BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

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CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
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BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56

UNIT – II

ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University

2.1

67 77

2.2 2.3

90 104

2.4 2.5

115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN

EDUCATION
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
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127 139

3.3 3.4 3.5

Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education

154 161 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF

EDUCATION
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247

260 275

5.3 5.4

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UNIT – I 7 .

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and Jain system of education. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. 9 . Lesson 2. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. Lesson 5. Jainism and their educational implication. Lesson 4. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education. regional imbalances and variations in different environment. In. discusses the regional educational development in India.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. The need. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west.

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6 Education during British Era 1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 1.1.1.1.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.5.6.1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.4.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.2 1.1.1.1 1.1.1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.4.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 1.6.1 Charter Act of 1813 1.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.5.1.1.1 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD STRUCTURE 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.6.5 Hartog Committee (1929) 11 .3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.5.3.6.1.3.1.LESSON 1.1.5.1.1.1.1.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.6.5 Jain system of education 1.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.

but English in taste.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1.9 1.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.1. Muslim and British periods. India. has a long past history starting in vedic education.1. Indian in blood and colour. 1. elucidate the education during British Era. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life.1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2.1.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.8 1. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.7 1. both present and future. describe the Jain system of Education 4.1. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.6.1. British system of education presented the modern western model. Education in India.1.1. in opinion. you will be able to: 1.3. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model. That 12 . 1.1.6.1. in morals and in the intellect”. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together. The history of education passed through Buddhist.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create. “a class of persons.

It was not merely intellectual. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. with grants of land or money. 13 . The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. if they thought fit to do so. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 8. Pupils were taught. Forests as Centres of Education. 9. There was. 16. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. 13. managed entirely by Brahmans. 4. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Teacher as Parents. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. The immediate aim of education. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. Religious and Spiritual. High Status of Teachers. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. 6. 10. and to agriculture and trade. Role of Travel in Education. 5. Immediate Aim Vocational. Education of Moral. from eternal to immorality 2. Residential Schools. Education was a private affair of the people. followed by explanation by the teacher. 11. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service. No State Control on Education. individually. Curriculum. Free and Accessible. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Individual Teaching. the monitorial plan was followed. religious and spiritual. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. 3. generally. as it is generally considered to be at present. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. questioning by the pupil. 12. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. Method of Instruction. however. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. 14. from darkness. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. not en masse by the class method. It was also moral.knowledge was real. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Where pupils were many. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. to light. Method of Study. Rulers of the country could subsidies it.

besides preparing for worldly pursuits. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. lived a life of celebacy. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. Wide-Spread Education in Women. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values.17. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education? 3. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education? . Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. It was suited to the needs of the society. They were very cordial and intimate. studied Vedas.3. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education? 14 . 1. 2. It was freely available to all those who wanted. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.

he was qualified to become a monk. had the right to receive education. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. in which. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. the student remained in a state of Shramana. Right contemplation 1. I take Refuge to Sangh. I take Refuge to Dharma. except the Chandals.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. Right means of livelihood 6. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. partaking of food at prohibited times. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. It was denied only to the ill. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. disease and death of the human beings. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Right endeavour 7. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. killing of any living being. After attaining the age of 20. Right knowledge 2. Education was imparted through the.4. medium of Pali. the handicapped. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Consequently. impure conduct. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. taking things without being offered. use of intoxicating things. Right activity 5. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. the student had his head shaved of all hair. watching dances or listening to music. every class in society. 1. etc. which included abstaining from theft.C. 15 . dressed himself in yellow clothes. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. use of cosmetics. 2.1. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Right speech 4. the most significant of which were the following 1. Right thought 3. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. Right memory 8.

has no metaphysical value for life. After this ritual. arithmetic and religious discussion. military science. it is regarded as true”. education was impart in art. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. Whatever its nature and extent. It comprehended education in writing. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. knowledge of reviving the dead. 2. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. however. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. objectives of human life. Life is in a flux. women occupied a position inferior to men. etc. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. handicrafts. etc. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. 4. aspirations and. bodily gestures.3. wear three items. 6. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. archery. medicine. etc. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. and. approach. the science of taming and training animals. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. nothing is of any permanent consequence. along with education in script writing. therefore. assumptions. a change is not only total but also perpetual. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. depth and range. Later on. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. 8. 1. magic. On this occasion. a continuous change creating 16 . Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. control over sensuous activities. agriculture. 5. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation.4.. As reality is becoming. Initially. eat food thrice a day. Even at this stage. 7. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. geology. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. meaning. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. changing the goals.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. so long as it successfully does so. nature. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. cottage industries. of clothes. the presence of the monks was essential. elephant lore. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. be considered the aim of education It. commerce. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. beg for alms. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. Hence. These are called later Buddhist schools. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. archery. animal husbandry. 3. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive.

such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Its chief feature. its pessimistic outlook on life.new and peculiar situations. therefore. such as. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. goes to Vardhaman. However. In fact. Jainism insists 17 .5. in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. however.. 1. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’. i. Write Eight fold path . the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success.e. and to give it a shape that it has today. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals? 6. 5. Education must. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. whatever works are true and good.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. Validity is effective and consequences. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education? 1. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. it is much older than the latter.

Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. d) To lead a celibate life. c) Right conduct. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. 7. 2. They are: a) Not to injure. As such.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. 3. b) Not utter falsehood. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects. 3. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. 8. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. thought and deed. 4. rather than the interpretation of the universe. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul. 6. 2. and believe in happiness to all. and is to be redeemed and liberated. 9. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. it has a foot in both the words. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. e) To renounce the world. Hence. but on both. more stress on individual aims. Development of personality as an individual. 5. 1. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment.5. 10. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. 1. 18 . The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. b) Right knowledge.1. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. c) Not to steal. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection.

here and now.4. 3. practised and not only aspired for. 19 . Teaching should be social and tolerant. 4. 2. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. 3. Jiva is essentially karmic. education must be action based and ideally oriented. 1. therefore. success and love.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Hence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education? . Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. 5. that would be socially desirable. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. 1. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. education should develop sense of discrimination. Belief in transmigration of soul. Teaching must develop these faculties. 8.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. and should bring happiness to all. What are Triratnas ? .

with rally and rout. 1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1.6. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. However. and not for life. science. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. primary 20 .3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. North West Province and Punjab. philosophy and literature of Europe. 1. Bombay. 2.6. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts. 1953). Madras. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India.6.1. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. To set up separate departments of.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report.1. 1. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854). which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. 1. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.6. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service.

Then the prevalent education was anti-national. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. at the primary level. namely. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. self-respecting and competent. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. The universities dominated the secondary education. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. To ensure qualitative improvement. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published.6. Later on. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. 1.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929) Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. • Secondary education. 1. The broad outlines of the report are as follows: 21 . the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system.K. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. In 1882.6. • Universal free primary education. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. 1.education was neglected. secondary education became a step towards university. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement.6. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. At that time M.

Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want. children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial. After this stage. The objective of education was to provide 22 . Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813? . The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. all children are to have a common curriculum.At the primary stage (6-11 years). Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission? 12. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions.1. 10. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.

8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Right knowledge. 4. 3. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 23 . handicrafts. etc. science and English language. questioning by the pupil. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. Right speech. Right contemplation. education was impart in art. Right means of livelihood. 3. 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. establishment of universities. Right endeavour.education of European literature. 4. The immediate aim of education.. Right activity. 5. 2. The system of education was well-organised. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education. followed by explanation by the teacher. military science. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. geology. the science of taming and training animals. along with education in script writing. During the Buddhist period. arithmetic and religious discussion. 1. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. It was suited to the needs of the society. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. 6.1. archery. Right memory. b. Right thought. 2. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. a.

10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Sharma. Right conduct. a.7.1. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. J.K. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. 1882. (2009). Y. Development of personality as an individual. b.C. R. 24 . Singh. Development of Educational System in India. b. Sargent report 12. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva.K. Aggarwal. 1937 1. (1984). Ltd. a. Right faith. Y. 9. J. (2005). Improvement of Literature. 11. 10. Ltd. Hence. History of Indian Education System. c. more stress on individual aims. Right knowledge. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. and Nath. (2007). 8. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science.C.

2 1.2.2.2.3 Kothari Commission 1.7 1.2.3.LESSON 1.3.2.4 National Policy on Education 1.3.6 1. The 25 . Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.1 1.2.2 THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA STRUCTURE 1.2.2.9 1.2.3.2.8 1.10 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5 1.2.2.2 Secondary Education Commission 1.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.1 University Education Commission 1.2.4 1.2.

Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. Post-graduate 26 . medical and legal education. examination system. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. 1. 1986 1. vocational education. girls and women education besides primary. you will be able to: 1.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. explosion of enrolment. 2. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.2. National Council for Women’s Education 5.2. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. S. 1. There had been vast institutional expansion. expansion of vocational. diversification of courses of studies. technological engineering. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. standard of teaching. technical. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. New Educational Policy. Kothari (1964-66) 8. secondary and higher education. National Board of Teacher Education 10.conditions of the teachers. analyse the progress of education in free India. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. curriculum.2. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11.

Therefore.3. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. 3. Finally. the chairman of University Grants commission. quality. All possible efforts will be made on the removal 27 . 1952.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964. utility and financial outlay. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. National System of Education. 1986. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. accumulated over the years. Education is the key to our allround development. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1. 1. Government of India. Education for Equality. 4. quantity. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. 2. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. However.2. A meaningfully Partnership. material and spiritual. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. Kothari. 1966.S.3. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986. A. D. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. 1. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. the New National Policy on Education.3. Problems of access. in January 1985.2. research et.teaching. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. The Essence and Role of Education. 1. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. The national system of education envisages common educational structure.2.

work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Thus. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. The UNESCO Report.” Thus. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year 1. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life.2. It can train practical aptitudes. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. 28 . the concepts of work experience. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. the minorities and the handicapped. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes. attitudes. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. By working with hands. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills.

With adequate planning." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. The Education Commission. As such. “It may be described. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. it will conduce self. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. In 1955. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. The Radhakrishnan Commission. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the 29 . 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. “The aim of these colleges.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. co-ordinations. the Commission.” The Mudaliar Commission. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. if he wishes. According to. Besides.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education.

etc. admission requirements to vocational courses. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. raising the special facilities. for quality of life in the rural areas. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). T h is Co mmit t ee 30 . work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. With a view to relating education to the life. In addition.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. The Central Advisory Board of Education. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs.. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. Subsequently. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. the rigid streaming of courses. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n.ot her. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. the semester and credit system. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. Therefore. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. the.

and the world of work. technological courses including Agriculture. meaningful. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. 1. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. which are useful to the community. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. Commerce. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. etc. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. aimed at this goal. meaningful. felt that education should be centred around a craft. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. The wave of Basic Education. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.defined S UP W as “purposive. which offer scientific. The Father of Nation. giving importance to productivity in the national development. manual work resulting in either goods or services. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. preferably spinning and weaving.. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. 31 . who conceived the System of Basic Education.2. According to committee. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. which swept the country for over two decades.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. In short.

Some Hints to Teachers 1.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. so that it is educational in essence. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities. Culture and recreation 6. Shelter 4. 32 . The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. tools and techniques and 3. 2. 4. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. 3. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. Food 3. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. as far as possible. Productive 2. Health and Hygiene 2. Experimentation with materials. The teachers should make use of. The criterion for selection of activities should thus. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Educative and 3. Community work and social service. locally available materials and tools. Clothing 5. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. be that the work involved is: 1. Work practice.

Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. To make education more realistic.5. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. It can become an instrument to build character. Merits of the Programme 1. slum clearance. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. improve discipline.2. Education through work The SUPW should.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. etc. Community Service In-1972. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. as far as possible. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. Productive Work 33 . Such activities may include projects of village uplift. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. 6. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. inculcate a faith. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. Check on educated unemployed 4. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. removal of illiteracy. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. the local community should be actively associated. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. 1.

helping the adults-in productive work. AICTE was set up in year 4. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other .and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. etc. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Define SUPW 34 . The community. in turn. traffic control. What are the work areas in SUPW 6. should involve itself in the educational effort. offering first aid. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. if not productive. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. skills and better future for the children.

7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation. 1955 4. which are useful to the community.2. d.2. f. Radhakrishnan 2. manual work resulting in either goods or services.1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. a. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service.2. meaningful. 6. b. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. Write short note on SUPW. c. 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. 1952 3. e. Dr. 35 . 1. 2.

Singh. Development of Educational System in India.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. A.2.P. (2005). P. V.. (2009). Rao. J. R. History of Indian Education System. : Sharma. Y. Anupama.K. and Nath.K. Amala. Ltd. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education.1. History of Education. Y. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. (2007). History and Problems of Indian Education. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt.H. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. and Rao.P. Publishing Corporation. 36 .D.(2005). B. (2007).C.K. New Delhi: A.

It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India.3.2 1. democratic republic. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. directive principles and duties of citizens. there is an official Hindi translation.3.4 1.7 1.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1.5 1.3. procedures. for a total of 117.1 Significance of DPSP 1. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.3.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. Besides the English version. assuring its citizens of justice.3. 37 .LESSON 3 EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION STRUCTURE 1. and liberty. containing 395 articles. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.6 1.3. 1950.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.369 words in the English language version. equality.8 1.3. it came into effect on January 26.3.9 1. 12 schedules and 83 amendments. 1949.1 1.3.3. Being the supreme law of the country. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.3. establishing the structure.3.

The Assembly met. with Dr. 1. 38 . administrative. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. political. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.3. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy. economic. After many deliberations and some modifications. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. 1950. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. legal and environmental. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. understand our Indian constitution. 3. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. Dr. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. 4.3. social. According to the constitution. On August 29. Through them. Two days later. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. spread over a period of 2 years. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy.3. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. 2.3. in sessions open to public. 1947. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. learn the role of central and state government on education.In the August 14. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. 1. you will be able to: 1.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. 1947. for 166 days. the Drafting Committee was appointed. 1.

The State shall. 39 . The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. Organisation of village panchayat. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Protecting health of the workers. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Right to work. Article 43. That the health and strength of workers. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. provide free legal aid. No abuse of children.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. Article 42. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. The State shall endeavour to secure. and shall. and in other cases of undeserved want.government. Minimising inequalities in status. Protecting children from exploitation. old age. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Liking wage etc. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. make effective provision for securing the right to work. on the basis of equal opportunity. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. for workers. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. Article 41. Equal pay for both sex. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. men and women. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. sickness and disablement. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. in particular. Appropriate concentration of wealth. Article 40. Article 39A. Condition for dignity of children. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. Equal justice and free legal aid.

Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Article 44. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. industrial or otherwise. Article 46. Article 45. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Participation of workers in management of industries. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. a living wage. agricultural. See also Article 21A). in particular. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Note: Subs. 2002 for “45. Article 43A. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. Article 48. to all workers.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Article 48A. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. in particular. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. The State shall take steps. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. [declared by or under law made by 40 . The State shall endeavour to provide. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. Article 47. work. and. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. in particular. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. by suitable legislation or in any other way. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. (Original Article 45. Article 49.

disfigurement. Promotion of international peace and security. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. destruction.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. Article 45 . The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. as the case may be. 2002. may be law determine”.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood 41 . Article-21A Right to Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. Article 50. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy? 1. Article 51. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. from spoliation. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. 1. maintain just and honourable relations between nations. 2.Parliament] to be of national importance. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. disposal or export.3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Separation of judiciary from executive. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. removal.

Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. race. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. 3. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds.” 42 . shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. 2002. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. his guardian has given his consent thereto. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. 4. iii. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. ii. 8. 6. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. and. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. in particular. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. from justice and all forms of exploitations. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. if such person is a minor. 5. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. 7. and shall protect them. caste. language or any of them”.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON 1. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. Educational Reforms From time to time. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language.3. 43 . Write Article 21 A and Article 45? 4. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . the forms. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. 2.9. wherever necessary or desirable. The central government determines targets and promotes education. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. and by drawing. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language. & 1. for its vocabulary. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. Article 351 gives importance to 6.

Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. So as to encourage education on right lines. the state governments. standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. 6.. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry. 8. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas 44 . Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. to achieve the desired ends. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. So that they may work well. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. private agencies etc. The following pilot projects. By starting these projects. All India Council of Medical Science. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. etc. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. Organisation For carrying out educational plans. Local bodies and private enterprise. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc.3. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). 7. 5. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. 4. Production of suitable for children and adults f. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training.

books. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. 1. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. reports etc. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. training and statistics. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. is the state responsibility. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. The 45 . research. Material concerning nation-wide interests. 1. education for women. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries.3. are published by it. 10. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. etc. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. 12. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. 9. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. handicapped.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. 4. 3. 11.

Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45.3. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Article 46 4. Write any two functions of State Government of Education? . Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India? 8. 46 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. articles in the Directive principles. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government? 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Explain Directive principles 2. 1. Write short notes on a. Article 21A c. Article 45 b.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3. 1. 5.

Article-21A Right to Education. Article 46 5. may be law determine”. a. 4. Clearing House function 9. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. Dr. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. 2002. Ambedkar 2.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. 1. 47 . 3. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. Development of Hindi Language 6. The Directive Principles of State Policy. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. 2002. embodied in Part IV of the constitution.5. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. b.3. Article 29 and 30 7. Describe the educational role of State Government. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. Article 45 . (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. a. a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers.

Education in Emerging Indian Society. N. K. (2009). 48 . K and Narang C. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. Education in Emerging Indian Society.1. S. L. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. Dash. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2007). Bhatia. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. B. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Ghosh. (2004). (2008). S.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta.

3.4.4.4.3.4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 1.4.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4 Moral education 1.4.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 1.1 1.8 1. Christianity. Islam.1 Why Moral Education 1. religious education should be broad based.4.3.6 1.5 1.4.4.4. Jainism.4.2 Aims of Religious Education 1. Students should be 49 .4.2 1.7 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 1.4. Buddhism etc.4.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.

Thus.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. integrity.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. As result of which. enumerate the aims of religious education 4. India' can produce men of character. According to E.and dedication.” Education broadens human outlook. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends. duty-consciousness. know the position of religious education in our country 3. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon.4. 1. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. In the complicated and complex society of today.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. you will be able to: 1. religious education and the concept of secularism. beauty and goodness so that 50 . It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines. state meaning and need for moral education 1.D. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. "In A multireligious society like ours. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication.4.. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66). Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion.

it is clear that the State has no religion. 1. No religious tax can be imposed on them.3. our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism.4. As our country is a country of diverse religions. According to Article 22. religion and democracy are same.4. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. They thought that any kind of narrow.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. rancour. if not regularly.” From the above.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. Thus. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. at least occasionally.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. Hence. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate. 1. In short.3. Children attend these organizations. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. Viewing the defects of religious education. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. all citizens are free to follow any creed. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. castes and creeds. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. through religious practices and 51 . religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. 1947 we achieved our freedom. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. As a matter of fact. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. According to Article 19. realizes God in himself.

and other impulses are often denied direct expression. for the development of the individual and the society. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. It is religious education. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. when he becomes an adult. As a result of which. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. Good education. what is done and what is not done etc. temperament etc. aggressive. which can mould. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people 52 . purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion. moral and spiritual values. and what is evil. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). It helps to modify habits attitudes.. If unreleased. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. which help him for the development of his character. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. He also learns about social. one fully developed.teachings. intellectual and physical faculties of children. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels.

3. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. 1. 53 .3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. 2. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. Therefore. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. If we open the pages of history. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided.about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. This should not be allowed to happen. towards the society. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore.3. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. which is the basic need of a democratic life. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual.4. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and.

fellow-feeling. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 11. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry 54 . For this. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians 8. Life histories of great persons of the world. Gurudwara as. stories of moral greatness.4. 9. examples of patriotism. therefore. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools? 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Since all religions have virtues. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. they should be discussed in the right earnest. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.5. List out any two aims of religious education? 3. Write Article 22 2. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. 10. churches and mosques 7.

8. 4. Non-injury.4. It they learn what morality is in their early years. students.acquisitiveness). Swadeshi (Patriotism). 5. 2. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). 1. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. 7. Patriotism. 2. Without moral values. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations. 8. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Purity. the methods of teaching.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. Asvada (Control of palate). 1. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. 3. Service to others.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others.4. therefore. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. Self sacrifice.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together. 3. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. Aparigarha (Non. “Let all be happy and free from disease. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Satyam (truth). Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Ahimsa (Non-violence). Brahmacharya (celebacy). is that which develops moral values. Fearlessness. 4. 7. let men see well of one another. They will play their role effectively. 6. Cultivation of emotions. 5. Moral education. in the home. 6. The content of the curriculum. 55 .

minutes in the morning for group singing. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). 4. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. Sharivashram (Physical work). discipline.4. The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. Secondary Stage 1. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Asatyam (Non-thieving). 3. Unity of mankind. 11. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Discipline. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 3. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. Good temper. Simple texts and stories concerning different. 1. Integrity. religions may be included in the syllabus. 2. National unity and Spiritual values. Efficiency.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. 56 . In the school programme. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction.9. The School Assembly should be held for a few. Good manners. 10. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. loyalty and self-sacrifice.

patriotism and self-discipline. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. love of humanity. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. In this connection. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 5. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. 3. 2.4. Silent meditation should be encouraged. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 57 . Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction? 6. University Stage 1. In other words. 4. should form a normal part of school programme. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated. 5.

minutes in the morning for group singing. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.1. Discuss the aims of Religious education.4. 1. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. 58 . Training of Character 3. a. The School Assembly should be held for a few. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. a.4. Sri Prakasa 6 . b.4. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully. 1. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 2. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. 2. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. 4. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. the. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. In short. For this. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. b.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion. 1959 5. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. a.

K and Narang C. Pahuja.H. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. Bhatia. Ltd. K. N.1. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Theory and Principles of Education.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Anmol Publications Pvt. M. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi: A.C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. L. J.H. (2008). N. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. 59 . New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. B. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : Siddiqui. (2004). (2007). (2008).4.P. (2003). Dash. P.

1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.9 1..8 1.5.10 1.5.11 1. 60 .5.3 1. disparities between provinces/States.5.13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 1.5.5.5.5.2 1.7 1.12 1.4 1.1 1.6 1. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan. Although.5.e.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively.LESSON 5 REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA STRUCTURE 1.5.5 1.5. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.5. i. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.

