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes.2. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Therefore. 2. Correspondence tuition. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. you have learnt the concept. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living.4. 2. 8. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. a society. 127 . The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . Laboratory works.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 4. Every day. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 1. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? .5. school drop outs. List out any four methods of Open University? . Tutor Comments.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. 3. 8. semi – literates. a state or nation. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. In the present day world. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual.5. 5. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . 7. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated.

To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. 2. 3. 2. 7.5. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. a. b. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. Explain the objectives. agricultural and industrial workers. (4) the fundamentals of economics. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. which may include house wives. 4. 1988.5. Broad casting lectures c. (1) ancient history. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 7. b. need and characteristics of Open University. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 8. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2.ambitious learners. P r int med ia b. 1985. 9. its education is not class room based but home based. cho ic e o f co u r ses. unskilled workers and other professionals. 6. 8. aspirants for continuing education. Television Lessons.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. 128 . it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. youth. a. (2) basic religious matters. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. d.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6.

S. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. K. Modern Problems of Education. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.2. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia.. Udaiveer. (2004). K and Narang C.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. L.K. (2007). Reddy. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. 129 . (2001). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2004). Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Ltd.S.5. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. R.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. the education of women. In Lesson 2. All which is the need of the hour. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. Examination reform.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. wastage and stagnation. 133 . Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. which may claim the attention of those concerned. its causes and remedial measures. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. examination. Training teachers for all levels of education. and teacher education.

134 .

2 EFA – How? 3.1.1.LESSON 3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.7 3. 135 .1.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.1.3.4 3.1.2 3.3 New initiatives.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1 3.1.1.5 3.1.3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.6 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.8 3.

understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. economic or cultural. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. Eradication of Illiteracy. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. therefore. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). Therefore. “The State shall 136 . Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. directed that.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. (EOI) 2.1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.3. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness.1. social. Continuing Education (CE) 1. On the other hand. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. education received added importance and significance. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. may be political. understands the country. 3. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. you will be able to: 1.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1.

Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. rights and responsibilities. Universalization of Retention. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. 3. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Three Stages for Universalization. It enables the parents to send their children to School. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child.endeavour to provide. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. Universalization of Enrolment. Due to the adoption of democratic system. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. After the attainment of independence. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. the national Government under. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. 137 . Continuing Education (CE). The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. Therefore.

Therefore. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. 1995 (for upper primary stage). then to 1976. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. It is safe to assure.3. This target had to be revised to 1970. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. Write Article 45. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. UNESCO Bulletin states. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society.1.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. 1990. later to 1988.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. present and future. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. 3. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. 138 . educational enterprise.

The Social Education. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 10. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. In order to make the programme of education for all community. 3. By undertaking survey. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. nutrition education and sports and games. 12. FELF. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. NAEP. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate.3. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. sex. Education of the Impaired.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. Apart from primary education. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. 5. 11. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. Emphasis must be given on health education. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. rural areas. adolescent and adult. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). creed. Early childhood education should be streamlined. Jams and Jellies. 6. etc. Education of Girls.1. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. and Women’s education programme should be improved. the art of preparing fruit-juice. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. Disabled. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. slum areas. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). 9. 3. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. 8. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. 139 . problem of literacy. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. their enrolment and retention. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. their social economic status and occupations.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 .1. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. 4. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.e. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.3 NEW INITIATIVES.3. Wastage and Stagnation. 3.3. Expand MLL and SSA . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.

The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Social Factors . Familial Factors . Personal Factors . School Factors .The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.first stage of education.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . it is considered as wastage. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1.

142 .occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. . Define Wastage. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. 7. . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

Societal Factors . They are described hereunder :1. relating to home.1. Personal Factors . Family Factors .5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. School Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.The following factors. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. rural or urban 3. school or society.3. in his home.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .

uniforms. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. Define Stagnation? 9. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . stationary. etc. mid-day meals. 144 .

8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc. b. a.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. directed that. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. a. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. 3.1. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. Universalization of Provision b. Hartog Committee.. 2. 4.1.1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Minimum Levels of Learning b. 4. “The State shall endeavour to provide. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 6. therefore.3. Universalization of Enrolment c.” 3. 3. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. improvement of curriculum. 3. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. Universalization of Retention 2. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. 145 . to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. a. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.

introduce graded curriculum.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Personal Factor b. a.7. Crescent Publishing Corporation.K. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. S. improve examination system. T. (2001).K. Hemchand. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations.1. Familial Factors c. 3. S. a. Social Factors 8. 9.N. New Delhi: 146 . Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Sharma. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. (2007). School Factors d. Problems of Elementary Education. (2008). b.

2.7 Open book examination 3.2.3.5.2.LESSON 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.4.4.5.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2.5.2.2.2.2.5 New evaluation procedures 3.2.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.2.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.6.2 3.2.5.3.4.2.5.2.5.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.4 Question banks 3.2.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .1 3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.2.2.2 Grade System 3.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.5.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2.1 Problems of examination 3.

Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. 3.2.2.2. Besides. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.2. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.2. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.3. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.2. suggest the new evaluation procedures. but on the other. 3.8 3.3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . 4.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. you will be able to: 1.9 3. 3.2. 3.

separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. If the students are in sufficient number. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. which the educational authorities have to face.. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. schools for them wherever necessary.2. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. waiting rooms for girl students. etc. etc.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. 149 . They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. They may cause problems relating to discipline. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement.3. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. hostel facilities. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. etc. roadside Romeoism. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. The following steps should be taken up. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. They develop secondary sex characteristics. 3. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life.

3. 150 . so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. With the mass growth of educational enterprise.2.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.4. teachers. assessment and Finance. public administrators and statesmen. It is considered as a major sub-system. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. public interested in education.2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Instruction. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. appointment of paper-setters. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. conduct of internal examinations. the examination system has an important role to play.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

reducing the domination of knowledge objective. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. etc. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. training of examiners. examiners. announcement of results.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. scrutinizers. values. validity and practicability. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. introducing objective-based testing. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . etc. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. tabulators. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning.4.2. 3.printing and distribution of question papers. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. etc. establishing reliability. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. etc. etc. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. invigilators. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees.

it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. it s a common experience that subjectivity.2. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. 152 . instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. 2) From the angle of content of education. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. stereotyped questions. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. takes the place of comprehensive learning. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc.4.. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. which they are expected to study. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally.. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. lack of objectivity etc. Vagaries in making. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. may also discredit them. 3) With respect to method of teaching. 3. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. halo-effect.. Rote memorisation. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. do not appeal to the students and parents. 7) In connection with the question papers. not meant to be assessed in the examinations.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. Subjects. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education.

Spot valuation. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. may be introduced. . Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. revaluation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t.develop true love for education.a part of internal assessment. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. 4. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. etc. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. re-numbering of answer scripts. Question Books may be developed in all schools. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. 153 . Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. List any two merits of examination.

The students can take any course offered in any department. In this system. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination.3. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times.2. Their interests.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. skills are given importance. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. When a person chooses to work extra. 3. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. The new scheme of assessment. It is complicated. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3.2. he is given extra credit points. Every paper is treated equal.2.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. attitudes. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.5. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .5. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. In actual practice. Advantages More autonomy is given to students.

3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. v. This system reduces comparison of marks.discipline.good.2. poor. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120.5. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. 3. An example is a seminar. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . or as a 4 credit course. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. These weightages are called credits. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses.poor. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. Groupism is encouraged. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. While designing syllabus. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. only the total credits to be earned is specified. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. courses can have weightages defined. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. In the new system.

3.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability.2. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. 156 .4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.5.5. 3. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. However. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.2. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students.2. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. 3.5.

2. .2. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . However. 3.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . Therefore. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. List any four new evaluation procedures. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. recruitment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. In the hierarchy.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. There are no proper procedures for selection. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. 6.

