BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. and Jain system of education. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. The need. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. discusses the regional educational development in India. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. Jainism and their educational implication. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. In.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. Lesson 5. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. 9 . Lesson 4. Lesson 2. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt.

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1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.6.6.1.1.1.1.5.1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.3.5 Jain system of education 1.1.1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.4.6 Education during British Era 1.1.1.6.1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.4.1.1.5.3.1.1.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1.1 1.6.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .5.LESSON 1.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.1.6.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.5.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.2 1.

but English in taste. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. has a long past history starting in vedic education. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. in morals and in the intellect”. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world. Muslim and British periods.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.1. you will be able to: 1. both present and future.6.1.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1.1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. elucidate the education during British Era.1. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India. That 12 . Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. “a class of persons. India.7 1.6.1. 1.9 1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. 1.3. in opinion. 1.1. Education in India. The history of education passed through Buddhist. British system of education presented the modern western model. Indian in blood and colour.1. describe the Jain system of Education 4. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.1.8 1.1.

not en masse by the class method. 4. Religious and Spiritual. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. There was. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. generally. 8. Pupils were taught. Forests as Centres of Education. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. to light. Method of Instruction. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. Where pupils were many. 16. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. 3. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. 12. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. from darkness. individually. Method of Study. Immediate Aim Vocational. 6. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. The immediate aim of education. No State Control on Education. religious and spiritual. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. if they thought fit to do so. 14. questioning by the pupil. however. Teacher as Parents. with grants of land or money. 11. 13. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Education of Moral. managed entirely by Brahmans. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. Individual Teaching. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. 10. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. followed by explanation by the teacher. It was not merely intellectual. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. 13 . 9. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions.knowledge was real. 5. It was also moral. as it is generally considered to be at present. Free and Accessible. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. Curriculum. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. Residential Schools. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. from eternal to immorality 2. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. and to agriculture and trade. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. the monitorial plan was followed. High Status of Teachers. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Education was a private affair of the people. Role of Travel in Education.

It was suited to the needs of the society. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent.3. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. 1. lived a life of celebacy. besides preparing for worldly pursuits.17. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times.1. It was freely available to all those who wanted. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . studied Vedas. Wide-Spread Education in Women. They were very cordial and intimate. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils.

Education was imparted through the. Right means of livelihood 6. Right thought 3. which included abstaining from theft. disease and death of the human beings. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. he was qualified to become a monk. partaking of food at prohibited times. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. use of intoxicating things. Right speech 4. the most significant of which were the following 1. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. had the right to receive education. Right contemplation 1.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. Right knowledge 2. use of cosmetics. in which. etc. I take Refuge to Dharma. watching dances or listening to music. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. killing of any living being. I take Refuge to Sangh. It was denied only to the ill. 2. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. Right memory 8. After attaining the age of 20. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves.4. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. every class in society. except the Chandals. the handicapped. the student had his head shaved of all hair. taking things without being offered. Consequently. dressed himself in yellow clothes. Right activity 5. He was then ordained to obey ten rules.1. medium of Pali. impure conduct. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. Right endeavour 7. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. the student remained in a state of Shramana.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. 1. 15 .C. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education.

etc. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. education was impart in art. It comprehended education in writing. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. be considered the aim of education It. After this ritual. therefore. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. the science of taming and training animals. 8. Life is in a flux. of clothes. Initially. animal husbandry. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. 7. As reality is becoming. nature. 3. a change is not only total but also perpetual. On this occasion. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. knowledge of reviving the dead. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period.4.3. eat food thrice a day. a continuous change creating 16 . These are called later Buddhist schools. Even at this stage. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. cottage industries. arithmetic and religious discussion. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. beg for alms. agriculture. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. etc. changing the goals. 2. has no metaphysical value for life. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. 1. depth and range. and. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. magic. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. meaning. Hence. medicine. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. so long as it successfully does so. women occupied a position inferior to men. etc. nothing is of any permanent consequence. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. 4. however. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine.. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. handicrafts. archery. archery. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. 5. along with education in script writing. commerce. elephant lore. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. the presence of the monks was essential. Whatever its nature and extent. Later on. wear three items. assumptions. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. military science. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. control over sensuous activities. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. objectives of human life. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. geology. aspirations and. it is regarded as true”. 6. approach. bodily gestures.

whatever works are true and good. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him.5.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. However. therefore. Its chief feature. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. Write Eight fold path . i. Education must. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet.1. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. 5. such as. Jainism insists 17 . Validity is effective and consequences. 1.new and peculiar situations. In fact. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. however. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. and to give it a shape that it has today. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. its pessimistic outlook on life.. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. goes to Vardhaman. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder.e. it is much older than the latter. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. but on both. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. 3.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment. 10.1. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. 2. and believe in happiness to all. e) To renounce the world. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. 1. more stress on individual aims. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. 2. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. 4. thought and deed. Development of personality as an individual. c) Not to steal. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. and is to be redeemed and liberated. b) Right knowledge. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects.5. Hence. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. 8. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. As such. 3. b) Not utter falsehood. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 6. 5. rather than the interpretation of the universe. They are: a) Not to injure. 18 . c) Right conduct.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. d) To lead a celibate life. 7. 9. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind. 1. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. it has a foot in both the words.

5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Belief in transmigration of soul. 2. success and love. 4. 3. education should develop sense of discrimination. here and now. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. 3. Teaching should be social and tolerant.5.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. practised and not only aspired for. 19 . Teaching must develop these faculties. and should bring happiness to all. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas.4. education must be action based and ideally oriented. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. 5. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Hence. 1. 1. 8. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . therefore. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. that would be socially desirable. Jiva is essentially karmic. 2. What are Triratnas ? .

In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1. Madras. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.6. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.6. philosophy and literature of Europe. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. 1. To set up separate departments of.1. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. 1. with rally and rout. 1. and not for life. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India.6.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. However. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). Bombay. North West Province and Punjab. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. primary 20 . science.1. 1.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. 2. 1953). The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.6.

secondary education became a step towards university. 1. at the primary level.6. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India.education was neglected. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. The universities dominated the secondary education. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. 1. Later on. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). 1. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. To ensure qualitative improvement. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners.K. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature.6. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). • Universal free primary education. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education.6. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. At that time M. namely. self-respecting and competent. • Secondary education. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. In 1882. they named these schools as polytechnic schools.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 .6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want.At the primary stage (6-11 years). The report suggested development of adult education scheme. all children are to have a common curriculum. 10. After this stage. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities.1.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. The objective of education was to provide 22 . The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

3. military science. etc. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. Right memory. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. the science of taming and training animals. 3. 2. Right activity. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. 5. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. a. 2. questioning by the pupil. 1. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 6. handicrafts. Right speech. Right means of livelihood. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. establishment of universities. archery. followed by explanation by the teacher. It was suited to the needs of the society. The immediate aim of education. The system of education was well-organised.1. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Right thought. geology. 4. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. During the Buddhist period. Right contemplation.. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Right knowledge.education of European literature. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 23 . It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Right endeavour. arithmetic and religious discussion. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 4. education was impart in art. b. 1.1. science and English language. along with education in script writing. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined.

Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. Development of personality as an individual. Hence. a. and Nath. Singh. Improvement of Literature. Aggarwal. Sharma.7.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2009). c. J. more stress on individual aims. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. R. (1984).C. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. 1937 1. b. (2007). 1882. Right faith. 11. Right knowledge. 10. Right conduct. 24 . (2005). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. 8. History of Indian Education System.K. Ltd. Development of Educational System in India.1. Y. Sargent report 12. b. a. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Y. 9. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.K. J.C.

5 1.2.2.3. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.3 Kothari Commission 1.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.2.4 1.2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.LESSON 1.2.2.8 1.2.3. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.1 1.2. The 25 .2.2.6 1.1 University Education Commission 1.3.9 1.7 1.2.2 1.2.2.3.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.

2. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. secondary and higher education.3. 2.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 1. There had been vast institutional expansion. 1986 1. analyse the progress of education in free India. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. explosion of enrolment. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. curriculum. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. 1. Kothari (1964-66) 8. technological engineering.2. medical and legal education. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. vocational education. girls and women education besides primary.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. you will be able to: 1. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. National Council for Women’s Education 5. Post-graduate 26 . Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2.conditions of the teachers. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. expansion of vocational. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. diversification of courses of studies. S. National Board of Teacher Education 10. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. technical. examination system. standard of teaching. New Educational Policy. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.

1952. accumulated over the years. D.2.3. Therefore. National System of Education. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . in January 1985. However. 1. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. quantity. utility and financial outlay. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. The national system of education envisages common educational structure.2. Education for Equality. research et.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. A. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29.teaching. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission.S. quality. 1. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. 3. Government of India. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. the New National Policy on Education. Problems of access. 1986. 1. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. 1966. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. Kothari. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar.3.2. 4. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Essence and Role of Education. A meaningfully Partnership. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. the chairman of University Grants commission. Finally. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. material and spiritual.3. 2. Education is the key to our allround development.

the concepts of work experience. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. By working with hands. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. 28 . It can train practical aptitudes. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The UNESCO Report. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Thus. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. attitudes. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs.” Thus. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. the minorities and the handicapped. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life.2.

“The aim of these colleges. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. As such.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. In 1955. co-ordinations. According to. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. “It may be described. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. The Education Commission. Besides. it will conduce self.” The Mudaliar Commission. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. if he wishes. With adequate planning. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. the Commission. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. The Radhakrishnan Commission.

there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. for quality of life in the rural areas. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. admission requirements to vocational courses. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. the semester and credit system. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. The Central Advisory Board of Education. the rigid streaming of courses. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). Therefore. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. In addition. raising the special facilities. Subsequently. the. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. etc. With a view to relating education to the life.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further.ot her.. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages.

giving importance to productivity in the national development.and the world of work. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. meaningful. The Father of Nation. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. aimed at this goal.defined S UP W as “purposive. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”.. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. preferably spinning and weaving. The wave of Basic Education. who conceived the System of Basic Education. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. 1. etc. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. felt that education should be centred around a craft. technological courses including Agriculture. 31 .2. which are useful to the community. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. which swept the country for over two decades. manual work resulting in either goods or services. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. In short. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. which offer scientific. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. Commerce. According to committee. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. meaningful. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken.

Some Hints to Teachers 1. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Productive 2. Shelter 4. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. locally available materials and tools. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. 2. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. 3. so that it is educational in essence. Experimentation with materials. as far as possible. Clothing 5. Community work and social service. The teachers should make use of. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. 4.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. be that the work involved is: 1. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. 32 . Culture and recreation 6. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. Food 3. Health and Hygiene 2. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Work practice. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. Educative and 3. tools and techniques and 3.

2. It can become an instrument to build character. as far as possible. 1. inculcate a faith. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. improve discipline. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. Check on educated unemployed 4.5. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. slum clearance. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. the local community should be actively associated. Community Service In-1972. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. Productive Work 33 . It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. To make education more realistic. Education through work The SUPW should. Merits of the Programme 1. removal of illiteracy. etc. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. 6. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. traffic control. should involve itself in the educational effort. if not productive. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. in turn. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. The community.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. AICTE was set up in year 4. etc. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. offering first aid. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . skills and better future for the children. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. Define SUPW 34 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. helping the adults-in productive work.and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”.

Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. 1. Radhakrishnan 2.2. manual work resulting in either goods or services. which are useful to the community.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1952 3. f. meaningful. e. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India.2. 35 . Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. c. b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a.2.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. 6.1. Dr. d. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. 3. 2. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. 1. Write short note on SUPW. 1955 4.

and Rao. (2007). Y.2.P. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt.1. 36 . Publishing Corporation.H. Ltd. : Sharma. Y.D. Development of Educational System in India. B. New Delhi: A. Anupama. A. R. History of Education. Rao. (2009).. (2007).C. V. History and Problems of Indian Education. Amala. Singh. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.K.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. (2005). P. and Nath.P.(2005). J.K. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.K. History of Indian Education System.

12 schedules and 83 amendments.3. democratic republic.3. directive principles and duties of citizens.5 1. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.3.3. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. Besides the English version.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. 1950.3.2 1. 37 .3.6 1. and liberty.8 1.3.9 1.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.369 words in the English language version.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3. Being the supreme law of the country.3. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign. procedures.3. there is an official Hindi translation.LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. assuring its citizens of justice. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world.3. containing 395 articles. it came into effect on January 26.3.7 1.1 1. equality. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26. establishing the structure.4 1.1 Significance of DPSP 1. 1949. for a total of 117.

3. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. 1. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4.3. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. Two days later. in sessions open to public.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy. legal and environmental. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. you will be able to: 1. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. 1. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. administrative. for 166 days. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. 2. 38 .3. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. understand our Indian constitution. 3. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. the Drafting Committee was appointed. After many deliberations and some modifications. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. 1.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. political. 4.In the August 14. 1950. The Assembly met. social. 1947. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. Through them. spread over a period of 2 years. learn the role of central and state government on education. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. According to the constitution.3. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. with Dr. economic. On August 29. 1947. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. Dr.

