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SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I 7 .
9 . educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. discusses the regional educational development in India. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. Jainism and their educational implication. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. Lesson 5. and Jain system of education. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. In. Lesson 2. The need. Lesson 4. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism.
22.214.171.124.1.1 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 184.108.40.206.6.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 220.127.116.11.4.LESSON 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 18.104.22.168.6.1.5 Jain system of education 1.6 Education during British Era 22.214.171.124 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .5.5.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.4.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.
Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.7 1.1. “a class of persons. both present and future. 1. Muslim and British periods. British system of education presented the modern western model. you will be able to: 1.1.1. has a long past history starting in vedic education.8 1. 126.96.36.199 Sargent Report (1944) 1.1. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education.1. describe the Jain system of Education 4.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. in morals and in the intellect”. Education in India. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.1. Indian in blood and colour. That 12 .1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. in opinion. but English in taste. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.1.1.1. The history of education passed through Buddhist. 1. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. India.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. elucidate the education during British Era.9 1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.6.6. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.3.
12. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Free and Accessible. individually. 13. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. 3. if they thought fit to do so. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. 6. questioning by the pupil. There was. Method of Study. Curriculum. generally. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Pupils were taught. and to agriculture and trade. to light. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 5. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Forests as Centres of Education. Individual Teaching. 10. Teacher as Parents. 13 . religious and spiritual. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. from darkness. 14. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Religious and Spiritual. from eternal to immorality 2. It was not merely intellectual. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. It was also moral. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. 9. 11. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. The immediate aim of education. Immediate Aim Vocational. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. managed entirely by Brahmans. No State Control on Education. not en masse by the class method. the monitorial plan was followed. however. Education of Moral. Where pupils were many. 4. High Status of Teachers. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Residential Schools. Method of Instruction. followed by explanation by the teacher. Education was a private affair of the people. Role of Travel in Education. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. as it is generally considered to be at present.knowledge was real. 16. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. 8. with grants of land or money.
3. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . besides preparing for worldly pursuits. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Wide-Spread Education in Women. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. 2.1. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence. They were very cordial and intimate. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It was freely available to all those who wanted. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. It was suited to the needs of the society. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. studied Vedas. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. lived a life of celebacy.17. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. 1.
Right knowledge 2. taking things without being offered. Right speech 4.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. 2. the student remained in a state of Shramana. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. partaking of food at prohibited times. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. It was denied only to the ill. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. use of intoxicating things. Right thought 3. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Consequently. killing of any living being. Right memory 8. in which. Right means of livelihood 6. the most significant of which were the following 1. impure conduct. Buddha was concerned about the suffering.1. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. dressed himself in yellow clothes. watching dances or listening to music. etc. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. medium of Pali. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. use of cosmetics. which included abstaining from theft. Right contemplation 1. he was qualified to become a monk.4. I take Refuge to Dharma. Right endeavour 7.C. the handicapped. After attaining the age of 20. every class in society. the student had his head shaved of all hair.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. except the Chandals. 15 . He was then ordained to obey ten rules. disease and death of the human beings. 1. I take Refuge to Sangh. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. had the right to receive education. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. Right activity 5. Education was imparted through the.
which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. arithmetic and religious discussion. military science. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. has no metaphysical value for life. Later on.3. therefore. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. 1. nature. along with education in script writing. beg for alms. eat food thrice a day. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. aspirations and. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. meaning. of clothes. cottage industries. commerce. changing the goals. education was impart in art. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. etc.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. approach. it is regarded as true”. wear three items. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1.. knowledge of reviving the dead. control over sensuous activities. 2. 5. a continuous change creating 16 . geology. Life is in a flux. etc. be considered the aim of education It. so long as it successfully does so. 4. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. women occupied a position inferior to men. objectives of human life. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. animal husbandry. 7. 6. a change is not only total but also perpetual. It comprehended education in writing. agriculture. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. 8. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. archery. These are called later Buddhist schools. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. archery. elephant lore. On this occasion.4. Hence. assumptions. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. After this ritual. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. Whatever its nature and extent. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. however. the science of taming and training animals. the presence of the monks was essential. medicine. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. handicrafts. magic. and. etc. bodily gestures. Initially. depth and range. 3. As reality is becoming. Even at this stage. nothing is of any permanent consequence.
Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. Jainism insists 17 . and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. In fact.5. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. its pessimistic outlook on life. therefore. goes to Vardhaman. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. i. and to give it a shape that it has today. Education must. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. and its refusal to believe in supreme God.new and peculiar situations. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. it is much older than the latter.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. such as. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. However..1. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. whatever works are true and good. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. Validity is effective and consequences. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5.e. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Write Eight fold path . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. however. Its chief feature.
d) To lead a celibate life. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. 18 . and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. and believe in happiness to all. 2. 4. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. b) Right knowledge. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. 3. They are: a) Not to injure. 2. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. As such.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. thought and deed. 7. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. 1. e) To renounce the world. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. 1. 10.5. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. b) Not utter falsehood. rather than the interpretation of the universe. it has a foot in both the words. 9. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. 8. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Development of personality as an individual. 6. more stress on individual aims. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. but on both. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Hence. and is to be redeemed and liberated.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter.1. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. c) Not to steal. 3. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. 5. c) Right conduct.
3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Teaching should be social and tolerant. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Hence. 3. therefore. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . 8. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. What are Triratnas ? . education should develop sense of discrimination. Belief in transmigration of soul. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter.5. success and love. Jiva is essentially karmic. 1. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Teaching must develop these faculties.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. education must be action based and ideally oriented. 3. that would be socially desirable. 2. 5.5. and should bring happiness to all.4. 2. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. 19 . hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. here and now. practised and not only aspired for. 1. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories.
To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. 1. science. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”.1.6. 1. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own.1. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. 1. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”.6. 1953). and not for life. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute.6. North West Province and Punjab. To set up separate departments of. philosophy and literature of Europe.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. Madras. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. However. with rally and rout.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. Bombay.6. primary 20 . much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. 1. 2.
6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). At that time M. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. Later on. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education.education was neglected. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. 1. 1. Then the prevalent education was anti-national.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. • Secondary education. secondary education became a step towards university.6. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. namely. self-respecting and competent. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). To ensure qualitative improvement. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. • Universal free primary education. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. at the primary level. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant.K. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. 1. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. In 1882. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 .6. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. The universities dominated the secondary education.6. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement.
children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. 10. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. all children are to have a common curriculum. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. After this stage. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians.1. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. The objective of education was to provide 22 . The report suggested development of adult education scheme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want.At the primary stage (6-11 years).
2. It was suited to the needs of the society. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. geology. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. 4. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. 6.. 5. Right speech. Right contemplation. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. military science. questioning by the pupil. Right activity. Right means of livelihood. 1. establishment of universities. a. arithmetic and religious discussion. education was impart in art.1. handicrafts. archery. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 3. 2. During the Buddhist period.1. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. Right memory. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. the science of taming and training animals. followed by explanation by the teacher.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.education of European literature. along with education in script writing. Right thought. 23 . The system of education was well-organised. b. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. 3. 1. The immediate aim of education. science and English language. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. etc. Right endeavour. Right knowledge.
C. 9. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. 8.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Right conduct. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Improvement of Literature. Hence. 1937 1.7. b. and Nath. (1984). 24 . Sharma. R. more stress on individual aims.1. Right faith. J. Sargent report 12. (2005). 1882. a.K. Ltd. Development of personality as an individual. a. c. History of Indian Education System. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. Right knowledge.C. Y. b.K. Aggarwal. (2009). J. (2007). Singh. 10. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. 11. Development of Educational System in India. Y. Ltd.
2.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.5 188.8.131.52 1.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2.9 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.8 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.3 Kothari Commission 184.108.40.206.7 1.3.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.2. The 25 .2.6 1.2 1.LESSON 1.3.2 Secondary Education Commission 220.127.116.11.1 University Education Commission 1. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.1 1.
Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. medical and legal education. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. National Board of Teacher Education 10. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. secondary and higher education. vocational education. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. New Educational Policy. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1.conditions of the teachers. girls and women education besides primary. 2. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6.3. technical. examination system. curriculum.2. standard of teaching. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. technological engineering. explosion of enrolment. Post-graduate 26 . diversification of courses of studies. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. 1986 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. S. Kothari (1964-66) 8.2. 1.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided.2. you will be able to: 1. analyse the progress of education in free India. National Council for Women’s Education 5. 1. There had been vast institutional expansion. expansion of vocational.
4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. However. the chairman of University Grants commission. D. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. 1986. 1. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. accumulated over the years.3. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . Education for Equality.2. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. A. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. Kothari. Government of India. quality. Therefore. 1966. Problems of access. 4. utility and financial outlay. 1. Finally. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. The Essence and Role of Education. the New National Policy on Education. research et. Education is the key to our allround development. National System of Education. A meaningfully Partnership. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission.3.S. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University.3. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. material and spiritual.2. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. quantity. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. 1.teaching. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. in January 1985.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country.2. 1952. 3. 2. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency.
It can train practical aptitudes. the minorities and the handicapped. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. By working with hands. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. the concepts of work experience.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. The UNESCO Report. Thus. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. attitudes.2. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty.” Thus. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. 28 . work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life.
” the Kothari Commission mentioned. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. it will conduce self. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. The Radhakrishnan Commission. the Commission. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X.employment and promote economic independence of the youth.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. “It may be described. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. With adequate planning." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. According to. “The aim of these colleges. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened.” The Mudaliar Commission.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. Besides. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. if he wishes. As such. co-ordinations. The Education Commission. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. In 1955. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 .
the. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. Subsequently. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. for quality of life in the rural areas. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. admission requirements to vocational courses. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly.ot her.. With a view to relating education to the life. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. raising the special facilities. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. the rigid streaming of courses. In addition. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. The Central Advisory Board of Education. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. etc. the semester and credit system. Therefore. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976.
The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. Commerce. which are useful to the community. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. technological courses including Agriculture. who conceived the System of Basic Education. preferably spinning and weaving. etc. which swept the country for over two decades. meaningful. giving importance to productivity in the national development. The wave of Basic Education. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. which offer scientific. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. manual work resulting in either goods or services.defined S UP W as “purposive.and the world of work. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed.2. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. The Father of Nation.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. 31 . In short. aimed at this goal. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. 1. According to committee. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education.. meaningful. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. felt that education should be centred around a craft. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions.
3. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. The teachers should make use of. 32 . Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. be that the work involved is: 1. Clothing 5. Health and Hygiene 2. tools and techniques and 3. Community work and social service. Work practice.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. locally available materials and tools. Experimentation with materials. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Food 3. Productive 2. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. 2. as far as possible. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Shelter 4. Culture and recreation 6. 4. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Some Hints to Teachers 1. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Educative and 3. so that it is educational in essence. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home.
allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Merits of the Programme 1. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. removal of illiteracy. Education through work The SUPW should. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. 1. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. inculcate a faith. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Community Service In-1972. Check on educated unemployed 4. To make education more realistic. the local community should be actively associated.2. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. It can become an instrument to build character. Productive Work 33 . this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. etc.5. slum clearance. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. as far as possible. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Reduction of gap in work and education 2.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. 6. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. improve discipline. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter.
offering first aid. if not productive. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. should involve itself in the educational effort. AICTE was set up in year 4. in turn. Define SUPW 34 . Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. traffic control.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. etc. skills and better future for the children. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. The community. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. helping the adults-in productive work. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other .
8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.2. 2. f. meaningful. c.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. manual work resulting in either goods or services.2. which are useful to the community. 1. Radhakrishnan 2. a. 1952 3. 1955 4. 6. e.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. Dr. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. 35 . Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. 3. 1. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. d. Write short note on SUPW.1.2. b.
Publishing Corporation. Rao. P. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. Amala. Singh. History and Problems of Indian Education.P. New Delhi: A. (2009). and Nath. V. J.(2005).K.K. (2007). History of Indian Education System. Anupama. (2005). Y. A. Y.K.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. and Rao.2. : Sharma. (2007). Development of Educational System in India. 36 ..C. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt. B. R.P.D. History of Education.1. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.H. Ltd.
LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. 37 .3. equality. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.3. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. establishing the structure. assuring its citizens of justice.1 1. Being the supreme law of the country.9 1. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.1 Significance of DPSP 1.4 1. for a total of 117.3. democratic republic.8 1.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. 1949. and liberty. procedures. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. containing 395 articles.3.5 1.3.369 words in the English language version.3. directive principles and duties of citizens.3.2 1.6 1. 1918.104.22.168.3. there is an official Hindi translation. it came into effect on January 26.3.7 1. Besides the English version.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights.
the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. 38 . for 166 days. 1950. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. After many deliberations and some modifications. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. in sessions open to public. 1. The Assembly met. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. learn the role of central and state government on education. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 1. with Dr. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. 4. 1. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.In the August 14. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. legal and environmental. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature.3. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. economic. administrative. 1947 meeting of the Assembly.3. Two days later. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. you will be able to: 1. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. spread over a period of 2 years. understand our Indian constitution. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 3. Through them. 2.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. On August 29. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. the Drafting Committee was appointed.3. 1947. social. According to the constitution. political. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects.3. Dr.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. 1947.