1. 3.5. understand the regional educational development in India 3. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 1. waters. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. Accordingly.5. 1. 6. This leads to separatist movements.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. know the education suited to different environments.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. 8. for example.5. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. they take appropriate measures. roads. 5. 61 . 2. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. They therefore. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources. 4. you will be able to: 1.1.5. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. 7. etc.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. energy. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication. work hard towards this end. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies.

some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. some average. 3. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still. • Separate States (of course viable States). while others remained educationally backward. Therefore. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. on the basis of regional development may be formed. There are many reasons for this during the British rule.5. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. some States became educationally far advanced. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. 4. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. 2. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. Secularism.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. Tight security arrangements should be made. and. 62 .

etc. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development.After the Planning Process has originated. In the Central sector.. Mizoram. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has.480. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. Itanagar. 1. books. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. academic buildings. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education.84 crore was released in 2005-06. scholarships. approved proposals worth Rs. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. the Union Government. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. After the attainment of independence. Jammu and Kashmir.g.392. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged.14. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. Tezpur. Regional Centres of IGNOU. Rs.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. library buildings. Nagaland and NEHU. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Funds amounting to Rs. These projects are in various stages of implementation. and provision of informal education to enable those. remained under developed. One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. Silchar. However. Even in each State. since its inception in 1998-99. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes. Central Universities of Assam. 63 . certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e.5.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. etc. NERIST. while some States like Bihar. the State Governments. NIT. Guwahati. Out of this.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums.

the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs.05 crore and Rs. Source: National Portal Content Management Team.5. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu.8 per cent in 05). The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.261.500.40. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06. too. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010 1. Government expenditure on education. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel). there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.57 crore and Rs.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively. A provision of Rs. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. 64 .40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity.501.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Out of this an amount of Rs. During 2003-04. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. Moreover. while the northern region has only 20 per cent. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west). Tezpur University.187.

Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. To add to the woes. Medical education. Karnataka. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. telecom. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. too. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. Andhra Pradesh. Listing the positives. is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. pharma. Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. Karnataka. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. The Chandigarh Administration.5. English. too. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. 1. for which 16 sites. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. health services and welfare of the citizen population. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region. notes the study.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all 65 . engineering and R&D. Tamil Nadu. too. Kerala and Gujarat. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. Moreover. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. is very low compared to Southern and western parts. for instance. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India.

people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. which a non-tribal person cannot do. in which the learners live. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed. The living conditions. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. Hence it is called as need-based. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. the curricular subjects. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. 66 . and so on. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. the socio-physical conditions. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. In the same manner. the working days: an academic . Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the vocations. Of course. while the former does not. even actually looking at the watch. the interests. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Then education become realistic and idealistic. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. taking the average in the middle. the needs. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding.year. For a learner living in a rural area. the teaching methods. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. The working hours of educational institutions. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. life-oriented and environment slanted. when he will not be sure of time. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation.

Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India.5. 1. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region? 1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. What do you meant by regional imbalance? . How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.5. to suit education to different environments? 1.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 67 .5. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India. 2. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education? 3.

(2001). New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. Educational Development in India. S. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication.2. during the British rule. and Nair.H. 68 . Education in Developmental Arena. New Delhi: Anmol Publications.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. R. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. (2008). Salim. S. some of areas which were under the native rulers. New Delhi: Authors press. remained undeveloped 3. A. 60% 1. (2001). Giridhar. C. a.N.K. some States have become more developed than others b. (2002).G. Dubey. Education Scenario in India.5.

UNIT – II 69 .

70 .

Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. semi literate and illiterates. community development. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. school community and mass media. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Of all the human factors in the school system. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. 71 . International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. secularism and democracy through Indian education. National Integration. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life.

4 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.3 2.5.1.1 2.LESSON 2.9 2.1.6 Education for Secularism 2.6.7 2.1.1.1.8 2.1.1.1.1.1.6.1 IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.6.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 72 .1.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.1.2 2. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.1.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.5.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 2.

2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. 73 .3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility. for the people by the people”. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. 2. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. understand the concept of democracy. The students may be associated with the management of the school. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. socialism and secularism 2. Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. Democracy thus means power of the people.1. Abraham Lincoln. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils.1. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.1. colour or wealth. socialistic and secular state.1. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. In the matter of admitting students in schools. socialism and secularism 2.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. 3) Provision of Manual Work.2. there should be made no distinction of caste. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. 2. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. creed. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. This is the political aspect of democracy.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy. you will be able to: 1. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy.

1. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. it soon spread all over the world. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. may be planned. declamation contest etc. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. debates. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 3. Democracy means 2. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. 12) Visits to Legislatures. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.. There are different brands of socialism. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. 74 . Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 2.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. 11) Student Parliament. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at.

6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system.1. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections.5. 2. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books. Under it. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. service and cooperation. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.5. none high”. 2. 75 . but on the path of non-violence. 7) Special facilities for girls. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. 2) Socialism aims at equality.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. the wealthy and the poor. the prince and the peasant. oppression and disparity. free from exploitation.1. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.

secularism is being propagated.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. According to Holydake. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. 11) State schools. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.1. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Everyone says. "which seeks the development of physical. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. 5.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. 76 . the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary.” In every political and educational corner. “India is a secular-country. Write any two main features of socialism.

1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. 2.6. There is need of making the people open minded. trifles over petty religious matters are caused.1. Moral values have to be imbibed. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. Equality. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. 5) It implies tolerance.opposed to religious education. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. fraternity. liberty. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. During the recent past. people started believing in regionalism. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. people have narrow mindedness. 8) It believes in co-existence. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact.6. 3) It permits freedom of worship. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. 9) It stress free inquiry. In this type of prevailing situations. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. A large number of people is uneducated. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. education etc. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines.1. the belief that the state morals. 77 . People have different religions and they have different beliefs. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. “Webster further says. 2) It permits freedom of religion. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. That is why. should be independent of religion. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2.

In the celebration of each such function. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. The very sight of the building. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. Religious Education.6. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. 1) Moral Education. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. that the central string of all religions is one. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. Patiala.Corruption and disbelief are rampant. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. In the hands of such teachers. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. There should be some internal checking of the material being.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING In the schools. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. tours and trips may be organized. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved.presented by the students in the gathering. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions. education. 2. While doing so. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain.1. No doubt. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. students belonging to different religions should be associated. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. it has then everlasting impact on their 78 . showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children.

this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. Define Secularism 9.7 LET US SUM UP 79 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions. The word “Seculum” means 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook 10.1. No doubt. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The term secularism was first used by 8. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. 2.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students.

Socialism aims at social justice.1. a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Respect of Individual Personality. b. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Tuition free education b. 5. for the people and the people”. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. 5. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. there should be made no distinction of caste. b. creed. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. d. 3. Power of the people 2. George Jacob Holydake 80 . Socialism aims at equality. Since socialism stands for equality. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Equal Opportunities for Admission. Provision of Manual Work.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. What are the implications of socialism on education 2. 6. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. a. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. c.1. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. 3. 4. colour or wealth. secularist and socialistic attitude among students.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Abraham Lincoln. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. This present age 7. a. 2. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. 4. In the matter of admitting students in schools. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools.

J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. 10. a. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools 2.” 9. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. a. Ltd. (2003).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. L. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. N. b. Anmol Publications Pvt. education etc. Bhatia. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society. the belief that the state morals. New Delhi : Pahuja. Ltd. It permits freedom of religion. (2007). (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2004).C. Dash. K and Narang C. (2008). N. b. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. B. J.1.8. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. P. 81 . It treats all religions on an equal footing. K. Mohanty. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. should be independent of religion. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.

knowledge and experience of one 82 .4 2.3 2.2.LESSON 2.2.2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.2 ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY STRUCTURE 2.6.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2.2.10 2.1 2.5.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.9 2.2.7 2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.2.2.2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 2.8 2.2 2.2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.6.2.2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.5.

The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. application. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. aims and objectives of the school. 3. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. mental. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values.2. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. 2. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. understandings. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. It involves physical. a r e 1. you will be able to: 1. A teacher is first and foremost. emotional. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. The developmental roles of children. as citizens. as persons. social. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. as learners. 2.an instructor of school children. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children. development. as workers. skills. and 4. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. social and moral aspects. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. as it is t he aim o f modern education. 2. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. therefore. moral. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. who are placed in his custody.generation to another. 83 .2. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is.

inquisitive. motivated. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. He is to become an active member. mentally. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. Teacher as a Parent Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. He has to look after their physical. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. 2. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. culturally confident. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. mental. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. 3. Teacher as a Citizen Next. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence.2. social and emotional health. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. experiences and acceptance. The following are some of such roles described in brief. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. emotionally. 2. and aesthetically to become. 1. The students live. morally. a part of their day in 84 . vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers.All education should lead to better behavioural development. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. socially. member of his community at the outset. economically effective. intellectually. morally. physically fit for socially efficient.

helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. photographic clubs.2. languages and religions.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. fine art associations.the school being under the custody of teachers. 2. and most of hours. Unless. India is a land of many castes. faiths. creeds. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. solve them. They will be spending with their parents. science club. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. List out the role of teachers towards community development . It 85 . Dr. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. activities of the society into which he is born. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs In addition to the above cited roles in the community. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly.

poems. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. b. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. should be emphasised. It should broaden the outlook. stand up straight. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. the citizens of the Republic of India. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state. 1.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform.” 2. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme.2. with straight backs and look up at the skies. a. national anthem and other national songs. this integration of the Indian people. Radhakrishnan. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that .” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. At the primary stage the importance of stories. Sampurnanand remarked. c. Let us.5. Nehruji has explained this as. social studies. The only process is the process of education.” Regarding the role of education. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of 86 . and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. ‘We should not become parochial. folklore and teaching of social studies. the study of language and literature. therefore. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. and make into one strong national unit. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice.is.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. narrow-minded provincial.

August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. Singing of National Anthem. 4. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration. 5. t he st udent s and t he community. Taking Pledge. Textbooks. debates. Co-Curricular Activities. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. 8. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. 6. Student Camps. sports. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. Uniform for School Children. Scouts and Guides. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country.different social sciences. tours. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country. 2. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. dramatics and youth festivals. Reverence of National Flag. languages and literature. 9. National Days—January 26. educational excursions. 3. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. 87 . symposia. 7. Celebrations of National Days. 10. and picnics. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. militar y training like the NCC. ACC. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen.

16. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics.2. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. ways of thinking and doing things.5. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. 12. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. 15. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and . 88 . Admissions to schools.11. v. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. colour. iv. School Projects. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. Recognition of Institutions. 2. flora and fauna. Educational and Travel Documentaries. Open-Air Dramas. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. ii. 13. 14. Admissions. language. iii. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. region or religion. Students Exchange and Tours.

cultures and races on equal bases. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students? . Community dinners. irrespective of national boundaries. 2. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just 89 . ix. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’.2. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. camps. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. vii. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. viii. Define National Integration 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee? 5. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities.vi. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained.

e. 2. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. 3.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” .. Therefore. and the healthy development. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum. often in connection with anniversaries.6.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs.as important as that of a national citizenship. 4. Radhakrishnan states. patriotism is not enough. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. (c) fairly tales. 2. In a very real sense. Teachers 90 . Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. C. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries. Strong has observed.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. 5.6.F. This. (b) stories of children of other lands. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. Dr. that war. if it happens. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. the international level. of his body and mind. either plunged in or overshadowed by war.2.” 2. will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i. therefore.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. Organising of debates and. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries.friendships between children of different countries.2. 6.

colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. Indian and American.” Well Informed About World Situations. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Russian. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding 7.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. a German. an Englishman. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students 91 . They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. They should not be propagandists. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. Impartial in their Treatment.

Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. understand and indiscipline: 1. Soon after they leave their educational institutions. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well.Another major. which results in agitation and aggression language.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. Chronic Poverty . Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . majority of people are. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society.2. As the school is but a miniature society. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than 92 . 4. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. 5.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. 3. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty. If this is done. Wide Spread Frustration . 2. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals. Devaluation of Values . factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. It does not prepare students for life.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students. and help the students to over .2. leading to. A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. the education function can be carried. there is wide spread frustration among all people. Defects of the educational System . It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band.

community development. fellow feeling. 2. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. 3. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. 93 . co-operation. etc. 4. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development.2. 5. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. 2. sympathy and good will among the nations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.democratic nature. List out six characteristics of a good teacher. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. love. It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. List out the factors causing social tension in schools . National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.2.

2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).

Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

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LESSON 2.3
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society 2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education 2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education 2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education 2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
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9. 10. 11.

Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
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16. 17. 18.

Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

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2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.

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3. books. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them. Then came newspapers. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the 100 . are increasingly used in education. In fact.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. During the course of time. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room. Now internet is being used. periodicals. Moreover. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. He taught his students orally. “All the citizens of the community. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Museums. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. the invention of the printing press. 2. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. To make them achieve their aim. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. Define community. Emphasising this thing. Hence.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. Crow and Crow write. art galleries. led to the printing of books. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.V. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided.

Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication.3. languages. the place of importance. dram appreciation. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. rather than on picture. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. It stimulates curiosity and interests. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students. music. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. Important happening inventions. It enlightens public opinion. social studies. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. politics.6. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. current affairs and other areas. In the emphasis is on sound. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. the teacher still occupies. 101 . A lot of work by way of pre. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. It is also an important source of entertainment. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded. Thus. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”.classroom teachers. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. In collaboration with the experts. Reynolds. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. 2. Effective means of presenting music. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. for the teacher through school broadcasts. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. “Listening participation” in current history. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures.telecast. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom. 2. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching.G. Thus. art. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. Various talks. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. Students listen various talks.

projects or creative activities. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. travel talks. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. At present. speech. at recreational centers. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. Participation of local teachers and pupils. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. 102 . Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. plays. 3. 5. 4. Making learning an open system. style. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. at play. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. at drawing room. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. informal and non-formal education. audibility and presentability. Before presenting the programme. School concerts. Team-teaching demonstrations. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal. at any place. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. development of lessons. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. mathematics. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. fol classical music.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children.

Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

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Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104

8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

.

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

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For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.

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Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
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2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.

6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Dhiman, O. P. (2007).

4.3.5 Agencies of Non formal education 2.4.5 2.4.4.3.3 Advantages of formal education 2.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4.3.4.4.4.4 Non formal educational system 2.6 2.4.4.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.4.LESSON 2.4.7 2.2 2.4.8 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.4.4.4.4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.3.4.4.4.4.4 FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION STRUCTURE 2.9 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 109 .4.1 2.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4 Limitations of formal education 2.

the learner are acquainted. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. Education associated with a degree or certificate. 9. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. 2. 2. 2. 4. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. 3. his mental alertness. 4. open school. 6. 2.2. 3. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. say the Government or the private enterprise. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and.3. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. starting and ending at -a particular age. the community.4. To realize this objective of education. the most important agency of formal education. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. 5. Education organised by some agency. the temple.4. the mass media et. you will be able to: 1. In ancient time in India.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4. Education. it was mostly. School is. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. open university. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. 110 .1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness. the family. 8. compare formal and non formal system of education. imparted at the residence of the teacher.4. 2.. 7.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan.

But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. 2. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. also called tertiary. or post secondary education. third stage. Through early formal education. Concepts of proportion.2. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. structured education. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate 111 . In general. such as a high school or secondary school. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education.4. depending on the jurisdiction. Some education systems have separate middle schools. capacity. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them.3. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. Higher Education: Higher education.a secondary education. but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. the elements of language are first learned. or academic degrees. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. as well as vocational education and training.4. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. diplomas.3.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. late beginners etc. 2. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped. Agencies can be classified as 2. 3.4. children with disabilities. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere. and remote dwellers. is an important agency of formal education. that is intended to serve identifiable 112 . Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2.which will help for nation's development.3. Write any two characteristics of formal education? . What are levels of formal educational system? . The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. 4. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit & 1.4.

This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. “Non-formal education should 113 . work and the opportunity to put learning to use. Therefore. Adiseshiah. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. continuing education and on the job oriented education. According to Malcolm A. Non-formal education includes adult education. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction.formal education. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. curriculum. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. to help themselves. until 1970 it had not been defined. open learning. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. Thus. etc. adding up to a true learning society. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. it has its own valid claim to reality.learning client take some learning objectives. admissions. financially supported life formal education. systematic. However. Open university.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. planned. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school. it is a more effective tool for rural development. It is functional.. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. It unlocks the doors of development plans. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. place of instruction. one could say that non-formal education is an active.e. It is deliberate.” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. It is much more responsive to needs and change.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured. i. adults as well as children. systematic.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. staffed.

4. Lawrence. Covering life span of an individual.learning pattern. evaluation etc. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. 2. To develop in the student.be marketable and vocationalised.” 2. 7. It should lay emphasis on the self. self. i. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them. Preparation for future needs. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved.4. 4.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. • • • • To help the student to acquire languages skills. Flexibility in various aspects of education. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them.e. 3.renewal.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. international understanding. co-curricular activities. socialism.S. 114 . 5. place of education. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.4. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. age. To help industrial workers to better their skills. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. exploring. curriculum. 2. modes of teaching.S. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. 6.” According to H. the Ideas of citizenship. • • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. Process of sharing. national integration. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. Part-time education. admissions.4. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs.

Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. 5. 8.4. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach. 2. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. Universalisation of primary education. Technical.4. 3. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 115 . publication and information dissemination. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. 5. 4. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. 3. 6.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1.4. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. Meeting the omissions of formal education. To offer Secondary. 9. school dropouts. 10. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. Eradication of adult literacy.4. 4. 7. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. working adults. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 2. in villages and those who live in towns. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects. Senior Secondary. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. • 2.

To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. 4. Again. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. To increase knowledge and 2.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1 Area Aims 2 Place 3 Learners 4 5 Age Grade Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. Therefore. effective in modern societal context. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. 3. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. open space. 2. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education.2. others are formal and informal. self-employment iii. training centres in factories.. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. etc. farm. etc. centres of correspondence education. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. Institutions for formal education. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college .4.4. if organised in isolation. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. All-round development i. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. factory. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes 116 . public libraries. Radio and television. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. 2. To better qualifications. To make if.full time to learners – can be home.4. library.

Define non formal education.6 7 Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. Written tests. 7. institution. .V. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Teaching to face teaching. Lecturing T. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. Curriculum Textbooks Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Correspondence lesson. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Give examples of non formal education? . 117 . List out any two aims of non formal education. Face Contact programmes. 6. radio. .

2. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.4. the college and the university come under this category. Formal and Non Formal 2. 4.2. 118 . The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. Secondary level. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education.4.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. 5. Pre-school level. b. 4.4. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. systematic. 2. 3. b. Open School. Higher Secondary level and University level. Open University. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. School 3. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.” 6. Primary level. a. 2. The school. adults as well as children. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. 7.

(2007). S. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theory and Principles of Education. L. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2008). Dash.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. K and Narang C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.C. (2005). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.2. K. (2008). Modern Trends in Indian Education. (2003). New Delhi : 119 . N. (2004). P. Gupta. N. Education in Emerging India. B. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. J. Mohanty. Anmol Publications Pvt.4. Ltd. Ltd. Pahuja. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Bhatia. J. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

1 2.5.6 2.5.5.4 Need for Open University 2.4.5.5.3 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.5.5.5.5.5.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 2.5.4.3 Objectives of Open University 2.5 2.5.3.LESSON 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.4.5.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.3.4 Open University 2.5.4.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 120 .3.5 CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY STRUCTURE 2.5.4 Agencies of continuing education 2.4.2 Philosophy of Open University 2.2 2.5.7 2.5.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.3.

economic field or such other fields. industries. understand the meaning of continuing education 2. However. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not 121 . 2. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION In India. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. Education is for refinement and enlightenment.5.5. labourers and half educated individuals. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools.5. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. Under these circumstances. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. farmers. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts.5. characteristics of open university 4. It is a lifelong process.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. know the need and objectives of open university. It is a continuous process. give the meaning. Thus.2. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. For them. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. continuing education is a boon. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture. 2. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. This knowledge may be in political field. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education. Any person. you will be able to: 1.3. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. 2.

It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. deteriorating to his character and personality. Cinema. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education.5. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. On the other hand. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas. Throughout the country. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education. After the achievement of independence. For them too continuing education is essential. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. T. The objectives of National Literacy Mission 122 . Block Development Officers. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest.directly related to his job. Thus. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. 2. Doctors. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge.V. are also contributing their might for the purpose. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures.3. On the other hand. Radio. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened.V. cultured and progressive. Radio and T. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature.literate person. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. if he gets opportunity to develop them. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. Persons engaged in health services.

(5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. (16) liking. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. Inspite of the great efforts.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1.5. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. and Radio. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. especially women. 2. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (7) folk songs. (10) first aid. These books are not very useful. (2) basic religious matters. 2. 123 . (8) psychology of adults. (4) the fundamentals of economics. Of course.3. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases.3. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening.5. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. (15) music. we have not been able to achieve our targets. 2. habits of people of other lands. (14) information about bringing up young children. 3. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education.V. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. (6) folk stories.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 5. (17) modern international and national events. 4. 7. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons.. (1) ancient history. (13) psychology of child behaviour. 6.

attendance restrict ion.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. lack of time etc.5. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate? 2.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. of educational opportunities. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University.5.4. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e . What is the objectives of NLM? 3. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left 124 . T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year. 2. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. NLM was launched in the year 2.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.

e. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. 2. Mention any two characteristics of Open University? .4.unobserved. it makes use of educational techno logy. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. 3. 4. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. the higher the degree of openness. An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. b. IGNOU was established in the year 6. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. d.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. Education is not a once for-all process. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. its education is not class room based but home based. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. No one is too old or too late to learn.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course.5. 5. c. but 125 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Which was the first open university in India? . and in teaching. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system.

Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. 2. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 6. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n.4. 3. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced. 4. it a ims at wider and hig her. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. 2.5. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . supplementing the existing provision. Mo re o ver. 2. 2. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. annu al wr it t en examinat io n. who were deprived of t he same earlier. 4. 126 . 3. cho ice o f co ur ses.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1.4. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books.5. 5.who did not get it. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. or who realised too late that they need it.

no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y.5. a society. Enlist any two objectives of Open University? . 2. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. you have learnt the concept.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. Laboratory works. 5.2. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University. semi – literates. Correspondence tuition. Self instructional materials. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. Every day. 7. In the present day world. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. school drop outs. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 6. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. 3. Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Therefore. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost. List out any four methods of Open University? . 4. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. 8. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. 127 .5.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. Tutor Comments. a state or nation. 8. B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve . 1. 2. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n .

5. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. 7. b. its education is not class room based but home based. b. 2. 1985. 6. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. Broad casting lectures c. 2. need and characteristics of Open University. 7. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc. 128 . youth. Explain the objectives. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. agricultural and industrial workers. 3.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. d. (2) basic religious matters. P r int med ia b. cho ic e o f co u r ses.5. 4. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 8. Television Lessons.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Write about the philosophy of Open University 2. a. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. which may include house wives. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 1988. a. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. 8. aspirants for continuing education. 9. (1) ancient history.ambitious learners. unskilled workers and other professionals. a.

(2007). K. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia.2. Recent trends in Non Formal Education.K. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Reddy.S. Udaiveer.. (2004). (2001). S. L. K and Narang C. Modern Problems of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. 129 . R.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi: Rajat Publication.5. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. (2004).

130 .

UNIT – III 131 .

132 .

Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. In Lesson 2. 133 . which may claim the attention of those concerned. wastage and stagnation. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. the education of women. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. All which is the need of the hour. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For. Training teachers for all levels of education. Examination reform. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. its causes and remedial measures. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision.CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. and teacher education. examination.

134 .

7 3.1.8 3.1.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.1 3.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.1.2 EFA – How? 3.5 3.LESSON 3.1.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.1 EFA – For whom? 3.1.1.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.6 3.1.1.3.1.4 3.1.3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.2 3. 135 .3 New initiatives. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 3. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1.3.

high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education.1. you will be able to: 1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. social. understands the country. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. Continuing Education (CE) 1. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. may be political. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. economic or cultural. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly. therefore.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. Therefore. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3.3. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. education received added importance and significance. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). directed that. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. (EOI) 2. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). Eradication of Illiteracy. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. On the other hand. “The State shall 136 . if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. 2.1.

It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. the national Government under. After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution.endeavour to provide. rights and responsibilities. It enables the parents to send their children to School. Three Stages for Universalization. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Universalization of Enrolment. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. 3. Continuing Education (CE). the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . Universalization of Retention. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. 137 . After the attainment of independence. Therefore.

1995 (for upper primary stage). While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education? 2. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. Write Article 45. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. educational enterprise. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. then to 1976. 138 . It is safe to assure. later to 1988.1. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. UNESCO Bulletin states. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. 1990.3. Therefore. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. present and future. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. This target had to be revised to 1970.

12. adolescent and adult.1. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. The Social Education. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. 8. Early childhood education should be streamlined. 3. 10. 5. By undertaking survey. In order to make the programme of education for all community. Emphasis must be given on health education. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all. 11. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. 3. etc. problem of literacy. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. Education of Girls. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. their enrolment and retention. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. To implement the programme of education for all UEE.3. nutrition education and sports and games. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. 6.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. slum areas. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. rural areas. Jams and Jellies. creed. FELF. Disabled. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). sex. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. Apart from primary education. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. we have to develop the programme of Adult education. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children. Education of the Impaired. their social economic status and occupations. NAEP. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. 139 . and Women’s education programme should be improved. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. 9. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. the art of preparing fruit-juice.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All.

District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2.3. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.1. If any child drops out from the school before completing the 140 .3.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. 4. Expand MLL and SSA .1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA? 4. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.3 NEW INITIATIVES. 3.e. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5. Wastage and Stagnation.

The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school poor standard of institutions higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school .first stage of education. Personal Factors . it is considered as wastage.The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness 141 . Social Factors . Familial Factors . (a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas 1. School Factors .community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4. Wastage is more in girls than that in boys.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage : unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.The personal factors responsible for wastage are Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education 2.

can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 142 . . Enumerate the causes of Wastage. . Define Wastage. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation? 6.

School Factors . rural or urban 3. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. Family Factors . in his home.1. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation 143 .The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES OF STAGNATION AND ITS Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. They are described hereunder :1.The following factors.3. relating to home. school or society. Personal Factors . Societal Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself.

—provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Define Stagnation? 9. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. 144 . List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation? . uniforms. mid-day meals.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship. stationary.

1. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. directed that. 2. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA. 4. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. 145 . The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. b.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.1. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.. therefore. Hartog Committee. improvement of curriculum. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. 4. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. a. 3.1. “The State shall endeavour to provide. Universalization of Provision b. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA.3. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. Universalization of Retention 2. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. 6. 3. 3. Minimum Levels of Learning b. a. a. Universalization of Enrolment c. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation.” 3.

improve examination system.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2007). (2001).K. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. 9. T. a. S. a. S.7. New Delhi: 146 .1. Social Factors 8. Familial Factors c. Hemchand. Problems of Elementary Education. Crescent Publishing Corporation.K. b. School Factors d. Sharma.N. 3. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Personal Factor b. introduce graded curriculum. (2008). Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations.

2.3 Modern reforms of examination 3.4.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.2.5.5.2.2.1 Advantages of Co-education 3.3.1 3.2 Grade System 3.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2.2.5 New evaluation procedures 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 3.5.2.2.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.2.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.2.5.5.7 Open book examination 3.2.6.5.2.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.2.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.1 Problems of examination 3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.2.7 Let us sum up 147 .2.2.4.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.4 Question banks 3.2.5.LESSON 3.2.2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 3.4.2.2 3.

The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.2. 4. but on the other. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority. 3. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world .3. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.2.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.9 3.2. managing of co-educational schools is 148 . suggest the new evaluation procedures. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.10 Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2.2. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.2. 3. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community. 3. you will be able to: 1. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. 3.2. Besides.8 3.3.2.

schools for them wherever necessary. hostel facilities. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. etc. 3. etc. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. etc. The following steps should be taken up. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. by providing free education and liberal scholarships.2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. If the students are in sufficient number. 3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. 149 . boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. waiting rooms for girl students. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage. They may cause problems relating to discipline. They develop secondary sex characteristics. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions.3. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. which the educational authorities have to face.2.. 4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. roadside Romeoism.

3. Write any two advantages of Co-education? 3. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples. public administrators and statesmen. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents. teachers. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. the examination system has an important role to play. appointment of paper-setters.2.4.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. conduct of internal examinations. Instruction. assessment and Finance. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. It is considered as a major sub-system. the net-work of examination system has also become vast.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. public interested in education. 150 . The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them.

Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. establishing reliability.4. introducing objective-based testing.printing and distribution of question papers. etc. etc. tabulators. etc. payment of remuneration to paper-setters. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different 151 . 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. invigilators. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. training of examiners. examiners. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. 3. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. validity and practicability. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. etc.2. announcement of results. values. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. etc. scrutinizers.

7) In connection with the question papers. do not appeal to the students and parents.. 3. 2) From the angle of content of education.2.4. takes the place of comprehensive learning. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. Vagaries in making. it s a common experience that subjectivity.. Subjects. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. lack of objectivity etc. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. Rote memorisation. 6) With reference to scoring procedure. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. it can be said that they become examination-oriented.. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. which they are expected to study. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording. 3) With respect to method of teaching. halo-effect. may also discredit them. 152 . it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. stereotyped questions. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed.

Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers.a part of internal assessment. Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. revaluation. 153 . Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . List any two merits of examination. re-numbering of answer scripts. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. may be introduced. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. Spot valuation. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. What are the major areas of problems of examination? 3. Question Books may be developed in all schools.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t.develop true love for education. . and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment.

he is given extra credit points. Advantages More autonomy is given to students.3. attitudes.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success.2.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure. When a person chooses to work extra.5. Disadvantages Practical limitations are there. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . 3. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures.5. Their interests. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper. In actual practice. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the 154 . Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features: 3. skills are given importance.2.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. In this system. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. The students can take any course offered in any department. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning. It is complicated. Every paper is treated equal. The new scheme of assessment. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper.2. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose.

An example is a seminar.discipline. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. or as a 4 credit course. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. The human error of evaluation is ± 10.5. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits.2. While designing syllabus. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester.good. only the total credits to be earned is specified. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D Advantages Avoids or less comparison. This system reduces comparison of marks. The one shot written examination is not an effective 155 . A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. v. instead of specifying number of paper/courses.poor. These weightages are called credits. Groupism is encouraged. courses can have weightages defined. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. poor. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. Disadvantages Less understanding by the parents.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development. 3. In the new system.

With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. 3. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme.5. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.2. This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.5. However.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. 156 . 3.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.2.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure.5. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.2. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. 3. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible.

There are no proper procedures for selection. 3. In the hierarchy. List any four new evaluation procedures. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships. What is the reason for introducing grade system? . Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. However. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.2.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization.5. . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately.3. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and 157 • • • • • • . 6. Therefore. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. recruitment. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.2.

Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making. playgrounds.2. finding out whether the prescribed text. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. being realised as two different functions. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. taking up the follow-up programmes. staff. books are followed. whether the syllabus has been covered. disciplinary problems. complaints and compliments. finding out the adequacy of. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools. Periodicity of inspection is also less in number.. When they are fully realised. in a sense. library books. etc. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. They are. submitting of the inspection reports. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. qualifications. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. There has been dearth of properly trained and well.. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. laboratory equipment. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. in contrast. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. wherever necessary. inspecting the class-room teaching. of late. interpersonal relationships and so on. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. Academic inspection.• • • • • • administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools.qualified personnel. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. requirements. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. 1. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. etc.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is. 158 . 3. school buildings.6.

or.Ed. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection.2. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection.Ed. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. In the light of these conceptualisation. modern. 3. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. once in five years. their professional knowledge. In the case of departmental candidates. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives.. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. M. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. at least. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties. 159 . courses. Insistence on specialisation in the B. aptitude. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors.. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. Being a special category of educational administrative officers. Similarly. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well. course in either educational.

It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Administration.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. 3. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. 3. 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. b. b. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. b. 3. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. Instruction.2. 160 .2. d. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. 3. 5. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. a. assessment and Finance. 3. Grade System. c.2. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. 4. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom.

b. a. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. New 161 . Question banks. 7.a part of internal assessment.4. (2005). and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. 5. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. (2004). b. Problems of Education in India. S.2. Educational Reforms. a. c. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. History and Problems of Education in India. R and Sharma. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Vaidya. Multiple sets of question paper. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. (2002). K. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers. 3. a. Open book examinations. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. b. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. K.

3 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.3.3.10 3.3 3.1 3.3.3. 3. 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.3.LESSON 3. you will be able to: 1.3.9 3.3.3.8 3.4 3.3.3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.7 3.3.2 3. 162 . 2.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education. 4. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.5 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra. identify the needs of rural India and social. 5.3.3.6 3. impact of Higher Secondary Education.