Protecting health of the workers. Equal pay for both sex. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. The State shall endeavour to secure. Article 40.government. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. on the basis of equal opportunity. provide free legal aid. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. That the health and strength of workers.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Right to work. and shall. Condition for dignity of children. old age. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Organisation of village panchayat. Article 39A. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Liking wage etc. Equal justice and free legal aid. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. for workers. Article 42. sickness and disablement. The State shall. Minimising inequalities in status. men and women. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. in particular. No abuse of children. Article 43. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Article 41. Appropriate concentration of wealth. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Protecting children from exploitation. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. make effective provision for securing the right to work. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. and in other cases of undeserved want. 39 .

Article 48A. Note: Subs. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. in particular. a living wage. The State shall endeavour to provide. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Article 44. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. by suitable legislation or in any other way. in particular. Article 48. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Article 47. Article 43A. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Article 45. 2002 for “45. (Original Article 45.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. [declared by or under law made by 40 . and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Participation of workers in management of industries. in particular. Article 46. to all workers. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. and. Article 49. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. industrial or otherwise. Uniform civil code for the citizens. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. See also Article 21A). The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. work. The State shall take steps. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. agricultural. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.

“The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. removal. from spoliation. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2.Parliament] to be of national importance. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. 1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Separation of judiciary from executive.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. may be law determine”. destruction. Article-21A Right to Education. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. Article 45 . disposal or export. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Promotion of international peace and security. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. 2002. Article 50. Article 51. 2.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. disfigurement. as the case may be.

7. from justice and all forms of exploitations.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. 8. 4. and. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. 2002. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. in particular. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. caste. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. if such person is a minor. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds.” 42 . 6. language or any of them”. 3. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. race. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. ii. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. 5. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. and shall protect them. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. iii. his guardian has given his consent thereto.

These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. & 1. Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. Educational Reforms From time to time. the forms. for its vocabulary. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. wherever necessary or desirable. Article 351 gives importance to 6. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. The central government determines targets and promotes education. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. 43 .9. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. and by drawing. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3.3. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions.

which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. 8. 6. private agencies etc. The following pilot projects. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. 7. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. Local bodies and private enterprise. the state governments. 5. So as to encourage education on right lines. By starting these projects. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. So that they may work well. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities.. to achieve the desired ends. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Production of suitable for children and adults f. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states.3. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. etc. All India Council of Medical Science. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). 4. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training.

Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. are published by it. 1. 1. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. etc. 4. education for women. Material concerning nation-wide interests. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. 11. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. training and statistics. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. research. 10. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. The 45 . handicapped. 9. is the state responsibility.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. 12. 3. reports etc. books. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country.3. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose.

8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 1. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. Article 46 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3. Article 45 b. 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. 46 . Explain Directive principles 2. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Write short notes on a. Article 21A c. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. 5.3. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . articles in the Directive principles. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.

a. Describe the educational role of State Government. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Dr. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. may be law determine”.3.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. 1. 2002. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. a. b. Clearing House function 9. Article-21A Right to Education. 2002. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. The Directive Principles of State Policy.5. 47 . Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. b. Article 29 and 30 7. Article 46 5. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. Article 45 . 4. a. 3. Ambedkar 2. Development of Hindi Language 6.

Education in Emerging Indian Society. 48 . Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Ghosh. K and Narang C. (2004). Bhatia.1. S. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. S. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. (2009). Dash.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. B. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2007). (2008). K. N. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.3. L. Education in Emerging Indian Society.

The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.2 Aims of Religious Education 1. Buddhism etc.8 1. Students should be 49 .1 1.4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1. religious education should be broad based.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.4.4.2 1. Jainism.6 1.4.4.7 1.4 Moral education 1.4.5 1.4.3.4.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4.1 Why Moral Education 1.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.3.4.4.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.4. Islam.4.3.4.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1. Christianity.4.

In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication.4. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. As result of which. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. 1. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. you will be able to: 1. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. In the complicated and complex society of today.” Education broadens human outlook. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. integrity. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. know the position of religious education in our country 3. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. duty-consciousness. "In A multireligious society like ours.and dedication.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals.D. state meaning and need for moral education 1. According to E. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. beauty and goodness so that 50 . Thus. religious education and the concept of secularism. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion.4.. India' can produce men of character. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon.

they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. Thus. rancour. realizes God in himself. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. In short. castes and creeds. They thought that any kind of narrow. all citizens are free to follow any creed. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. Viewing the defects of religious education. 1. religion and democracy are same.4. through religious practices and 51 . The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. As our country is a country of diverse religions. it is clear that the State has no religion. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. at least occasionally. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged.4. if not regularly.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. No religious tax can be imposed on them. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. As a matter of fact. According to Article 22.” From the above. According to Article 19. Children attend these organizations. 1.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately.3. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. 1947 we achieved our freedom. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. Hence. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs.3. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal.

and other impulses are often denied direct expression. one fully developed. Good education. aggressive. temperament etc. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. when he becomes an adult. As a result of which.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. which help him for the development of his character. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise.teachings. intellectual and physical faculties of children. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. moral and spiritual values. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. which can mould. It is religious education. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. and what is evil. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . for the development of the individual and the society. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. what is done and what is not done etc. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. It helps to modify habits attitudes. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual.. If unreleased. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. He also learns about social.

But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. which is the basic need of a democratic life. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. 1. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. 2. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. 53 . 3. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. towards the society. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal.3. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. Therefore. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual.4. This should not be allowed to happen. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. If we open the pages of history.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1.

examples of patriotism. Write Article 22 2. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6.5.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . churches and mosques 7. 9. 11. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. therefore. stories of moral greatness. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. 10. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. Life histories of great persons of the world. they should be discussed in the right earnest. For this. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Since all religions have virtues. fellow-feeling. Gurudwara as. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values.

“Let all be happy and free from disease. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. is that which develops moral values. students. Self sacrifice. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. 4. the methods of teaching. 6. Non-injury. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. 3. Without moral values. Moral education. 2. in the home. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. 3. let men see well of one another. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. 8. 2.acquisitiveness). They will play their role effectively. 7.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. The content of the curriculum. 1.4. 4. Satyam (truth). 5. 6. Ahimsa (Non-violence).4. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 7.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. Swadeshi (Patriotism). 55 . Cultivation of emotions. 1. It they learn what morality is in their early years. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. 5. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Service to others. Fearlessness. therefore. Asvada (Control of palate). Purity. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Aparigarha (Non. Patriotism. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. 8. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite.

Good temper. Sharivashram (Physical work). National unity and Spiritual values. Secondary Stage 1. loyalty and self-sacrifice. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour.4. 2.9.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. 11. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. In the school programme. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. Discipline. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. 56 . Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . The School Assembly should be held for a few. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. 4. Unity of mankind. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Good manners. Simple texts and stories concerning different. discipline. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. 1. Integrity. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). religions may be included in the syllabus. minutes in the morning for group singing. Efficiency. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. Asatyam (Non-thieving). 3. 10. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. 3.

patriotism and self-discipline. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. love of humanity. University Stage 1. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. In this connection. In other words. should form a normal part of school programme. 57 . the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . 3.4. 5. 4. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. 2. 5. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Silent meditation should be encouraged. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

1. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development.4. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. In short. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. 2.4. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. the. a. b. 4. 2. Sri Prakasa 6 . What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. For this. a. 58 . They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. b. minutes in the morning for group singing. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. Training of Character 3. 1. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. The School Assembly should be held for a few. 1959 5. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. a. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3.1.4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discuss the aims of Religious education.

N.C. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. P. New Delhi : Siddiqui. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. L. Pahuja. (2004). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: A. Theory and Principles of Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2008). K. K and Narang C.4. N.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. J.1. Dash.P. Anmol Publications Pvt. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. M.H. Ltd. 59 . (2008). (2007).H. Bhatia. B. Publishing Corporation. (2003).

5.5.5.5.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.8 1.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.11 1.5 1.1 1. i.12 1.5.e.5.4 1. Although. 60 .7 1..13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan.5.5.5.5. disparities between provinces/States.3 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.5.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.10 1.5.2 1.6 1.9 1.5.

5. 61 .5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region. they take appropriate measures. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region.5. 7. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. They therefore. waters. 4. energy.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. know the education suited to different environments. 6. 5. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. 3.1. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 2. 1. etc. 8. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies.5. This leads to separatist movements. 1. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. 1. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. roads. you will be able to: 1. understand the regional educational development in India 3. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. for example. work hard towards this end. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Accordingly.

Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. some States became educationally far advanced. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. Secularism. 3. • Separate States (of course viable States).5. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. Therefore. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. 4. 2. on the basis of regional development may be formed. 62 . The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. some average. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. while others remained educationally backward. Tight security arrangements should be made.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. and.

NIT.g. Funds amounting to Rs. 1. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. remained under developed. Out of this. Mizoram..81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters.392. Tezpur. Even in each State.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. Regional Centres of IGNOU. approved proposals worth Rs. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. the Union Government. Guwahati. Jammu and Kashmir. Silchar. These projects are in various stages of implementation. scholarships. In the Central sector.84 crore was released in 2005-06. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.After the Planning Process has originated. books. while some States like Bihar. After the attainment of independence. etc. Nagaland and NEHU. since its inception in 1998-99. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. library buildings. However. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums. and provision of informal education to enable those. NERIST. Central Universities of Assam. 63 . The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e.14. academic buildings. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has.5.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. Itanagar. the State Governments. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development. Rs. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects.480. etc. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education.

During 2003-04. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region.8 per cent in 05).501. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.57 crore and Rs.5.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. too.500. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. Tezpur University. Out of this an amount of Rs.187. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. Moreover. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. 64 . The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.40.05 crore and Rs.261.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. A provision of Rs.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). Government expenditure on education.

Tamil Nadu. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. notes the study. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. health services and welfare of the citizen population. Kerala and Gujarat. 1. Listing the positives. Andhra Pradesh. for which 16 sites. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. Moreover. The Chandigarh Administration. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. too. for instance. Karnataka. telecom.5. Medical education. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. English. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Karnataka.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. too. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. pharma. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. too. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. To add to the woes.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . engineering and R&D.

the working days: an academic . They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Hence it is called as need-based. even actually looking at the watch. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. the needs. the socio-physical conditions. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. taking the average in the middle. the vocations. in which the learners live. 66 . There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. In the same manner. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. For a learner living in a rural area. which a non-tribal person cannot do. the interests. The living conditions. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments.year. when he will not be sure of time. Of course. life-oriented and environment slanted. and so on. Then education become realistic and idealistic. the curricular subjects. The working hours of educational institutions. while the former does not. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. the teaching methods. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life.

2. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. 1. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5. to suit education to different environments? 1. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . 67 .

13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. S. C. during the British rule. some States have become more developed than others b. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. (2002). Dubey.5. Education Scenario in India.K.N. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. New Delhi: Authors press. 60% 1. (2008). A. (2001). Educational Development in India.2. Giridhar. remained undeveloped 3. S. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers.H. 68 .G. Salim. a. and Nair. some of areas which were under the native rulers. R. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. Education in Developmental Arena. (2001).

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. National Integration. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. school community and mass media. secularism and democracy through Indian education. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. 71 . Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. community development. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university.

1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.1.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.1 2.5.6.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.6.1.1.1.8 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.6.1.1.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1.1.5.6 Education for Secularism 2.1.4 2.1.2 2.7 2.3 2.1.LESSON 2.1.9 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .

1. In the matter of admitting students in schools. socialism and secularism 2. 3) Provision of Manual Work. understand the concept of democracy. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and.1.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. This is the political aspect of democracy. 73 . The students may be associated with the management of the school.2. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. 2. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1. socialism and secularism 2.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. creed. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. there should be made no distinction of caste. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour.1. socialistic and secular state. for the people by the people”. colour or wealth. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. you will be able to: 1. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. 2. Democracy thus means power of the people. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. Abraham Lincoln.

Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life.. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. declamation contest etc. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. Democracy means 2. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. may be planned. debates. 12) Visits to Legislatures. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. 2. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. it soon spread all over the world.1. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. 74 . 11) Student Parliament. There are different brands of socialism. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3.

service and cooperation. none high”. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. 2.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. the wealthy and the poor. the prince and the peasant. free from exploitation.5. the employer and the employee are all on the same level.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society.1. 2) Socialism aims at equality. oppression and disparity. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 2. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. but on the path of non-violence. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 75 .Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. Under it. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 7) Special facilities for girls.5.1.

According to Holydake.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. secularism is being propagated.1. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. 11) State schools. 2. "which seeks the development of physical. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. 5. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. 76 .” In every political and educational corner. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. Everyone says. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. Write any two main features of socialism. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. “India is a secular-country. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth.

3) It permits freedom of worship. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. 8) It believes in co-existence. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. “Webster further says. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines.opposed to religious education. 9) It stress free inquiry. should be independent of religion. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. People have different religions and they have different beliefs. Moral values have to be imbibed.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. That is why. 2.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. There is need of making the people open minded. people have narrow mindedness. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase.1. 5) It implies tolerance. education etc. A large number of people is uneducated. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. 2) It permits freedom of religion. In this type of prevailing situations. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. During the recent past. fraternity. the belief that the state morals. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. liberty. 77 . Equality.6. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2.6. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. people started believing in regionalism.1. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is.

While doing so. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. education. There should be some internal checking of the material being. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions.6. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education.1. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. In the hands of such teachers. No doubt. Religious Education.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. that the central string of all religions is one. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. Patiala. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. The very sight of the building. tours and trips may be organized. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. 1) Moral Education.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. students belonging to different religions should be associated. In the celebration of each such function. 2. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities.presented by the students in the gathering. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers.

Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. No doubt. The term secularism was first used by 8. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10. Define Secularism 9.1.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . The word “Seculum” means 7. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering.

Socialism aims at equality. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. a. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. 4. This present age 7. Respect of Individual Personality. Socialism aims at social justice.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b.1. 3. there should be made no distinction of caste. 5. d. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. 3. Provision of Manual Work. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 6. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. for the people and the people”. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society.1. colour or wealth. 2. 5. Power of the people 2. a. a. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Equal Opportunities for Admission. Since socialism stands for equality. George Jacob Holydake 80 . The two can move only in the consonance with each other. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. Tuition free education b. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. secularist and socialistic attitude among students.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. c. b. 4. Abraham Lincoln. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. creed.

N. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.C. Ltd. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Anmol Publications Pvt.1. J. Ltd. a.” 9. P. (2004). (2007). a. N. Dash. (2005).8. 10. Bhatia. (2008). According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2003). should be independent of religion. It permits freedom of religion. L. B. K and Narang C.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Pahuja. the belief that the state morals. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2. Modern Trends in Indian Education. K. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. It treats all religions on an equal footing. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. education etc. J. b. 81 . New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. b. Mohanty.

9 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.2.1 2.7 2.2.2 2. knowledge and experience of one 82 .LESSON 2.2.4 2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.2.2.10 2.5.5.2.2.8 2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.6.2.3 2.6.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.2.

3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. as it is t he aim o f modern education. skills. you will be able to: 1. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. who are placed in his custody. social and moral aspects.an instructor of school children. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils.2. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. social. understandings. application. A teacher is first and foremost. 3. development. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. The developmental roles of children. a r e 1. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. moral. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. It involves physical. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is.2. emotional.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. aims and objectives of the school. mental. as persons. as citizens. 2. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. therefore. and 4. 2. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. as learners. 83 . It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. as workers. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental.generation to another.

The following are some of such roles described in brief. emotionally. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. socially. social and emotional health. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. and aesthetically to become. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. experiences and acceptance. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. a part of their day in 84 . physically fit for socially efficient. mental. 2. The students live. mentally. economically effective. member of his community at the outset. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. morally. inquisitive. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. intellectually. culturally confident. teacher has to play the role of a citizen.All education should lead to better behavioural development. Teacher as a Citizen Next. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. He has to look after their physical. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. motivated. morally. 2.2. He is to become an active member. 3. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. 1. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family.

solve them. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. and most of hours.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. creeds. 2. photographic clubs. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. faiths. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. fine art associations. languages and religions. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. Unless. 4. India is a land of many castes. science club. They will be spending with their parents. Dr.the school being under the custody of teachers. It 85 . Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. activities of the society into which he is born. List out the role of teachers towards community development . Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas.

and make into one strong national unit. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. with straight backs and look up at the skies. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. therefore. The only process is the process of education. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. stand up straight. the citizens of the Republic of India. Sampurnanand remarked. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. this integration of the Indian people. a. narrow-minded provincial.5. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961.” 2. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. social studies. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. Radhakrishnan. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . national anthem and other national songs.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. 1. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. poems.is.2. c. Nehruji has explained this as. folklore and teaching of social studies. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. the study of language and literature.” Regarding the role of education. It should broaden the outlook. At the primary stage the importance of stories. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. Let us. ‘We should not become parochial. b.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. should be emphasised.

Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. Singing of National Anthem. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. educational excursions. languages and literature. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. Uniform for School Children. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. symposia. and picnics. 9. sports. debates. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. 6. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country.different social sciences. t he st udent s and t he community. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Co-Curricular Activities. 3. dramatics and youth festivals. 2. Reverence of National Flag. 8. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. 5. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. 7. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. ACC. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. Taking Pledge. National Days—January 26. 4. Textbooks. militar y training like the NCC. Celebrations of National Days. 10. tours. Student Camps. Scouts and Guides. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. 87 .

Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. Admissions to schools. region or religion. iii. School Projects. 15. 88 . colour. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. ways of thinking and doing things. Educational and Travel Documentaries.5. 2. ii. 16. 13. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . 14.11. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. flora and fauna. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own.2. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. v. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. Recognition of Institutions. iv. Admissions. 12. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. Open-Air Dramas. language. Students Exchange and Tours.

vii. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. viii. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. cultures and races on equal bases. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained.2. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. irrespective of national boundaries. Define National Integration 3. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . camps. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. 2. ix. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Community dinners.vi. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’.

3. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. 2. that war. Dr. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. Strong has observed.friendships between children of different countries. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen..” 2. and the healthy development.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum.6. therefore. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. Radhakrishnan states. often in connection with anniversaries. if it happens.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. C. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war.as important as that of a national citizenship. Teachers 90 .” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. (c) fairly tales.6.e. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.2. of his body and mind.2. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. the international level. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. 4. 6. patriotism is not enough. (b) stories of children of other lands. This. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. 5.F. Therefore. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . Organising of debates and. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. In a very real sense. 2.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Indian and American. Russian.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. an Englishman. Impartial in their Treatment. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7. They should not be propagandists. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. a German. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race.

As the school is but a miniature society.Another major. majority of people are. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well. Chronic Poverty . understand and indiscipline: 1. 4. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. Devaluation of Values . 2.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly.2. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. Defects of the educational System . they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. 3. there is wide spread frustration among all people. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. If this is done. Wide Spread Frustration . students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 .Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. It does not prepare students for life. leading to. 5. and help the students to over . they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. the education function can be carried. which results in agitation and aggression language.2.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. Soon after they leave their educational institutions.

Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 93 . 4. fellow feeling. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. 2. 2. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. 5. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. community development. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc.2.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. love. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.2.democratic nature. co-operation. 2. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . sympathy and good will among the nations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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Moreover. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. the invention of the printing press. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. books. Now internet is being used. Hence.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. are increasingly used in education. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. Define community. art galleries. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. led to the printing of books. During the course of time.3.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. To make them achieve their aim. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. He taught his students orally. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Emphasising this thing. “All the citizens of the community.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. Crow and Crow write. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Then came newspapers. In fact. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2.V. periodicals. Museums.

1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. In collaboration with the experts. music. the place of importance. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. dram appreciation. Various talks. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. Important happening inventions. 101 . Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom.6. Reynolds.telecast. Effective means of presenting music. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. current affairs and other areas. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. Thus. languages.classroom teachers. It is also an important source of entertainment. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. It stimulates curiosity and interests. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. politics. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. social studies. “Listening participation” in current history. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. art. In the emphasis is on sound. Thus. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. for the teacher through school broadcasts. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. rather than on picture.G. 2. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. 2. A lot of work by way of pre. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and.3. It enlightens public opinion. the teacher still occupies. Students listen various talks.

but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. 102 . drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. Team-teaching demonstrations. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. development of lessons. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. at play. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. at any place. plays. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. style. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. 4. travel talks. mathematics. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. 5. School concerts. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. projects or creative activities. 3. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. speech. informal and non-formal education. At present. Participation of local teachers and pupils. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. fol classical music. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. Making learning an open system. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. at recreational centers. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. at drawing room. Before presenting the programme. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. audibility and presentability.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4.4.4.4.3.4.4.4.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.3.4.1 2.3 Advantages of formal education 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.4.3.4.4.4.5 2.8 2.4.6 2.2 2.3.4.4.LESSON 2.7 2.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.4.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.4.4.

Education associated with a degree or certificate. open university.4. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. 4. School is. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. 3. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. you will be able to: 1.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. 110 .2.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. In ancient time in India. say the Government or the private enterprise. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. Education.4. the family. it was mostly. the temple. 8..4. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. the most important agency of formal education.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. the learner are acquainted. Education organised by some agency.3. 9. 2. open school. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. imparted at the residence of the teacher. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. 6. 5. 4. his mental alertness. starting and ending at -a particular age. To realize this objective of education. 2.4. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. compare formal and non formal system of education. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. the mass media et. the community. 2. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. 2. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. 7. 3.

3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. or academic degrees. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. In general.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. depending on the jurisdiction. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. the elements of language are first learned.a secondary education. Through early formal education. usually between the ages of zero or three and five.4.3. such as a high school or secondary school. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. third stage.2. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. diplomas. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. also called tertiary. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. or post secondary education. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years.4. structured education. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. Some education systems have separate middle schools. 2. Higher Education: Higher education.3. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Concepts of proportion. capacity. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . as well as vocational education and training.

The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.4. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . is an important agency of formal education. and remote dwellers. late beginners etc.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. 4. children with disabilities. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people.which will help for nation's development.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1. 2. Agencies can be classified as 2.3. 3. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. 2. What are levels of formal educational system? . Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped.

” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. Thus. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. adding up to a true learning society. until 1970 it had not been defined. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. “Non-formal education should 113 .” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. Non-formal education includes adult education. staffed.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.learning client take some learning objectives. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. financially supported life formal education. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems.formal education. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. Open university. planned. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. it is a more effective tool for rural development. It unlocks the doors of development plans. Adiseshiah. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. etc. adults as well as children. it has its own valid claim to reality. systematic. This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. systematic. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. Therefore. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.. It is functional.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. one could say that non-formal education is an active. It is much more responsive to needs and change. i. However. admissions. According to Malcolm A. It is deliberate. continuing education and on the job oriented education. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system.e.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. to help themselves.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. curriculum. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. open learning. place of instruction.

renewal. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. modes of teaching. admissions. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. Preparation for future needs.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.4.4. international understanding. self. 6. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills.” According to H. It should lay emphasis on the self. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. 2. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.learning pattern.4. Process of sharing. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.” 2. 2. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. To help industrial workers to better their skills. Flexibility in various aspects of education. the Ideas of citizenship. co-curricular activities. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. place of education. socialism.S.e. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. 114 . curriculum. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. Covering life span of an individual. Lawrence. To develop in the student. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. 5. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. i. exploring. evaluation etc. 4. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter.S. age.be marketable and vocationalised. 7. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. 3. Part-time education. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. national integration. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner.4.

Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. 4. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. 7. Universalisation of primary education.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Meeting the omissions of formal education. 4. publication and information dissemination. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. in villages and those who live in towns.4. 8. 3. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners.4. Eradication of adult literacy. 2. 5. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. 6.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 5. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. 10. Technical. To offer Secondary. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives.4. 3. working adults. 2. 115 . To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. • 2. school dropouts. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. 9. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. Senior Secondary.4. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them.

To make if. Institutions for formal education.4. factory. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 .5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. centres of correspondence education. Radio and television. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. training centres in factories.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. 4. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. etc. others are formal and informal.4. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. etc. farm. effective in modern societal context. 2. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. self-employment iii. open space. To increase knowledge and 2. if organised in isolation. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras..4. public libraries. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college . To better qualifications. Again. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. library. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment.2. 2. Therefore.full time to learners – can be home. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. All-round development i. 3. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home.

7. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Lecturing T. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Face Contact programmes. Define non formal education. Written tests. 117 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.V. Essay Assignments and short answer questions.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Give examples of non formal education? . radio. institution. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. . 6. List out any two aims of non formal education. . Correspondence lesson. Teaching to face teaching.

is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b.4. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. systematic. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society.4. 2. 4. 4. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. 2. The school. 2. School 3. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.2. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. b. Open University.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. a. 3. Primary level. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. the college and the university come under this category. Open School. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education. 7. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. 5. Formal and Non Formal 2. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Pre-school level.4. Secondary level. Higher Secondary level and University level. 118 . adults as well as children.” 6.

Gupta. Dash.C.4. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Mohanty. Anmol Publications Pvt. P. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Ltd. J. (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. N. B. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2008). New Delhi : 119 . Education in the Emerging Indian Society. K. L. S. J.2. Bhatia. (2004). K and Narang C. (2005). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. N. Pahuja. Education in Emerging India. (2003). (2008).

1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.5.4 Open University 2.5.7 2.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.LESSON 2.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5.1 2.3.5.5.5.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .4.5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.4.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.4.3.6 2.5.3.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.5.5 2.5.3 Objectives of Open University 2.4.5.5.4 Need for Open University 2.4.5.5.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.5.3.5.2 2.

However.2.5.5. It is a continuous process. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts. farmers. characteristics of open university 4. 2. labourers and half educated individuals. industries. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education.3. 2. Thus. 2. know the need and objectives of open university. understand the meaning of continuing education 2.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. you will be able to: 1. Any person. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. This knowledge may be in political field. It is a lifelong process. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. give the meaning.5.5. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. Under these circumstances.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. continuing education is a boon. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. economic field or such other fields. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. For them.

They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. 2.5. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened.V. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education.V.3.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. deteriorating to his character and personality. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. Radio and T. Persons engaged in health services. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education.literate person. Block Development Officers. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Doctors. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. For them too continuing education is essential. are also contributing their might for the purpose. Thus. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. Radio. On the other hand. if he gets opportunity to develop them. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. T. After the achievement of independence. Cinema. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. On the other hand. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. Throughout the country.directly related to his job. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. cultured and progressive. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 .

are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 6. 5. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. (13) psychology of child behaviour. we have not been able to achieve our targets. habits of people of other lands. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. These books are not very useful. (6) folk stories. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. 2. (7) folk songs.. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (16) liking. Inspite of the great efforts.5. 2.3. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. 7. and Radio. especially women. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. (17) modern international and national events. 2. (14) information about bringing up young children. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. Of course. 3. (10) first aid. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge.5. (2) basic religious matters.3. (1) ancient history. 123 . (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (8) psychology of adults. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. 4.V. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. (4) the fundamentals of economics. (15) music.