It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. finding out whether the prescribed text. They are.qualified personnel. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. in a sense. complaints and compliments. finding out the adequacy of. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. inspecting the class-room teaching. whether the syllabus has been covered. When they are fully realised. of late. requirements. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. in contrast. etc. disciplinary problems. school buildings. books are followed. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. wherever necessary. laboratory equipment. Academic inspection. library books. etc. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools.6. 158 . looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. being realised as two different functions.. qualifications. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. taking up the follow-up programmes.. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. staff. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties.2. 3. submitting of the inspection reports. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. playgrounds.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. 1. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. interpersonal relationships and so on.

modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. In the light of these conceptualisation. aptitude. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. Similarly. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. Being a special category of educational administrative officers.2. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. courses. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions.Ed. modern. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. 3. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. course in either educational. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors.Ed... M. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. or. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. their professional knowledge. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. In the case of departmental candidates. once in five years. Insistence on specialisation in the B. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. 159 . to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. at least. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties.

3. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. a. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a.2. c. 4. b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. examination reforms and supervision and inspection.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. 2. 3. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 5. 3. 160 . d. assessment and Finance. Administration.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. 3. Grade System.2. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. b. a. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. 3. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Instruction. b.

Oral and practical tests may be taken as . (2004). (2005). Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. 3. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. Multiple sets of question paper. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. K. Open book examinations. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. History and Problems of Education in India.2. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. b. (2002). Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Question banks. Vaidya. R and Sharma. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline.4.a part of internal assessment. K. S. b. Educational Reforms. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. a. b. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. 7. a. Problems of Education in India. c. 5. New 161 . a.

3.3.3. 2.LESSON 3.3 3.3.8 3.10 3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra. 162 .9 3. 3.3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.7 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3.3. 5. 4.5 3.4 3.2 3.3. 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3.3.3.6 3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.1 3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. identify the needs of rural India and social.3. you will be able to: 1.

The. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. i. the Banaras Sanskrit College.3. in Andhra Pradesh. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. The Calcutta Madras. and 3 years of First Degree Course. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. Consequent on the recommendations.. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses .specialisation programmes 3. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. 8 years of general education. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre.. Commission emphasised to continue. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919.e. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. 10 years of general Secondary Education. University Education. 2. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. etc. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education.e. e.3.. Similar is the case with some other States.. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission.g. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education.

Provision for transfer of credits to students.a sense of dignity of labour. is also a plus point . it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. to imbibe. educational channels.confidence in students. habits of hard work and develop . It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. 5) to help for the social. who desire to change from one stream to another. 3.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. social. to prepare. historical. and. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. 5. cultural and economic development of the country. However. economical and political. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. 6. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved .3. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 .4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 7. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. 8. b. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. 10.

because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. on one hand. at the other. etc. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. and. social justice. cooperativeness. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. to develop national character.. 3. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education.national integration. and that required to enter the tertiary level.3. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. democratic living. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . The General Educational Spectrum. cultural and' religious tolerance. Psychologically.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. international understanding. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. Philosophically it is not the conception. Sociologically it is undesirable. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. 1.

2. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. medical plants. physics or mathematics.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. 3. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. In the matter of language. rural health. 166 . It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. India is a land of villages. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. or other machinery. horticulture. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. technical. commerce. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. technological. chemistry. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage.3. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. professional. Commerce and other disciplines. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-.— tube-wells. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. vegetable growing. commerce. fish culture. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. Agriculture is the main occupation. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. All these need for an. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. the rural areas have suffered very much. Biology. such as Agriculture. Science. and vocations based on dairy-farming. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. industrial agricultural production is growing. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. In the vocational spectrum. educational and cultural services. In our country.

There had been favourable reaction from the students. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. interests and aptitudes of the students. In this way. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. 4. In this it may be concluded. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India.. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum.etc.. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. and 5. the local resources available. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. social justice. 3. In time. can be ensured. etc. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3. and the needs.

3.3.K. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. B. J. General Educational Spectrum and b. New Delhi : 168 .a sense of dignity of labour. Calcutta University Commission 2. 3. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2005). to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Mohanty. a. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. 3.3. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. a. (2001).8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. to imbibe. b. S. 3. objectives. 3. Dash. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. habits of hard work and develop . N. (2008). to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. (2007).C. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. a. 2. Anmol Publications Pvt. Vocational Sepctrum. J.3. we studied the history. b. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education.3. Education in the Emerging Indian Society.

4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.13 3.4. social and 169 .4.4.12 3.8 3.4.4.9 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4. Education contributes to human development.4.4.4.10 3. but the lighting of a fire”.4.11 3.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.2 3.4.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.5 3.7 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.LESSON 3.1 3.3 3.6 3.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.

community and nation is universally acknowledged.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. although we have miles to go. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. For the first time in the history of India.4. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women.higher education in particular. Dr.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. Education . A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. The relevance of women’s education to social. Home Economics. There is a close connection between education and development. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. you will be able to: 1. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. While women constituted only 9. higher education of girls developed immensely. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. particularly 170 . Nursing. 3. family. analyze the women and distance education. Teaching and Fine Arts.4. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. economic. In the post —independence period. cultural and political development of the individual. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. During the year 1937. These courses were. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. 3.

1 24. Yet. 3.2 22. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Coimbatore. The idea of women’s education for equality. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.4. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. Mother Teresa Women University. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.9 27. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.0 16.D.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. we have more than 1200 institutions. out of 9200 and odd colleges. Kodaikanal.0 Today. 3. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).T Women University.4. In 1950-51. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . In the rest of the country. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.4. Mumbai. Even today.65 lakhs in 1994-95.9 14. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.1 31.0 43.2 29. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. levels and professions.0 32.women.N. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. in our country.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.

that of boys.47 65.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.66 66.63 Female % 34.34 33.4.36 3. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.17 52.73 10.4%) prefer Arts subjects. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . particularly in the technical and industrial streams.4.53 34.83 47. 3. 2.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .1 and 14.54 12.1 respectively. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .56 64.46 82. 3.4.27 89.44 35. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. etc. Book banks should be established. 173 . Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. promoted and increased. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. irrelevance of the content of education. she will only learn fashion. particularly. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. distance of the college or university from home. 3. In every third family. curriculum not suited to their requirements. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. The major hurdles. what is the need for higher education for her.4. Thus. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. Also. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. and coeducation may spoil her character. According to a survey. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. In college.hinders the girls from getting higher education. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. financial difficulty of the parents. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. marriage is a very common I factor. They gave up their studies to enter home life. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities.

It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. It is a productive investment. 3. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. It enables to study.economic disabilities faced by women. There are constraints of time. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. It also brings about 174 . resources and socio . Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world.4.4. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. 3.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Empowerment in a nutshell.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Full-time employment. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. space. Distance education is a boon to women. Geographic distance of educational institutions. is the only tool for realising empowerment. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Education. and the limitations of the conventional education system.

The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. education of women is of paramount importance. Empowerment is an active. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. legal awareness and economic independence. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . on their own. empowerment means being assertive. education of women must be given priority in national plans. Women are partners in development. for full development of our human resources. This can be achieved through reflection. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. The major objectives of women's higher education. 3. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations.4. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. higher learning. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers.

more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. will encourage them to venture new grounds. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. Scholarships and concessions for women. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. has to be implemented at the earliest. Better opportunities. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. The local administration. 3.4. Reservation for women.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . But their number is small. who are eager to take up courses.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. which is pending for a long time.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. The educational institutions. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. 176 . The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. which had been the sole domain of men. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. especially so in the developing countries.

IDP Education. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%).4.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. According to Lindy Hyam. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25.3 percent. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.8%). especially in developing countries like African countries.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. capacities etc. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. Also. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2.1%) and architecture and building (38. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.9%). But. talents. engineering and related technologies (16. Chief Executive.000 women in the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Australia. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests.

13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. A. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. 3. Centre for Women’s Studies. (2005). SNDT Women’s University. and Swain. A. R. 178 . Coimbatore. R. S. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. 3. Mumbai. Annakodi.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Women Education.C.4. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Women and Education. (2000). Kodaikanal. a. community and the nation. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. Coimbatore. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. SNDT Women’s University.to the family. and Suryalatha. (2008). R. S. Women Education. 3. Mishra. (2007). create the right attitude towards life. 43% 6. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3.4. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Rajasthan 5. Rao.R.K. Mumbai.4. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. 4. 2. individuals and society b. Mother Teresa Women University. Pattanaikj. 4.

5.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.5.5.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.6 3.7 3. whole.1 3.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.9 3.LESSON 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .3 3.4 3.5.5.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.personality of children in and out of school.2 3.5. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5.5.11 3. They should be trained.8 3.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5 3. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.10 3.

3. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. social and emotional integration. 180 . Dearth of new technology of teaching.5. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. understanding and strong desire for international peace. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. 3. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. international. you will be able to: 1. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. know the pre service and in service training facilities.5. Lack of physical facilities. 5.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. national consciousness. equality and justice. and national character. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. Shorter working hours. understand the training teachers for Primary. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. 4. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education.

. students.. 3.Ed. etc. the secondary teacher education. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years.Less qualified teacher educators. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. it is called the In-service teacher education. the primary teacher education. the centre. If the student teachers are working teachers.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. levels. inservice and extension education programmes. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community.5. and M. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. it is called the Extension teacher Education. higher secondary teacher education. Depending on the levels. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. and the collegiate teacher education. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate.Ed. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. (NCERT) New Delhi. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. a Diploma course and a Degree course. At the diploma level. Inadequate training in practical skills. 3. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. the state Government. Lop-sided curriculum. who have not been trained earlier. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities.5. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 .

Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. 3. state Institutes of Educat ion. are established. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory .. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Educational teehnology cells. Also Guidance Bureaux. non-formal.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5. Evaluation unit. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . depart ments etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education cells. collegiate cells. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . Expand NCERT 2. extensio n service. Science Education units. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research.

should be improved on a top priority basis. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. which should include experience in the primary schools too. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . material conditions relating to libraries. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240.. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers.Ed. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. primary and secondary school teachers. and so on.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards.. despite its vast expansion. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. audio visual aids. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. laboratories. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. to improve curricular programmes. and 183 . to prescribe conditions for recognition. which help breaking isolation from one another .Ed. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . to ensure teacher competence. degree.. schools and sister institutions. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . to offer consultative services.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified .

the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. not came up once again. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education.secondary education. and XII. whether they should have professional education or. Workshops. 184 . no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. Modern Methods of Evaluation. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. Organisation of Content Courses.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. methodology and evaluation. etc. The problem. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. Hence. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. To meet this exigency. Modern Techniques of Teaching. though no pre-service training. Induction Courses. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Agriculture. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. Psychology of Students. Meanwhile. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. etc. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education.

D. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.Ed.Ed. Pre-service training is for those.A. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. M. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work.Ed. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. Degree. Courses leading to B.Ed. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. Ajmer. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education. Degree and M. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B... 3. State Institutes of Education. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. These facilities are available for regular students.Ed. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. courses and M. training. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations...’s for Ph. (Education) are organized by 185 . Post-Graduates also undergo B. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career...A. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. in Education. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B..CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. (Education) and M.’s are elig ible for M. All B Ed.Ed. For re-orienting the teachers.S. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.5.

3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. 3. 6. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. established by tradition and teachers of the past.A. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.5. 186 . 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. Hence the employability of M. they should be conscientious . as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. However. of conduct—written or unwritten. 4.A. What is the role of ERIC? .. and B. 5.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. (Ed).. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.). .8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. (Ed. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.

The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.3. a. 4. 187 . Bhopal. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. b. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 2. 4. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.5.5. The necessity is however this.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. a. 2. 5. 3. Discuss the problems of teacher education.5. 3. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. 6. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. they should be conscientious. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. a. National Council of Educational Research and Training. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. Dearth of new technology of teaching. Explain code of conduct for teachers. Shorter working hours. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. b. However. Ajmer.

5. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .3. Tewari. and Teacher Education. J. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. Corporation. (2003).12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. A. Ltd Aggarwal. P.N. Mohanty. B. (2010). Publication Pvt. Teacher Education. Teacher Education. (2009).D.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

Lesson 5 explains the meaning. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. objectives and role of the physical education. economic and educational developments. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. 191 . Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. The person’s environment is equally important. If the diet is poor. preservation of nutrients. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. objectives.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. objectives. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. Since food is the source of nutrients. common ailments of children. In lesson 1. In lesson 4. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. nutritional deficiency diseases. consuming the right amounts becomes important. the focus is on the school health programmes. communicable diseases and their prevention.

192 .

It is a miniature society. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. The programmes of school health education are quite important. mental. physical. for giving health education to the children under its custody.1.1 4. emotional and social.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. 193 .1. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.11 4.1.4 4.1.1.8 4.1.LESSON 4.1.3 4.6 4.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.9 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.1.1.1.5 4.2 4.e.1.10 4.7 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.

4. you will be able to: 1. 4. know the need for sex education. To develop healthy health habits among children. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. 3. content of health education. 2. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. 8. To develop certain skills concerning health. understand school health programmes 2. to his family and to the community at large. 7. 10. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 11.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. training in first aid and etc.. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. Instruction. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. e. 194 . list the common ailments of children 3. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4.1. 4. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. To give information regarding health rules. cleanliness and healthful living. 6. 5. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. explain the importance of First aid 5. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. 9.g. training of teachers and evaluation.

G. 2. minimizing the travelling distance. suitable furniture. 4. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . 2. First aid facilities should be made readily available. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. typhoid. (ii) communit y healt h. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. cleanliness weeks. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. There should be good drainage facilities. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. ( iii) sanit at io n. B. (vi) nutrition education. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. “Play-for-all” programmes.coming or absence.4. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. (v) safety education. (xl) mental health. There should be regular water supply. The flooring should not be damp. Triple Antigen Vaccination. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. (xii) smoking education etc. excusing late. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. direct lighting. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. vaccination. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. 3. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. is imperative. as described below 1. B.. Vaccination for small pox. (viii) first aid. etc. The school buildings should be spacious. inoculation against cholera.C.. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. organisation of school health days. Arranging better transportation facilities.1. 5. The surroundings of schools should be clean. proper doors and windows. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. play festivals.

poisons. D. wounds. scalds. • When sleeping in groups. insect stings. • Find out the cases.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. drowning. • Take nutritious food. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. • Close the schools. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. bleeding. dislocations. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. • Keep all rooms clean. isolate and notify. fainting (epileptic fit).. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. if epidemic is wide-spread. 196 . and other accidents. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. • Have adequate rest and sleep. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. sports and games in the interest of their health. etc. C. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. cuts. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. burns. fractures.

asthma. Mention the school health programmes.. headache.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school.1. water or bodily contact. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. chicken pox. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. polio. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. These diseases are called communicable diseases. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. cough. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. which are – cold. They are: i) The incubation stage.1.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . 4. So they easily get illnesses. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. Once these germs get into the body. 4. fever. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. tuberculosis. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. backache. List out the Health curriculum 3. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. measles etc. pain in the joints. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. There are three stages in any communicable disease.

nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. unhygienic bottle feeding. Tonsilitis .It is caused by measles virus. The following are the common communicable diseases. Some suffer cold due to allergy. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child.This disease is caused by bacteria. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Children catch cold from persons having cold. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. eating food which is not clean.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. sugar and water. 198 . Scabies . Ear Infections . Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Hence it is called a killer disease. Mumps . Important salts and water are lost in this process. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Diarrhoea . cough and fever. The symptoms include cold. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. unhygienic living conditions. Common Cold . In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. head-ache and cough. Others make the children very weak. The child may have fever.When a child suffers from scabies.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Measles . Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. This is caused by cold virus. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Throat is affected. After three or four days of fever. etc. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added.

It begins with fever. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. the child may die. If proper treatment is not given. Expand DPT . The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. Diphtheria . By scratching he causes secondary infections. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. raised pink spots appear on head. As the disease progresses. 5. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. Shortly. Typhoid . separate. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. The child may also have diarrhoea. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. the child is not able to breathe. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. 199 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. face and waist. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. Enlist the common ailments of children.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae.• • • • Chicken Pox . What are communicable diseases? 6.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism.

Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Sex is popular. films and jokes. 5. it is a subject of art. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. eye injury.g. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts.1. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. exciting and body-oriented. drowning. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future.4. In such cases. 4. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. 4. so-called sex books and periodicals. cuts. and Community Work and Social Service.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. Drowning . Sprains . fiction. sprains. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. swelling.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. Cuts and Bruises . and films. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. Sex is but an integral part of human personality.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. 3. 200 . Wounds . It has its rightful place in education too. scorpion stings. sprains. fainting. head injury. man-woman behaviours. etc. dislocation. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. snakebites. bleeding. bruises. It is both biological and psychological. 2.1. wounds. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. simple fractures.

Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. in their ignorance. the school. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. they would be treading the path of sure doom. celibacy are age. the religious organisations. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. but preserve them from disaster and disease.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. Should the boys and girls. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. In secondary schools. sex education is being recommended in schools.. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. 3. try experimenting with their bodies. health. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. The values of life. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . The home. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. 2. B. In today's liberal and interactive society.old values. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. Hence.

offering sex education as a part of their curricula. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. C. there will no crisis in its implementation. 202 . It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now.1) 2) 3) as a separate course.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education.1. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. communicable diseases and their prevention. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. Teacher education institutions are. What are the major components of Sex Education. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. first aid and sex education. when the courses are already overloaded. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. common ailments of children. 4. hence. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the school health programmes. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Mention the food nutrients 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. 209 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6.

This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. minerals. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.2. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. Let us talk about each of these aspects. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.4. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. If you look at the definition carefully. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. 210 . E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s .5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a.2.

A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age).g.g. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. In the case of adults. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. There is no point. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. activity level and physiological stress. In other words. it is also specific to a given activity level . A balanced diet is specific firstly. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . sex. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. for example. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . These are: region where the person resides and income. moderate or heavy work. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati.6. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. Those in the west also tend to eat rice.sedentary. 4. paratha and poori. Even within given States there is considerable variation. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet.one in the morning and the other at night. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). the social and religious practices of that region. dosa are typical of the south. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal.2. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. People in the east of our country prefer rice. construction labourer). The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. Preferences/customs are also important.

Balanced diets should also be income-specific. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. Among the social factors. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. As income increases. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. however. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. In addition to these. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. Even among flesh foods. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. vegetables and fruits. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. Judicious selection of food is. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. Having more money. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. however. customs. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. however. One person may be fond of milk products. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. One must. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. However. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. as important for the rich as for the poor. fat and sugar tend to increase. for example. Including these 212 . while another may hate them. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. If you think of your own religious group. income plays a vital role.planning the diet. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. As you read this discussion. taboos related to food may play an important role. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. nuts and dry fruits. These determine the acceptability of foods. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving.

9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. green leaves. mouth. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. etc. fruits. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . For this. but they should be thrown away. Define balanced diet. eggs . 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. over-eating or under.eating is hazardous.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. 8. List out any two healthy food habits. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. meat. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 213 . Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 8) Walk a while after eating. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. if the teachers have good food habits.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 17. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well.

In fact. c. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. d.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Beri Beri 4.2. Keratomalacia 3.4. Night blindness.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Conjuctival xerosis. Explain food nutrients 4. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Discuss good food habits. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. a. When the diet is inadequate. b. Vitamin D 5. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Bitot’s spots. e. Corneal xerosis.2. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer.2. 4. preservation of nutrients. good nutrition is essential for good health. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. 4.

A Text Book of Foods. a.6. (2008). Sri Lakshmi B. Nutrition Science. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. 7. S. (2009). (2004). mouth. Food and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . b.C.M. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Food and Nutrition Education. P. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. b. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. R. R. Nutrition and Dietetics. (2008). A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. minerals.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. (2005). a . 8. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Food should be consumed after eating well. Chopra. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 4. Health and Nutrition Education.N. Hands.2.

3.6.3 4. 216 .3.9 4.3 Impact on Education 4.3.7 4.3.3.3.3.6.3.12 4.3.1 Impact on social development 4.6.10 4.3.2 4.3.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.4 4.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.13 4.3.8 4.3.11 4.5 4.1 4.LESSON 4.3.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.

4. economic and educational development 3.3.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. 217 . A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. family planning and sex education etc. the causes of population change. Whenever we talk of sex education. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. describe the impact of population growth on social. the stress is. his family.4. and the consequences of these processes.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. state the meaning. Population Education. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. characteristics and changes for himself.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. 4. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. understand the importance of small family norm 5. community. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. There is some difference.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. population characteristics.3. It is not sex education. therefore. objectives and need for population education 2. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning.3. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. aims at providing the younger generation. his societ y and the world. It is a much wider co ncept.

3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the family. the nation and the world. the society. Define Population Education 2.3. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. 4. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual.

which will not be possible without population control. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems.6.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. 4.3.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Family is considered as a social unit. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. the family programmes are also handicapped. Every second two thousand children are being born. 4. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. economic and educational development of the country. With the larger families. When the family is small. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner.3. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. health and happiness of its citizens. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. 219 .

toilets. pollution of the environment. 4. 220 . in buses and trains. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. are the results of demographic pressures on social life.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. in cinema halls and theatres. organization index and material index. heavy intern I migration etc.. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. lack of proper health care. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index.3. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. In developing countries. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. 4.6. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.3. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. The gulf between them is widening further. unemployment. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. in parks and other places of public gatherings. Many students herded in a small room. teacher index. facility for drinking water. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher.6. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy.e. i. Swollen cities. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. and so on. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower.

blank verses etc. can be studied in science and health education. can be taken up. and laboratory equipments. It has got to be integrated with other subjects.. 221 . Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. even text books would be in short supply. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. thus. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. Social Studies Statistics on population education. Hindi and English. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. There would be very few audiovisual aids. There would be poor library facilities. family planning etc. less space facilities. essays. bar graphs etc. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. reproduction. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Regional Language. less budget for education. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies.

4. 10. 9. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. They may arrange them as per average density of population. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 14. Uttar Pradesh. area and average density of population. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 7. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. 13. United States of America. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Children may compare two families.3. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 12.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 8. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Children with the help of parents. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 15. 11. West Bengal. 5. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Canada. deaths. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. 2. Bihar. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 4. 3. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Brazil. causes of deaths etc. China. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages.

values and role children etc.be opened in their schools. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. 17.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. 16. preferences for sex. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Comparing life in various respects in two families. we have no right to stop 223 . Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. 18. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. The question. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. age at marriage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children.3.4-6. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. on an overall basis. The Family Welfare Program. 4. however.were implemented 224 . need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. the total fertility rate decreased from 6.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. should be overcome at the intellectual levels.to emphasize family planning services. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.their entry into the world”. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . “He who is responsible for population growth. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. and the child survival components of the news: program. especially the expansion of child immunization services . More than 45 years ago. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. which education can only do. Since the program's inception. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc..sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. at varying places in different regions. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. continued . The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.

Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. Local programs vary in their approaches. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. In October 1997. a focus on health promotion. In April 1996. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. reliance on local women as community health workers. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. the community appears willing to pay for services. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media.earlier than the safe motherhood components. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. men. and nominal fees for services. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. expansion of services to unmarried women. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. At these meetings. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. Therefore. and the World Conference on Women. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. Moreover. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs.

involving the community. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. What are the goals of RCH? 4. Its main purposes are to create awareness. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. family. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. economic and educational development 4. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. 1997).12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3. 226 . 4. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. Describe the impact of population growth on social. community. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual.emphasizing the needs of the client. nation and the world.3. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. 3.

bar graphs. less space facilities. population characteristics. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. b. characteristics and changes for himself. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. and the consequences of these processes. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. 3. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. area and average density of population. a. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods.” 2. 227 . Canada. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. the causes of population change.3. his family. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. Brazil. his society and the world. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. a. United States of America. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. a. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 4. 5. 7. China. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. less budget for education.4. 6. b. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures.

J. Reddy. (2005). New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Centre for Women’s Studies. (1992). Coimbatore.3. T. Kantikar. (2002). Principles of Population Studies. Modern Problems of Education. V. 228 . New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Jayapoorni. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.4. N. Modern Trends in Indian Education. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development.K. Changing attitudes to Education in India. A. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Ltd. (2005). (2004). Bhende. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Udaiveer.

4.4 4.4.5 4.4.4.8.4.8.1 Minor games 4.8.6 4.4.4.11 19.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.3 Indigenous games 4.4.4.4.4 Lead up games 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.9 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .8.4.4.4.2 4.1 4.4.2 Major games 4.7 4.LESSON 4.3 4.10 4.4.