The Calcutta Madras.specialisation programmes 3.3. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta.. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. in Andhra Pradesh. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. the Banaras Sanskrit College. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. e. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission.e. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. i. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. University Education.3. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. 2. Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education.. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. and 3 years of First Degree Course. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. etc. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. Commission emphasised to continue.. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education. The. 10 years of general Secondary Education.e. 8 years of general education. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre.g. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively 163 . Similar is the case with some other States. Consequent on the recommendations.. This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1.

historical. 10. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved .3. 5) to help for the social. Genera l Objectives are 1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. to prepare. 3. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. social. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. cultural and economic development of the country. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. 6. educational channels. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. economical and political. 8. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes 164 . 7. to imbibe. general rise in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. 3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a.a sense of dignity of labour. is also a plus point . 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . who desire to change from one stream to another. and. 5.confidence in students. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. However. Provision for transfer of credits to students. habits of hard work and develop .so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. b.

to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as. 3.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing. etc. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. and that required to enter the tertiary level. The General Educational Spectrum. 1. to develop national character. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of 165 . to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. Psychologically. social justice. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. at the other. Here the choice of subjects is provided for.3. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies.national integration. international understanding. on one hand. Sociologically it is undesirable. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. cooperativeness. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students. cultural and' religious tolerance. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. Philosophically it is not the conception.. democratic living. and. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only.

In the vocational spectrum. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. technical. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. the rural areas have suffered very much. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. 2.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. medical plants. industrial agricultural production is growing. 3. In the matter of language. fish culture. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. 166 . technological. physics or mathematics. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels. commerce. India is a land of villages. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. rural health. and vocations based on dairy-farming. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Agriculture is the main occupation. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. educational and cultural services. In our country. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them. horticulture. Biology. chemistry. Science. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses.3. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations.— tube-wells.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. or other machinery. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. All these need for an. Commerce and other disciplines. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. such as Agriculture. professional. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. commerce. vegetable growing.

3. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education? 3. the local resources available. interests and aptitudes of the students. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely .7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. and 5. In this it may be concluded. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. can be ensured. should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage? 167 . the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits. social justice. and the needs. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? ..3.. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. In this way. There had been favourable reaction from the students.etc. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. 4. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. In time. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. etc.

9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Modern Trends in Indian Education. we studied the history.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. J. S. Anmol Publications Pvt.C. 2. Mohanty. N. 3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. b. Vocational Sepctrum. B. b. a. J. (2001). Calcutta University Commission 2. 3. (2008).3. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4.3.3.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. habits of hard work and develop . objectives.3. a.K. 3. Ltd.3.a sense of dignity of labour. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage? 3. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education. General Educational Spectrum and b. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal. New Delhi : 168 . New Delhi : Shipra Publications. (2007). Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. 3. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2005). to imbibe. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Dash. a. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education.

4.5 3.9 3.11 3.4.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.LESSON 3. social and 169 .1 INTRODUCTION “Education is not the filling of a trail.4. but the lighting of a fire”.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal.4.4.12 3.4.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.3 3.4.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.13 3.1 3.8 3.4.6 3.4.4.7 3. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.10 3.4.4.4. Education contributes to human development.2 3.4.4 WOMEN EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.4.4.4.

It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women. 3. higher education of girls developed immensely. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered. you will be able to: 1.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. Teaching and Fine Arts. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. 3. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. cultural and political development of the individual. particularly 170 . can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. although we have miles to go. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University.4. For the first time in the history of India. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. Nursing. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. During the year 1937.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. community and nation is universally acknowledged.higher education in particular. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development.4. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. Home Economics. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. There is a close connection between education and development. economic.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. In the post —independence period. These courses were. Dr. Education . The relevance of women’s education to social. analyze the women and distance education. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. While women constituted only 9. family. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way.

women. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions). Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. levels and professions. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. 3.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS In the post Independence period. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged.0 32.2 22. out of 9200 and odd colleges.0 Today. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women.0 16. In 1950-51.1 31.D.T Women University.N.2 29.4. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education.0 43.4. in our country.65 lakhs in 1994-95. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. In the rest of the country. Kodaikanal. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10. Mumbai. we have more than 1200 institutions. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40.9 27. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education.1 24. Mother Teresa Women University.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. Even today. Coimbatore. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. 3.9 14. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.4. The idea of women’s education for equality. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than 171 . the number was about 43000 which increased to 20. Yet.

34 33. 2.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that 172 .53 34.27 89. 3.17 52.63 Female % 34.66 66. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.that of boys.83 47. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.73 10.44 35.4%) prefer Arts subjects.47 65. Which was the first Women’s University in our country? . At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education? .4.46 82. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. 3.36 3.1 and 14. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4.56 64.54 12. particularly in the technical and industrial streams.1 respectively. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India? . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65.4.

If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. irrelevance of the content of education. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. what is the need for higher education for her. Also. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities. In college. she will only learn fashion. distance of the college or university from home. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. particularly. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. According to a survey. marriage is a very common I factor. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. and coeducation may spoil her character. The major hurdles.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. Thus. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized. curriculum not suited to their requirements.hinders the girls from getting higher education.4. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. financial difficulty of the parents. They gave up their studies to enter home life. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. etc. Book banks should be established. promoted and increased. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. 173 . In every third family. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. 3.

It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation. space. It is a productive investment. Education.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development. Empowerment in a nutshell. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. which is the most dynamic factor of development.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. is the only tool for realising empowerment. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints. Geographic distance of educational institutions. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women.4. and the limitations of the conventional education system. It enables to study. Distance education is a boon to women.economic disabilities faced by women.4. 3. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. There are constraints of time. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. resources and socio . It also brings about 174 . is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses. Full-time employment. 3.

higher learning. 3.4.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media 175 . for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. education of women must be given priority in national plans. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. The major objectives of women's higher education. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies: Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women. This can be achieved through reflection. Empowerment is an active. education of women is of paramount importance. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. empowerment means being assertive. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. on their own.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. Women are partners in development. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. for full development of our human resources. legal awareness and economic independence.

3. 3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. Scholarships and concessions for women. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena. The educational institutions. But their number is small. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. has to be implemented at the earliest. The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. will encourage them to venture new grounds. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. who are eager to take up courses.4. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. which is pending for a long time. which had been the sole domain of men. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. 176 . Reservation for women. The local administration. especially so in the developing countries. Better opportunities. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard.

3 percent. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education? . and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests.1%) and architecture and building (38. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. Chief Executive.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. capacities etc. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. 3. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. talents.9%).8%). especially in developing countries like African countries. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. engineering and related technologies (16.She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. Australia. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. But. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace 177 .000 women in the country. although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%). International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.4. According to Lindy Hyam.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. IDP Education. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education. Also..

Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. SNDT Women’s University. 3. (2005). Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. 3. 43% 6. (2008). 4. create the right attitude towards life. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. Mumbai. community and the nation.4. 4. Kodaikanal. R. Coimbatore. a. Women and Education. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life 3. and Suryalatha. Coimbatore. 178 .12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Mother Teresa Women University. 2. SNDT Women’s University. Rao. (2000).4. R.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Rajasthan 5. Pattanaikj. 3. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. A. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. individuals and society b.C. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Centre for Women’s Studies.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera.4. S. Women Education. R. A.to the family. Annakodi. Women Education. S. Mumbai.K. and Swain. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Mishra. (2007).R.

5.8 3. They should be trained.LESSON 3.5.personality of children in and out of school.5.4 3. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.11 3.5. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching.1 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.5.10 3.5 TEACHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE 3.5.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary. so as to enable them to acquire 179 .6 3.5.1 3. whole.5.5.5.5 3.3 3.9 3. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 3.2 3.7 3.5. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.5. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient.

national consciousness.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. 4. 180 . It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has.5. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. 3. and national character. social and emotional integration.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 3. analyze the general problems of teacher education 2. you will be able to: 1. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. understand the training teachers for Primary.5. equality and justice. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. Dearth of new technology of teaching.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. understanding and strong desire for international peace. Shorter working hours. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels. international. know the pre service and in service training facilities. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Lack of physical facilities. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. 5. Secondary and Higher Secondary level.

Depending on the levels. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. students. At the diploma level. the centre. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. it is called the In-service teacher education.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. it is called the Extension teacher Education. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. inservice and extension education programmes. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. 3. (NCERT) New Delhi.Ed... the state Government. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. Lop-sided curriculum. the secondary teacher education. higher secondary teacher education. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching.5. the primary teacher education. levels. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. Inadequate training in practical skills. If the student teachers are working teachers. etc.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. a Diploma course and a Degree course. 3.Less qualified teacher educators. and the collegiate teacher education.Ed. who have not been trained earlier. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community.5. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and 181 . and M. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B.

• the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose . Science Education units. Write any two problems of Teacher Education? .Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. non-formal. depart ments etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. are established. extensio n service.. collegiate cells. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers SECONDARY AND The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . Also Guidance Bureaux.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 3. Education cells. state Institutes of Educat ion. Evaluation unit. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs .5. Expand NCERT 2. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate 182 . etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Educational teehnology cells. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research.

the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . despite its vast expansion.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . laboratories.. which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. should be improved on a top priority basis.Ed. material conditions relating to libraries.• • • • • (B) manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . The following defects are note-worthy • • • it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . to prescribe conditions for recognition.. audio visual aids. schools and sister institutions. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. which should include experience in the primary schools too. Training of Secondary School Teachers The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre. to improve curricular programmes.Ed. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. to ensure teacher competence. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. primary and secondary school teachers. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. and so on. degree.. • • • • • • Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and . and 183 . which help breaking isolation from one another . All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards. The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. to offer consultative services. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B.

efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. Hence. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education. not came up once again. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. Modern Techniques of Teaching. though no pre-service training. whether they should have professional education or. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education. Meanwhile. Psychology of Students.secondary education. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. The problem. 184 . With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education. methodology and evaluation. etc. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. Workshops. Organisation of Content Courses. Induction Courses. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. To meet this exigency. and XII. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. etc. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . Modern Methods of Evaluation. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. Agriculture.

The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Post-Graduates also undergo B.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.S. All B Ed. M. courses and M. Ajmer. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.5.D.Ed.. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. (Education) and M.. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore.Ed. training. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education.Ed.A.Ed. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.. (Education) are organized by 185 ... State Councils of Educational Research and Training.A. Pre-service training is for those.’s are elig ible for M.. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.. 3. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education. These facilities are available for regular students. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.. Courses leading to B. Degree. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education.Ed. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country. Degree and M.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.Ed. State Institutes of Education. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions. Point out two defects in primary teacher training . who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications. For re-orienting the teachers.’s for Ph. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. in Education.

code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. they should be conscientious . 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned.List any two code of conduct for teachers? . 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule.). as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. 4. (Ed.. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. However. 186 .A. 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 6.. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 3.A. and B. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. of conduct—written or unwritten. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation.5.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and . What is the role of ERIC? . 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. (Ed). . Hence the employability of M. established by tradition and teachers of the past.

The necessity is however this. Explain code of conduct for teachers.5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Bhopal. 3. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. 3. 4. 187 . Shorter working hours. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.3. b. 3. National Council of Educational Research and Training. b. 5. 3. a. a. Discuss the problems of teacher education. 4. 2.9 LET US SUM UP The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. these problems are not as such cannot be solved. a.5. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. Dearth of new technology of teaching. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time.5. 2. Ajmer. However. 6. they should be conscientious.

(2003). Teacher Education. Publication Pvt. Tewari.N.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. (2010). Corporation. P. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing 188 .5. J. Mohanty. Ltd Aggarwal.3. A. B. and Teacher Education. Teacher Education. (2009). New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House.D.

UNIT – IV 189 .