T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It also attempts to pr ovide equality.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. lack of time etc. NLM was launched in the year 2. What is the objectives of NLM? 3. 2. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. of educational opportunities. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.4. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 .5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2.5. attendance restrict ion. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree.

5. d. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education.5. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course. 4. the higher the degree of openness. and in teaching. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. IGNOU was established in the year 6. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. its education is not class room based but home based. c.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification.unobserved. it makes use of educational techno logy. 3.4.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. but 125 . b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. Education is not a once for-all process. 2. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? . No one is too old or too late to learn. Which was the first open university in India? . T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. e.

Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country. 4. 3. cho ice o f co ur ses. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies.4. 2. 2. it a ims at wider and hig her.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people.5. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . who were deprived of t he same earlier. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. 126 . annu al wr it t en examinat io n. 3. or who realised too late that they need it. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. supplementing the existing provision.5. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n.who did not get it. 5. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. Mo re o ver. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 6. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. 2. 2. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes.4. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. 4. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education.

a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. 2.5. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. 7. 127 . cha ng e t heir life compet ence. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. In the present day world. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Correspondence tuition. semi – literates. 5. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . 6.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. 4. 8. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. List out any four methods of Open University? . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. Tutor Comments.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. a state or nation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.5. you have learnt the concept.2. Laboratory works. Self instructional materials.4. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . 1. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Therefore. 8. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. 3. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Every day. a society.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. school drop outs.

which may include house wives. 9. 8. agricultural and industrial workers.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6.5. unskilled workers and other professionals. Broad casting lectures c. 8. Television Lessons.ambitious learners. 4. 7. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. P r int med ia b. (4) the fundamentals of economics. its education is not class room based but home based. 7. a. youth. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 128 . Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. a. a. 1985. 2. aspirants for continuing education. b. 6. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. need and characteristics of Open University. (1) ancient history.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. d. 3. 1988. b. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening.5. 2. Explain the objectives. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. cho ic e o f co u r ses. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. (2) basic religious matters.

Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Ltd.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Modern Problems of Education.2. (2004). S.. L. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. K.S. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2001). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. R.K. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. K and Narang C. (2007). (2004). 129 .5. Reddy. Udaiveer.

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

Training teachers for all levels of education. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. which may claim the attention of those concerned. the education of women. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. examination. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. 133 . and teacher education. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. Examination reform. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. its causes and remedial measures. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. wastage and stagnation. In Lesson 2.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. All which is the need of the hour. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For.

134 .

3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.6 3.1.2 3.1.2 EFA – How? 3.1.3 New initiatives.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3.1.8 3.1.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems. 135 .1.1.3.5 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.1 3.1.1.1.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.LESSON 3.3.3.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.7 3.4 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.

if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. On the other hand. “The State shall 136 .3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. Eradication of Illiteracy. (EOI) 2. directed that. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. economic or cultural. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. education received added importance and significance. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. you will be able to: 1. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). understands the country. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. Continuing Education (CE) 1. 2. 3. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate.1. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. social. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education. may be political. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education.1. Therefore. therefore.3. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI).” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL).

within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. rights and responsibilities. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. Therefore. Three Stages for Universalization. It enables the parents to send their children to School. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. After the attainment of independence. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. 137 . Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. Due to the adoption of democratic system.endeavour to provide. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . 3. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Universalization of Enrolment. Continuing Education (CE). Universalization of Retention. the national Government under. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties.

We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. present and future. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. later to 1988. educational enterprise. Write Article 45. Therefore. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. then to 1976. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. 3. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2.3. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960.1. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. UNESCO Bulletin states. 138 . all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. 1990.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. It is safe to assure. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. This target had to be revised to 1970. 1995 (for upper primary stage).

Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). creed. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1.3. adolescent and adult.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. 139 . Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. 12. 3. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. By undertaking survey. 11. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. 5. problem of literacy. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. NAEP. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. nutrition education and sports and games. etc. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. The Social Education.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. the art of preparing fruit-juice. rural areas. slum areas. Jams and Jellies. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. In order to make the programme of education for all community. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. 8. Early childhood education should be streamlined. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). Education of Girls. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. Emphasis must be given on health education. their enrolment and retention. 3.1. Disabled. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. FELF. their social economic status and occupations. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Apart from primary education. 9. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. and Women’s education programme should be improved. 6. sex. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. Education of the Impaired. 10. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. 3. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4.3. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.1.e.3. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. 4.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Wastage and Stagnation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 . Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Expand MLL and SSA .1.

community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.first stage of education. Personal Factors . it is considered as wastage. Familial Factors .The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Social Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3. School Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 .

Define Wastage. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6. . can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. . 142 .occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. 7.

in his home. Family Factors . Personal Factors .3. Societal Factors . are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family. School Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. relating to home.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. They are described hereunder :1.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements.The following factors.1. rural or urban 3. school or society. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .

uniforms. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. Define Stagnation? 9. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . mid-day meals. stationary. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 144 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.

Universalization of Enrolment c. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc.1. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. directed that.” 3. 2. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. 4.3. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. 3.1. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. Minimum Levels of Learning b. 3. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. “The State shall endeavour to provide. a. a. a. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. 145 . 6. therefore.1. Universalization of Provision b. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation..8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. Universalization of Retention 2. 4. b. Hartog Committee. improvement of curriculum. 3. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.

S. 9.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. a. Crescent Publishing Corporation. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. (2007). New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. (2008). New Delhi: 146 . S. 3. School Factors d.K. T.7.N. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Personal Factor b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Problems of Elementary Education.1. b. Social Factors 8.K. Sharma. improve examination system. Hemchand. Familial Factors c. a. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. (2001). introduce graded curriculum.

5 New evaluation procedures 3.5.4 Question banks 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2.4.1 Problems of examination 3.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.2.3.2.5.2.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.2.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.5.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.2.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2 Grade System 3.3.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.2.2.1 3.2.4.5.5.2 3.7 Open book examination 3.2.2.6.5.2.2.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.2.LESSON 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.7 Let us sum up 147 .5.2.2.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.

but on the other.2. you will be able to: 1. 3.2.2. 3. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools. 3. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. Besides. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection. suggest the new evaluation procedures. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. 3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.2. managing of co-educational schools is 148 .2. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .3. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination. 4.8 3. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.2. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.2.9 3.

hostel facilities.2. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours.. They may cause problems relating to discipline. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. etc. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. which the educational authorities have to face. The following steps should be taken up. They develop secondary sex characteristics. 3. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. waiting rooms for girl students.3. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. schools for them wherever necessary.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. If the students are in sufficient number. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. etc. 149 . which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. etc. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. roadside Romeoism.

This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.2. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. conduct of internal examinations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. assessment and Finance.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. teachers. 150 . public interested in education. Instruction. 3.2. the examination system has an important role to play. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them.4. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. public administrators and statesmen. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. appointment of paper-setters.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. It is considered as a major sub-system. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations.

4. announcement of results. examiners. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. introducing objective-based testing. training of examiners. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. 3. validity and practicability.printing and distribution of question papers. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. etc. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. etc.2. etc. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . invigilators. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. scrutinizers. establishing reliability. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. etc. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. values. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. tabulators. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. etc.

make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. 7) In connection with the question papers.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. Vagaries in making. may also discredit them. Subjects... not meant to be assessed in the examinations. do not appeal to the students and parents. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. 3. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. 2) From the angle of content of education. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. 152 . 6) With reference to scoring procedure. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. halo-effect. which they are expected to study. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. stereotyped questions. takes the place of comprehensive learning. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. Rote memorisation..2. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. 3) With respect to method of teaching. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. it s a common experience that subjectivity. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education.4. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. lack of objectivity etc. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education.

Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Spot valuation. revaluation. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Question Books may be developed in all schools. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. List any two merits of examination. 153 . etc. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. 4.. .Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. re-numbering of answer scripts.develop true love for education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. may be introduced.a part of internal assessment.

2.2. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. skills are given importance. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. The new scheme of assessment. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. Their interests.5. When a person chooses to work extra.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. In actual practice.3. attitudes.5. he is given extra credit points. Advantages More autonomy is given to students.2. 3. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . Every paper is treated equal. In this system.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. The students can take any course offered in any department. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. It is complicated.

• Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. Groupism is encouraged. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. v. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents.good.poor. courses can have weightages defined. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. instead of specifying number of paper/courses. only the total credits to be earned is specified. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. or as a 4 credit course. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. An example is a seminar. In the new system. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. These weightages are called credits. 3. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. poor. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . This system reduces comparison of marks. While designing syllabus.discipline. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses.5. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning.2.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v.

5.2. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. 3. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.2. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.2. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. 3. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992.5. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. 156 . With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency.5. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. However. 3.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process.

In the hierarchy. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.5. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. . However. 3. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • .7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. Therefore. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. List any four new evaluation procedures. There are no proper procedures for selection.2.2.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. recruitment.

submitting of the inspection reports. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning.qualified personnel. Academic inspection. in contrast. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. wherever necessary. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. being realised as two different functions. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. disciplinary problems. etc. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. finding out the adequacy of.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. complaints and compliments. etc.2. They are. library books. taking up the follow-up programmes. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. finding out whether the prescribed text. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. 1. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. playgrounds. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. inspecting the class-room teaching. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. of late. requirements. whether the syllabus has been covered. 158 . and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. books are followed. qualifications. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools.. laboratory equipment.6. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. interpersonal relationships and so on. 3. school buildings. When they are fully realised.. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. in a sense. staff.

2. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. once in five years. 159 . Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them.Ed. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection.Ed. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. their professional knowledge. M. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. course in either educational. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. aptitude. Similarly. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. Insistence on specialisation in the B. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. at least.. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. 3. courses. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. In the light of these conceptualisation. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. or.. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. modern. In the case of departmental candidates. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose.

It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. Administration. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. b.2. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. 3. 3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3.2. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. 160 . a.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. 5. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. c. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. 3. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. b. b. d.2. 3. assessment and Finance. Instruction. a. Grade System. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. a.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit.

4.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Vaidya.2. (2002). To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. a. Educational Reforms. b. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. Problems of Education in India. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. b. 5. (2005). Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . a.a part of internal assessment. a. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. b. 7. 3. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. (2004). R and Sharma. K. Multiple sets of question paper. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. History and Problems of Education in India. K. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. S. Question banks. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. New 161 . To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Open book examinations. c.

162 .3.LESSON 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education. 4. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. 2. identify the needs of rural India and social. 3.9 3.3 3.3.3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. you will be able to: 1.7 3.6 3.3.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5 3.2 3. 5.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.1 3.3.3.3. 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.8 3.3.4 3.10 3.3.3.

A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates.e. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. 2. etc. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. Commission emphasised to continue. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. the Banaras Sanskrit College. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. The. and 3 years of First Degree Course. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. The Calcutta Madras..e. University Education. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education.specialisation programmes 3. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre.3. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. 8 years of general education.3. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. Similar is the case with some other States. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. Consequent on the recommendations. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. i. e.. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage... 10 years of general Secondary Education. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education.g.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. in Andhra Pradesh.

it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. 10. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. b. 6.confidence in students. is also a plus point . The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. habits of hard work and develop . 7. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. 3. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. cultural and economic development of the country. economical and political. 5) to help for the social. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. 8.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.3. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. and. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 .a sense of dignity of labour. to prepare. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . 5. educational channels. However. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. to imbibe. who desire to change from one stream to another. historical. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. social. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. Provision for transfer of credits to students. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities .

and. 1.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. Sociologically it is undesirable. social justice. Philosophically it is not the conception. etc. at the other. cultural and' religious tolerance. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. 3. to develop national character. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum.. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . democratic living. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. Psychologically. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. international understanding. The General Educational Spectrum. and that required to enter the tertiary level. cooperativeness. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities.3.national integration. on one hand.

courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. technical.3. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. India is a land of villages. technological. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. Biology. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. the rural areas have suffered very much. All these need for an. commerce. In the vocational spectrum. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. or other machinery. In the matter of language. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. commerce. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. vegetable growing. Agriculture is the main occupation. educational and cultural services. such as Agriculture. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. rural health. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. and vocations based on dairy-farming. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. horticulture. chemistry. In our country. Commerce and other disciplines. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. 3. 2. industrial agricultural production is growing.— tube-wells. 166 . Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. fish culture. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. medical plants. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Science. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. professional. physics or mathematics. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy.

social justice. 3. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. In time. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. In this way. In this it may be concluded. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. interests and aptitudes of the students. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. can be ensured. the local resources available. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and the needs.etc. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. There had been favourable reaction from the students. etc. and 5... The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . 4.3.

(2005). a. New Delhi : 168 . New Delhi : Shipra Publications. a.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.3. (2001). 3. habits of hard work and develop . Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. (2008).a sense of dignity of labour. (2007). 3.3. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. J. General Educational Spectrum and b. 3. J. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Calcutta University Commission 2. Dash.3. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. B.3. Ltd. Vocational Sepctrum. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.K. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Modern Trends in Indian Education. to imbibe. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. S. N. Mohanty. a. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.C. 3. we studied the history. objectives.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.3.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. b. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. 2. b.