4. full records of physical activities should be maintained. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value.4. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. The concept of physical education has been made broader. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. perseverance. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. team spirit.4. 4. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. mental alertness. the youth of the country. you will be able to: 1. leadership and balance in defect. as it should 230 . moral fitness and emotional fitness. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. which forms its most valuable assets. 4. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. classify the different types of games. social fitness.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country.

education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. They go hand in hand. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. The educational efforts at home. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Every individual is a part of society. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. team spirit. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. obedience to rules. They are inseparably united together. Therefore. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. To be more precise. leadership.

physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. mo ral. H. 4. C. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. Just like Education. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India.” Montaigue writes. Buck has observed that 232 .4.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. ment al. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. Regarding the significance of physical education. Rousseau states. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. a sound health.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. pleasing manners. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. nor body but the whole man. Physical exercises. game and sports.” The Secondary Education Commission. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind.

coordinative abilities. speed. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments.” 4. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. strength. we must exercise the whole human being.” In brief. Froebel says. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief.a properly directed physical education should result in health. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. flexibility and power. initiative. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. efficiency and character. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility.4. elegance. etc. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. “If we wish to develop the whole being. happiness. 233 .These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. resourcefulness and smartness. endurance.

Tournaments foster this sentiment. they may form gangs.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Every age has its artists.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. poetry and painting. If no opportunity is provided to the students. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. systems of government. plagues and famines. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. While wars. its adherents and its enemies. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. these fundamental things have always been present. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. in greater or lesser degree. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. including all racial groups and historical ages. should help in the spiritual development of the student. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. 234 (i) (ii) .

to develop tolerance. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. self.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements.sacrifice. respect for rules. Write any two importance of Physical Education. B. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. etc. bravery and interest in games and sports. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.\ to develop perseverance. obedience. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. 235 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems.

Be punctual. 13. injuries among pupils should be made. and. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. 2. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of.H. Inform health principles. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. 15. and readmission after they have recovered. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. 7. Be well-prepared. 3. Be in the uniform. Act as a leader. is essential. 4.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. 16. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. defects. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Be self-confident. students. 12. Posture screening should be done. 8. Haag. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.4.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J.4. 10. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. At least now its importance should be duly recognized.4. Usually parents. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. . 9. 11. 14. Emergency care procedures should be followed. 4. 6. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 236 1. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. Keep the field ready for the activities. 5. Be sportive. Always keep the whistle ready.

237 . 2. frolic and jo y. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 4. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. their development is handicapped. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games.8. less equipment and less expense. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Indigenous games. the play. 4.4. 4. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. Lead up games. Moreover. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. chasing.4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. 3. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. 1. Such inst incts as imitation.

skipping. Cricket. They are rules approved by the International Associations. driving.. Jump the stick clay and so on. Tennis. Except a few games. heading. 238 . Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Shuttle Badminton. the number of players and substitutes. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. Hopping. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally.With a very few rules. stopping. trapping. 4. They are played for a shorter duration. Ball Badminton. snatching the kerchief. muffling. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. benefit in playing minor games. under ball pass Relay. For each game the rules are many. Tennikoit. finding the partner. some of them are played indoors. bowling etc. women take part most of the games. While many of them are played in the open playfields. on sea-shore. pitching. hitting. Hockey. Throwing. over ball pass Relay. the games can be modified according to convenience.4. On lawns. on hard courts. Jumping. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. These games require varied skills such as running. couple tag. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. the play equipment. dribbling. Soft Ball. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Dodging. spiking. Kabaddy etc. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. The dimension of the posts and nets.8. on mountain tops and on river beds. zig zag relay. boosting. catching. with implements or without implements. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. Basket Ball. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. wherever the kids assemble. Khokho. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. Volley Ball.

the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. death. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. List out some major games. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . While observing the players in action. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Kho-kho. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. All the fundamental tactics. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. 7. For example.8. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. and . Games may be classified as 6. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. they are in existence. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. An example for indigenous game is 8. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.4.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu.8. 4. On occasions like marriage. these games being popular. birth. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. They have an abundant social value. festivals connected with religion and public functions.4. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball.4. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games.

d. aims and objectives and need of physical education.4. 2. a. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. a. 4. a. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. 5. 4.4. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 3. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. b.4. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. Posture screening should be done. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. the role of physical education teachers and types of games.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Minor and Major 240 . a. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. b. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. to develop physical stamina. 4. c.4. 4. Briefly discuss the different types of games. to secure physical health b. 3. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.

New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. Khokho 8.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Handbook of Physical Education. Foot-ball. Physical Education and Sports.4. Kabaddy 7. J. Volley Ball. 4. Tennis. Tennikoit. (2005). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.K. J. (2008). New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Aggarwal. Ball Badminton. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. (2009). Khokho. Soft Ball. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Health. 241 . Mohanty. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Hockey. Cricket.C. Krishna murthy.6. G. Shuttle Badminton. Basket Ball. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. (2008). J.

5.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5.1 4.5.9 4.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.LESSON 4.5.6 4.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.4 4.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .11 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.3 4.1 Natural Environment 4.5.5.2 4.7 4.5.2 Manmade Environment 4.8 4.10 4.5.5.5.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.

population explosion and resource depletion could be. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. Evaluation Ability. 5. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Broadly.educat ion for the environment. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. Details are given below: I. Essential knowledge about the Environment. The best place to start such learning is school.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. list out the types of environment 3. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. 4. you will able to: 1. it covers the following elements: 1. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Awareness.5. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. Knowledge.5. aesthetic and educational factors. 6. 2. 4. economic.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. 4. political. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 3. Attitude. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. Skills. education about the environment and education through the environment. Participation. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. 243 . 3.5. social. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment.

heat sink and wind flow in cities. a. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Oxidants Other pollutants. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. 244 . D. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. • Biological magnification E.B. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. F. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. 2. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C.

Family planning ii. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Sterilisation. Use of medical science i. economic. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. 2. 3. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Abortion iv. III. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. The pill ii. 4. Control of population growth a. B. 2. Persuasion: i. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution.3. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. c. Birth control through education b. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. The human ecosystem II. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Socio-economic measures. Intrauterine device iii. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems.

Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 246 .b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. 1983). List out the major causes of Environmental problems. e) Recycling. Define Environmental Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. Air pollution abatement ii. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. (UNESCO. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. 2. 3. Water pollution abatement. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection.

to his needs. 4.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 .5. They interact with each. telex. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. animals and other organisms (biotic).1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment.5. Any constituent or condition of the environment.5. These are biotic components. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.other components of the environment. Biological environment The biological environment. fax agricultural apparatus. a. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. way is called environmental or ecological factor. He modifies according”. includes the plants.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. A change in one brings about a change in the other. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.5. b.4.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. -other.5.5.

relation between population and pollution. are the topics which may be taught in History. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees.. natural way of controlling pests. noise control. water scarcity. preserving the watersheds. change in climate may be added. ozone depletion. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. mineral survey. desertification 248 . etc. need for conservation. industrial survey. nuclear energy. alternate sources of energy. sources. explosion deforestation. wars and hazards of war. importance of nitrogen cycle. reasons.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. nuclear warfare. greenhouse effect. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. noise pollution. need for bio-diversity. industrial pollut io n. effects. History The rise and fall. windmills. effects o f CFC. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. food chain and food-web. sources of pollut ion. river systems. maintaining the ecological diversity. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. use of medicinal plants. solar cookers. extinction of species. (ii) Air pollution. role of trees in building economy. t heir role in preventing pollution. population. etc. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. of civilizations. use of pesticides. over exploitation of ground water. acid rain. evolution. preventing siltation of dams. biogas plants. supplying timber for various uses. air pollutants from industries. balance of nature. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. ozone layer deplet ion. social studies. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . excellent recreation sites. trees reducing noise pollution.