That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Equal justice and free legal aid. The State shall endeavour to secure. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. 39 . The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. The State shall. Condition for dignity of children. for workers.government. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. That the health and strength of workers. sickness and disablement. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. make effective provision for securing the right to work. Article 39A. and in other cases of undeserved want. Protecting health of the workers. on the basis of equal opportunity. men and women. Article 43. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Article 42. Right to work. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. Equal pay for both sex. Minimising inequalities in status. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Protecting children from exploitation. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Article 40. No abuse of children. old age. Organisation of village panchayat. and shall. Liking wage etc. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. provide free legal aid. Article 41. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. in particular. Appropriate concentration of wealth. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment.
to all workers. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. (Original Article 45. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. in particular. Uniform civil code for the citizens. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. Note: Subs.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Article 43A. Article 48. Article 45. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. The State shall endeavour to provide. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Article 44. a living wage. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. agricultural. Article 49. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Article 48A. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. Article 47. and. in particular. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. industrial or otherwise. Participation of workers in management of industries. [declared by or under law made by 40 . of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. by suitable legislation or in any other way. in particular. 2002 for “45. See also Article 21A). work. Article 46. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. The State shall take steps. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.
(This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 51.3.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. Separation of judiciary from executive. from spoliation. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. 1. disposal or export. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. disfigurement. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. Article-21A Right to Education. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. destruction.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 .Parliament] to be of national importance. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. 2002. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2. Article 45 . removal. Promotion of international peace and security. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 50. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. as the case may be. may be law determine”.
race. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. and shall protect them. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. ii. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. 7. 6. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. 2002. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. his guardian has given his consent thereto. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. in particular. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. 4. 8. iii. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. 5. language or any of them”.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. from justice and all forms of exploitations. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. if such person is a minor. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. caste. 3. and. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or.” 42 . Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes.
Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. for its vocabulary. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. 2. The central government determines targets and promotes education. & 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9. wherever necessary or desirable. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. 43 . and by drawing. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions.3. Educational Reforms From time to time. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. the forms. Article 351 gives importance to 6. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1.
private agencies etc. 4. By starting these projects. 6. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. 8. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Production of suitable for children and adults f. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. So as to encourage education on right lines. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. So that they may work well. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. etc. Local bodies and private enterprise. to achieve the desired ends. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . 7. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. The following pilot projects. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. the state governments.3.. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. All India Council of Medical Science. 5. Organisation For carrying out educational plans.
12.3. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. 11. 4. 10. are published by it. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. etc. 1. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. research. 3. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. training and statistics. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. 9. The 45 .Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. handicapped. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. education for women. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. books. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. is the state responsibility. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. reports etc. 1. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education.
Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 46 .3. Article 46 4. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Explain Directive principles 2. Write short notes on a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. Article 21A c. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 1. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.3.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. 5. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Article 45 b. articles in the Directive principles.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles.
embodied in Part IV of the constitution. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Dr. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. The Directive Principles of State Policy. b. 4. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Clearing House function 9. 1. b. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. may be law determine”. a. Article 29 and 30 7. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. 2002. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 46 5. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 3. a.5. Article 45 . a. Development of Hindi Language 6. Ambedkar 2. Describe the educational role of State Government. Article-21A Right to Education.3. 2002. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. 47 .Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”.
3. 48 . New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd.1. S.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. B. (2004). Dash. Education in Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Ghosh. (2009). (2007). L. (2008). K and Narang C. S. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K. N. Bhatia.
1 Why Moral Education 1.1 22.214.171.124.2 1.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.6 126.96.36.199 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.4. Islam.8 1. Christianity. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism. religious education should be broad based.4.4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.4.5 188.8.131.52 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.3. Buddhism etc.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India. Students should be 49 .4.4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.7 1.4. Jainism.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4 Moral education 1.4.4.
Thus. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. integrity. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions.D. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. religious education and the concept of secularism. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. you will be able to: 1. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline.” Education broadens human outlook. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. know the position of religious education in our country 3. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). duty-consciousness.4.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. As result of which. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world.. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. In the complicated and complex society of today. 1. According to E. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. "In A multireligious society like ours. state meaning and need for moral education 1.and dedication. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. beauty and goodness so that 50 . naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life.4. India' can produce men of character. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions.
religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately.” From the above. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. According to Article 22. realizes God in himself.3. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. As our country is a country of diverse religions. According to Article 19. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. They thought that any kind of narrow. Viewing the defects of religious education. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. No religious tax can be imposed on them. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. all citizens are free to follow any creed. if not regularly.4. 1. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. rancour. 1947 we achieved our freedom. through religious practices and 51 . 1. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. Children attend these organizations. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. castes and creeds. at least occasionally. religion and democracy are same.4. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. As a matter of fact. it is clear that the State has no religion. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world.3. Thus. Hence. In short. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate.
and what is evil. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. aggressive. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. It is religious education. temperament etc. what is done and what is not done etc. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. intellectual and physical faculties of children. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. and other impulses are often denied direct expression.. when he becomes an adult. Good education. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. moral and spiritual values. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. He also learns about social.teachings. As a result of which. It helps to modify habits attitudes. If unreleased. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. one fully developed. which help him for the development of his character. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. which can mould. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 .” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. for the development of the individual and the society.
Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. 2. 3. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. 53 . Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. which is the basic need of a democratic life. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. If we open the pages of history. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. towards the society. Therefore.3.4. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. This should not be allowed to happen. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. 1. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man.
the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. 11. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Gurudwara as. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Write Article 22 2.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 9. therefore. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. For this.4. they should be discussed in the right earnest.5. 10. fellow-feeling. churches and mosques 7. stories of moral greatness. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Since all religions have virtues. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. examples of patriotism. Life histories of great persons of the world.
Satyam (truth). 1. 8. therefore. Patriotism. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. 3. Self sacrifice. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Moral education. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. 1. 2. is that which develops moral values. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Brahmacharya (celebacy). students. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. 6. The content of the curriculum. 2. Aparigarha (Non. 7.4.4. the methods of teaching. 3. Non-injury. 8. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 7. Asvada (Control of palate). 55 .6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. 5. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. 5.acquisitiveness). Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. It they learn what morality is in their early years. 4. 6. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. in the home. Swadeshi (Patriotism). they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. let men see well of one another. They will play their role effectively. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Fearlessness. Cultivation of emotions. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Service to others.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. 4. Purity. “Let all be happy and free from disease. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Without moral values.
4. religions may be included in the syllabus.9. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). loyalty and self-sacrifice. 3. 11. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. 4. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. 56 . 10. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. discipline. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Good temper. Secondary Stage 1. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. National unity and Spiritual values. minutes in the morning for group singing. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. Efficiency. Unity of mankind. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. 1. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Good manners. In the school programme. Discipline. Sharivashram (Physical work). The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. 3. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. Asatyam (Non-thieving). saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Integrity. 2. Simple texts and stories concerning different. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 .
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Silent meditation should be encouraged. 4. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. patriotism and self-discipline. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. love of humanity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. 3. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. University Stage 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. should form a normal part of school programme. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. 5. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour.4. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. 2. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. 57 . Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. In this connection. In other words.
The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 58 . a. 2.4. Discuss the aims of Religious education. 1959 5. 2. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. 1.1. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. b. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. Sri Prakasa 6 . They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. Training of Character 3. 1. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. a. For this. a. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education.4. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. In short. the.4. 4. The School Assembly should be held for a few. b. minutes in the morning for group singing.
11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.H. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2007). L. M. New Delhi: A. New Delhi : Siddiqui. N. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. K and Narang C.P.H. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2008). 59 . Anmol Publications Pvt. Bhatia.4. K. B. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. P. (2008). (2004).1. N. Pahuja.C. Ltd. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Dash. (2003). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. J. Theory and Principles of Education.
5. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.3 1.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4 1.6 1. i.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 184.108.40.206 1.5.8 1.. disparities between provinces/States.9 1.5. 60 .5 1.5.11 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.5.2 1.1 1.e.12 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.5.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also. Although.220.127.116.11 1.
they take appropriate measures. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. Accordingly. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2.5. energy.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. for example. 7. roads.5. 1.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region.5. know the education suited to different environments. This leads to separatist movements. 5. 61 . 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. 6. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. 8. work hard towards this end.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. you will be able to: 1. waters. 1. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 3.5. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. etc.1. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. understand the regional educational development in India 3. 4. They therefore.
The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. 3. on the basis of regional development may be formed. Therefore. 4. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . some average. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. Secularism. while others remained educationally backward. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. 62 . remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided.5. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. and. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. 2. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. education as a fundamental human right was recognized.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. Tight security arrangements should be made. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. • Separate States (of course viable States). some States became educationally far advanced.
84 crore was released in 2005-06. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. In the Central sector. library buildings. Nagaland and NEHU. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. Jammu and Kashmir. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. However.14. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes.480. etc. Rs. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. After the attainment of independence. and provision of informal education to enable those.392.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. Central Universities of Assam. 1. Regional Centres of IGNOU. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Funds amounting to Rs. NIT.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. the State Governments. while some States like Bihar. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans.After the Planning Process has originated. Even in each State. Itanagar. approved proposals worth Rs. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. etc. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Mizoram. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. scholarships. academic buildings. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. remained under developed. Guwahati. These projects are in various stages of implementation. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e. Silchar. books.g. 63 .5. Out of this. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. NERIST. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education.. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. the Union Government. since its inception in 1998-99. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. Tezpur. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT.
The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. A provision of Rs. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.500.501. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west).In addition to the funds released under NLCPR.8 per cent in 05).60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006. Government expenditure on education. Out of this an amount of Rs.187. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.05 crore and Rs. During 2003-04.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. Tezpur University. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.261.5. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. too. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1.40. Moreover.57 crore and Rs. 64 . Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.
A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. telecom. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. Karnataka. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). pharma. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. notes the study. Listing the positives. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. To add to the woes. Karnataka. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. 1. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. Kerala and Gujarat. health services and welfare of the citizen population.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . Moreover. too. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. Tamil Nadu. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. Medical education. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. too. English. for which 16 sites. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. The Chandigarh Administration. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. too. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Andhra Pradesh. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. engineering and R&D.5. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. for instance. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab.
even actually looking at the watch. The living conditions. the vocations. the needs. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. 66 . Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. the curricular subjects. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. the interests. For a learner living in a rural area.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. the socio-physical conditions. Of course. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. while the former does not. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. the teaching methods. The working hours of educational institutions. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. in which the learners live. Hence it is called as need-based. life-oriented and environment slanted. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. when he will not be sure of time. Then education become realistic and idealistic.year. the working days: an academic . Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. and so on. taking the average in the middle. which a non-tribal person cannot do. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. In the same manner. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.5. 2. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1.5. 67 . 2. to suit education to different environments? 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
New Delhi: Authors press. S. (2001). (2008).G.2. Educational Development in India.K. Giridhar. during the British rule. some States have become more developed than others b. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. S. remained undeveloped 3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. C. Dubey. (2002). a. Education Scenario in India.N. R. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.5. and Nair.H. some of areas which were under the native rulers. (2001). 68 .13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. 60% 1. A. Education in Developmental Arena. Salim.
UNIT – II 69 .
National Integration. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. 71 . The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. school community and mass media. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. semi literate and illiterates. community development. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education.
1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1.4 18.104.22.168 2.1.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.6.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 . SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.5.1 Main features of Socialism 2.3 2.1.6 Education for Secularism 2.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 22.214.171.124 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.8 126.96.36.199 2.LESSON 2.9 188.8.131.52.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.1.1 2.1.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.1.5.
4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. socialistic and secular state.1.1. for the people by the people”. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. you will be able to: 1. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. Abraham Lincoln. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and.1. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. understand the concept of democracy. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Democracy thus means power of the people.1. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. 73 . In the matter of admitting students in schools. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. The students may be associated with the management of the school. colour or wealth. 2. socialism and secularism 2. creed. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.2. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. socialism and secularism 2. 3) Provision of Manual Work. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. This is the political aspect of democracy. there should be made no distinction of caste. 2.
7) Promotion of Self-Expression. 8) Opportunities for Social Service.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. 12) Visits to Legislatures. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. 74 . There are different brands of socialism.1. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. Democracy means 2. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. may be planned. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3.. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. declamation contest etc. 11) Student Parliament. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. debates. 2. it soon spread all over the world. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems.
2. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. service and cooperation. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. Under it. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.1. but on the path of non-violence.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools.5. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. free from exploitation. none high”. 7) Special facilities for girls. 2. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. oppression and disparity. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 2) Socialism aims at equality. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 75 . “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. the prince and the peasant.5.1. the wealthy and the poor. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.
Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders.1. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. "which seeks the development of physical. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. “India is a secular-country.” In every political and educational corner. 5. 76 . Everyone says. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. secularism is being propagated. Write any two main features of socialism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. According to Holydake. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. 11) State schools.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values.
9) It stress free inquiry. That is why. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. 8) It believes in co-existence. A large number of people is uneducated. fraternity. 2.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. In this type of prevailing situations. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. 2) It permits freedom of religion. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. 3) It permits freedom of worship. “Webster further says. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. people started believing in regionalism. There is need of making the people open minded. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines. liberty. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities.1. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. education etc. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. 5) It implies tolerance.1. should be independent of religion. 77 . people have narrow mindedness. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. People have different religions and they have different beliefs.6. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. the belief that the state morals. During the recent past. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations.6. Moral values have to be imbibed. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values.opposed to religious education. Equality.
Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. students belonging to different religions should be associated. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. Religious Education. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. education.1. The very sight of the building. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. Patiala. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. In the celebration of each such function. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. There should be some internal checking of the material being. that the central string of all religions is one. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. tours and trips may be organized. 1) Moral Education. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. While doing so. 2.presented by the students in the gathering. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. No doubt. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions.6. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. In the hands of such teachers. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.Corruption and disbelief are rampant.