12 3.4.6 3.13 3.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.4.2 3.4.LESSON 3.4.8 3.4.4.7 3.4.1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.4.4.4.4.3 3.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.4. but the lighting of a fire”. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.5 3.4. social and 169 . skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.10 3.4. Education contributes to human development.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.1 3.11 3.9 3.4.4.4.4.4.

3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. Nursing. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country.4. Teaching and Fine Arts. cultural and political development of the individual.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. analyze the women and distance education. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. In the post —independence period. higher education of girls developed immensely. These courses were. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. community and nation is universally acknowledged. 3. although we have miles to go. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. Home Economics. economic. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. During the year 1937.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. Dr. For the first time in the history of India. There is a close connection between education and development. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education.higher education in particular. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. family. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. The relevance of women’s education to social.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION .INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. 3. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. Education . With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. particularly 170 . While women constituted only 9. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom.4. you will be able to: 1.

2 22.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. out of 9200 and odd colleges. we have more than 1200 institutions.1 24.N. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.0 Today. Mother Teresa Women University.2 29. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).0 43. in our country. Coimbatore. Mumbai. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.D. 3. Yet. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. The idea of women’s education for equality. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.4. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.women.9 27. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. levels and professions.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period.0 32.4.4. Even today.T Women University. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.0 16. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. Kodaikanal.65 lakhs in 1994-95.9 14. 3. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. In 1950-51. In the rest of the country. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.1 31.

34 33.54 12. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? .4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .44 35.1 and 14. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4%) prefer Arts subjects.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. 3.46 82.17 52.73 10.27 89. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph.1 respectively.63 Female % 34. 2.56 64. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? . The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.36 3.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.that of boys.53 34.4. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.83 47.47 65.4.66 66. 3.

Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. Also. curriculum not suited to their requirements. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. According to a survey. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. distance of the college or university from home. In college. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. 173 . Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the.4. and coeducation may spoil her character. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Thus. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. financial difficulty of the parents. Book banks should be established.hinders the girls from getting higher education. The major hurdles. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. promoted and increased. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. she will only learn fashion. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. what is the need for higher education for her. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. particularly. etc. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. marriage is a very common I factor. irrelevance of the content of education.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. 3. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. In every third family. They gave up their studies to enter home life. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas.

Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. Education. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment. It enables to study. It also brings about 174 . Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. is the only tool for realising empowerment. Distance education is a boon to women. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. Full-time employment. 3.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. There are constraints of time. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. Geographic distance of educational institutions. resources and socio . It is a productive investment.economic disabilities faced by women. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. 3. space. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development.4. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face.4. Empowerment in a nutshell. which is the most dynamic factor of development. and the limitations of the conventional education system. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world.

Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. Empowerment is an active. education of women must be given priority in national plans. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. for full development of our human resources. This can be achieved through reflection. empowerment means being assertive. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. Women are partners in development. education of women is of paramount importance. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. legal awareness and economic independence. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. on their own. The major objectives of women's higher education. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. higher learning. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities.4. 3.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level.

3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. which is pending for a long time. will encourage them to venture new grounds. especially so in the developing countries. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. has to be implemented at the earliest. which had been the sole domain of men.4. 176 . Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. Scholarships and concessions for women. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. Reservation for women. Better opportunities. who are eager to take up courses. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. 3. But their number is small.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. The local administration. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. The educational institutions. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries.

Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance. talents. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2.1%) and architecture and building (38. 3. According to Lindy Hyam. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%).11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. capacities etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. Chief Executive. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. IDP Education.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem.3 percent.000 women in the country. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 . Also.9%). especially in developing countries like African countries.. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. Australia. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. engineering and related technologies (16. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8%). International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. But. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? .

12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. R.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Kodaikanal. Mumbai. SNDT Women’s University. A. 3. Rao. create the right attitude towards life. 4. SNDT Women’s University. Coimbatore. community and the nation. 3.4. Annakodi. S. A.C. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Mother Teresa Women University. (2008). 4.to the family. Coimbatore.R. Women and Education. and Suryalatha. Centre for Women’s Studies. (2000).K. 3.4. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. Mumbai.4. Women Education. 43% 6. Pattanaikj. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. Mishra. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. a. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. and Swain. 178 .14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. (2005). Women Education. (2007). Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. R. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. R. individuals and society b. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Rajasthan 5. S. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women.

5.5.9 3.5. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.1 3. They should be trained.5.6 3.2 3.5.5.5.11 3.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.10 3.5. so as to enable them to acquire 179 . whole.5 3. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.3 3.7 3.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.personality of children in and out of school. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5.LESSON 3.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the.4 3.5.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.8 3.5. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line.

international. and national character.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. 3. 5. Lack of physical facilities. you will be able to: 1. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. Dearth of new technology of teaching. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. 4. social and emotional integration. national consciousness. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner.5. know the pre service and in service training facilities. 180 . understand the training teachers for Primary. 3. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. understanding and strong desire for international peace. equality and justice. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has.5. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Shorter working hours. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals.

Lop-sided curriculum. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. inservice and extension education programmes. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. the secondary teacher education.Ed. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. the state Government. a Diploma course and a Degree course. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. the primary teacher education. Inadequate training in practical skills. At the diploma level. (NCERT) New Delhi. higher secondary teacher education. who have not been trained earlier. etc. it is called the In-service teacher education.Ed.Less qualified teacher educators. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. students. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years .5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. levels. 3.5.. If the student teachers are working teachers. it is called the Extension teacher Education. and the collegiate teacher education.. Depending on the levels. the centre. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. 3. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels.5. and M.

etc. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. state Institutes of Educat ion.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. collegiate cells.5. Also Guidance Bureaux. Evaluation unit. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. non-formal. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . extensio n service. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. depart ments etc. Science Education units.. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? . Expand NCERT 2. Education cells. 3. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Educational teehnology cells. are established. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory .

. laboratories. and so on. and 183 . schools and sister institutions. to prescribe conditions for recognition. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. to improve curricular programmes. audio visual aids. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. primary and secondary school teachers. degree. which help breaking isolation from one another .. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training .Ed.Ed. which should include experience in the primary schools too. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. should be improved on a top priority basis. material conditions relating to libraries. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . to offer consultative services. The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240.. despite its vast expansion. to ensure teacher competence.

Psychology of Students. Workshops.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. Hence.secondary education. Modern Techniques of Teaching. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. methodology and evaluation. Meanwhile. and XII. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. etc. To meet this exigency. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. The problem. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Induction Courses. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. whether they should have professional education or. Modern Methods of Evaluation. Agriculture. though no pre-service training. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. 184 . With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. etc. efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. not came up once again. Organisation of Content Courses.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. All B Ed. 3.. Degree and M..D. (Education) and M. State Institutes of Education.. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Pre-service training is for those.’s for Ph. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.S. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. These facilities are available for regular students.’s are elig ible for M. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. Degree. Ajmer. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.A.Ed. courses and M. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. Courses leading to B.Ed. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.Ed..Ed..A. M.5. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. in Education.Ed. The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. training.. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Post-Graduates also undergo B. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. (Education) are organized by 185 .Ed. For re-orienting the teachers.. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.

4. as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. of conduct—written or unwritten. However. Hence the employability of M. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.List any two code of conduct for teachers? .A. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. they should be conscientious . established by tradition and teachers of the past. 5.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. 3. and B. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. . (Ed).. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . 186 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. What is the role of ERIC? . and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.).5. 6.A. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession.. (Ed.

Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. b. Ajmer.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. 3. 4.5. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. 6.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.3. 3.5. they should be conscientious. Bhopal. 3. 5. 187 . Explain code of conduct for teachers.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. a. National Council of Educational Research and Training. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. b. 2. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. 4. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. 3. Shorter working hours. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore.5. 2. Discuss the problems of teacher education. Dearth of new technology of teaching. The necessity is however this. a. a. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. However.

Mohanty. and Teacher Education.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. (2010). Publication Pvt.N. A. (2009). New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House. P. Corporation. B. J. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .5. (2003).D.3. Ltd Aggarwal. Teacher Education. Tewari. Teacher Education.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

191 . the focus is on the school health programmes. objectives. objectives and role of the physical education. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. economic and educational developments.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. preservation of nutrients. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. nutritional deficiency diseases. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. communicable diseases and their prevention. Since food is the source of nutrients. The person’s environment is equally important. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. common ailments of children. objectives. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. In lesson 4. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. consuming the right amounts becomes important. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. In lesson 1. If the diet is poor.

192 .

7 4.e.2 4. mental.5 4.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.3 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. for giving health education to the children under its custody.1.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.4 4. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1. 193 .6 4.LESSON 4.8 4.1. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1. emotional and social. It is a miniature society.1.1.9 4.11 4.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1.1.1 4.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. physical.1.1.10 4.

To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. know the need for sex education. To give information regarding health rules. 7. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 10. 2. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. e.1.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. To develop certain skills concerning health. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health.. 4. 9.g. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases.1. 4. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 11. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 194 .3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. you will be able to: 1. content of health education. 5. training of teachers and evaluation. 6. training in first aid and etc. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. cleanliness and healthful living. 3. to his family and to the community at large. understand school health programmes 2. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. explain the importance of First aid 5. list the common ailments of children 3. To develop healthy health habits among children. 8.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 4. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. Instruction.

Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. There should be regular water supply. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. The flooring should not be damp. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp.1. organisation of school health days. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. (xl) mental health. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. (vi) nutrition education. Vaccination for small pox. (viii) first aid. The surroundings of schools should be clean. minimizing the travelling distance. 5. B. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. “Play-for-all” programmes. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. B. direct lighting. 4. (ii) communit y healt h. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. (vii) physio logy o f exercises.. play festivals. 2. suitable furniture. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. The school buildings should be spacious.C. (v) safety education. Triple Antigen Vaccination.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. proper doors and windows. There should be good drainage facilities.. typhoid. as described below 1. First aid facilities should be made readily available. ( iii) sanit at io n. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. inoculation against cholera. Toilet rooms should be amply provided. excusing late. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises.G. 3. Arranging better transportation facilities. cleanliness weeks.4. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. (xii) smoking education etc. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games.coming or absence. 2. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. vaccination. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. is imperative. etc.

. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. dislocations. isolate and notify. • When sleeping in groups. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. • Find out the cases. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. C. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. insect stings. 196 . alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. scalds. and other accidents. fractures. • Have adequate rest and sleep. cuts. if epidemic is wide-spread. burns. D. etc. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. • Close the schools. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. wounds. sports and games in the interest of their health. • Keep all rooms clean. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. fainting (epileptic fit). drowning. poisons. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. • Take nutritious food. bleeding.

tuberculosis. These diseases are called communicable diseases. fever. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. There are three stages in any communicable disease. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. pain in the joints. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. 2. chicken pox. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. backache. polio.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Once these germs get into the body. headache.1. measles etc. asthma.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. which are – cold. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. water or bodily contact. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. cough. So they easily get illnesses. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. They are: i) The incubation stage. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses..1. 4. Mention the school health programmes. List out the Health curriculum 3. 4.

Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. etc. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Scabies . 198 . The symptoms include cold. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Others make the children very weak. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. sugar and water. head-ache and cough. unhygienic living conditions. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. cough and fever. Hence it is called a killer disease. Mumps .It is caused by measles virus. Measles . Tonsilitis . This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Important salts and water are lost in this process. The following are the common communicable diseases. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. unhygienic bottle feeding. After three or four days of fever. Ear Infections . Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Common Cold .• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. eating food which is not clean. Throat is affected.This disease is caused by bacteria.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. This is caused by cold virus. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added.When a child suffers from scabies. The child may have fever. Diarrhoea . Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. Hence liquid diet is recommended. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Children catch cold from persons having cold.

If proper treatment is not given. the child is not able to breathe. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. Diphtheria . The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. separate. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. Shortly.• • • • Chicken Pox . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Typhoid .Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. raised pink spots appear on head. Enlist the common ailments of children. 199 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. face and waist. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. the child may die. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. The child may also have diarrhoea. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. As the disease progresses. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. What are communicable diseases? 6. 5. It begins with fever. Expand DPT . The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. By scratching he causes secondary infections.

5. head injury. It is both biological and psychological.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. bleeding.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. and Community Work and Social Service. 3.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. In such cases. 4. 200 . simple fractures. fainting. Wounds . so-called sex books and periodicals. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. dislocation. films and jokes.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. and films. it is a subject of art. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. eye injury. swelling.1.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. Cuts and Bruises . cuts. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. snakebites. bruises.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1.4. fiction. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work.1. wounds. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. etc. man-woman behaviours.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. drowning. Drowning . which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. 4.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. Sprains . It is concerned with human relationships boy girl.g. sprains. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. exciting and body-oriented. sprains. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. scorpion stings. 2. It has its rightful place in education too. Sex is popular.

The values of life. 3.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. In today's liberal and interactive society. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. health.old values. Hence. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. Should the boys and girls. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. In secondary schools. B. in their ignorance. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. sex education is being recommended in schools. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . The home. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. they would be treading the path of sure doom. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life.. but preserve them from disaster and disease. celibacy are age. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. try experimenting with their bodies. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. 2. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. the religious organisations. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. the school.

As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. What are the major components of Sex Education. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. there will no crisis in its implementation. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. communicable diseases and their prevention. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. 202 . It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects.1. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. C. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. the school health programmes. 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. common ailments of children. Teacher education institutions are. hence. when the courses are already overloaded. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. first aid and sex education.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. 209 . List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mention the food nutrients 2. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3.