Providing. group discussions and seminars. 2. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. 11. 5. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. 10. 249 . Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control.may be inc ded in Geography. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Organising conferences.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. 14. Peepal and Tulsi. 9. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals.5. 13. 4. 7. 8. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. aims and scope. 3. 12. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. animal and plants. 4. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. 6.

old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal.Send their waste oil. Reuse carrier bags. it will cause pollution. Use public transport wherever it is possible. used oils down the drain. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. or form a car pool for everyday travel. all these can cause serious pollution. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Don’t burn any waste. If it is done. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. World Environmental falls on 250 . 5. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Never put any left over chemicals. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. 6. especially plastics. as the smoke may contain polluting gases.

mat erials. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. depletion of ozone. To arrange for visiting speakers. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. etc. To provide reference materials for children’s use. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. loss of bio-diversity. etc.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. developing desirable attitudes. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. rather than conquest and mastery. orderliness and beauty). concern for others). Concern for species. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. Social responsibilit y (common good.4.). viz. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. Harmony with the nature . To provide materials needed for practical work. values and habits.. CFCs. Conservation of natural resources. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. diversity and stability. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. To arrange visits or expeditions. The groups may exchange. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Att itudes of balance towards nature. nuclear wars. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. potable water. (cleanliness.5. deforestation. dest roying nat ural habitats. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. and 251 .

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.5. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.5. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. 252 . Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.5. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. 4. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 8. preserving natural cycles. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills.

Ltd. Y.K. 6. Publications Pvt. reasons. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. importance of nitrogen cycle. S. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. explosion deforestation. b. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. To provide materials needed for practical work. (1997). New Delhi : Anmol 253 . Udaiveer.K.5.. June 5 7. Awareness. b. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. 8.K. New Delhi : Sharma. Environmental Education. Rapid population growth.K. (2004). concern for others). To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Organising conferences. over exploitation of ground water. relat ion between population and pollution. 3. a. sources of pollution. Knowledge. Environmental Education. (ii) Air pollution. Education for values.\ 4. a. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Providing. Social responsibilit y (common good. group discussions and seminars. greenhouse effect. effects. Modern Problems of Education. water scarcity. acid rain. new problems from science and technology. b. (2007). Ltd.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. 4. Environment and Human Rights. ozone layer deplet ion. S. (2007). T. Nanda. b. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. To provide reference materials for children’s use.2. Kuldeep. a. 5. New Delhi : Authors Press. population. sources. air pollutants from industries. a.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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The universe is regarded as a thought process.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. Education must contribute to development of culture. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. moral.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum.3. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation.” 5. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. man is essentially a moral being. promote and transmit it to rising generation." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. enrichment and transmission of culture. According to Rusk'. should be universal in nature. Spiritual Development. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. the emancipation of spirit.our life. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. Therefore. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . inviolable and hence holy life” In short. Universal Education.1. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. It is self-realisation. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. Education according to idealism. in fact. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind.

The teacher serves as a living model for the students. Learning through imitation. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. For this no particular method has been suggested. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. Philosophy. It considers teacher as. 2. so subjects like Religion. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Mathematics etc. History. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct.” He is thus. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. Learning through reading. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. 3. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. The plant can grow. a spiritual guide for the child. no doubt.the spiritual qualities of mankind. For intellectual development. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. So health. He carries the child from darkness to light.3.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only.1. According to Frobel. an indispensable necessity. 4. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. However. subjects like Languages. So he should embody.1.” 5. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher.3. affecting (feeling). games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. So cognition (knowing). and collation (striving) should find due place. should be there. hygiene. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. 5. Science. Learning through questioning. friend and guide. Learning through lecturing. the school is a garden. Herbert advocated instruction method. He sets the environment in which education takes place. According to idealism. Ethics. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. 5. Learning through discussion. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection.

Ross explains. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. Perfection of Human Machine. 5. "Education should make 263 • . time tables. 5. 2. curricula.preservation. In the words of Ross.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.1. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. text books.perfection and beauty. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. formal lessons or examinations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.4.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.1.

1. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. There is no place for religious and moral education. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Naturalistic curriculum.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. It is based on the psychology of the child.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Therefore. rational harmoniously balanced. In all. therefore. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. geography should also be included in the curriculum. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Chemistry.4. Biology. subjects like history. 4. • 5. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. 264 . The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Zoology. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. is based on the nature of the child. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Botany etc Language. education should develop the child into Joyous. It stresses basic sciences. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Literature. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Arithmetic. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Education should. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. useful and mature child. “Education finds its purpose.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1.

4.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. Dalton Plan. 5. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism.1.5. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation.1. 5. In the . Rousseau says.1. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Heuristic method. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. Learning through experience. It discards all rigid. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. he should be taught by experience alone. Learning by doing. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. the stage. a provider of an ideal environment.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching.4. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. 2. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . 4. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. a supplier of materials and opportunities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Learning through observation. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.

Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. The aim of educational development. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. History. is true. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared.1. Physical training. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience.5. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Personal Social Adjustment. social and moral aspects. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. diversified and flexible. Social Efficiency. Sciences. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Geography. Vocational and 266 . It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. 5.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based.5. Agriculture. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously.1. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Subjects. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Continuous Growth. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. intellectual.absolutism of idealism. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. 5. Social Science. All Round Development of an Individual. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Continuous reconstruction of Experience.

1. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In different situations he remains a friend and helper. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . a senior partner and a sincere guide. Learning by Doing. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles.” 5. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. alert and resourceful.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. 5. He has to be active. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. should find proper place. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. a teacher occupies an important position. activities and experience should be integrated properly.5. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child.Technical Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He must be trained. The subjects. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.1. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.

Literature. Population Education.5. The basic tenets of realism are 1.1. Astrology. 3. Education is preparation for a complete living. 5. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. literary or humanistic education. liberal.6. Art. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. scientific and psychological education. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. intellectual. specific.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. practical. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. 4. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. It favours child-centered. Music and Dance. 3. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Sex Education. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. 5. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Psychology. Mathematics. rich and happy. History. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. 4. Geography are unnecessary 268 . Chemistry. Crafts.1.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1.1. Biography Philosophy. Biology. Study of Subjects like Language. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. 2. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. 5. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. 2.6.

certainly and clearly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .6.5.6. easily and pleasantly. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.

discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. c.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. History. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Learning through discussion. & curriculum. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. a. Geography.1. 5. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Agriculture. 3.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Universal Education 2. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization.1. Vocational and Technical Education. naturalism. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Learning through experience b. Languages. Sciences. d. a. 6. Self Realisation b. Tours / Excursion e. Self preservation & Self expression 4. 5. Learning through questioning. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Education according to pragmatism. 5. Learning through imitation. Social Science.5. has no end other than growth. e. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Learning through lecturing. in this lesson. Experimentation d. b.1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Rousseau 5. Physical training. pragmatism and realism. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Child centered c. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Learning through reading. a.

P.1. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Anmol Publications Pvt.P. Foundations of Education. P.P. R. 271 . New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. L.5. O. Narang C. N. New Delhi : A. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. (2007). K. of Pathak. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Bhatia. (2003). (2007). (2004). Pahuja. Ltd. Publishing corporation.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman.H.

4.2.4.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.5.3 Methods of teaching 5.3.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.3.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2.2.3 Methods of Teaching 5.2.2.4 Views about teacher 5.4.2 5.4 Views about teacher 5.2.2.3.3 Methods of teaching 272 .2.5.2 Curriculum 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2.2.2.1 5.3.2.2.LESSON 5.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.2.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.3.3.1 Aims of Education 5.4.2.4.5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.2.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2 Curriculum 5.1 Aims of Education 5.

2. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. 273 . political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. 2.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. content and methods. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.8 5.6 5.2. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims.7 5. 3. economic and political reconstruction in our country. 5.5. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.5.2. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. mind and spirit. 5. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. Gandhiji was primarily a social.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.2.2.2.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.4 Role of the teacher 5. you will able to: 1. an artist. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.2.2. Tagore was a poet. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.

intellectual and physical faculties of the children." Dignity of Labour. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim.3. it is education of life. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji.2. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. His scheme of education is life centred. strength of mind. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. It really provides opportunity for character building. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. mind and soul of children He further observed. In the words of Gandhiji. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. 5. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. nor the gross animals body.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. "I attach more. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. 274 . He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect.supporting. righteousness. 'Man is neither mere intellect.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. self-restraint and service of humanity. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. through life and for life. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.

Drawing and Hindustani. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . the realization of the ultimate reality.Training for Leadership. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. gardening.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. Art. "Development of the moral character. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. 5. Music.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered.3. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self.2. Mother-tongue. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. metal work. General Sciences. Individual and Social Aims. Only good individual forms a better society. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . leather work have been suggested. development of the whole all were directed: towards. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. According to Gandhi. wood work. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education.