The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. Define Secularism 9. 2. The term secularism was first used by 8. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students.7 LET US SUM UP 79 .1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. The word “Seculum” means 7. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. No doubt. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
there should be made no distinction of caste. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. George Jacob Holydake 80 . b. Socialism aims at social justice. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. This present age 7. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. 5. Tuition free education b. 3. 5.1. b. 6. Socialism aims at equality. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. colour or wealth. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.1. Equal Opportunities for Admission. 3. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. 2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Power of the people 2. In the matter of admitting students in schools. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. for the people and the people”. a.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. d. a. c. The students may be associated with the management of the school. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. 4. creed. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 4. Provision of Manual Work. Respect of Individual Personality. secularist and socialistic attitude among students. Abraham Lincoln. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. Since socialism stands for equality.
K. (2004). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. b. should be independent of religion. Ltd. a. (2008). According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. P. Mohanty. the belief that the state morals.C. Dash. (2003). (2007). B. It treats all religions on an equal footing. J. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2005). School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Anmol Publications Pvt. a.1.8. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 81 . L.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. K and Narang C. N. It permits freedom of religion. N.” 9. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. b. 10. Bhatia. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Pahuja. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. J. education etc.
2.3 2.2 2.8 2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.LESSON 184.108.40.206.6.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 220.127.116.11 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.10 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 18.104.22.168.6.7 22.214.171.124 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.1 International understanding in the school 126.96.36.199 2.2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.9 2.4 2.2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.5.
But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. understandings. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. you will be able to: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2.generation to another. mental. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. emotional.2. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. as workers. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. as persons. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. as learners. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. The developmental roles of children. as citizens. social and moral aspects.an instructor of school children. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. It involves physical. skills. a r e 1. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. development. 83 . moral. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. 2. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. therefore. A teacher is first and foremost. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. 2. who are placed in his custody. as it is t he aim o f modern education. 3. application. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. and 4. aims and objectives of the school. social.2. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2.
socially. Teacher as a Citizen Next. morally. intellectually. 3. 2. The following are some of such roles described in brief. member of his community at the outset. social and emotional health. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. He is to become an active member.2. physically fit for socially efficient. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. mental. 2. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. culturally confident. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. emotionally. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. a part of their day in 84 . Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. inquisitive. He has to look after their physical.All education should lead to better behavioural development.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. The students live. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. morally. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. economically effective. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. and aesthetically to become. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. experiences and acceptance. 1. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. mentally. motivated.
This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. solve them. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. India is a land of many castes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. faiths. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. science club.the school being under the custody of teachers. 2. activities of the society into which he is born. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out the role of teachers towards community development . the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. languages and religions. photographic clubs. Unless. and most of hours.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. 4. It 85 .2. fine art associations. Dr. They will be spending with their parents. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. creeds.
the citizens of the Republic of India. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. It should broaden the outlook.is. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961.2. with straight backs and look up at the skies. 1. Nehruji has explained this as. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. narrow-minded provincial. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. ‘We should not become parochial. a. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. therefore. folklore and teaching of social studies. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. Radhakrishnan. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. and make into one strong national unit.5.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . should be emphasised. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform. social studies. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. b. c. the study of language and literature. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. The only process is the process of education. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. Sampurnanand remarked. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. poems.” Regarding the role of education. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. national anthem and other national songs.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one.” 2. stand up straight. At the primary stage the importance of stories. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. this integration of the Indian people. Let us.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration.
Student Camps. and picnics. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. educational excursions. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Reverence of National Flag. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. 9. 6. Textbooks. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. dramatics and youth festivals. Singing of National Anthem. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. 3. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung.different social sciences. militar y training like the NCC. 7. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. tours. 87 . In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Celebrations of National Days. National Days—January 26. 5. Uniform for School Children. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. 4. ACC. 8. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. Scouts and Guides. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. 10. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. debates. symposia. languages and literature. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Taking Pledge. t he st udent s and t he community. 2. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. sports. Co-Curricular Activities. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s.
2. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. 12. Recognition of Institutions. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery.5. colour. School Projects. region or religion. Open-Air Dramas. Admissions. ii. 16. flora and fauna. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . ways of thinking and doing things. Admissions to schools. 88 . Educational and Travel Documentaries. iii. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner.11. 15. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. v. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. language. iv. 13. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Students Exchange and Tours. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own.2. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. 14. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. vii. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. Community dinners. 2. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. viii. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’.2.vi. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define National Integration 3.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. ix. cultures and races on equal bases. irrespective of national boundaries. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. camps.
Organising of debates and.friendships between children of different countries. This. 4. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. 5.as important as that of a national citizenship. Radhakrishnan states. Therefore. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. Dr. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged.2. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war.6. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. patriotism is not enough.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. of his body and mind. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. Teachers 90 . and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.6. that war. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs..1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. often in connection with anniversaries. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. 3. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. and the healthy development. if it happens. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. C. (c) fairly tales. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. Strong has observed.2. the international level. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. 2.e. 6. In a very real sense. therefore. (b) stories of children of other lands.” 2. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .F. 2.
Impartial in their Treatment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Indian and American. They should not be propagandists.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other.” Well Informed About World Situations. Russian. a German. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. an Englishman. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
there is wide spread frustration among all people. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. 4. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. Wide Spread Frustration .Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. which results in agitation and aggression language. 2. 5.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. majority of people are. leading to.Another major. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. Chronic Poverty . If this is done. the education function can be carried. and help the students to over . A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. Soon after they leave their educational institutions.2. understand and indiscipline: 1. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . It does not prepare students for life. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies.2. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. As the school is but a miniature society. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. Devaluation of Values . Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee .Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. 3. Defects of the educational System .
etc. 2. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. love. 3. 2.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. 2.2. 5. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. List out six characteristics of a good teacher.democratic nature. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. sympathy and good will among the nations. community development. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 93 .9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. 4. co-operation. fellow feeling. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 188.8.131.52 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 184.108.40.206 Functions and role of schools in the society 220.127.116.11 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 18.104.22.168 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 22.214.171.124 Radio as an agency of education 126.96.36.199 Television as an agency of education 188.8.131.52 Press as a medium of education 184.108.40.206 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
220.127.116.11 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 18.104.22.168 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
22.214.171.124 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
126.96.36.199 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
Emphasising this thing. Moreover. led to the printing of books. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. In fact.V. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. art galleries. Hence. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. periodicals. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Crow and Crow write. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. During the course of time. 2. Now internet is being used. Museums.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. To make them achieve their aim. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. Then came newspapers. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. books. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. “All the citizens of the community. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. the invention of the printing press. He taught his students orally. Define community.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. are increasingly used in education.
for the teacher through school broadcasts. Thus. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force.6. In collaboration with the experts. Thus. A lot of work by way of pre.classroom teachers. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. It is also an important source of entertainment. Students listen various talks. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. In the emphasis is on sound. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Effective means of presenting music. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. politics. “Listening participation” in current history. It stimulates curiosity and interests. 101 . Reynolds. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. languages. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. current affairs and other areas. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. music. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. the teacher still occupies. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. the place of importance. 2.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. Important happening inventions. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom.3. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. It enlightens public opinion. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. 2.telecast. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. rather than on picture. Various talks. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. social studies. Many gaps are to be filled up by them.G. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. art. dram appreciation.
The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. 102 . projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. style. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. at any place. 4. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. development of lessons. Making learning an open system. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. travel talks. Participation of local teachers and pupils. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. projects or creative activities. informal and non-formal education. School concerts. audibility and presentability. Educational radio excels through dramatisation.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. speech. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. at play. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. mathematics. Team-teaching demonstrations. Before presenting the programme. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. plays. 5. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. at drawing room. at recreational centers. At present. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. 3. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. fol classical music.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 188.8.131.52 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
184.108.40.206 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 220.127.116.11 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
3.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.2 2.4.4 Limitations of formal education 18.104.22.168 Agencies of Non formal education 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 22.214.171.124.4.4.4 Non formal educational system 126.96.36.199 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.1 188.8.131.52.6 2.4.LESSON 2.5 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 184.108.40.206.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.8 2.4.7 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.3 Advantages of formal education 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 220.127.116.11.
you will be able to: 1. 3.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. the learner are acquainted. his mental alertness. it was mostly. 2.4. open school. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. say the Government or the private enterprise. 6. Education. Education organised by some agency. 3. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. 2. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education.4. 4. the most important agency of formal education. 110 . starting and ending at -a particular age. open university. the family.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. imparted at the residence of the teacher. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner.4. compare formal and non formal system of education. 7. 2. 8. the community. the mass media et. School is. 4. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. Education associated with a degree or certificate. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. 2.4.3. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. the temple.2. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. 5.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To realize this objective of education.. 2. In ancient time in India. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. 9.
Concepts of proportion.4. the elements of language are first learned. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. diplomas. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. or post secondary education. such as a high school or secondary school. depending on the jurisdiction. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Higher Education: Higher education. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals.3. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . structured education. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. also called tertiary. or academic degrees.4. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. Through early formal education. In general.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools.3. as well as vocational education and training. 2. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. third stage. Some education systems have separate middle schools.2. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. capacity.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality.a secondary education. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start.
Agencies can be classified as 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.3.4. and remote dwellers. children with disabilities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. late beginners etc. 2.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. 2. 4. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.4. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system. is an important agency of formal education. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 .which will help for nation's development. 3. What are levels of formal educational system? . Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.
Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. open learning. Adiseshiah. Thus. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Therefore. systematic. “Non-formal education should 113 . Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. adding up to a true learning society.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. Open university. i.learning client take some learning objectives. curriculum. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. staffed. financially supported life formal education. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. until 1970 it had not been defined. admissions.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action.e. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. However.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. etc. one could say that non-formal education is an active. planned. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. It is deliberate. It unlocks the doors of development plans. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. It is functional.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured..” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. According to Malcolm A. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. continuing education and on the job oriented education.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. it has its own valid claim to reality. place of instruction.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. to help themselves. adults as well as children. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. It is much more responsive to needs and change. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. it is a more effective tool for rural development. systematic. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. Non-formal education includes adult education.formal education. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system.
It should lay emphasis on the self.4. 2.” According to H. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. place of education. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. To develop in the student. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. the Ideas of citizenship. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. co-curricular activities. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs.4. evaluation etc. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. 2. 4. 6.e. To help industrial workers to better their skills.4. admissions. Part-time education. 3. 7.S. Process of sharing. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. curriculum. national integration. Flexibility in various aspects of education. international understanding. 114 . Covering life span of an individual. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. Preparation for future needs.renewal.learning pattern. socialism.be marketable and vocationalised.4. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.S. modes of teaching. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. exploring. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. i.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Lawrence. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.” 2. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. self.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. age. 5.
To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. 8. • 2. To offer Secondary. 5. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. 115 .4. 7.4. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2.4. 9. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. Technical. 2. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. Meeting the omissions of formal education. Eradication of adult literacy.4. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. working adults. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Universalisation of primary education. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. Senior Secondary. school dropouts. 5. 3.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. 4. 6.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 10. publication and information dissemination. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 4. 3.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. in villages and those who live in towns. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. 2. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods.
etc. 2. 2. To increase knowledge and 2. factory. if organised in isolation. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . farm. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. centres of correspondence education.4. open space. public libraries. training centres in factories.4. Radio and television. etc. 4. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment.2. self-employment iii. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home. library. others are formal and informal. To better qualifications. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. Institutions for formal education. Again. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. Therefore. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only.4. To make if. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. effective in modern societal context.full time to learners – can be home. 3. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii.. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . All-round development i.
V. Give examples of non formal education? . Define non formal education. . Face Contact programmes. institution. radio. Correspondence lesson. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 6. 117 .6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Written tests. 7. List out any two aims of non formal education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Lecturing T. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Teaching to face teaching.
2. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Primary level. 118 .4. Open School. systematic.4. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. 3. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. 4. Open learning and Correspondence Courses.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 2. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Pre-school level. 4. Secondary level. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. b. the college and the university come under this category. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned.4.” 6. adults as well as children. 5. Formal and Non Formal 2. Higher Secondary level and University level. Explain the different levels of formal system of education.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. b. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. a. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. 2. Open University. 7. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. a. School 3. The school.
(2004). K. Anmol Publications Pvt. J. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ltd. (2003). (2008). Gupta. Dash. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Pahuja. (2005).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. J. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. B. Mohanty. Ltd. Bhatia. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. L.C. (2008). N. P.4. S.2. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. K and Narang C. N. Education in Emerging India. New Delhi : 119 . Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
3.3 Objectives of Open University 2.6 2.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.3.LESSON 2.4 Open University 2.2 18.104.22.168 Philosophy of Open University 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 Need for Open University 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.7 2.5.5 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 188.8.131.52 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.1 184.108.40.206.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 220.127.116.11 Continuing education for literate adults 18.104.22.168.5.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5.5.
2. give the meaning. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. However. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. you will be able to: 1.5. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. labourers and half educated individuals.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. For them. characteristics of open university 4. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon.3. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. It is a continuous process. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . 2. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. It is a lifelong process. This knowledge may be in political field.5. farmers. continuing education is a boon. 2.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. know the need and objectives of open university. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. Any person. industries. Under these circumstances. economic field or such other fields.5. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. Thus.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture.5. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. 2.
deteriorating to his character and personality. T. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. Doctors. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education.V. if he gets opportunity to develop them. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened.V. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Block Development Officers. 2. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Cinema. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Thus. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress.3. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge.literate person. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Throughout the country. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons.5. Persons engaged in health services. For them too continuing education is essential. On the other hand. cultured and progressive. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . are also contributing their might for the purpose. Radio.directly related to his job. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. Radio and T. After the achievement of independence. On the other hand. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening.