5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4.2.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. minerals. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. Let us talk about each of these aspects. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. If you look at the definition carefully. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s.2. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. 210 . Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g .4.

paratha and poori. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. the social and religious practices of that region. 4. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). Even within given States there is considerable variation. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. People in the east of our country prefer rice. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. dosa are typical of the south.one in the morning and the other at night. There is no point.6. construction labourer). In other words.2. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. it is also specific to a given activity level . A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. These are: region where the person resides and income. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. Preferences/customs are also important. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. A balanced diet is specific firstly. In the case of adults. activity level and physiological stress.g.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal.g. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body.sedentary. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. for example. moderate or heavy work. sex. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals .Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet.

As you read this discussion. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. However. as important for the rich as for the poor.planning the diet. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. while another may hate them. however. If you think of your own religious group. Judicious selection of food is. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. however. taboos related to food may play an important role. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. Including these 212 . A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. fat and sugar tend to increase. for example. nuts and dry fruits. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. One must. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. however. Having more money. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. customs. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. enables a person to add more variety to the diet. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. As income increases. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. Even among flesh foods. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. These determine the acceptability of foods. vegetables and fruits. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. In addition to these. One person may be fond of milk products. Among the social factors. income plays a vital role.

8) Walk a while after eating. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. eggs . 213 . For this. fruits. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. but they should be thrown away. Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. if the teachers have good food habits. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. green leaves. List out any two healthy food habits. Define balanced diet. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. meat. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. mouth. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.eating is hazardous. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . 17. over-eating or under. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. etc. 8.

Nutrition is closely interlinked with health.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. e. preservation of nutrients. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Conjuctival xerosis.2.4. Keratomalacia 3. Discuss good food habits. Bitot’s spots. Vitamin D 5. Beri Beri 4. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Night blindness. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. 4.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. good nutrition is essential for good health. d. a. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. In fact. When the diet is inadequate. Explain food nutrients 4. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 .9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2.2. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. b. Corneal xerosis. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. 4. c.

S. A Text Book of Foods.C. Nutrition and Dietetics. R. 4. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. a. Food and Nutrition Education. (2005). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . 7. Health and Nutrition Education. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. mouth. (2008). U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . R. b.N.M. (2004). Chopra. Food and Nutrition Education.6.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. Food should be consumed after eating well. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Sri Lakshmi B. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. 8. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra. (2009). New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. minerals. P. a . vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.2. Nutrition Science. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. Hands. b. (2008).

3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.3.12 4.3.5 4.7 4.3.LESSON 4.3.3.6.6.3.2 4.3.13 4.9 4.3.3.3.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.8 4.11 4.4 4.3 4.6.3.10 4.3.3.1 4.3 Impact on Education 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.1 Impact on social development 4.3. 216 .3.

3. It is not sex education. therefore. his societ y and the world. There is some difference. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4. Whenever we talk of sex education.4. you will be able to: 1. population characteristics. understand the importance of small family norm 5. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education. the stress is.3.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. characteristics and changes for himself. aims at providing the younger generation. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. his family. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. Population Education. and the consequences of these processes. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. community. the causes of population change. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. describe the impact of population growth on social. 217 . It is a much wider co ncept. 4. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. economic and educational development 3. objectives and need for population education 2. family planning and sex education etc. 4.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. state the meaning.3.

4. List out any two objectives of Population Education.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 .4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. the family.3. Define Population Education 2. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well. the society.4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the nation and the world. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.

social welfare schemes can be implemented well. 4. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social.3. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries.3. When the family is small. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race.6. Every second two thousand children are being born. 219 .6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. the family programmes are also handicapped. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. With the larger families. health and happiness of its citizens. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. which will not be possible without population control. 4. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. economic and educational development of the country. Family is considered as a social unit. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country.

This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. are the results of demographic pressures on social life.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. pollution of the environment. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’.. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. heavy intern I migration etc. unemployment.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets.6. in buses and trains. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. 4. in parks and other places of public gatherings. toilets.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. Many students herded in a small room. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. and so on. i. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. facility for drinking water. 220 . Swollen cities. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population.3.3. in cinema halls and theatres. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. 4.6. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. The gulf between them is widening further. organization index and material index. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. In developing countries.e. teacher index. lack of proper health care.

blank verses etc. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. thus. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. family planning etc. can be studied in science and health education. Hindi and English. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. There would be poor library facilities. 221 . There would be very few audiovisual aids. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. reproduction. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. even text books would be in short supply. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Regional Language.3. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. less budget for education. can be taken up.. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. bar graphs etc. essays.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Social Studies Statistics on population education. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. less space facilities. and laboratory equipments.

Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 10. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. United States of America. 4. 12. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. 2. 14. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times.3. 13. 9. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Canada.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. 5. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. 8. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. West Bengal. area and average density of population. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Bihar. 3. causes of deaths etc. 15. Children with the help of parents. Brazil.4. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. 11. Children may compare two families. deaths. 7. China. Uttar Pradesh.

preferences for sex.3. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. we have no right to stop 223 . automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. age at marriage. 17. values and role children etc. Comparing life in various respects in two families.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. 16. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. 18.be opened in their schools. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. The question. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised.

More than 45 years ago.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. and the child survival components of the news: program. on an overall basis. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.4-6. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). however.were implemented 224 . The Family Welfare Program. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. which education can only do.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate.their entry into the world”.3. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. especially the expansion of child immunization services . Since the program's inception.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. continued . “He who is responsible for population growth. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. at varying places in different regions.to emphasize family planning services. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. 4.. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.

Local programs vary in their approaches. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. men. a focus on health promotion. In April 1996. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. and the World Conference on Women. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. Moreover. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. the community appears willing to pay for services. In October 1997. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. reliance on local women as community health workers. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. Therefore.earlier than the safe motherhood components. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. and nominal fees for services. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. At these meetings. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. expansion of services to unmarried women. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men.

improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. Its main purposes are to create awareness. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. family. economic and educational development 4. Describe the impact of population growth on social. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training.3. nation and the world. involving the community.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. 3. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. 1997). community.3. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 226 .emphasizing the needs of the client. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. 4. What are the goals of RCH? 4.

United States of America. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. the causes of population change. Canada. his society and the world. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. characteristics and changes for himself. area and average density of population. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation.3. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. less budget for education. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. Brazil. b. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. China. and the consequences of these processes. a. a. less space facilities. 5. population characteristics. b.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.” 2. his family. 227 . 7. 3. bar graphs. 6. a. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods.4. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. 4.

J. (2002). “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Modern Problems of Education. Kantikar. (2004). Jayapoorni. N. Centre for Women’s Studies. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Udaiveer.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty.3. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Principles of Population Studies. A. Changing attitudes to Education in India.4. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Bhende. T. 228 . (2005). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (1992). Ltd. Reddy. (2005). New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.K. Coimbatore. V.

4.10 4.8.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.2 Major games 4.2 4.1 4.4.4.3 Indigenous games 4.4.11 19.4.4.4.1 Minor games 4.4.4.4 4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.8.4.3 4.4.7 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .8.4.LESSON 4.4.6 4.4.8.4 Lead up games 4.5 4.4.9 4.

and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. full records of physical activities should be maintained. state the meaning of Physical Education 2. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students.4.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. mental alertness. 4. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. classify the different types of games. Physical Education is education through Physical activity.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. the youth of the country. which forms its most valuable assets. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. you will be able to: 1. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. 4. perseverance. as it should 230 . social fitness. leadership and balance in defect. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. The concept of physical education has been made broader.4. team spirit. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. moral fitness and emotional fitness.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education.4.4.

Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. obedience to rules. They are inseparably united together. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. They go hand in hand. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. To be more precise. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . team spirit. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. Therefore. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. The educational efforts at home. Every individual is a part of society. leadership. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality.

game and sports. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. Regarding the significance of physical education. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. mo ral. Physical exercises.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.” The Secondary Education Commission.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. Rousseau states. pleasing manners. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. Just like Education. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. a sound health.4. C. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. 4. H. ment al.” Montaigue writes. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. Buck has observed that 232 . nor body but the whole man.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.

efficiency and character. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively.4. resourcefulness and smartness. strength. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. etc. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. endurance. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems.” In brief. initiative. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. Froebel says. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. “If we wish to develop the whole being.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. we must exercise the whole human being.” 4. happiness. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. coordinative abilities. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. flexibility and power. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility. 233 .a properly directed physical education should result in health. elegance. speed.

Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Every age has its artists. plagues and famines. 234 (i) (ii) . its adherents and its enemies.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Tournaments foster this sentiment. in greater or lesser degree. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. If no opportunity is provided to the students. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. they may form gangs. including all racial groups and historical ages. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. poetry and painting. While wars. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. these fundamental things have always been present. should help in the spiritual development of the student. systems of government. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer.

to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. to develop tolerance. 3. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . 2. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. respect for rules. bravery and interest in games and sports. Write any two importance of Physical Education. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. 235 . obedience. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. etc.\ to develop perseverance.sacrifice. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. self. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. B.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements.

Always keep the whistle ready. defects. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 236 1. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 4. Usually parents. Haag. and readmission after they have recovered. Be sportive. Be punctual. 16. 11. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. 12. 5. Inform health principles. 14.H.4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed.4. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. 10.4. 2. and. is essential. 7.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Be self-confident. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Be in the uniform. Act as a leader. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. 3. students. Be well-prepared. 8. Keep the field ready for the activities. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Posture screening should be done. 13. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. 9. injuries among pupils should be made. . 4. 15. 6. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of.

3. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun.8. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Such inst incts as imitation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. the play. their development is handicapped.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. 4. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. 4. frolic and jo y. 1. chasing. Moreover. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy.4. 237 . 4. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. 2. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. Lead up games. less equipment and less expense. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules.4. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Indigenous games. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.

under ball pass Relay. Cricket. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. snatching the kerchief. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. zig zag relay. the play equipment. driving. They are played for a shorter duration. dribbling. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. skipping.4. trapping. The dimension of the posts and nets. Ball Badminton. pitching. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. bowling etc. on hard courts. Jump the stick clay and so on. Hopping. 4. benefit in playing minor games. spiking. For each game the rules are many. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. 238 . Tennikoit. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. the number of players and substitutes. Tennis. some of them are played indoors. On lawns. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. These games require varied skills such as running. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. muffling. heading. Dodging. Shuttle Badminton. on sea-shore. Except a few games. on mountain tops and on river beds. Jumping. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. boosting. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. stopping. over ball pass Relay. wherever the kids assemble. While many of them are played in the open playfields. the games can be modified according to convenience.. catching. with implements or without implements. finding the partner. Throwing.With a very few rules. Hockey. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Volley Ball. women take part most of the games. Soft Ball.8. hitting. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Basket Ball. couple tag. Khokho. Kabaddy etc. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children.

4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Kho-kho. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. death. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. Games may be classified as 6. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. They have an abundant social value. 7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. and . List out some major games.4.4.8. For example. these games being popular. All the fundamental tactics. they are in existence. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 4. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. An example for indigenous game is 8. birth. While observing the players in action. On occasions like marriage. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games.8. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. festivals connected with religion and public functions. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.

physically and emotionally fit and alert.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.4. d. c. Briefly discuss the different types of games. 4. a. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. 4. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. b.4. aims and objectives and need of physical education. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. 2. to secure physical health b. 4. 5. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. 3. b. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. a. 2.4. a. b. Posture screening should be done. 4. to develop physical stamina. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Schools should help students to keep them mentally.4. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. Minor and Major 240 . Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. 3.

Hockey. Volley Ball. Tennis. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2009). 4. J. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Basket Ball. G. J. Khokho. Shuttle Badminton.4. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Krishna murthy. Soft Ball. Tennikoit.C. Aggarwal.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. 241 . Handbook of Physical Education. Ball Badminton.K. Cricket. Khokho 8. (2008). Modern Trends in Indian Education.6. (2008). Kabaddy 7. Mohanty. Foot-ball. Ltd. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2005). Physical Education and Sports. Health. J.

The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .1 4.7 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.3 4.5.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.5.5.5.4 4.5.5.5.2 4.LESSON 4.6 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.9 4.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.5.5.11 4.8 4.10 4.5.5.5.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.2 Manmade Environment 4.5.1 Natural Environment 4.5.

To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. The best place to start such learning is school. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. 3. economic.5. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. you will able to: 1.5. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. Skills. 4. list out the types of environment 3. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. 6. 2. it covers the following elements: 1.5. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Awareness. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. Details are given below: I. 3. 5. Evaluation Ability. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. social. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. aesthetic and educational factors. population explosion and resource depletion could be.educat ion for the environment. Essential knowledge about the Environment. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. Broadly. political.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. 4. education about the environment and education through the environment. Attitude. Knowledge. 243 . To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Participation.

B. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. 244 . Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Oxidants Other pollutants. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. • Biological magnification E. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. F. 2. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. D. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur. a. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population.

Family planning ii.3. The pill ii. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . economic. Use of medical science i. 2. 3. Sterilisation. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. Socio-economic measures. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Persuasion: i. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Abortion iv. Birth control through education b. Control of population growth a. 2. B. Intrauterine device iii. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. c. 4. The human ecosystem II. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. III. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1.

Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. 2. Water pollution abatement. 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 246 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. (UNESCO. Define Environmental Education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Air pollution abatement ii. e) Recycling. 1983). 3.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment.

satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. He modifies according”. 4. way is called environmental or ecological factor. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment.5. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . -other. fax agricultural apparatus. telex. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. These are biotic components.5. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. A change in one brings about a change in the other.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. They interact with each. to his needs.5.4. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. Any constituent or condition of the environment. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. a.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. includes the plants. b.other components of the environment. Biological environment The biological environment.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain. animals and other organisms (biotic).6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water.5.5.5.

excellent recreation sites. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. windmills. of civilizations. History The rise and fall. preserving the watersheds. wars and hazards of war. trees reducing noise pollution. preventing siltation of dams. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. sources of pollut ion. solar cookers. industrial pollut io n. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. balance of nature. extinction of species. water scarcity. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. food chain and food-web. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. are the topics which may be taught in History. maintaining the ecological diversity. role of trees in building economy. nuclear warfare. use of medicinal plants. etc. mineral survey. population. air pollutants from industries. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. noise pollution. alternate sources of energy. nuclear energy. change in climate may be added. (ii) Air pollution. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. etc.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. greenhouse effect. acid rain. effects. effects o f CFC. over exploitation of ground water. natural way of controlling pests. use of pesticides. reasons. social studies.. supplying timber for various uses. desertification 248 . t heir role in preventing pollution. importance of nitrogen cycle. need for conservation. explosion deforestation. ozone layer deplet ion. biogas plants. ozone depletion. river systems. need for bio-diversity. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. industrial survey. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. evolution. sources. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . relation between population and pollution. noise control.

group discussions and seminars. 12. 7. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. 6. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. Providing. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. animal and plants. 5. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Organising conferences.5. 249 . Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 10. Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. 2. 8. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin.may be inc ded in Geography. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Peepal and Tulsi. Developing awareness about environmental issues. 13. 4. 11. 4. 14. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. 3. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. aims and scope. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 9.

List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. especially plastics. Don’t burn any waste. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. used oils down the drain. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Use public transport wherever it is possible. all these can cause serious pollution.Send their waste oil. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. 5. 6. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Reuse carrier bags. or form a car pool for everyday travel. If it is done. World Environmental falls on 250 . Never put any left over chemicals. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. it will cause pollution. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products.

8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. etc. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. orderliness and beauty). concern for others). According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. To provide reference materials for children’s use. and 251 . CFCs. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem.4. values and habits. dest roying nat ural habitats. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. loss of bio-diversity. nuclear wars. rather than conquest and mastery. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Att itudes of balance towards nature. etc. (cleanliness. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions.5. viz. To arrange for visiting speakers. depletion of ozone. To provide materials needed for practical work. Harmony with the nature . The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources.mat erials. developing desirable attitudes. deforestation. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. To arrange visits or expeditions. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. potable water. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry.. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. diversity and stability. Concern for species. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . Conservation of natural resources. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information. The groups may exchange. Social responsibilit y (common good.).

preserving natural cycles. 252 . 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 4. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. 8.

over exploitation of ground water. S. explosion deforestation. air pollutants from industries. concern for others). Organising conferences. reasons.5. Environment and Human Rights. a. a. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . To provide materials needed for practical work. ozone layer deplet ion. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. 8. greenhouse effect. T. (2007).K. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Ltd. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.K. acid rain. b.K. new problems from science and technology. b. Nanda. Ltd. Providing. importance of nitrogen cycle. (ii) Air pollution. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Knowledge. water scarcity. Udaiveer. Environmental Education.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. a. b. Y. June 5 7.\ 4. a.. Rapid population growth. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Modern Problems of Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. Social responsibilit y (common good. group discussions and seminars.K. Awareness. New Delhi : Sharma. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. 6. relat ion between population and pollution. Environmental Education. (1997). 5.2. population. (2007). effects. Publications Pvt. 4. New Delhi : Authors Press. sources of pollution. S. Education for values. 3. sources. To provide reference materials for children’s use. (2004). Kuldeep. b.

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. promote and transmit it to rising generation.our life. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. Spiritual Development.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man.” 5. According to Rusk'. Universal Education. in fact. Therefore. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 . Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. Education must contribute to development of culture. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. man is essentially a moral being.1. Education according to idealism. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. enrichment and transmission of culture.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. the emancipation of spirit. It is self-realisation. The universe is regarded as a thought process.3. should be universal in nature. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. moral.

affecting (feeling). Ethics. Mathematics etc.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. so subjects like Religion.” 5. For intellectual development. Learning through discussion. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. the school is a garden. So health. The plant can grow. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. History. Learning through lecturing. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. Learning through imitation. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. subjects like Languages. So he should embody.3. 5. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . an indispensable necessity. Learning through questioning.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. It considers teacher as. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. So cognition (knowing). 5.1.1. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. no doubt. Science. However. should be there. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. 3. friend and guide. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. hygiene. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. According to Frobel. 2.the spiritual qualities of mankind. Learning through reading. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. He sets the environment in which education takes place.” He is thus. and collation (striving) should find due place. Philosophy. For this no particular method has been suggested. 4. An idealist teacher is a philosopher.3. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. a spiritual guide for the child. Herbert advocated instruction method. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. According to idealism. He carries the child from darkness to light.

5. curricula. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.1. In the words of Ross.perfection and beauty. 2. Perfection of Human Machine. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. formal lessons or examinations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. time tables. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. text books.1. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. Ross explains. "Education should make 263 • .preservation. 5.4. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.

aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. education should develop the child into Joyous. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. rational harmoniously balanced. “Education finds its purpose. Therefore. 4. Arithmetic. therefore. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. There is no place for religious and moral education. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. It stresses basic sciences. Punishment is given by nature in its own way.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. geography should also be included in the curriculum. Botany etc Language. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Biology. It is based on the psychology of the child. In all. Naturalistic curriculum. useful and mature child. 264 . It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation.1. Education also aims at helping the individual t.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. It emphasises physical and health education 5. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Literature. Chemistry. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. Education should. • 5. subjects like history. Zoology. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. is based on the nature of the child. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience.4. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race.

” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher.5. Dalton Plan. 4. Learning through experience. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Heuristic method.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. a supplier of materials and opportunities. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . The main aim of Naturalism is & 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 .1.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology. It discards all rigid. the stage.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Rousseau says. Learning by doing. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. 3. 5. Learning through observation.1. In the .1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. 5. a provider of an ideal environment.4. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development.4. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. 2. he should be taught by experience alone.

Geography. Continuous Growth. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. of human personality is in terms of his physical. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. All Round Development of an Individual. The aim of educational development. 5. Personal Social Adjustment. diversified and flexible.1. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. intellectual. Sciences.1. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Physical training. Social Science. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience.5. Continuous reconstruction of Experience.5. is true. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. social and moral aspects. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. History. Subjects. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Agriculture. Vocational and 266 .absolutism of idealism. 5. Social Efficiency. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning.

5. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. alert and resourceful. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. should find proper place.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. He has to be active. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.5. activities and experience should be integrated properly. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . Methods of teaching should not be fixed. He must be trained. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom.1.1. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences.Technical Education. a senior partner and a sincere guide. In different situations he remains a friend and helper.5. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. The subjects. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.” 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. a teacher occupies an important position. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Learning by Doing.

Study of Subjects like Language. Biography Philosophy. 3.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism.1. Population Education.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. 2. 5. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. scientific and psychological education. Chemistry. 4. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. Crafts.1. 4. Geography are unnecessary 268 . It favours child-centered.1. liberal.6. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. 5. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. specific. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Psychology. Mathematics. Art. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. Sex Education. 5. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Astrology. literary or humanistic education. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. Music and Dance. 2. The basic tenets of realism are 1. 3. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. Literature. practical. Education is preparation for a complete living. Biology. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. History. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. intellectual.5. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. rich and happy. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic.6. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real.

5.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science.1.6. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 .6.1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5. easily and pleasantly. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. certainly and clearly.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.

Physical training. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. a. Rousseau 5.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. in this lesson. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Universal Education 2. Social Science. has no end other than growth.5. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. Geography. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Learning through discussion. Demonstration and Observation 270 .9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. Experimentation d. Learning through questioning. Vocational and Technical Education. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Learning through imitation. Agriculture. c. 3. History. Tours / Excursion e. Sciences. e. pragmatism and realism. Learning through reading. 5. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Languages. b. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. naturalism. 6. Child centered c. d. Learning through experience b. a. Education according to pragmatism. Learning through lecturing. & curriculum. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Self Realisation b. Self preservation & Self expression 4. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. 5.1. 5.1. a.1.

Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education. New Delhi : A. 271 .10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. (2007). L. N. of Pathak.P. (2004). P. K. Pahuja.P. R.H. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers.5. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Publishing corporation. (2003). Ltd. New Delhi : Bhatia. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). Narang C.1. Foundations of Education. Theory and Principles of Education. P. O.

2.1 Aims of Education 5.2.2.3.2. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.2.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.2.3.2 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2.2 Curriculum 5.2.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.2 Curriculum 5.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2.4.5.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.4.2.4.2.3.2.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2.2.5.2.1 Aims of Education 5.2.4.3 Methods of teaching 5.3.3.1 5.3.3 Methods of teaching 272 .4.2.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.4 Views about teacher 5.2.4 Views about teacher 5.1 Aims of Education 5.LESSON 5.5.

2. Gandhiji was primarily a social.8 5. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.5. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.4 Role of the teacher 5.6 5.2. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas. mind and spirit. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.7 5.2. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. economic and political reconstruction in our country.2. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 5. 2. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. Tagore was a poet. 273 .” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.2. an artist.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.2. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes.2. you will able to: 1. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas.5. content and methods. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. 3.2. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.

In the words of Gandhiji.2.supporting. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor.3. righteousness. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. mind and soul of children He further observed. It really provides opportunity for character building. strength of mind. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education." Dignity of Labour. 'Man is neither mere intellect. nor the gross animals body. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. His scheme of education is life centred.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. self-restraint and service of humanity. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. through life and for life. it is education of life. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. 274 .1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. "I attach more. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. 5.

leather work have been suggested. Drawing and Hindustani. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . wood work. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. General Sciences. Individual and Social Aims. "Development of the moral character.Training for Leadership. development of the whole all were directed: towards. According to Gandhi. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. the realization of the ultimate reality. Mother-tongue. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme.3. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. gardening. metal work. Only good individual forms a better society. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Music. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. Art. 5. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies.2.

The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Basic education is other wise known as 4.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well.2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.trained. men of 276 .3. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.2. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. proficient.3. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.

5. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature.3. That is why.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. Education must be child centered. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. He also advocates freedom for the child. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist.knowledge. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 3. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education.2.

productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. • Cult of non-violence. He believed in the oneness of humanity. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. he was a true Vedantist 5. 5.3. • Ideal of citizenship. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.K. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.4. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. He was a true patriot.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.” Like all other ideals. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.2. Gandhi in 1937. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.2. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. 5.2.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. He was deadly against untouchability. • Education should involve manual work. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.

sentiment. "Mankind must realise a unity. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. deeper in. International Understanding. the more dedicated and devoted.Language and Literature . he said. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. It should help. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Dance. Chemistry. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. (vi) Philosophy. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Geography. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Therefore.4. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Civics. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. Botany.2. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. complete manhood could be attained. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. them solve problems of day to day life. Tagore said.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. Zoology. 279 . That way only. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Music. It should help the learner have good physique." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. could help in forging unity among all. stronger in power than ever before. International understanding. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. Religion and Psychology. wider in range.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . etc. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination.

280 . Activity Method Heuristic Method.4. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship. Tagore rightly says. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity. In 1921. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners.2. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal.4. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. Only a good learner can be a good teacher.2.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service.4.2. 5. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones." 5. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. 5. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.” He further says. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself.

Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 281 . religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6.g. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. 9. It is open to all irrespective of country. race. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. 10. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment.

1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. 4. According to him. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Book learning. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Purity of thought. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. Education for Self-realization. The whole beauty of life is linked with it.” 5. 2. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building.5. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education.2. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. Education should make a person self-reliant.2.5. Education for strong Moral Character.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Education for Self-reliance. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. Freedom. 3.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. work and deeds come out of it. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. man making. Concept of Education." He was against the theoretical type of education. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace.

2. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses.the learners on different students in the discussion. 6. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Thirdly he wished that games.5. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion.5. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. Swami. Discussion Method. Philosophy and Theology. Of course. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. engineering and technical subjects.5. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Every individual should be trained for concentration. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study.5. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. 5. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. The teacher should be the facilitator. Secondly he wanted Science. philosopher and guide to the students He. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. That will serve the purpose of education fully. A physically strong person is the need of the society. Education for Physical Development. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. And above all. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta.2. Religion. 5. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . 5. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum. 283 .2.

12. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. of course. 5.Substantiate your answer. naturalist. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. Gandhiji as a Idealist. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. and pragmatist . Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. Their educational ideas. Write short notes on Basic education. 3. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.6 LET US SUM UP We have. 284 .Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. ears and eyes. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. 2. legs.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. in this lesson. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11.2. We have seen that Tagore.