It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2.3.2. proficient.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. men of 276 . Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.3. Basic education is other wise known as 4.trained. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.

men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Education must be child centered. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. That is why. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji.knowledge. 5. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. He also advocates freedom for the child. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations.2. 3. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.3. He has an experimental approach towards life 2.

he was a true Vedantist 5. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful.2.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. Gandhi in 1937.K. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.3.2. • Ideal of citizenship. He believed in the oneness of humanity. He was a true patriot. • Education should involve manual work. He was deadly against untouchability. • Cult of non-violence.2.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. 5. 5.” Like all other ideals.

the more dedicated and devoted. Therefore. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. Civics. Music." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. them solve problems of day to day life.Language and Literature . The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Dance. International Understanding. he said. sentiment. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Botany. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. deeper in. "Mankind must realise a unity. It should help the learner have good physique. It should help. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Zoology. Geography. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. 279 . Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Tagore said. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. etc. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education.2. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. could help in forging unity among all. Chemistry. stronger in power than ever before. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. complete manhood could be attained. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. wider in range. International understanding.4. That way only. (vi) Philosophy. Religion and Psychology.

4. 5. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. 280 . A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. In 1921.4. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. 5. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.2.2.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.” He further says. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.4. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there." 5.2. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. Tagore rightly says. Activity Method Heuristic Method. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.

Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. 281 . Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. race. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. It is open to all irrespective of country. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.g. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. 9. 10. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5.

Education should make a person self-reliant. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. man making.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. 2.5. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only.2. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. work and deeds come out of it.” 5. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. Freedom. Book learning. character forming and assimilation of ideas. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Concept of Education.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. 4. Education for strong Moral Character. 3.5.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. Purity of thought. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building." He was against the theoretical type of education. Education for Self-reliance.2. Education for Self-realization. He believed in to learning or selflearning. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. According to him.

4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta.5.5. That will serve the purpose of education fully. Thirdly he wished that games. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. philosopher and guide to the students He. The teacher should be the facilitator. Philosophy and Theology. Of course. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. 5. Swami. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. 6. Only a selfless person can be good teacher.2. 283 . He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. engineering and technical subjects.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. 5. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. 5. Education for Physical Development. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Discussion Method. Education should help in the physical development of an individual.5. Religion. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other.2.2.5. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Secondly he wanted Science. A physically strong person is the need of the society. And above all. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth.the learners on different students in the discussion. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.

Substantiate your answer. ears and eyes. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. of course. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. 2. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. 12. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. naturalist. and pragmatist . 284 . broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers.2. 5. We have seen that Tagore. Gandhiji as a Idealist.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life.6 LET US SUM UP We have. legs. 3. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. 5. in this lesson. Their educational ideas. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. Write short notes on Basic education.

c. a. Activity Method b.4. d. Cult of non-violence. Technique of Correlation 6. c. 9. 5. a. Heuristic Method.2. Basic education. Education should involve manual work. Teaching while Walking b. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. a. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. 5. 11. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Learning by Doing c. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. 10. f. 5. Ideal of citizenship. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Activity Method d. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. Self-Study b.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. wood work. Explain Vishwabharathi. e. Debate and Discussion Method. Nai Talim 4. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Self realization. Meditation and concentration c. leather work have been suggested. 1937 7. b. 8. gardening. 2. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. 3. Discussion Method 285 . a. metal work.

B. (2002). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.H. Foundations of Education. (2003). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2004). New Delhi : A.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. N. P. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. K and Narang C. O.P. Pahuja. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.2. C. P. K. J. Theory and Principles of Education. on Bhatia. 286 . (2007). Dhiman. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. N. (2007). Ltd. L. Publishing Corporation.5. New Delhi : Aggarwal.

In this lesson.5 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .2 5.3.8 5.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.9 5.3.11 5.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.3.4 5.3 5.3.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.LESSON 5.1 5.3.3.3.6 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.10 5.3. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.7 5.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.

enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. living in the hilly area.. in the U. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. state the meaning of curriculum 2.S. maintained or eliminated.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. Both the processes are integrated. From the latter point of view. in fact . understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. the plain area. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. 5. In it. present behaviour may be modified. Then in a big country like India. 5. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. the desert area. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways.3. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. In the former sense. While education is a process. In the words of Kerney and Cook. in Russia or in Japan. curriculum. curriculum signifies situations for learning. it is identical wit h socializat ion. new behaviour may be acquired.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. there is a large number of communities. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Since the demands.3. Curriculum is intimately related to education. is a means to the process. the plateau area and 288 . you will be able to: 1. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. A g o o d curricu lu m.A. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . While education is learning. in the form of new experience.under the direction of the school.

We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy.3.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. From a slave-country we became secular. However. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. irrespective of their needs and environment. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. 5. and 289 . aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. customs and needs. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. It must differ from locality and from society to society. democratic and socialistic country. the learning capacity of children. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. according to modern trends in the educational process. In fact . A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. Again. therefore. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. Besides craft. too. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. environment. studying therein. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. differs from individual to individual. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. it is. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality.

The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. aims.. Understanding Objective. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. moral. tangible. Goals of Secondary Education. 5. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. aesthetic and spiritual development.g. unsatisfactory. 290 . Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. etc. e. specific. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. They are achievable. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. in instructional objectives. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. individual or Social and so on. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. uninspiring and unscientific. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. Vocational Efficiency. remote or immediate.. emotional. they depend on the political. social. Application Objective. 1. They are visionary goals e. They speak of perfect goals. They may be ultimate or proximate.. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. The word “Curere” means 2. So it is inadequate.g. Self Realisation.3. e. 4. National Integration. general or specific.. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. They speak of immediate purposes of education. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. etc. of classroom. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. unambiguous and functional. Goals of Primary Education. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. eg. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . social. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals.g. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. which may or may not be attained. Knowledge Objective.

3.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. Crow and Crow remarks. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. finding them very interesting and captivating. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. The interests. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. abilities. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. Raymont rightly says. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. According to Crow and Crow.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.” 291 . should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit.5. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. on the playing fields. heavy fire. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. in the class rooms. but it includes the totality of experiences. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. capacities. educationists. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. needs.

time in a useful manner. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. Due to these variations and differences. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. moral. urges.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. tendencies.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . aptitudes. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. They often waste it or rather kill it. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. mental. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. capacities and abilities.

H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. To ensure success of the process. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. 3. 293 . make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. development of professional capability at all levels. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors.curricular. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. phased preparation. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. administrative programme need be planned. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. Similarly. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. organized. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. 2.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy.

Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 18.3. workshop. in the class room. library.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. Relation with Life c. 1937 19. Run. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . laboratory. 10. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Child Centred Education b. principles of curriculum construction. 12. 5. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.3. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. a. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. 17. 11.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5.3.

3. S. New Delhi : Authorspress. Bhalla. (2007). 295 .S.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. New Delhi : Isha Books. S. Lakshmi. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. D. P. (2007).K. and Sarita Kumari. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. (2001). Innovations in Education. (2007).5. Curriculum Development. Curriculum and Instruction. N.

7.6.4.7.4 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.7.4.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4.4.4.4.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4.6.4.4.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.7.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .10 5.4.1 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.4.4.5 5.2 5.8 5.9 5.4.4.3 5.LESSON 5.4.

during the second half of this century.4. newer and newer industries started growing. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. 297 .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4. yet real advancement in this area was achieved .3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. 5. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude.4. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. in the economic reconstruction of society.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. honesty. 5. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. 3. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . tolerance for the opinions of others. know the importance of science education. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. 2. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.5. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. We mean curiosity. open-mindedness. you will be able to: 1. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. Gradually. 4.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. explain the concept of scientific attitude. superstition or emotion.

science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . 5. 5. Organisation of science fairs. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Through newspapers. 5. Schemes of teaching science. 5.4. 4. Central science workshop. Thinking and memory develops. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching.So that. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases.4. After such experience and training. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. as well as of the society. 2. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. 3. Promotion of science clubs. 3.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Selection for science education. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. 6. 4. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Principles are formulated. 7. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Through examinations. Devotion towards nature increases. Love for truth enhances. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 6. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. seminars and symposiums. stipends and appreciations in various ways. 2.