190 .

objectives. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. In lesson 4. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients. 191 . preservation of nutrients. our attention shifts to physical education – its need.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. communicable diseases and their prevention. objectives. the focus is on the school health programmes. Since food is the source of nutrients. If the diet is poor. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. consuming the right amounts becomes important. common ailments of children. The person’s environment is equally important. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. In lesson 1. economic and educational developments. objectives and role of the physical education. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. nutritional deficiency diseases. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. Lesson 5 explains the meaning.

192 .

1.1.11 4.1.1. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community. physical.9 4.1.e.1 SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES STRUCTURE 4.1 4.4 4.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.1.10 4.LESSON 4.6 4.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community. for giving health education to the children under its custody.2 4.1. 193 .5 4. emotional and social. The programmes of school health education are quite important.3 4. mental.1. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i. It is a miniature society. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.7 4.8 4.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises.1.1. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.

training of teachers and evaluation.1. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. 194 . Instruction. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 3. To develop healthy health habits among children.. list the common ailments of children 3. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. 5.g. understand school health programmes 2. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. 6. 11. cleanliness and healthful living. 8. 9. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. 2. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To give information regarding health rules. you will be able to: 1. 4.1. To develop certain skills concerning health. content of health education. to his family and to the community at large. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. explain the importance of First aid 5. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. 7. 10. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases. 4. e. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. 4. training in first aid and etc. know the need for sex education.

Toilet rooms should be amply provided. vaccination. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1.. There should be good drainage facilities. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to 195 . (ii) communit y healt h. (viii) first aid. 5. “Play-for-all” programmes.1. Vaccination for small pox. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. The school buildings should be spacious. Triple Antigen Vaccination. (vi) nutrition education.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A.. etc. (v) safety education. 2. minimizing the travelling distance. suitable furniture. organisation of school health days. typhoid.4.C. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. 4. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. B. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. cleanliness weeks. play festivals. 3. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. ( iii) sanit at io n. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises. The flooring should not be damp. (xl) mental health. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs.G. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. inoculation against cholera. as described below 1. (xii) smoking education etc. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. is imperative. The surroundings of schools should be clean. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases. proper doors and windows. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. 2. Arranging better transportation facilities. There should be regular water supply. direct lighting.coming or absence. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. excusing late. First aid facilities should be made readily available. B.

if epidemic is wide-spread. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. poisons.. isolate and notify. dislocations. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. bleeding. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. cuts. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. insect stings. • Close the schools.• • afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • Have adequate rest and sleep. and other accidents. • Take nutritious food. burns. scalds. • Keep all rooms clean. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. etc. C. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. fainting (epileptic fit). 196 . wounds. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. drowning. • When sleeping in groups. sports and games in the interest of their health. D. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. • Find out the cases. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. fractures.

1. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 2. headache. So they easily get illnesses. tuberculosis. 4. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. measles etc. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. These diseases are called communicable diseases. Once these germs get into the body.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. fever. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses. chicken pox.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. 4. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. which are – cold. They have less resistence to diseases than adults. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and 197 • . polio. List out the Health curriculum 3.1. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. water or bodily contact. There are three stages in any communicable disease. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. backache.. cough. They are: i) The incubation stage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. asthma. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. Mention the school health programmes. pain in the joints.

Common Cold . The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light.When a child suffers from scabies. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. unhygienic living conditions. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. Measles .is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Important salts and water are lost in this process. Mumps . This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Children catch cold from persons having cold. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease. sugar and water. After three or four days of fever. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Scabies . Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. This is caused by cold virus. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. Hence it is called a killer disease. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted.• • • • • • • • start affecting the body systems. Others make the children very weak.This disease is caused by bacteria. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. The symptoms include cold. Tonsilitis . etc. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. cough and fever. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. unhygienic bottle feeding. There may also be fever accompanied by cough. Diarrhoea . Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. eating food which is not clean.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Throat is affected. The child may have fever.It is caused by measles virus. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Ear Infections . Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. Hence liquid diet is recommended. head-ache and cough. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. 198 . The following are the common communicable diseases.

If proper treatment is not given. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Shortly. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. Enlist the common ailments of children.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. Expand DPT . Diphtheria . separate. As the disease progresses.• • • • Chicken Pox . These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. 199 . the child is not able to breathe. By scratching he causes secondary infections. What are communicable diseases? 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The child may also have diarrhoea. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. Typhoid . A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7. face and waist. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. 5.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. It begins with fever. the child may die.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. raised pink spots appear on head.

Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex. Sex is popular. films and jokes. cuts.Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts.1.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures.1. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. and films. 3. etc. dislocation. Sprains . exciting and body-oriented.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. Cuts and Bruises . It is concerned with human relationships boy girl. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation. eye injury. sprains. Drowning . so-called sex books and periodicals. and Community Work and Social Service. It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. snakebites. 200 . Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. fiction. 5. 4. It has its rightful place in education too. head injury.g. In such cases. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. bruises.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. swelling. drowning. Wounds . simple fractures. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. wounds. sprains. it is a subject of art. man-woman behaviours. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological. scorpion stings. 4. fainting. It is both biological and psychological.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.4. bleeding.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. 2.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children.

Hence. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. try experimenting with their bodies. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies. The values of life. sex education is being recommended in schools.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. 2. health. In secondary schools. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community.old values. Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex A. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. 3.. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives 201 . the religious organisations. they would be treading the path of sure doom. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. Should the boys and girls. B. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. Sex education has the major components as follows: 1. The home. but preserve them from disaster and disease. celibacy are age. In today's liberal and interactive society. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease. in their ignorance. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. the school. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude.

but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. common ailments of children. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. Teacher education institutions are. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions. there will no crisis in its implementation. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the school health programmes. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. offering sex education as a part of their curricula.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. when the courses are already overloaded.1. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values. 202 . communicable diseases and their prevention. first aid and sex education. hence. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others.1) 2) 3) as a separate course. What are the major components of Sex Education. C. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects.

4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.

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4.1.12

SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication

Murthy, S.K. (2001).

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).

Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Begum, R.M. (2008).

A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.

Henderson, L. (2001).

Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.

Mathews, G. (2009).

Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.

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LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

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4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:

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Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

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Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy

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Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Rickets is the deficiency of 5. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to 4.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 209 . Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? 3. Mention the food nutrients 2. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia 6.

This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. If you look at the definition carefully.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s .4. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. Let us talk about each of these aspects. vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.2. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . minerals.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.2. But how do we select these foods? The major aim. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s. 210 . you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a.

Preferences/customs are also important. it is also specific to a given activity level . construction labourer). paratha and poori. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Rice or rice preparations such as idli.2. for example. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). People in the east of our country prefer rice. There is no point. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). Using others would be impractical and unsuitable.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier. In other words. dosa are typical of the south. In the case of adults. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body.one in the morning and the other at night.sedentary. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. activity level and physiological stress. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. These are: region where the person resides and income. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south.g. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. A balanced diet is specific firstly. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e.6. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. moderate or heavy work. But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. 4. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. Those in the west also tend to eat rice. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are 211 . Even within given States there is considerable variation. the social and religious practices of that region. sex. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals .g.

As income increases. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. vegetables and fruits. These determine the acceptability of foods. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. Even among flesh foods. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. Including these 212 . enables a person to add more variety to the diet. customs. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. One must. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. for example. nuts and dry fruits. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. fat and sugar tend to increase. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. One person may be fond of milk products. However. Judicious selection of food is. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences. while another may hate them. taboos related to food may play an important role. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. however. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. In addition to these. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. income plays a vital role. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. Among the social factors.planning the diet. As you read this discussion. If you think of your own religious group. Having more money. however. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. however. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. as important for the rich as for the poor. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income.

Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. meat. eggs . 8. 8) Walk a while after eating. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. 213 . 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. but they should be thrown away. over-eating or under. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. List out any two healthy food habits. For this. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. 17. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Define balanced diet.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. green leaves. if the teachers have good food habits. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed . Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. fruits. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. mouth. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.eating is hazardous. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. etc.

Conjuctival xerosis. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. 4.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Keratomalacia 3.4. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. Corneal xerosis. Discuss good food habits. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. Explain food nutrients 4. d.2. a. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Beri Beri 4. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins 2. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. Night blindness. e. In fact. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. When the diet is inadequate. 4. c. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Bitot’s spots.2. Fatigue and Giddiness 214 . there are chances that individual’s health would suffer. Vitamin D 5. preservation of nutrients. good nutrition is essential for good health. b.

6.C. b. mouth.N. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s. Nutrition Science. b. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. 4. 8. Food and Nutrition Education. S. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation 215 . minerals. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum.2. Health and Nutrition Education. Chopra. a. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Sri Lakshmi B. Food and Nutrition Education. (2004). (2008). U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s . (2005). vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. 7. Food should be consumed after eating well. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. (2009). (2008). P. R. Hands.M. R. Nutrition and Dietetics. A Text Book of Foods. a .

3.3. 216 .6.LESSON 4.2 4.3.3 4.3.1 Impact on social development 4.3 Impact on Education 4.9 4.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.3.11 4.3.4 4.3.3.3.3.7 4.8 4.6.12 4.3.6.3.1 4.3.3.3.13 4.5 4.10 4.3.3 POPULATION EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.

It is a much wider co ncept. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. Population Education. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. the causes of population change. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family. describe the impact of population growth on social. community. aims at providing the younger generation.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. state the meaning. 4. on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. Whenever we talk of sex education. characteristics and changes for himself. and the consequences of these processes.3. family planning and sex education etc. 217 . his societ y and the world.3. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. population characteristics. therefore. 4. his family. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. understand the importance of small family norm 5. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education.4. There is some difference. economic and educational development 3. It is not sex education. the stress is. you will be able to: 1. objectives and need for population education 2.

3.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points: 218 . Define Population Education 2. the society. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual. the family.4. 4. List out any two objectives of Population Education. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well.3. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best. the nation and the world. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.

An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress.3. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race. economic and educational development of the country. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. With the larger families.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. which will not be possible without population control. 4. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. 219 . About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Family is considered as a social unit. the family programmes are also handicapped. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems. When the family is small.3. Every second two thousand children are being born.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. health and happiness of its citizens. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it.6.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. 4. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries.

and so on.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth.6. unemployment. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. In developing countries. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. 4. in parks and other places of public gatherings. The gulf between them is widening further. Many students herded in a small room. are the results of demographic pressures on social life. i. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching. in buses and trains. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. lack of proper health care. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils.3. facility for drinking water.e. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. 4. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. in cinema halls and theatres. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. organization index and material index.6. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. teacher index. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. toilets..3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy.3. pollution of the environment. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom. heavy intern I migration etc. Swollen cities. 220 .

reproduction.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. less space facilities. can be taken up. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. Hindi and English. and laboratory equipments. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. essays. bar graphs etc.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. 221 . even text books would be in short supply. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. can be studied in science and health education. Social Studies Statistics on population education. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories. family planning etc. less budget for education. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education 4. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. thus.. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. blank verses etc.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. There would be poor library facilities. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. Regional Language. There would be very few audiovisual aids.

Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. 8. deaths. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to 222 . 13. United States of America. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. area and average density of population. 15. Uttar Pradesh. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school.3. 10. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). Children with the help of parents. 11.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION 1. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 7. 9. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. Children may compare two families. Brazil. Canada. 4. They may arrange them as per average density of population. 3. China. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. 5. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. West Bengal.4. causes of deaths etc. 12. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. 2. Bihar. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. 14.