(i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. 2. metal work. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. gardening. b. 11.2. a. Heuristic Method. Basic education. Self-Study b. Activity Method b. 3. Debate and Discussion Method. leather work have been suggested. Discussion Method 285 . Activity Method d. Explain Vishwabharathi.4. d. Teaching while Walking b. Technique of Correlation 6. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. 1937 7. wood work. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. f. 9. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. e. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. c. Self realization. a. 8. c. Cult of non-violence. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. 5. Meditation and concentration c. 5. Education should involve manual work.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Nai Talim 4. 10. a. Ideal of citizenship. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Learning by Doing c. 5. a.

5. B. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Publishing Corporation.P. New Delhi : A. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.2. C. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. P. P. Theory and Principles of Education. (2007). N. O. J. N. (2004). on Bhatia. Foundations of Education. K. L. Dhiman. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2002). New Delhi : Aggarwal.H. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Ltd. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2003).9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. 286 . Pahuja. Anmol Publications Pvt. K and Narang C.

Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.2 5.5 5.1 5.3.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.3.3. In this lesson.3.3.3. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .LESSON 5.3.8 5.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’.9 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.4 5.10 5.6 5.3 5.11 5.3.3.3.7 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.

In the words of Kerney and Cook. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. Then in a big country like India.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. maintained or eliminated. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India.3.under the direction of the school. you will be able to: 1. present behaviour may be modified. While education is learning. it is identical wit h socializat ion.3. While education is a process. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3.3. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. the plain area. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. From the latter point of view. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. 5. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. living in the hilly area. In it.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. in the U. Since the demands. new behaviour may be acquired. in the form of new experience. curriculum signifies situations for learning. the plateau area and 288 . A g o o d curricu lu m.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. Both the processes are integrated.S. there is a large number of communities. 5. curriculum. In the former sense. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5.. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. the desert area. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. Curriculum is intimately related to education. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. in fact . Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s .A. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. state the meaning of curriculum 2. is a means to the process. in Russia or in Japan.

coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. In fact . And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. therefore. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. irrespective of their needs and environment. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. differs from individual to individual. the learning capacity of children. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. democratic and socialistic country. Again. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it.3. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. customs and needs. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. environment. it is. However. and 289 . the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. 5. It must differ from locality and from society to society. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. From a slave-country we became secular. according to modern trends in the educational process. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. studying therein. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. Besides craft. too.

5. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. individual or Social and so on. general or specific. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students.. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. They may be ultimate or proximate. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. Goals of Primary Education. National Integration. unambiguous and functional. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. social. They are visionary goals e. They are achievable. emotional. remote or immediate. Goals of Secondary Education. 2. which may or may not be attained. aims. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. social. etc. Self Realisation. 3. specific. in instructional objectives. So it is inadequate. Vocational Efficiency. etc. tangible. eg. 1. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. they depend on the political. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. Application Objective. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. aesthetic and spiritual development. They speak of perfect goals. e. 290 . objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. unsatisfactory. Understanding Objective. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. of classroom. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. Knowledge Objective. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3.g. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands.g. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. 4. uninspiring and unscientific.3.g. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. The word “Curere” means 2. They speak of immediate purposes of education.. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. moral... The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. etc. e.

“The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. Crow and Crow remarks. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. but it includes the totality of experiences. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. needs. Raymont rightly says. educationists.5. on the playing fields.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects.3. in the class rooms. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. The interests.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences.” 291 . abilities. capacities. According to Crow and Crow. finding them very interesting and captivating. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. heavy fire. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum.

Due to these variations and differences. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. They often waste it or rather kill it. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. time in a useful manner. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. capacities and abilities.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. tendencies. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. moral. aptitudes. mental. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. urges. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects.

The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. 2. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. 293 . To ensure success of the process. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. organized. development of professional capability at all levels. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. phased preparation. Similarly. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. administrative programme need be planned. 3. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation.curricular. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework.

playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Run. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. 17. library. 5. in the class room. 1937 19. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning.3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation.3. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . a. 18. Relation with Life c. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. workshop.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. 11. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. 12. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.3. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. principles of curriculum construction. 10. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. 5. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. laboratory. Child Centred Education b.

Lakshmi. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.K. (2007). (2001). New Delhi : Authorspress.5. D. New Delhi : Isha Books. Innovations in Education.3. S. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. (2007). S. Curriculum and Instruction. and Sarita Kumari. Curriculum Development. Bhalla. 295 .S. (2007). P. N.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.

1 5.9 5.4.6.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.4.4.5 5.4.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4.4.7.4.3 5.10 5.7.4.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.7.4.4.2 5.6.4 5.LESSON 5.4.7.4.4.4.8 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .

5. yet real advancement in this area was achieved .during the second half of this century. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude.4. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees.4. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. 5. 2. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. 3. newer and newer industries started growing. know the importance of science education. 297 . tolerance for the opinions of others. We mean curiosity. 5. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. in the economic reconstruction of society. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. explain the concept of scientific attitude. honesty.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science.4. open-mindedness. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth .2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. superstition or emotion. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. Gradually. 4. you will be able to: 1.

4. 5. After such experience and training. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 2. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. 7. 3. 5. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. Schemes of teaching science. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching.4. 4. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. Devotion towards nature increases. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. Through examinations. seminars and symposiums. 4. 6. Central science workshop. 2. Selection for science education. 6. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Love for truth enhances. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Thinking and memory develops. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO.So that. Principles are formulated. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. Promotion of science clubs. Through newspapers.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. as well as of the society. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 5. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Organisation of science fairs. 5. 3.

each child to “enquiry skill building”. In the inquiry approach.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Training of science teachers. therefore. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life.4. objectivity. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. For laboratory and workshop techniques. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. It is. essential that teachers. They experience natural phenomenon. After presenting the problem. 5. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . They ask many questions about the objects they see. sex or religion. Write any two advantages of Science Education. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. should provide opportunities to. 7. Enquiry teaching is.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature.needs and conditions. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.4. They encounter many social events as they grow. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. 5. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils.6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”.Herma Wouk. 300 .books. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. . Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . 3. 6.4. 5. . It requires consistent thinking. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. 5.4. 2. test. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 3. 4. 5. if they like. stern pursuit of accurate data.6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. Evidence.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. commands or orders. Giving less directions. stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. to ask questions and experience things. Appreciating pupils ideas. Adopting creative models of teaching. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Social sciences.

therefore should be unbiased and objective. For instance. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. The students observation. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. practiced. To achieve this we should understand what it means. school and society at large.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude.(Smith 2008). The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. These include open mindedness. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. neighbourhood. 5. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. of vast resources running waste. friends. it must be encouraged.7. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. (Vaidya 2007). It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. to develop among the learners. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society.4. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. critical thinking and suspended judgments. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. and emphasized during the learning process . keen observation.

pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge. he studies all aspects of it. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. In considering a situation or a problem. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. think and work it”. intuition or wishful thinking”. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. rumor. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. understanding and logic. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions.4. 302 . they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. or superstitions.7. (Das. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. 5.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. 2007). He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions.

Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 .7.4. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science. • 5. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.4. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. 5. but to begin only after careful planning. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil.7.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.

Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. it must be encourages. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. 304 . see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook.

5.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. 305 . Wide reading b. D. b. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Rao. N. 2. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. a. The intention to respect another’s point of view. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.4. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. Love for truth enhances. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. Planning of activities 5. Study of superstitions d.S. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. a. (2006). M. a.5. 16. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15.4. b.4. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. (2008). b. Proper example of the teacher c. a. (2000). 5.B (2008). Vaidya. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Adopting creative models of teaching. Yadav. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. S. 3. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. Discuss the importance of science education 14. 4. Reflections on Scientific attitude. objectivity. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.

you will be able to: 1.5.4 5.6 5.5.2 5.7 5. 5.5.5.5.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. state the concept.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.5 5.1 5. 306 .10 5.LESSON 5.3 5. objectives and characteristics.5.8 5.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5. 2. actively.5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5.11 5.5. areas of institutional planning.5.9 5.5.

• to involve teachers and school administrators. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. executive as well as public. and each student are regarded as separate entities. teachers and students is not lost sight of. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. and. 5. Institution should be regarded as the unit. 5.5. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. and every student in the process of educational planning. which become the bases for further planning at the district. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. • To make institutional planning more successful. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. and supplement planning from above. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. State and national levels from below. every teacher. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. • to make planning development-oriented. in the task of educational planning. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . every parent. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. each teacher. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions.3. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly.5.

The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. 308 . who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. (2) Co.curricular Activities. etc. council and. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. Classwork. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. which will be discussed in the general.• implemented. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. Examinations.5.5.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. 5. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. approved after making necessary modifications. Syllabus. Co-curricular activities. it becomes the basis for school inspection. and Personnel services. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers.

Preparation of audio-visual aids. charts and apparatus. hobby-centres. Organisation of Pupils. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. etc. Organisation of Self-Government Days. etc. etc. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Preparation of models.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Courts. Conducting of educational. Editing the school magazine. Running science clubs. 3. etc. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . 1.No. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Equipping of laboratory and library. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Undertaking remedial instruction services. etc. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Organisation of Students’ Association. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Preparation of instructional material. 2. Organising play-for-all programmes. Improving the internal assessment. Organisation of class-room libraries. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Fair distribution of syllabi. scientific and historical excursions.

understanding. teacher-State. administrator-supervisor. and solidarity. pupils. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. Administrator-State. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. co-operation.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. teacher-pupil. administrator-administrator. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. ii.5.” The human relationships in. teacher-managing body. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. headmasters associations. science teachers’ associations. and —pupil-pupil. students’ associations. parent-teacher associations.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. involving mainly human materials. teacher-teacher.5. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. pupil310 . teacherinspector. which are divided as the in. parents. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. etc. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. teachers. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. administrator-pupil. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body.

and to serve. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. supervision and superintendence. pupil-parent. to carry out. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. now-a-days." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. etc. to accomplish. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes.State. V. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. It relates to administration of a single educational institution. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. pupil-non-official functionaries. 311 . Management may be taken as a narrow concept. According to C. Good. administrator. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. control. pupil-community leader.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. teacher-community leader. organisation. social sciences and other disciplines. teacher-parent.5. It is also being modernized to become a technique. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. pupil-inspector. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. supervision. It covers personnel and material management. To administer means to manage. superintendence. to attend. organisation and management.

The manager should have leadership traits. Decision Making . If the cost benefit ratio is less. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. 8. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. 4. Motiviation . without this the efficacy will be handicapped. the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. it is not worth-while. Worker Participation .Management should be efficient and economical 312 . He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.Of all the approaches. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. 7.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. Rapport between the Management and Employees . 13. Communication .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. Economic Management . If it is more. 6. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. Leadership . 12. 2. Those. 5. The relationship should change from master. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. who occupy the managerial positions. He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis. Cost-Benefit Analysis . the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . Democratic Management . Better Human Relationships .This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. 11. 10.Any good management will always have good public relations. Liasion with the Public .lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . 9.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. He should be an artist in human relationships. low. This is the latest democratic trend in management. 3. Socio-Scientific Approach .

the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. enrichment of curricula. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . and cooperative performance should be ensured. 313 . 14.g.5.5. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management.too. to improve the quality of education it provides. 5. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. 5. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. 18. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. objective.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. 19.These two are. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. improvement of teaching methods.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept.

d. (1995). it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. 2. (2003). S. Motiviation d. Educational Administration. a. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. f. (2001). Instruction. c. a. In group and Out group 5. Singh. APH Publishing Corporation.5. b.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Fundamental of Educational Management.5. R. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Decision Making b.K. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. e.M. Co-curricular activities. Tarachand and Prakash. b. H. Communication 5. it becomes the basis for school inspection. 314 . Syllabus.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. a.5. and Personnel services. b. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Leadership c. 4. Examinations. Classwork. a. NUEPA.

UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. Healthy Food Habit 4.Religious and Modern Education 1. 4. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2. Realized the problems of school education. wastage and Stagnation 3. School.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.3 Directive Principles . Sex-education 4.1 Gurukula system of education. New evaluation procedures.1 Primary Education : Education for all. Communicable diseases .Imbalances and Variations in different environment. First Aid. physical education and environmental education 5. Common ailments of Children. Inspection and Supervision 3. Balanced diet.teachers should have : 1.Pre-service and In-services facilities. population education.CORE PAPER . Community and Mass Media 2.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.I.Preventive measures. higher education.4 India's Secular Policy . (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.1 Inculcation of Socialism. Preservation of nutrients. social Impact 3.Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education.3 Educational Influences of Home. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. Examination reforms.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. women education and teacher education in India.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development . Economic 315 .4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.5 Regional Educational Development in India . nutritional requirement. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1.Article 45 . UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4. Buddhist and Jain system of education. 2.1 School Health Programme. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . 1. Code of conduct for teachers.2 Nutritional deficiencies.

K. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. and Mohanty R.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . (2005) Foundations of Education. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Pandy V. REFERENCE 1.R.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. Hemchand. 316 .improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Ram S. Taneja V. Ghanta R. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.N. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. (2004) Problems of Education in India. Prof.4 4.K.C. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. Sharma. Realism. Delhi : University Publications 2.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Curriculum and national goals . (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.N. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. Saraswathi T. T. and Sharma R. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. 7. 5.1 Idealism. Naturalism and Pragmatism . and Dash B.K. Mahatma Gandhi. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. Mishra. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.Aim. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Tagore 5.K. Kalan Paper Packs 10. New Delhi: NCERT 3. Socialization.S. B. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. (1999) Culture.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. R. and Human Development.4.

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