4. 5. For laboratory and workshop techniques. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. They experience natural phenomenon. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 .1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind.6. They ask many questions about the objects they see. sex or religion. therefore. essential that teachers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. each child to “enquiry skill building”. should provide opportunities to.4. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. After presenting the problem. Enquiry teaching is. objectivity. Write any two advantages of Science Education. 7. Training of science teachers. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. It is. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look.needs and conditions. They encounter many social events as they grow. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. In the inquiry approach. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. 5. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other.

if they like. to ask questions and experience things. 300 . Evidence. 5. Adopting creative models of teaching. 3. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. 2. It requires consistent thinking. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Herma Wouk. commands or orders. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. Appreciating pupils ideas. 6. .4.books.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. stern pursuit of accurate data. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. test. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook.6. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2.4. Social sciences. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. . stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. 4. 5. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. 3. 5. Giving less directions.

To achieve this we should understand what it means. neighbourhood. and emphasized during the learning process . Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. (Vaidya 2007).Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. it must be encouraged. of vast resources running waste. The students observation. These include open mindedness. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. 5. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. to develop among the learners. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. For instance. school and society at large. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. friends. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed.7. practiced. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way.(Smith 2008). keen observation. critical thinking and suspended judgments. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts.4. therefore should be unbiased and objective. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude.

intuition or wishful thinking”.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. (Das. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. 302 . the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. 5. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. or superstitions. He is patient and reserved in his judgement.7. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. he studies all aspects of it. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. 2007). Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. think and work it”. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups.4. rumor. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. In considering a situation or a problem. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. understanding and logic. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live.

The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.4.7.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.7. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.4. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. but to begin only after careful planning. 5. • 5.

manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. 5.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. it must be encourages. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 304 .

a. M. Discuss the importance of science education 14. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. S. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. 2. a. Adopting creative models of teaching. (2000). New Delhi : Anmol Publications. D. 5. b. N. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.4. a.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Study of superstitions d.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Love for truth enhances.5. b. 5. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. Vaidya. 4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 305 . A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Proper example of the teacher c.S.4. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. (2006). New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. Rao. objectivity.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Reflections on Scientific attitude. Wide reading b. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs.B (2008). 16.4. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. (2008). Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. 3. a. Yadav. Planning of activities 5. b. The intention to respect another’s point of view. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15.

5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2.3 5.1 5.8 5.5. 5.5.4 5. 306 .LESSON 5.10 5.6 5.5 5.5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5.11 5.5.5. state the concept. objectives and characteristics.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. you will be able to: 1. actively.5.2 5. areas of institutional planning.5.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.9 5.5.5.5.7 5.5.

because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. • to make planning development-oriented. and supplement planning from above. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. which become the bases for further planning at the district.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. and every student in the process of educational planning.3. 5. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. Institution should be regarded as the unit. • To make institutional planning more successful. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. every teacher. 5. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n.5. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. State and national levels from below. in the task of educational planning. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. and each student are regarded as separate entities.5. teachers and students is not lost sight of. every parent. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. each teacher. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. and. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. • to involve teachers and school administrators. executive as well as public.

council and. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5.curricular Activities. 5. which will be discussed in the general. (2) Co. Syllabus. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work.5. Classwork. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. and Personnel services. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. Co-curricular activities. Examinations. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. approved after making necessary modifications. 308 . it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services.5. etc.• implemented. it becomes the basis for school inspection.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as.

etc.No. Equipping of laboratory and library. scientific and historical excursions. Fair distribution of syllabi. etc. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. etc. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Courts. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Organising play-for-all programmes. Editing the school magazine.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. etc. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Improving the subject competence of teachers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Organisation of class-room libraries. 2. Improving the internal assessment. 1. Conducting of educational. Organisation of Students’ Association. hobby-centres. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Preparation of models. Preparation of instructional material. Running science clubs. Organisation of Pupils. charts and apparatus. Organisation of Self-Government Days. etc. 3.

science teachers’ associations. understanding. involving mainly human materials. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. and solidarity.5. co-operation. administrator-pupil. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. which are divided as the in. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. students’ associations. ii.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. administrator-administrator. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. headmasters associations. teacher-State. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. Administrator-State. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. pupil310 . administrator-supervisor.5. teacher-teacher. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. etc. teacher-pupil. parent-teacher associations. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. and —pupil-pupil. teachers. teacherinspector. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. parents. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning.” The human relationships in. teacher-managing body. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. pupils.

Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. organisation. According to C. pupil-inspector. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. to carry out. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. now-a-days.State. pupil-non-official functionaries. teacher-parent. V. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. social sciences and other disciplines. pupil-parent. to attend. To administer means to manage. Good. etc. and to serve. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. pupil-community leader. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It covers personnel and material management. administrator. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. supervision and superintendence. 311 . to accomplish.5. supervision. superintendence. control. organisation and management. teacher-community leader. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. It is also being modernized to become a technique.

Motiviation . Leadership .He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Economic Management . 8. Those. low. 4.Any good management will always have good public relations.Of all the approaches. Liasion with the Public .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.The manager should have leadership traits. Worker Participation . should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. 11. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. If it is more. The relationship should change from master. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. Decision Making .This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. 12. He should be an artist in human relationships.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. 9. Communication .Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. Rapport between the Management and Employees . 2.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. Socio-Scientific Approach . 7. 5.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. This is the latest democratic trend in management. 10. Better Human Relationships . Democratic Management . 6. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. it is not worth-while. who occupy the managerial positions. Cost-Benefit Analysis . 13. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . If the cost benefit ratio is less. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. 3. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .

the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions.g. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. 19. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. improvement of teaching methods. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance .9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept.too.These two are. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. to improve the quality of education it provides. objective. 313 . Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. and cooperative performance should be ensured. enrichment of curricula. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 18. 5.5. 14.5.

Fundamental of Educational Management. R. Co-curricular activities. Motiviation d. 2. d. and Personnel services. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. Examinations.K. it becomes the basis for school inspection. a.5. Leadership c. Communication 5. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. In group and Out group 5.5. (2003). e. Instruction.5. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. b. (1995). 314 . APH Publishing Corporation. Decision Making b. b. Classwork. (2001). Educational Administration. b. f. NUEPA. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. a. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. H.M. Tarachand and Prakash. a. S. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. a. 4. Singh. Syllabus. c.

Community and Mass Media 2. Communicable diseases . nutritional requirement. social Impact 3. Buddhist and Jain system of education.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.3 Directive Principles . 1.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.teachers should have : 1.3 Educational Influences of Home. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.2 Nutritional deficiencies.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Realized the problems of school education. 2.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. Economic 315 .1 Inculcation of Socialism. New evaluation procedures. Examination reforms. women education and teacher education in India. School. Preservation of nutrients. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.Imbalances and Variations in different environment.Preventive measures. Common ailments of Children. 4.I. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.Religious and Modern Education 1.Article 45 . Sex-education 4. Balanced diet. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.1 Gurukula system of education. wastage and Stagnation 3. higher education. Inspection and Supervision 3.Pre-service and In-services facilities.CORE PAPER . UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. First Aid. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. Code of conduct for teachers.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.4 India's Secular Policy . Education by Christian Missionaries 1. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.5 Regional Educational Development in India .1 Primary Education : Education for all.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.1 School Health Programme.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Healthy Food Habit 4.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. population education. physical education and environmental education 5.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.

1 Idealism. Realism. (1999) Culture. R. Ghanta R. Saraswathi T. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. and Sharma R. Delhi : University Publications 2. 5. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. REFERENCE 1. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. 316 . Pandy V.K. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.N.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . and Dash B. (2005) Foundations of Education.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: NCERT 3. Mishra. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Naturalism and Pragmatism . Hemchand.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Taneja V.4 4.R. Curriculum and national goals . Kalan Paper Packs 10.K. Mahatma Gandhi.C. 7. (2004) Problems of Education in India. T. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. Socialization.K.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. B.S. Ram S. Prof. Sharma.K. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. and Mohanty R. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment.N. Tagore 5.4. and Human Development. curriculum and teacher's role 5. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.Aim.