(1) ancient history.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group.5. 2. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. (7) folk songs.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. 4. (6) folk stories. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (2) basic religious matters. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (13) psychology of child behaviour. Of course. (10) first aid. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements.V. 5. Inspite of the great efforts. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (8) psychology of adults. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. 3. 2. 6. habits of people of other lands. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. we have not been able to achieve our targets. These books are not very useful.3. and Radio. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (16) liking. especially women. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. (17) modern international and national events. 7.3. (14) information about bringing up young children. 123 . (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. (15) music.5.. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. 2. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. (4) the fundamentals of economics.
Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. lack of time etc. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.5. attendance restrict ion. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . of educational opportunities. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e .5. NLM was launched in the year 2.4. 2.
IGNOU was established in the year 6. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. 2. and in teaching. 4. c. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. Which was the first open university in India? . T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. No one is too old or too late to learn. d. 5. Education is not a once for-all process. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world.4.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. the higher the degree of openness. its education is not class room based but home based. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.unobserved. but 125 .” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.5. 3. e. it makes use of educational techno logy. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. 2. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. b.
T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. it a ims at wider and hig her. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1.who did not get it. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. 3. 2. Mo re o ver. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. 6. cho ice o f co ur ses. 2.4. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. supplementing the existing provision. 4. or who realised too late that they need it. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. 3.5. 126 . T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 5. 2. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books.5. 2. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. 4.4. who were deprived of t he same earlier. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s.
a society. Tutor Comments. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Therefore. 2. 1. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . Laboratory works. List out any four methods of Open University? . In the present day world. 8. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . semi – literates. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 5. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 6. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. school drop outs. 127 .no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored.5. 3. you have learnt the concept.4. 2. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. 7. a state or nation. Self instructional materials. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 8. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. Correspondence tuition. Every day.5. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.
The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 7. unskilled workers and other professionals. 6. P r int med ia b. need and characteristics of Open University. youth. 8. Explain the objectives. aspirants for continuing education. 4. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n.5. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. 2. b. 1988. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. which may include house wives. 9. cho ic e o f co u r ses. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. d. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. Broad casting lectures c. (4) the fundamentals of economics.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. a. (1) ancient history.5. 2.ambitious learners. 7. a. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 128 . (2) basic religious matters. 1985. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. its education is not class room based but home based. a. b. agricultural and industrial workers. Television Lessons. 8. 3.
(2004).S. Reddy. K. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Modern Problems of Education.2.5.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.K. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Udaiveer. K and Narang C. (2007). Ltd. L. (2004). S. (2001). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 129 . R. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia.
UNIT – III 131 .
In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. its causes and remedial measures. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. and teacher education. Training teachers for all levels of education. the education of women. wastage and stagnation. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. 133 . Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. All which is the need of the hour. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. Examination reform. In Lesson 2.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. which may claim the attention of those concerned. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. examination.
7 3.LESSON 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1.1 3.1. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.2 3.3.3 New initiatives.3.5 3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 22.214.171.124.1.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly. 135 . schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.6 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.1.4 126.96.36.199.2 EFA – How? 3.1.8 3.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.
“The State shall 136 .3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. 3. you will be able to: 1. On the other hand. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. Eradication of Illiteracy.1. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE).1. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. 2. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Therefore. education received added importance and significance.3. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. Continuing Education (CE) 1. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. may be political. directed that. (EOI) 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. social. economic or cultural. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI).” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. understands the country. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. therefore. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people.
Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. rights and responsibilities.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Therefore. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Continuing Education (CE). After the attainment of independence. Three Stages for Universalization. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. Due to the adoption of democratic system. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Universalization of Retention. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. the national Government under. 3. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves.endeavour to provide. Universalization of Enrolment. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. It enables the parents to send their children to School. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. 137 . The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. 1990. present and future. It is safe to assure. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. then to 1976. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal.3. 3. Therefore. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. later to 1988. This target had to be revised to 1970. Write Article 45. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. UNESCO Bulletin states. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. 138 .” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools.1. educational enterprise. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. 1995 (for upper primary stage).CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.
the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. 3. 139 . This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. 10. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. The Social Education. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. 8. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. their enrolment and retention. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. adolescent and adult. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 5. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. their social economic status and occupations.1. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. creed. 9. NAEP. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). the art of preparing fruit-juice. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Education of Girls. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. 3. Disabled. and Women’s education programme should be improved. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. 6. FELF. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. Emphasis must be given on health education. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. rural areas. problem of literacy. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. By undertaking survey. Apart from primary education. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. Jams and Jellies. Education of the Impaired. slum areas. nutrition education and sports and games. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. 12. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. 11.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. etc. Early childhood education should be streamlined.3. sex.
3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.1.1. Wastage and Stagnation. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.3. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. 4. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.3. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools.e. Expand MLL and SSA . Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4.
Familial Factors . Social Factors . School Factors .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2. Personal Factors .first stage of education.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. it is considered as wastage.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.
occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. . . Define Wastage. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. 142 .
Family Factors . School Factors . Societal Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.The following factors. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. relating to home. Personal Factors . They are described hereunder :1.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .3. rural or urban 3.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.1. school or society. in his home.
stationary.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. etc. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Define Stagnation? 9. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. mid-day meals. 144 . uniforms.
4..1.1. therefore. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA. 3. b. “The State shall endeavour to provide. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. improvement of curriculum. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. 6. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education.1. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA.” 3. 3. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. Hartog Committee. 4. Universalization of Retention 2. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. a. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. 3.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Universalization of Enrolment c. directed that. a. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. 2.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Universalization of Provision b.3. 145 .
New Delhi: 146 . T. 9. 3.N. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. (2007). New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. b.7. introduce graded curriculum. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Crescent Publishing Corporation. a. Problems of Elementary Education. improve examination system.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S. S.1.K. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Social Factors 8. Familial Factors c. a. (2001). Sharma. School Factors d.K. (2008). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Hemchand. Personal Factor b.
188.8.131.52 Problems of examination 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.LESSON 3.2.6 Inspection and Supervision 184.108.40.206 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.7 Let us sum up 147 .1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 22.214.171.124.2.2.7 Open book examination 3.5.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.2.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.4.5 New evaluation procedures 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.1 126.96.36.199.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.2.4 Question banks 188.8.131.52 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2 Grade System 184.108.40.206 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 220.127.116.11 3.5.
10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.3. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .2.2.8 3.3. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.2. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. you will be able to: 1. suggest the new evaluation procedures. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. Besides. 4.2.9 3. 3. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. 3. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.2. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . 3. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.2. 3.2. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. but on the other.
separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. 149 . 3. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. They develop secondary sex characteristics. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. waiting rooms for girl students. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. etc. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each.. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. etc.3. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. etc. which the educational authorities have to face. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. schools for them wherever necessary. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. hostel facilities. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. The following steps should be taken up.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. roadside Romeoism. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. They may cause problems relating to discipline. If the students are in sufficient number. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing.2.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. conduct of internal examinations. Instruction. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. With the mass growth of educational enterprise.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.4.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. It is considered as a major sub-system. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. appointment of paper-setters. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. 3. teachers. public administrators and statesmen.2. 150 . the examination system has an important role to play. assessment and Finance. public interested in education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations.2.
2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. examiners. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning.4. 3. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance.printing and distribution of question papers. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. training of examiners.2. etc. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. etc. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. introducing objective-based testing. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. etc. scrutinizers. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . validity and practicability. invigilators. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. announcement of results. tabulators. establishing reliability. etc. values. etc. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. pursuing objective-oriented instruction.
They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. 3. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. 2) From the angle of content of education. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. Rote memorisation. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc.4. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. Subjects.2.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. 152 . Vagaries in making. 7) In connection with the question papers.. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. stereotyped questions. lack of objectivity etc. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education. do not appeal to the students and parents. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. it s a common experience that subjectivity.. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. 3) With respect to method of teaching. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. halo-effect. takes the place of comprehensive learning. which they are expected to study.. may also discredit them. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education.
Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. List any two merits of examination. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment.a part of internal assessment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. revaluation. re-numbering of answer scripts. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations.. 153 . may be introduced. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. 4. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests.develop true love for education. Spot valuation. .
attitudes.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. Advantages More autonomy is given to students. The new scheme of assessment.2.5. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. In this system. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. Every paper is treated equal. It is complicated. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure.5.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests.2. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. In actual practice. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. 3. skills are given importance. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth.2. The students can take any course offered in any department. Their interests. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent .3. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . When a person chooses to work extra. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. he is given extra credit points.
or as a 4 credit course.poor. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. only the total credits to be earned is specified. Groupism is encouraged. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. 3. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. This system reduces comparison of marks. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. In the new system. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. An example is a seminar. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. courses can have weightages defined. These weightages are called credits. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 .5.good. v.discipline. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. poor. While designing syllabus.2.
It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. 3.2. 156 .4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.5.5. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. 3. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. the need for re-evaluation should not arise.5.2.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. However.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency.2. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. 3. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. 6.2. Therefore. There are no proper procedures for selection. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard.5. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. 3. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . List any four new evaluation procedures. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . In the hierarchy. However. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. . and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. recruitment.
Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. Academic inspection. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now.. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. of late. school buildings.qualified personnel. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. 158 . providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. books are followed. requirements. They are. in contrast. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. in a sense.. 3. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. etc. etc. interpersonal relationships and so on. disciplinary problems. finding out whether the prescribed text. library books. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. staff. qualifications. inspecting the class-room teaching. finding out the adequacy of. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. When they are fully realised. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. laboratory equipment.2. whether the syllabus has been covered. complaints and compliments. playgrounds. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. wherever necessary. being realised as two different functions.6. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. 1.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. submitting of the inspection reports. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. taking up the follow-up programmes.
Being a special category of educational administrative officers.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. Insistence on specialisation in the B. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. M. course in either educational. 3.. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. aptitude. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose.Ed. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. once in five years. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. their professional knowledge. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. at least. courses. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. In the case of departmental candidates.Ed. 159 . educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. Similarly. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. modern. In the light of these conceptualisation.. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. or. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection.2. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors.
2. 4. 3.2. c. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Grade System. b. a. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. Instruction. assessment and Finance. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. d. a. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. 160 . 3. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. 3. 3. b. Administration.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. b. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. a.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.2. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom.2.
10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished.2. 3. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. R and Sharma. 7. c. (2002). b. Vaidya. b. New 161 . Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. S. 5.a part of internal assessment. Question banks. a. K.4. Problems of Education in India. Open book examinations. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . a. a. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Educational Reforms. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. K. History and Problems of Education in India. Multiple sets of question paper. (2005). Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. b. (2004).
impact of Higher Secondary Education. 3.7 3. you will be able to: 1.3. 5.8 3.3. identify the needs of rural India and social. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.3.3 3.3.1 3.3. 4.3.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. 2.LESSON 3.3.6 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. 3.3.9 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.2 3.4 3.5 3.10 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 162 .3.3.
which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. The Calcutta Madras. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. and 3 years of First Degree Course. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses .. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. The. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. 8 years of general education.3. etc. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines.e. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. i. University Education. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. 10 years of general Secondary Education. Similar is the case with some other States. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States.g. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre.. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. the Banaras Sanskrit College.specialisation programmes 3. Commission emphasised to continue.. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i.. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. 2. e. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857.e. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. in Andhra Pradesh. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission.3. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. Consequent on the recommendations. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education.
However. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. 8. to prepare. habits of hard work and develop . The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . 3. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. 6. social. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . 7. educational channels. to imbibe. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. historical. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. 10. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures.3. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. economical and political. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. who desire to change from one stream to another. cultural and economic development of the country. Provision for transfer of credits to students. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. b.confidence in students.a sense of dignity of labour. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. and. is also a plus point . 5) to help for the social. 5. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 .
Sociologically it is undesirable. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. etc. international understanding. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. democratic living. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. on one hand.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing.3.. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. Philosophically it is not the conception. Here the choice of subjects is provided for.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. The General Educational Spectrum. cooperativeness. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. to develop national character. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. and. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. social justice. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. 1. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission.national integration. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. cultural and' religious tolerance. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. 3. Psychologically. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. at the other. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. and that required to enter the tertiary level.
The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. All these need for an. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. industrial agricultural production is growing. and vocations based on dairy-farming. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. the rural areas have suffered very much. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. such as Agriculture. 166 . semi-skilled and unskilled levels. 3. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy.— tube-wells. 2. educational and cultural services. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. physics or mathematics. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. Commerce and other disciplines. fish culture. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. medical plants. India is a land of villages. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. technical. Biology. rural health. professional. vegetable growing. or other machinery. technological. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. commerce. Agriculture is the main occupation. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. horticulture. In the vocational spectrum. Science. In the matter of language. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. commerce. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. chemistry.3. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. In our country.
etc. social justice.. and 5. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. In this way. In this it may be concluded. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the local resources available. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India.3. In time. 3. 4. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. and the needs. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. can be ensured. etc. interests and aptitudes of the students. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. There had been favourable reaction from the students. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States.
Vocational Sepctrum. (2008). 3. (2007).a sense of dignity of labour. Ltd. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. New Delhi : 168 . General Educational Spectrum and b. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. J. a. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education.3. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Anmol Publications Pvt.3.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. b. Calcutta University Commission 2. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. 3.3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2001). we studied the history. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. to imbibe. a. S.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. 3.K. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. 2.C. a.3.3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Dash. Mohanty. objectives. 3. N. B.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. (2005). J. habits of hard work and develop .
8 18.104.22.168. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.2 3.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.1 3.13 22.214.171.124.5 3.10 3.4.LESSON 126.96.36.199.12 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 188.8.131.52.4. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.4.4. social and 169 . but the lighting of a fire”.6 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.9 3.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.11 3.7 3.4.3 3.4.4. Education contributes to human development.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.
The relevance of women’s education to social. These courses were.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. There is a close connection between education and development.4. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. although we have miles to go.4. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. 3. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. In the post —independence period. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women.higher education in particular. Home Economics.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . For the first time in the history of India. higher education of girls developed immensely. Nursing. Teaching and Fine Arts. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. Education . 3. economic. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. family. community and nation is universally acknowledged. Dr.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. While women constituted only 9. analyze the women and distance education. During the year 1937. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. you will be able to: 1. cultural and political development of the individual. particularly 170 . can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5.
ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education.4. 3.N.0 43. in our country.2 29.65 lakhs in 1994-95. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.0 Today. In the rest of the country.women.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.1 24. Coimbatore. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. Kodaikanal. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.2 22.1 31.0 16. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. we have more than 1200 institutions.D. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. In 1950-51. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. out of 9200 and odd colleges. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. levels and professions. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. 3.0 32.9 14. Yet. Mumbai. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. The idea of women’s education for equality.4. Mother Teresa Women University. Even today.9 27.4. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).T Women University.
1 and 14. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .83 47.73 10.44 35. 3.4%) prefer Arts subjects.4. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.34 33.1 respectively. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.27 89.63 Female % 34.56 64.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54. 3.4.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.66 66.47 65. 2. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 . particularly in the technical and industrial streams.17 52.that of boys.53 34. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.54 12.36 3.46 82. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .4.
In every third family. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. According to a survey. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. financial difficulty of the parents. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. etc. The major hurdles. Thus. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Also. 3.4. promoted and increased. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. In college. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. irrelevance of the content of education. They gave up their studies to enter home life. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. she will only learn fashion. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. and coeducation may spoil her character. 173 . Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. curriculum not suited to their requirements. distance of the college or university from home. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. what is the need for higher education for her. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. Book banks should be established. particularly. marriage is a very common I factor. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. They argue that when their daughter need not earn.hinders the girls from getting higher education. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education.
Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. It is a productive investment.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. Geographic distance of educational institutions. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. Distance education is a boon to women.4. 3.economic disabilities faced by women. and the limitations of the conventional education system. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development.4. is the only tool for realising empowerment. Education. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. There are constraints of time.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. resources and socio . Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. Empowerment in a nutshell. space. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. It also brings about 174 . Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. It enables to study. Full-time employment. 3.
empowerment means being assertive. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. on their own. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. legal awareness and economic independence. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. 3. education of women is of paramount importance. education of women must be given priority in national plans. Empowerment is an active. higher learning.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. The major objectives of women's higher education. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. This can be achieved through reflection. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. Women are partners in development. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. for full development of our human resources. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations.4. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them.
which had been the sole domain of men. Reservation for women.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Better opportunities. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. 176 . 3. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. who are eager to take up courses. will encourage them to venture new grounds. has to be implemented at the earliest.4. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. which is pending for a long time. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. But their number is small. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. The educational institutions. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. especially so in the developing countries. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. The local administration. Scholarships and concessions for women.
Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century.8%). IDP Education. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. engineering and related technologies (16. Australia. Chief Executive. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests.4.9%). Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. Also. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. According to Lindy Hyam. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent.1%) and architecture and building (38.000 women in the country. talents. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low..3 percent. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. capacities etc. especially in developing countries like African countries. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. But.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments.
and Swain. 3. Rao. (2008). Kodaikanal. Mumbai. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.4. Annakodi. (2007). and Suryalatha. Women and Education. individuals and society b. Mother Teresa Women University. 4. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. 178 . Coimbatore. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Mishra. R.R. A.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.to the family. (2005). SNDT Women’s University. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. 2.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. S. Women Education. Rajasthan 5. create the right attitude towards life. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. A. SNDT Women’s University. R. community and the nation.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 3. (2000). Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. 43% 6. Pattanaikj. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.4. Women Education. Centre for Women’s Studies. a. R. Mumbai.4. Coimbatore.K. 4. S. 3. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3.C.
5.4 3. whole.5.2 3.5.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3 3.5.8 3.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.5.5.5.personality of children in and out of school.5. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.9 3.1 3.7 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .5.5.6 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.11 3.10 3.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.5 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education. They should be trained. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.LESSON 3.
social and emotional integration. 3.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Lack of physical facilities. international. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. 180 . It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. understanding and strong desire for international peace. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. understand the training teachers for Primary.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Dearth of new technology of teaching. know the pre service and in service training facilities. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. national consciousness.5. equality and justice. 5. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. 3. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels.5. you will be able to: 1. 4. and national character. Shorter working hours.
a Diploma course and a Degree course. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. and the collegiate teacher education. etc. the secondary teacher education. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. students.5. levels. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. and M.Ed. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . conduct examinations and issue certificates for B.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. it is called the In-service teacher education. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. who have not been trained earlier.5. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. higher secondary teacher education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. (NCERT) New Delhi. 3. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. it is called the Extension teacher Education.. the state Government. At the diploma level. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. Inadequate training in practical skills.Less qualified teacher educators. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . the primary teacher education. inservice and extension education programmes. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise.. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Lop-sided curriculum. the centre.Ed. 3. If the student teachers are working teachers. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. Depending on the levels.
• the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . depart ments etc. Educational teehnology cells. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . non-formal. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Also Guidance Bureaux. 3. collegiate cells. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory .. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Evaluation unit. etc. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training.5. Education cells. Expand NCERT 2. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. extensio n service.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. are established. state Institutes of Educat ion.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Science Education units.
Ed. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. degree. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. to ensure teacher competence. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas.. which should include experience in the primary schools too.. primary and secondary school teachers. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. to offer consultative services. and 183 . to prescribe conditions for recognition. to improve curricular programmes. schools and sister institutions. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . which help breaking isolation from one another . and so on. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. audio visual aids. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. laboratories..Ed. material conditions relating to libraries. should be improved on a top priority basis. despite its vast expansion.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities .
methodology and evaluation. though no pre-service training. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. Modern Methods of Evaluation. Psychology of Students. The problem.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. To meet this exigency. etc. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. whether they should have professional education or. Modern Techniques of Teaching.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. Meanwhile. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. not came up once again. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Agriculture. and XII. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. etc.secondary education. Organisation of Content Courses. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. Induction Courses. Workshops. Hence. 184 . in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content.
The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. State Institutes of Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b..5.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. M. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . courses and M.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. 3. training. Pre-service training is for those. Ajmer.. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. (Education) and M.. Courses leading to B.Ed.Ed. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. Degree.’s for Ph. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. These facilities are available for regular students. (Education) are organized by 185 . (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Degree and M. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.D.Ed.S. All B Ed.A..Ed. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. in Education. State Councils of Educational Research and Training...A.Ed. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.Ed. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.’s are elig ible for M. Post-Graduates also undergo B. For re-orienting the teachers.
established by tradition and teachers of the past. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. 186 .List any two code of conduct for teachers? . . 5. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.. of conduct—written or unwritten. Hence the employability of M.).5. they should be conscientious ..some Faculties of Education of some Universities. (Ed. and B. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. 4. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3.A. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.A. (Ed). Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. What is the role of ERIC? . 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. However.
Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. 5. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. 6.5. 187 . The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 3.5. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.5. a. Ajmer. However. 2. b. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education.3. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. 3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Explain code of conduct for teachers. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. Shorter working hours. they should be conscientious. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. The necessity is however this. 3. a. 3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. Dearth of new technology of teaching. 2. b. National Council of Educational Research and Training. Discuss the problems of teacher education. a.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. 4. Bhopal.
Tewari. Teacher Education.N. A.5. B.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. Teacher Education. Publication Pvt. Mohanty.D. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 . J. P. (2003).3. and Teacher Education. Ltd Aggarwal. Corporation. (2010). New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. (2009).
UNIT – IV 189 .
The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. The person’s environment is equally important. consuming the right amounts becomes important. nutritional deficiency diseases. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. the focus is on the school health programmes. preservation of nutrients. objectives. 191 . our attention shifts to physical education – its need. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. economic and educational developments. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. In lesson 1.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. objectives. common ailments of children. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. Since food is the source of nutrients. In lesson 4. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. communicable diseases and their prevention. objectives and role of the physical education. If the diet is poor.
1.LESSON 4.1.1 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important.7 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.1.9 4.3 4.4 4. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.5 4.10 4.2 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1.1.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.6 4.1. 193 .1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.1.8 4.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.1. mental.1.e. emotional and social. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody.11 4. physical. It is a miniature society.
practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. you will be able to: 1. Instruction. 5. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. 10. 8. cleanliness and healthful living. To give information regarding health rules.1. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 194 . 4.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. 2.1. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. 7. 6. explain the importance of First aid 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. to his family and to the community at large. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. content of health education.. 9. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner.g. To develop certain skills concerning health. list the common ailments of children 3. know the need for sex education. 4. 4. training of teachers and evaluation. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. e. 3. 11. understand school health programmes 2. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. training in first aid and etc. To develop healthy health habits among children.
The flooring should not be damp. 4. (v) safety education. Vaccination for small pox. First aid facilities should be made readily available. There should be regular water supply. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. The surroundings of schools should be clean. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. Arranging better transportation facilities. as described below 1. There should be good drainage facilities. cleanliness weeks. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. vaccination. The school buildings should be spacious. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. Toilet rooms should be amply provided.4.coming or absence. (viii) first aid. B. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. 3. etc. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. (xl) mental health. direct lighting. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. (vi) nutrition education. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. excusing late. play festivals.. is imperative. B. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided.. proper doors and windows. suitable furniture.C. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. 5.1. (xii) smoking education etc. ( iii) sanit at io n. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. 2. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. (ii) communit y healt h. minimizing the travelling distance. Triple Antigen Vaccination. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . 2. “Play-for-all” programmes. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. organisation of school health days.G.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. typhoid. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. inoculation against cholera. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games.
• Find out the cases. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. fainting (epileptic fit). bleeding. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. • Take nutritious food. burns. C. isolate and notify. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. fractures. D. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. wounds. • When sleeping in groups. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. and other accidents. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. • Close the schools. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. etc. 196 . The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. if epidemic is wide-spread. dislocations. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. cuts. drowning. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row.. • Keep all rooms clean. insect stings.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • Have adequate rest and sleep. scalds. poisons. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. sports and games in the interest of their health.
pain in the joints. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. List out the Health curriculum 3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. tuberculosis. There are three stages in any communicable disease. backache. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. Mention the school health programmes. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . They are: i) The incubation stage. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. Once these germs get into the body. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. cough. These diseases are called communicable diseases.1.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. So they easily get illnesses. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. measles etc. water or bodily contact. 4. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. fever. polio. 4.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. headache. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. 2. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. asthma. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. which are – cold.. They have less resistence to diseases than adults.1. chicken pox.
Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. After three or four days of fever. Diarrhoea . Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. unhygienic bottle feeding. Tonsilitis . This is caused by cold virus. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Throat is affected. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Scabies . sugar and water. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting.This disease is caused by bacteria.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. 198 . nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air.When a child suffers from scabies. The virus is present in the secretions of throat.It is caused by measles virus. Measles . Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Others make the children very weak. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. etc. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. unhygienic living conditions. Some suffer cold due to allergy. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Children catch cold from persons having cold. eating food which is not clean. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. The following are the common communicable diseases. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Mumps . The child may have fever. The symptoms include cold. Hence it is called a killer disease. Hence liquid diet is recommended. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Ear Infections . Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. head-ache and cough. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. cough and fever. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Common Cold . The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Important salts and water are lost in this process.
Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7.• • • • Chicken Pox . These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. It begins with fever. What are communicable diseases? 6. Shortly. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. Diphtheria . The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. face and waist. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. the child may die. Typhoid . The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. By scratching he causes secondary infections. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. As the disease progresses. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. separate. Expand DPT .This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. the child is not able to breathe. 199 . Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. Enlist the common ailments of children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. raised pink spots appear on head.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. The child may also have diarrhoea. 5. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. If proper treatment is not given. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days.
” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. cuts. scorpion stings. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. In such cases. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education.1. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. Sex is popular. Sprains . dislocation. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. and Community Work and Social Service. fainting. snakebites.g. head injury. man-woman behaviours.1. 200 . swelling. etc. and films. eye injury. 3.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. It has its rightful place in education too. sprains. fiction. Cuts and Bruises .4.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. It is both biological and psychological. 5. it is a subject of art. so-called sex books and periodicals. bleeding. exciting and body-oriented.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. 4. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. 4. simple fractures. bruises. 2. wounds.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. Drowning . sprains. Wounds . which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. films and jokes. drowning.
Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. B.. 2. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. in their ignorance. In secondary schools. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. health. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. try experimenting with their bodies. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. the school. celibacy are age. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. but preserve them from disaster and disease. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. Hence. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. The home. Should the boys and girls. the religious organisations. sex education is being recommended in schools. The values of life. In today's liberal and interactive society. 3. they would be treading the path of sure doom.old values. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives.
first aid and sex education. there will no crisis in its implementation. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. C. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. the school health programmes. 4. communicable diseases and their prevention.1. common ailments of children. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. What are the major components of Sex Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Teacher education institutions are. when the courses are already overloaded. hence. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. 202 . It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 184.108.40.206 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 209 .CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the food nutrients 2.
2. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . Let us talk about each of these aspects. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. 210 . Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a.2. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients.4. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. If you look at the definition carefully. minerals. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied.
In other words. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 .g. In the case of adults. There is no point. A balanced diet is specific firstly. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals . This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. Preferences/customs are also important. sex. People in the east of our country prefer rice. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety.6. Even within given States there is considerable variation. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet.g. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. dosa are typical of the south.one in the morning and the other at night. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). Rice or rice preparations such as idli.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. activity level and physiological stress. construction labourer). paratha and poori. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e.2. it is also specific to a given activity level . a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. 4. for example. These are: region where the person resides and income. moderate or heavy work. the social and religious practices of that region.sedentary. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal.
This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. however. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. In addition to these. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. These determine the acceptability of foods. One must. Having more money. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Including these 212 . however. for example. income plays a vital role. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. customs. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. Even among flesh foods. If you think of your own religious group. Judicious selection of food is. As you read this discussion. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. taboos related to food may play an important role. As income increases. nuts and dry fruits. as important for the rich as for the poor. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. vegetables and fruits. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. One person may be fond of milk products.planning the diet. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. Among the social factors. however. while another may hate them. However. fat and sugar tend to increase. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements.
17. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . mouth. 8. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . but they should be thrown away. Define balanced diet. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. over-eating or under. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. For this. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. fruits. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 8) Walk a while after eating. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. List out any two healthy food habits. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. meat. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. green leaves. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 213 .eating is hazardous. if the teachers have good food habits. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. eggs .
good nutrition is essential for good health. Night blindness. In fact.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Keratomalacia 3. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Conjuctival xerosis. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A.2. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. a. Corneal xerosis. When the diet is inadequate. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. 4. Explain food nutrients 4. Beri Beri 4. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. Discuss good food habits.2. b. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. Bitot’s spots. c.4. 4. Vitamin D 5. e. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer.2. d. preservation of nutrients.
P. (2008). Food and Nutrition Education. (2009). (2004). Nutrition and Dietetics.M. S. Chopra. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. a . R.2. a. A Text Book of Foods. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. b. Nutrition Science. R.C. (2008). (2005). U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s .11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. 7. Food should be consumed after eating well. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . mouth. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. 8. Sri Lakshmi B.6. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. Hands. Health and Nutrition Education. b.N. Food and Nutrition Education. 4. minerals.
220.127.116.11.1 Impact on social development 4.11 4.3 Impact on Education 18.104.22.168 4.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.1 4.LESSON 4.3.7 4.10 4.3.8 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.3.3.12 22.214.171.124 Impact on economic development 4. 216 .4 4.5 126.96.36.199.3 4.9 188.8.131.52.2 4.
It is not sex education. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4.4.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. 4. family planning and sex education etc. objectives and need for population education 2. his family. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. Whenever we talk of sex education. characteristics and changes for himself. understand the importance of small family norm 5. and the consequences of these processes. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. his societ y and the world. state the meaning. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation.3.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. 4. the stress is. community. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. the causes of population change. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. There is some difference. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. economic and educational development 3. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 217 . A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. therefore.3. It is a much wider co ncept. you will be able to: 1. Population Education. aims at providing the younger generation.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. describe the impact of population growth on social.3. population characteristics.
3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. the nation and the world.3. Define Population Education 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. the society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .4. the family.3. 4. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well.
3. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. economic and educational development of the country. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Family is considered as a social unit. Every second two thousand children are being born.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. 219 . Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion.3. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. the family programmes are also handicapped. When the family is small. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. With the larger families.6. 4. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. health and happiness of its citizens. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. 4. which will not be possible without population control.
220 . But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. organization index and material index. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. unemployment. Swollen cities. in parks and other places of public gatherings.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. lack of proper health care. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. heavy intern I migration etc. teacher index. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production.3. and so on. in buses and trains.. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio.6.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. The gulf between them is widening further. facility for drinking water. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. i. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt.e. pollution of the environment. toilets.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. in cinema halls and theatres. In developing countries. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. 4. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. Many students herded in a small room. 4. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. there is an inverse relationship between population and development.6. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified.3.
can be taken up. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Social Studies Statistics on population education.. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. 221 . The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. blank verses etc. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. and laboratory equipments. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. bar graphs etc. There would be poor library facilities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. essays. can be studied in science and health education.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. less space facilities. thus. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. even text books would be in short supply. Regional Language. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. family planning etc. There would be very few audiovisual aids.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4.3. Hindi and English. less budget for education. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. reproduction.
5. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. Children may compare two families. Canada. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Bihar. 9. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved.4. area and average density of population. 11.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Brazil. United States of America. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. China. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. 13. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. 14. causes of deaths etc.3. 15. 2. Uttar Pradesh. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. deaths. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. 12. They may arrange them as per average density of population. 8. 10. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. West Bengal. 3. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 4. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . 7. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Children with the help of parents.
be opened in their schools. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important.3. 16. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. preferences for sex. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. values and role children etc. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. 18. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. age at marriage. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. we have no right to stop 223 . Comparing life in various respects in two families. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The question. 17.
Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . 4.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. Since the program's inception. which education can only do. at varying places in different regions. the total fertility rate decreased from 6.to emphasize family planning services. on an overall basis.3. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.their entry into the world”. The Family Welfare Program. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children.4-6. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. “He who is responsible for population growth. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.were implemented 224 . however. and the child survival components of the news: program. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. More than 45 years ago. especially the expansion of child immunization services .6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. continued . The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). should be overcome at the intellectual levels.
various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. men. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. expansion of services to unmarried women. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . the community appears willing to pay for services. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Moreover. In April 1996. reliance on local women as community health workers. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. and the World Conference on Women. At these meetings. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. and nominal fees for services. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. In October 1997. Therefore. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995.earlier than the safe motherhood components. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. Local programs vary in their approaches. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. a focus on health promotion.
to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. Describe the impact of population growth on social. Its main purposes are to create awareness. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. community. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. 4. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process.emphasizing the needs of the client. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7.3. What are the goals of RCH? 4. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. economic and educational development 4. 226 . What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. family. 1997). involving the community. nation and the world.
increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. b. a. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. his family. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. Canada. 6. characteristics and changes for himself. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods.4.3. bar graphs. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. China. 3. a.” 2.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. area and average density of population. less space facilities. and the consequences of these processes. less budget for education. population characteristics. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. b. 7. Brazil. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. 227 . 5. the causes of population change. a. his society and the world. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. 4. United States of America. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff.
3. Modern Problems of Education. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Coimbatore. (1992). (2005). Ltd. “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. A. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. J. (2004). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 228 . Kantikar. Jayapoorni. Udaiveer. Centre for Women’s Studies.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. T. Ltd.4. Bhende. Changing attitudes to Education in India. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. N. V. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Reddy. Principles of Population Studies. (2002). (2005).K. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.
8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.11 19.5 4.8.3 184.108.40.206.10 4.8.4.LESSON 220.127.116.11 Lead up games 18.104.22.168.4.3 Indigenous games 4.4.1 Minor games 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.6 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .1 4.8.7 22.214.171.124.9 4.2 126.96.36.199 4.2 Major games 4.
leadership and balance in defect.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness.4. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. the youth of the country. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. perseverance. mental alertness. which forms its most valuable assets. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. 4. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. team spirit.4. 4. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. The concept of physical education has been made broader. full records of physical activities should be maintained. moral fitness and emotional fitness. you will be able to: 1. as it should 230 . classify the different types of games.4. social fitness. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected.4. understand the importance of Physical Education 4.
Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Therefore.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. They are inseparably united together. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Every individual is a part of society. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. leadership. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. They go hand in hand. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. The educational efforts at home. obedience to rules. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. To be more precise. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. team spirit. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term.
” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system.” The Secondary Education Commission. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. Just like Education. ment al. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. Regarding the significance of physical education. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. game and sports. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. Physical exercises. pleasing manners.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical.4. C. nor body but the whole man. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.” Montaigue writes. Buck has observed that 232 . “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. H. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. a sound health. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. 4.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. mo ral. Rousseau states.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it.
resourcefulness and smartness. initiative.a properly directed physical education should result in health. flexibility and power. etc. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments.” In brief. happiness.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. speed.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief.” 4. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. “If we wish to develop the whole being. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. 233 . Froebel says. elegance. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. coordinative abilities. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. strength. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. we must exercise the whole human being. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. endurance.4. efficiency and character.
poetry and painting. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. 234 (i) (ii) .Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. While wars. in greater or lesser degree. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. its adherents and its enemies. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. they may form gangs. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. including all racial groups and historical ages. these fundamental things have always been present.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Every age has its artists. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. plagues and famines. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Tournaments foster this sentiment. If no opportunity is provided to the students. systems of government.
2. self.sacrifice. B. 3. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. obedience. etc. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. respect for rules. to develop tolerance. Write any two importance of Physical Education. 235 .\ to develop perseverance. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. bravery and interest in games and sports. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly.
Be well-prepared. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential.4. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. .4. Be in the uniform. Always keep the whistle ready. Be self-confident. 15. and. injuries among pupils should be made. Posture screening should be done. 16. 6. defects. 14. Inform health principles. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 9. 8. 11. Keep the field ready for the activities. 5. 12. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. and readmission after they have recovered. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Act as a leader. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Emergency care procedures should be followed. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. 4. Be punctual. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. 7. 13.4. is essential. Haag. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health.H. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 2. Usually parents. 236 1. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. students.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Be sportive. 3. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. 10. 4.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J.
instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. 4. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. the play.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Such inst incts as imitation. 3. Moreover. 4.4.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. 1. their development is handicapped. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. less equipment and less expense. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. Indigenous games. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules.8. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. Lead up games. 237 .4. frolic and jo y. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. chasing.
Jumping.8.. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. boosting. on hard courts. muffling. hitting. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Kabaddy etc.4. finding the partner. stopping. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Except a few games. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Soft Ball. some of them are played indoors. They are played for a shorter duration. skipping. pitching. driving. On lawns. trapping. over ball pass Relay. benefit in playing minor games. 4. Cricket. heading. spiking. dribbling. While many of them are played in the open playfields. For each game the rules are many. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. They are rules approved by the International Associations. with implements or without implements. Khokho. The dimension of the posts and nets. Shuttle Badminton. These games require varied skills such as running. Hopping. Jump the stick clay and so on. 238 .With a very few rules. Dodging. couple tag. Tennis. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. under ball pass Relay. Tennikoit. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. the number of players and substitutes. the play equipment. Hockey.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. on mountain tops and on river beds. wherever the kids assemble. the games can be modified according to convenience. zig zag relay. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Basket Ball. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. catching. Volley Ball. women take part most of the games. on sea-shore. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. Throwing. snatching the kerchief. bowling etc. Ball Badminton. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Kho-kho. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 .8.4. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. An example for indigenous game is 8.4. List out some major games. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. they are in existence. birth. On occasions like marriage. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. these games being popular. All the fundamental tactics. 4. Games may be classified as 6.8. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. While observing the players in action. and . festivals connected with religion and public functions. 7. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. death.4. For example. They have an abundant social value.
a. to secure physical health b. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 4. b.4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. d. to develop physical stamina. Briefly discuss the different types of games.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. 3. Schools should help students to keep them mentally.4. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. c. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. b. 4. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Posture screening should be done. b. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. aims and objectives and need of physical education. Minor and Major 240 . 3. a. a. physically and emotionally fit and alert. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. 2.4. 4. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. a. 5. 4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept.4.
Khokho. Aggarwal.C. Khokho 8. Krishna murthy. Volley Ball. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Foot-ball. 241 . Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Mohanty. (2005). G. J. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers.K. Tennikoit. Ltd. Basket Ball. Physical Education and Sports. (2008).12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Hockey.4. J. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2008). 4. Soft Ball. Kabaddy 7. Handbook of Physical Education. J. Shuttle Badminton. Tennis. Ball Badminton. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. (2009).6. Cricket. Health. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.
6 188.8.131.52.5.5. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .2 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.11 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.2 Manmade Environment 184.108.40.206 4.5.10 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.LESSON 4.7 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.9 220.127.116.11.5.3 4.4 4.5.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1 Natural Environment 4.1 4.5.
5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. aesthetic and educational factors. Participation. Knowledge.educat ion for the environment. Evaluation Ability. Attitude. 4. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 6. Awareness. 243 . 3. 5. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. it covers the following elements: 1. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. 3. The best place to start such learning is school. you will able to: 1. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. Skills.5. Details are given below: I. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. 4. 2.5. 2. population explosion and resource depletion could be. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. economic. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. political. 4. Essential knowledge about the Environment. list out the types of environment 3. education about the environment and education through the environment. social. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. Broadly.
• Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. 244 . 2. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. F. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen.B. heat sink and wind flow in cities. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. D. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Oxidants Other pollutants. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. a. • Biological magnification E.
3. 3. The pill ii. c. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Persuasion: i. Family planning ii. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. economic. Abortion iv. III. Sterilisation. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Intrauterine device iii. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. The human ecosystem II. 2. 2. 4. Control of population growth a. Socio-economic measures. B. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Use of medical science i. Birth control through education b.
(UNESCO. 3. Water pollution abatement. 3. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. 246 . 2. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. 1983). e) Recycling. Define Environmental Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Air pollution abatement ii. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. Planning human intervention on the natural processes.
6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . He modifies according”.5.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. a. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.5. 4.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. fax agricultural apparatus. b. Any constituent or condition of the environment. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. includes the plants. animals and other organisms (biotic). -other.5. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. A change in one brings about a change in the other.5. (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds.other components of the environment. to his needs. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. telex. These are biotic components. They interact with each.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. Biological environment The biological environment. way is called environmental or ecological factor.5.5. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the .4.
ozone depletion. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . population. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. windmills. over exploitation of ground water. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. ozone layer deplet ion. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. trees reducing noise pollution. supplying timber for various uses. importance of nitrogen cycle. sources. mineral survey. industrial pollut io n. food chain and food-web. balance of nature. wars and hazards of war. etc. evolution. preventing siltation of dams. noise control.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. use of medicinal plants. social studies. biogas plants. are the topics which may be taught in History. greenhouse effect. noise pollution. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. river systems. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. desertification 248 . acid rain. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. nuclear energy. t heir role in preventing pollution. History The rise and fall.. of civilizations. excellent recreation sites. etc. change in climate may be added. air pollutants from industries. explosion deforestation. use of pesticides. need for bio-diversity. relation between population and pollution. role of trees in building economy. nuclear warfare. solar cookers. effects o f CFC. effects. sources of pollut ion. natural way of controlling pests. preserving the watersheds. extinction of species. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. need for conservation. reasons. maintaining the ecological diversity. alternate sources of energy. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. water scarcity. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. industrial survey. (ii) Air pollution.
13. group discussions and seminars. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. animal and plants. Developing habits of cleanliness among students.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 12. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. 249 . Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. aims and scope.5. 10. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Organising conferences. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. 6. 2.may be inc ded in Geography. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. 3. 5. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. 4. Peepal and Tulsi. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 8. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. 7. 11. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Providing. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. 14. 4. 9. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education.
Use public transport wherever it is possible. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. all these can cause serious pollution. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. 6. it will cause pollution. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. or form a car pool for everyday travel. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Don’t burn any waste. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal.Send their waste oil. Reuse carrier bags. 5. World Environmental falls on 250 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Never put any left over chemicals. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. used oils down the drain. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. especially plastics. If it is done. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
To initiate and develop discussion and debate. etc. depletion of ozone. dest roying nat ural habitats. CFCs. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. deforestation. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature.5. rather than conquest and mastery. Social responsibilit y (common good. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. To provide materials needed for practical work. To arrange visits or expeditions. orderliness and beauty). and 251 . etc. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. (cleanliness. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection.). developing desirable attitudes. viz. Conservation of natural resources. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. To provide reference materials for children’s use. potable water. diversity and stability. nuclear wars. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. Concern for species. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry.. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. concern for others). Att itudes of balance towards nature.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. loss of bio-diversity.4.mat erials. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. values and habits. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. Harmony with the nature . To arrange for visiting speakers. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. The groups may exchange.
5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.5.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. preserving natural cycles. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.5. 252 . 4. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 8.
S. Environmental Education. population.K. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Kuldeep. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Awareness. sources of pollution. Social responsibilit y (common good. To provide materials needed for practical work. Education for values.K. (2004). b. importance of nitrogen cycle. sources. a. a. Anmol Publications Pvt. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. a. new problems from science and technology. concern for others).K. b. Publications Pvt. b. greenhouse effect. Providing. acid rain. Y. ozone layer deplet ion. Ltd. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. (1997). water scarcity. New Delhi : Sharma. Environment and Human Rights. reasons. 5. over exploitation of ground water. Modern Problems of Education. Ltd. Knowledge.\ 4. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.K. group discussions and seminars. Organising conferences. T. Rapid population growth. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . effects. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. (ii) Air pollution. S. 4.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. June 5 7. New Delhi : Authors Press. (2007). (2007).5. 8. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Environmental Education. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. a. 3. Nanda. relat ion between population and pollution. 6. Udaiveer..2. b. explosion deforestation. air pollutants from industries.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 18.104.22.168 Idealism and aims of Education 22.214.171.124 Idealism and Curriculum 126.96.36.199 Idealism and methods of teaching 188.8.131.52 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 184.108.40.206 Naturalism and aims of Education 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and Curriculum 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and methods of teaching 22.214.171.124 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 126.96.36.199 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
188.8.131.52 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 184.108.40.206 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
enrichment and transmission of culture. According to Rusk'. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. The universe is regarded as a thought process.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. Spiritual Development. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality.1. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. Education according to idealism. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. It is self-realisation. Education must contribute to development of culture. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. Universal Education.our life. in fact. man is essentially a moral being. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. the emancipation of spirit. promote and transmit it to rising generation. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve.3. should be universal in nature. moral. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. Therefore. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation.” 5.
3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. The plant can grow. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. According to idealism.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. hygiene.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. Learning through discussion. According to Frobel. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. Herbert advocated instruction method. Learning through questioning. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage.1. subjects like Languages. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. However. 4. no doubt. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. an indispensable necessity. affecting (feeling). So cognition (knowing). Learning through lecturing.” He is thus. For this no particular method has been suggested. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. a spiritual guide for the child. He carries the child from darkness to light. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. 5. Science. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. History. So health. should be there. and collation (striving) should find due place.the spiritual qualities of mankind.3. friend and guide. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. so subjects like Religion. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. the school is a garden. It considers teacher as.” 5. For intellectual development. Learning through imitation. Ethics.1. 3. 2. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. An idealist teacher is a philosopher.3. Philosophy. He sets the environment in which education takes place. Mathematics etc. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. Learning through reading. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. 5. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. So he should embody.
text books. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century.4. "Education should make 263 • . It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. formal lessons or examinations.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. curricula. 5.perfection and beauty. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self.preservation. time tables. Ross explains. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. In the words of Ross. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. 5. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education.1. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. Perfection of Human Machine.
• 5. Chemistry. Literature.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. In all.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. education should develop the child into Joyous. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. There is no place for religious and moral education. “Education finds its purpose. rational harmoniously balanced. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. It is based on the psychology of the child. Therefore. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. 264 . It emphasises physical and health education 5. therefore. useful and mature child. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. Biology. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Education also aims at helping the individual t. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. subjects like history. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3.1.4. is based on the nature of the child. It stresses basic sciences. Arithmetic.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Zoology. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Education should. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Botany etc Language. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. 4. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Naturalistic curriculum.
5. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Learning through experience. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Dalton Plan. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Rousseau says.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology.5. Learning through observation. 5.1. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4.1. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Learning by doing. In the . 4. 2. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o.4.1. The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. the stage. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. a provider of an ideal environment. 3. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. It discards all rigid. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. he should be taught by experience alone. a supplier of materials and opportunities.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. Heuristic method. Here the emphasis is on the individual method.
absolutism of idealism. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. Personal Social Adjustment. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Social Efficiency.1. 5. Continuous reconstruction of Experience. social and moral aspects. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. The aim of educational development. Agriculture. of human personality is in terms of his physical. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. Subjects. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. The individual has not only to adjust himself.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Vocational and 266 . 5. Continuous Growth. intellectual.5. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. diversified and flexible. All Round Development of an Individual. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Physical training. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences.5. Geography.1. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. is true. History. Social Science. Sciences.
He must be trained. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He has to be active. alert and resourceful. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity.1. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.1. The subjects.5. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. a senior partner and a sincere guide. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. Learning by Doing. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 5. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. should find proper place. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom.Technical Education. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. a teacher occupies an important position. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. In different situations he remains a friend and helper.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education.5.” 5. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.
Biology. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. 5. History. Astrology. 5. Geography are unnecessary 268 . This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Mathematics. Biography Philosophy. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Crafts. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. 4.1.1. Psychology. rich and happy. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Music and Dance.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Population Education. literary or humanistic education. 5. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things.1. specific. intellectual. 3. Art. Education is preparation for a complete living. Sex Education. liberal. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. 2. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Literature. The basic tenets of realism are 1. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Chemistry. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society.6. practical. 2. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable.5. scientific and psychological education.6. 3. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. It favours child-centered.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. 4. Study of Subjects like Language.
List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . certainly and clearly.6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.5.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. easily and pleasantly.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.
Vocational and Technical Education. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. Education according to pragmatism. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. 6. 5. a. Self Realisation b. Universal Education 2.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. History.1. Learning through discussion. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.5. a. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Physical training. Rousseau 5. Languages. Social Science. Tours / Excursion e. Learning through experience b. e. Demonstration and Observation 270 . whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Sciences. d.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Learning through questioning. Learning through reading. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. Learning through lecturing. b. c. pragmatism and realism. Self preservation & Self expression 4. 5. has no end other than growth. Learning through imitation. Experimentation d. & curriculum. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. a. Child centered c. in this lesson.7 LET US SUM UP We have. 3.1. naturalism. Geography. 5. Agriculture. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss.
N. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2004). New Delhi : A. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi : Bhatia. (2007). Theory and Principles of Education. O. Foundations of Education. Narang C. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. P.P. Pahuja.5.H. Publishing corporation. 271 . K. Ltd. P.P.1. of Pathak. (2003).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. L. R. (2007). K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.
3 Methods of Teaching 220.127.116.11.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.18.104.22.168.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 22.214.171.124 Curriculum 5.2.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.3.1 Aims of Education 5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 126.96.36.199.5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.4 Views about teacher 5.3 Methods of teaching 5.3.1 Aims of Education 5.3.1 Aims of Education 188.8.131.52 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.4 Views about teacher 184.108.40.206 Gandhiji as Naturalist.3.2.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.2 Curriculum 220.127.116.11 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 18.104.22.168. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.LESSON 5.2 5.4.1 5.2.3 Methods of teaching 272 .5.2.2.
Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.5. content and methods. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. 2.2.6 5. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. 3. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. 273 .2.2. Tagore was a poet.4 Role of the teacher 5. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. 5.2. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. economic and political reconstruction in our country. an artist. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.2.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.8 5.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.5. you will able to: 1.7 5. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.2. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. mind and spirit. 5.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Gandhiji was primarily a social.2.
2. nor the gross animals body. righteousness. "I attach more. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. mind and soul of children He further observed. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character.supporting. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour." Dignity of Labour. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. it is education of life. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. 5. 'Man is neither mere intellect. through life and for life. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. His scheme of education is life centred. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. It really provides opportunity for character building. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. In the words of Gandhiji. 274 . They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.3. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote.intellectual and physical faculties of the children.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. self-restraint and service of humanity. strength of mind.
Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. the realization of the ultimate reality. According to Gandhi. General Sciences. Individual and Social Aims. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . development of the whole all were directed: towards. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 .Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. Music. Art. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Only good individual forms a better society. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Mother-tongue. Drawing and Hindustani. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. leather work have been suggested.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. wood work.Training for Leadership. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. metal work. "Development of the moral character. 5.2.3. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. gardening.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.
3. proficient.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Basic education is other wise known as 4. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5. men of 276 .3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.2. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.3.trained. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5.2. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.
He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Education must be child centered. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. 5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.3.knowledge. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. 3. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . That is why. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education.2. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. He also advocates freedom for the child. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
4. • Cult of non-violence. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. • Ideal of citizenship.2. Gandhi in 1937.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 .2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful.K. 5. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. He was a true patriot. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. he was a true Vedantist 5. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. He was deadly against untouchability.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. 5. • Education should involve manual work.” Like all other ideals. He believed in the oneness of humanity.2.
Tagore said. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Civics. Zoology. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Dance. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Geography. International Understanding. deeper in. "Mankind must realise a unity. could help in forging unity among all. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. them solve problems of day to day life. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. he said. (vi) Philosophy. Religion and Psychology.2.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study ." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. 279 . he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. complete manhood could be attained. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. the more dedicated and devoted. International understanding. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Music. Botany. Therefore. stronger in power than ever before. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Chemistry. It should help. It should help the learner have good physique. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. etc. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner.Language and Literature . That way only. sentiment. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners.4. wider in range.
2. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. Activity Method Heuristic Method." 5. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual.4. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child.2.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.” He further says. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there.4. 5.2. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. In 1921. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. Tagore rightly says. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.4.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. 280 . The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. 5. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students.
Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8.g.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. race. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. It is open to all irrespective of country. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. 9. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. 10. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. 281 . Chinese Tibetan etc) 12.
" He was against the theoretical type of education. Freedom. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Concept of Education. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. 3. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. According to him. 4. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Education for Self-reliance. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. 2.5. work and deeds come out of it. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. Education should make a person self-reliant. Education for Self-realization. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court.5. Education for strong Moral Character. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Book learning.” 5. Purity of thought.2. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only.2. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. man making. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues.
He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Of course. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. That will serve the purpose of education fully. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners.5. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things.the learners on different students in the discussion. 5. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. Secondly he wanted Science. Education for Physical Development.2. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. There the teacher provided just guidance to them.5. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. A physically strong person is the need of the society. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Swami. And above all. Religion.5. Thirdly he wished that games. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . 6.2.2. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. 5. philosopher and guide to the students He. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Discussion Method. 283 . engineering and technical subjects. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. The teacher should be the facilitator. Philosophy and Theology. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. 5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend.5.
List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action.6 LET US SUM UP We have. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. in this lesson. Gandhiji as a Idealist. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. naturalist. and pragmatist . What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. 5. of course. 5. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. ears and eyes. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. Write short notes on Basic education. 284 . begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. 12. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. 2. Their educational ideas.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. legs.Substantiate your answer. 3.2. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. We have seen that Tagore.
5. 8. 10. Basic education. Education should involve manual work. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. b. 11. wood work. 1937 7. Explain Vishwabharathi. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Technique of Correlation 6. d. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. 9. Debate and Discussion Method. a. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. 3. a. c. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. metal work. Nai Talim 4. Heuristic Method.2. 5. Learning by Doing c. Teaching while Walking b. Self realization.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discussion Method 285 . 5. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Activity Method d. c. Meditation and concentration c. Cult of non-violence. Activity Method b. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Ideal of citizenship. leather work have been suggested. gardening. e.4. a. a. Self-Study b. f. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. 2.
(2002). Foundations of Education. N. (2007).H. Publishing Corporation. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2003). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. L. New Delhi : A. Dhiman. K and Narang C. J. New Delhi : Aggarwal. P. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. 286 . Ltd.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. Theory and Principles of Education.P. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. B. N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2007). (2004). Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. Pahuja.5. C.2. O. P. on Bhatia. K.
6 5.4 5.3 5.8 5.7 5.3.11 5.5 5.3.3. In this lesson.3.3.2 5.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .9 5. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.3.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.LESSON 5.10 5.3.1 5.3. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.3.
3.S. the desert area. maintained or eliminated. is a means to the process. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . Both the processes are integrated. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. it is identical wit h socializat ion. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. in Russia or in Japan. present behaviour may be modified. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. From the latter point of view. A g o o d curricu lu m. new behaviour may be acquired.under the direction of the school. in fact . 5. 5. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. In the words of Kerney and Cook. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. the plateau area and 288 . the plain area.3. there is a large number of communities. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. While education is learning. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. in the form of new experience. living in the hilly area. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. in the U. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. While education is a process. you will be able to: 1. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. Then in a big country like India.3. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. curriculum signifies situations for learning. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. In it. state the meaning of curriculum 2. curriculum.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static.A. In the former sense. Curriculum is intimately related to education.. Since the demands.
Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. according to modern trends in the educational process. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. the learning capacity of children. too. In fact . Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. environment. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. and 289 . studying therein. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. It must differ from locality and from society to society. irrespective of their needs and environment. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. differs from individual to individual. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. Besides craft. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission.3. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. customs and needs. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. therefore. Again. democratic and socialistic country. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. However. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. 5. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. it is. From a slave-country we became secular.
g. etc.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. individual or Social and so on. remote or immediate. e. The word “Curere” means 2. Understanding Objective. Self Realisation. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. which may or may not be attained. They are achievable. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. emotional. National Integration. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. social. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. Vocational Efficiency. social.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. 2.. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. They are visionary goals e. They speak of immediate purposes of education.g. 3. specific. eg... objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. tangible. they depend on the political. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. They speak of perfect goals. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. unsatisfactory. Goals of Primary Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. moral.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. of classroom. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. aesthetic and spiritual development. 290 . Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and. e.. unambiguous and functional. Knowledge Objective. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . 5. aims.. 4. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. etc.g. Application Objective. Goals of Secondary Education. 1. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. uninspiring and unscientific. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. They may be ultimate or proximate. So it is inadequate. in instructional objectives. general or specific.
According to Crow and Crow. finding them very interesting and captivating. Raymont rightly says. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. The interests.” 291 . Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. in the class rooms.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so.5. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects.3. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. heavy fire. on the playing fields. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. but it includes the totality of experiences. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. capacities. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. Crow and Crow remarks. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. educationists.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. needs. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. abilities. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus.
Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. Due to these variations and differences. tendencies. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. They often waste it or rather kill it. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. urges. capacities and abilities. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. moral. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. time in a useful manner. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. aptitudes. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. mental. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality.
production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. organized.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. To ensure success of the process. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. development of professional capability at all levels. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. 3. 293 . Similarly. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. 2. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. phased preparation. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation.curricular. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. administrative programme need be planned.
17. Relation with Life c.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. 5.3. library. Run.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. workshop. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. 12.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. 18. 10. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. a. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. 1937 19. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Child Centred Education b. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. laboratory. 11. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments.3. 5. in the class room. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school.3. principles of curriculum construction.
(2001). Bhalla. D.3. S. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava.K. Curriculum and Instruction. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. and Sarita Kumari. 295 . Lakshmi. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2007).12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. N. New Delhi : Authorspress. New Delhi : Isha Books. S. (2007). (2007).S.5. P. Innovations in Education. Curriculum Development.
22.214.171.124.7.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 5.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.3 184.108.40.206.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.LESSON 5.9 5.1 Developing scientific outlook 220.127.116.11 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.7.1 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.10 5.5 5.4.8 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.4.
Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. Gradually. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings.4. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. 5. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. We mean curiosity.during the second half of this century.4.5. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . 297 . you will be able to: 1. superstition or emotion. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. newer and newer industries started growing. explain the concept of scientific attitude. open-mindedness.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. tolerance for the opinions of others. 3. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . in the economic reconstruction of society. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. know the importance of science education. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. 5. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. honesty.4. 2. 4. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes.
4. 6. 2. Selection for science education. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Schemes of teaching science. 7. 5. seminars and symposiums. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. 5. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . Devotion towards nature increases.4. Central science workshop. Organisation of science fairs. 3. 4. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. stipends and appreciations in various ways.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Through examinations. 2. 4. Promotion of science clubs. Principles are formulated. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. 3. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. After such experience and training. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. Love for truth enhances. Thinking and memory develops. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 6. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Through newspapers. as well as of the society.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. 5. 5. models and scientific instruments for laboratories.So that.
needs and conditions. They ask many questions about the objects they see. They encounter many social events as they grow. They experience natural phenomenon.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. should provide opportunities to. which is essential for developing scientific outlook.4. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . essential that teachers. Enquiry teaching is.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. 5. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5.4. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Training of science teachers. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. objectivity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. Write any two advantages of Science Education. sex or religion. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. For laboratory and workshop techniques. 7. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. In the inquiry approach. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. It is. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.6. each child to “enquiry skill building”. After presenting the problem. therefore. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions.
Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Adopting creative models of teaching. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. It requires consistent thinking. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.Herma Wouk. Social sciences. 5. Evidence. .6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 300 .books. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. commands or orders. Giving less directions. test.4. if they like. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. Appreciating pupils ideas. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. to ask questions and experience things. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. 5. stern pursuit of accurate data. 4. . 6. 3.4. 5. 3.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation.
therefore should be unbiased and objective.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. school and society at large. The students observation. neighbourhood. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. To achieve this we should understand what it means. critical thinking and suspended judgments. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. practiced. of vast resources running waste.(Smith 2008). (Vaidya 2007). It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. and emphasized during the learning process . Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth.7. it must be encouraged. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. friends. to develop among the learners. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. These include open mindedness. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”.4. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. For instance. 5. keen observation.
Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. think and work it”. he studies all aspects of it. rumor. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. intuition or wishful thinking”. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias.4. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. (Das. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. 2007). Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences.7. 5. The intention to respect another’s point of view. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. 302 . Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. or superstitions. understanding and logic. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. In considering a situation or a problem.
The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. 5.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. • 5. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil. but to begin only after careful planning. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.7. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.7.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.4.4.
see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. 304 . List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. it must be encourages. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. 5.
(2006). Study of superstitions d.B (2008). the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.S. a. Planning of activities 5. Vaidya. Wide reading b.4. Reflections on Scientific attitude.4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. b. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. 2. Rao. Proper example of the teacher c. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. (2000). It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. (2008). b. Love for truth enhances.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. objectivity. 5. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Discuss the importance of science education 14. 4. a. Adopting creative models of teaching. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. 5. b.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. 305 . The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. D.4. a. S. 16. 3. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. a.5. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. M. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. N. Yadav.
8 5. objectives and characteristics.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.5.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.4 5.6 5.7 5.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.10 5. state the concept.1 5. 2. 5.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.5.3 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5. 306 . New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.18.104.22.168 5. you will be able to: 1.5. actively.5.2 5.5.9 5.11 5.5. areas of institutional planning.LESSON 5.5.5.
It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. Institution should be regarded as the unit. • to involve teachers and school administrators. every teacher. every parent. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. • to make planning development-oriented. • To make institutional planning more successful. teachers and students is not lost sight of. and supplement planning from above. executive as well as public. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. and. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n.5. and every student in the process of educational planning. 5. which become the bases for further planning at the district.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. each teacher. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions.5. and each student are regarded as separate entities.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. 5. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. in the task of educational planning. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. State and national levels from below.3. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions.
308 . approved after making necessary modifications. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. (2) Co. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion.curricular Activities.• implemented. which will be discussed in the general. council and.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. etc. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. Syllabus.5.5. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. Co-curricular activities. it becomes the basis for school inspection. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. and Personnel services. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. Examinations.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. Classwork. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. 5.
Organisation of Pupils. Organising play-for-all programmes. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Courts. etc. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. 2. Organisation of Students’ Association. Editing the school magazine. scientific and historical excursions. hobby-centres. Preparation of models. charts and apparatus. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Improving the internal assessment. etc. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Preparation of audio-visual aids. etc. Running science clubs. 1. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Organisation of class-room libraries. etc. etc. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Equipping of laboratory and library. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Fair distribution of syllabi. Conducting of educational. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.No. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Preparation of instructional material.
5. pupil310 . co-operation. headmasters associations. administrator-administrator. involving mainly human materials. teacher-managing body. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. and —pupil-pupil. Administrator-State. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. parent-teacher associations. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. etc. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. teacher-State. ii. teacher-pupil. administrator-supervisor. teacher-teacher. which are divided as the in. and solidarity. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. understanding.5. teachers.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. teacherinspector. students’ associations. pupils.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher.” The human relationships in. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. science teachers’ associations. administrator-pupil. parents. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe.
superintendence. to carry out. teacher-community leader. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. It covers personnel and material management. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. control. pupil-inspector. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. It is also being modernized to become a technique. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences.State. pupil-non-official functionaries. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. and to serve. pupil-parent.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. supervision and superintendence. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. Good. According to C. To administer means to manage. teacher-parent. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. social sciences and other disciplines. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to attend. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. administrator. etc. 311 . pupil-community leader.5. organisation and management. organisation." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. supervision. V. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. to accomplish. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. now-a-days.
Motiviation .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. Liasion with the Public . Worker Participation . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. He should be an artist in human relationships. If it is more. The relationship should change from master. 10. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 2. Decision Making .Any good management will always have good public relations. 7. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. 12. low. Democratic Management . 13. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. 8.Of all the approaches. Rapport between the Management and Employees .Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. it is not worth-while.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. Cost-Benefit Analysis . T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. Socio-Scientific Approach . 6.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . Communication . Those. Economic Management . Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. who occupy the managerial positions. Leadership .lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . 3.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. Better Human Relationships . He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. 5. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. 11. If the cost benefit ratio is less.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. This is the latest democratic trend in management. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.The manager should have leadership traits.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. 4. 9.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. 313 . Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. objective. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. 5. 18. 5. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning.These two are. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept.5. 19. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. improvement of teaching methods. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and cooperative performance should be ensured.g.5. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. enrichment of curricula. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. 14.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management. to improve the quality of education it provides.too. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. characteristics and areas of institutional planning.
b.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. it becomes the basis for school inspection. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. Singh. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Syllabus. R. a. (2003). b. 2.5. b. a. a. 4. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Communication 5. Decision Making b. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. a. Classwork.5. Motiviation d. Co-curricular activities. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Examinations. d. In group and Out group 5.M.5. H. 314 . f. Leadership c. e. NUEPA. Tarachand and Prakash. Fundamental of Educational Management. and Personnel services. c.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. (1995). Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. APH Publishing Corporation. (2001). S.K. Instruction. Educational Administration.
Article 45 .4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3. Realized the problems of school education. 4.2 Nutritional deficiencies.2 Secondary Education : Co-education.1 Inculcation of Socialism. Code of conduct for teachers. physical education and environmental education 5. women education and teacher education in India.Preventive measures.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Examination reforms.Religious and Modern Education 1. Healthy Food Habit 4.3 Directive Principles . population education.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. Communicable diseases . New evaluation procedures.Pre-service and In-services facilities.4 India's Secular Policy . CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . social Impact 3. 1.I.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Inspection and Supervision 3.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.3 Educational Influences of Home. 2.1 School Health Programme. Sex-education 4.CORE PAPER . Education by Christian Missionaries 1. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.1 Primary Education : Education for all. Preservation of nutrients. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. nutritional requirement. wastage and Stagnation 3. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Buddhist and Jain system of education.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Community and Mass Media 2.5 Regional Educational Development in India . higher education.teachers should have : 1.1 Gurukula system of education. Balanced diet.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. Economic 315 .5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Common ailments of Children. First Aid. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. School.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.
(2005) Foundations of Education. Pandy V.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. 7. (1999) Culture. Naturalism and Pragmatism . Saraswathi T.N. Mahatma Gandhi. and Mohanty R. Kalan Paper Packs 10. R. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Delhi : University Publications 2. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. and Sharma R. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11.R.K.1 Idealism. Socialization.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Hemchand. curriculum and teacher's role 5. and Dash B.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. Realism. (2004) Problems of Education in India.4. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.K.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Prof.K. B. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8.K.N. 316 .Aim. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Mishra. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Ghanta R. New Delhi: NCERT 3.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5.S. REFERENCE 1. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Curriculum and national goals . 5. Tagore 5. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. T.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . Taneja V. Ram S. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.C. Sharma. and Human Development.4 4.
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