Comparing life in various respects in two families. 18. The question. How will you correlate Population Education? 5. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish.3. age at marriage. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. values and role children etc. preferences for sex. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education? 4. 16. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size.be opened in their schools. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. 17. we have no right to stop 223 . The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”.

should be overcome at the intellectual levels. “He who is responsible for population growth. especially the expansion of child immunization services . at varying places in different regions. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level. the total fertility rate decreased from 6.were implemented 224 . continued . In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state .their entry into the world”. and the child survival components of the news: program.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. 4. The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. on an overall basis. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs).6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. Since the program's inception.to emphasize family planning services.4-6.3. which education can only do. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage. is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc. fertility levels have declined throughout the country.. however. The Family Welfare Program. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. More than 45 years ago.

which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. a focus on health promotion. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by 225 . In April 1996. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. men. expansion of services to unmarried women. reliance on local women as community health workers. and nominal fees for services. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. the community appears willing to pay for services. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. Moreover. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling.earlier than the safe motherhood components. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. Therefore. In October 1997. At these meetings. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. Local programs vary in their approaches. and the World Conference on Women.

Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. nation and the world. community. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme? 7. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training. family. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 1997). What are the goals of RCH? 4. 4.3. 3.3.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.emphasizing the needs of the client. involving the community. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Its main purposes are to create awareness. 226 . Describe the impact of population growth on social. economic and educational development 4.

Canada. a. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. United States of America. 5.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. characteristics and changes for himself. 7. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. b. a. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. population characteristics. his family. a. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. b. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. 227 .3.4. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. 3.” 2. less space facilities. less budget for education. 4. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. and the consequences of these processes. bar graphs. 6. the causes of population change. China. his society and the world. Brazil. area and average density of population.

Ltd. Changing attitudes to Education in India. Principles of Population Studies.14 SUGGESTED READING Mohanty. Bhende. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (1992).K. (2005). “Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. Kantikar. Coimbatore. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. 228 . V.3. Modern Problems of Education. (2002). Jayapoorni. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House. Centre for Women’s Studies. T. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. A. Udaiveer. (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education. Ltd. Reddy.4. N. (2004). J.

4.4.LESSON 4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.9 4.4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings 229 .4.4.8.2 4.11 19.2 Major games 4.4 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.8.4.6 4.3 4.10 4.3 Indigenous games 4.1 4.4.7 4.8.4.4.4.4.5 4.1 Minor games 4.4 Lead up games 4.8.4 4.4.4.4.4.

the youth of the country. moral fitness and emotional fitness.4. team spirit. classify the different types of games.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. 4. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. perseverance. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5. mental alertness. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. The concept of physical education has been made broader. full records of physical activities should be maintained.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency.4. leadership and balance in defect.4.4. as it should 230 . state the meaning of Physical Education 2. 4. you will be able to: 1. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. which forms its most valuable assets.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. social fitness.

Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. They go hand in hand. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. team spirit. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. obedience to rules. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s 231 . Therefore. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. To be more precise. The educational efforts at home. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. They are inseparably united together. leadership. Every individual is a part of society.

Buck has observed that 232 .” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences.4.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks.” Montaigue writes. a sound health.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. Just like Education. Regarding the significance of physical education. nor body but the whole man. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality. Physical exercises. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. mo ral. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency. H.” The Secondary Education Commission. pleasing manners. game and sports. C. Rousseau states. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. ment al. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. 4.

happiness. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society. coordinative abilities. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. etc.” In brief. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. flexibility and power.4. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. speed. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. 233 . Froebel says. initiative. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. efficiency and character. endurance. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. strength. we must exercise the whole human being. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully.a properly directed physical education should result in health. “If we wish to develop the whole being. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively.” 4. resourcefulness and smartness. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments. elegance. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life.

If no opportunity is provided to the students. plagues and famines. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. While wars. its adherents and its enemies. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. 234 (i) (ii) . systems of government. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. Every age has its artists. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. in greater or lesser degree. they may form gangs. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. poetry and painting. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Tournaments foster this sentiment. including all racial groups and historical ages. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. these fundamental things have always been present. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music.

to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems.(iii) (iv) (v) to develop rhythmic bodily movements. B.sacrifice. 235 . Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. self. to develop tolerance. 2. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. 3. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. Write any two importance of Physical Education. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination .\ to develop perseverance. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. etc. obedience. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. bravery and interest in games and sports. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit. respect for rules.

. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. 4. 11. Be well-prepared. 9. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education.H. Usually parents. 5. Act as a leader. 7. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. Be sportive. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. Be self-confident. 12. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Emergency care procedures should be followed. and readmission after they have recovered. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. is essential. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. and. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. 4.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. 2. 10. 8. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. Be in the uniform. Inform health principles.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. students. defects. Be punctual. 13. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Haag. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. 236 1. injuries among pupils should be made.4.4. Always keep the whistle ready. 14. Keep the field ready for the activities.4. 15. 6. 16. Posture screening should be done. 3.

237 .4. frolic and jo y. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. the play. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely. 4. Indigenous games.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. their development is handicapped. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character.4. Such inst incts as imitation. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. less equipment and less expense. 3.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. Lead up games.8. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games. As such they are well enjoyed by children. 4. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules. Moreover. 1. 4. chasing.

the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. Ball Badminton. Jumping. Shuttle Badminton. dribbling. 238 . They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. the play equipment. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. These games require varied skills such as running. For each game the rules are many. over ball pass Relay. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. snatching the kerchief. on mountain tops and on river beds. wherever the kids assemble. driving. zig zag relay. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. On lawns. Basket Ball.8. 4. Tennikoit. spiking. women take part most of the games. The dimension of the posts and nets. Volley Ball. bowling etc. under ball pass Relay. skipping. Hockey. muffling. hitting. trapping. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. finding the partner. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. on hard courts. catching. Khokho. Tennis. They are played for a shorter duration. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. some of them are played indoors. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. Kabaddy etc. Throwing. the number of players and substitutes. While many of them are played in the open playfields. They are rules approved by the International Associations.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. Hopping. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people.. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. pitching. Soft Ball. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. heading. on sea-shore.With a very few rules. Cricket. Jump the stick clay and so on. Except a few games. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. stopping. Dodging. boosting. couple tag.4. the games can be modified according to convenience. benefit in playing minor games. with implements or without implements.

Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one.8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly.4. All the fundamental tactics. For example. they are in existence. Games may be classified as 6. and . Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. On occasions like marriage. List out some major games. 4. While observing the players in action. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. They have an abundant social value. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. birth.4.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game.4. village folk take a very keen interest and participate. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. An example for indigenous game is 8. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. What do you mean by lead up games? 239 . 7. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. festivals connected with religion and public functions.8. Kho-kho. death. these games being popular.

The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities. a. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. 4. physically and emotionally fit and alert. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. 3. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. aims and objectives and need of physical education.4.4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 4. a. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. b. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. b. a. to develop physical stamina. 4. Briefly discuss the different types of games. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. d. b. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. Posture screening should be done. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education.4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 2.4. 5.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. 2. 3. the role of physical education teachers and types of games.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. to secure physical health b. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. 4. c. a. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual. Minor and Major 240 .

(2008).12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Physical Education and Sports. New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers.K. G. Mohanty. 4. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Khokho. (2005).C. J. Tennikoit. Khokho 8. Ball Badminton. Volley Ball. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation. Health. Shuttle Badminton. 241 . Tennis. J. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Kabaddy 7. (2009). Aggarwal. J. Ltd. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. Soft Ball. Cricket. Hockey. Handbook of Physical Education.4. (2008). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Basket Ball. Foot-ball. Krishna murthy.6.

5.5.5.7 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.6 4.12 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 4.5.5.5.5.LESSON 4.5.2 Manmade Environment 4.10 4.5.8 4.5.5.2 4.4 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE 4.5.11 4.5.5. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as 242 .5.1 4.9 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .1 Natural Environment 4.5.3 4.5.

To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Evaluation Ability. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. 3. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement. Details are given below: I. you will able to: 1. Knowledge. 5. The best place to start such learning is school. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. Awareness. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. role of teacher in environmental conservation. 6. Essential knowledge about the Environment. 3. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. education about the environment and education through the environment.educat ion for the environment. social. 2. political.5. Skills. 2. 4. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. Broadly. 243 . population explosion and resource depletion could be.5. Attitude. 4. aesthetic and educational factors.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. economic.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. it covers the following elements: 1. list out the types of environment 3. Participation. 4.

244 . mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. a. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. F. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. • Biological magnification E. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. D. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Oxidants Other pollutants. their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system. 2. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur.B. heat sink and wind flow in cities.

Birth control through education b. 2. Use of medical science i.3. 3. Control of population growth a. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. B. Socio-economic measures. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. Persuasion: i. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources 245 . Abortion iv. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. economic. Family planning ii. Sterilisation. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. 4. c. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Intrauterine device iii. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. The human ecosystem II. The pill ii. III. 2. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses.

b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i. 3. Water pollution abatement. 246 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. (UNESCO. Define Environmental Education. Air pollution abatement ii. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. e) Recycling. 1983). 3. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education. List out the major causes of Environmental problems. 2. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. Planning human intervention on the natural processes.

A change in one brings about a change in the other.5. They interact with each. telex.5. way is called environmental or ecological factor.5. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. fax agricultural apparatus. He modifies according”. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4. -other.other components of the environment. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. 4.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following 247 . These are biotic components. animals and other organisms (biotic). (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. to his needs. Any constituent or condition of the environment. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.5. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . Biological environment The biological environment. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. a. b.5. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. includes the plants.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4.4.5. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain.

supplying timber for various uses. importance of nitrogen cycle. trees reducing noise pollution. preserving the watersheds.. ozone depletion. use of medicinal plants. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . nuclear warfare. natural way of controlling pests. alternate sources of energy. ozone layer deplet ion. need for conservation. population. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. social studies. acid rain. mineral survey. food chain and food-web. wars and hazards of war. At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. etc. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. industrial pollut io n. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. desertification 248 . biogas plants. relation between population and pollution. noise pollution. need for bio-diversity. windmills. effects o f CFC. excellent recreation sites. use of pesticides. over exploitation of ground water. balance of nature. industrial survey. greenhouse effect. of civilizations. (ii) Air pollution. History The rise and fall. evolution. reasons. air pollutants from industries. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. sources. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. are the topics which may be taught in History. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. water scarcity. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. t heir role in preventing pollution. noise control. preventing siltation of dams.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. extinction of species. solar cookers. change in climate may be added. maintaining the ecological diversity. river systems. effects. nuclear energy. role of trees in building economy. sources of pollut ion. etc. explosion deforestation.

Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. Organising conferences. 10. 6. 2. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals. 11. 9.may be inc ded in Geography. 12. Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. Providing. 7. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. 8. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 4. 5. aims and scope. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development: 1. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. group discussions and seminars. animal and plants. 4. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Peepal and Tulsi.5. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. Developing habits of cleanliness among students. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. 249 . 13. 3. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment. 14.

so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. Never put any left over chemicals. used oils down the drain. Reuse carrier bags. especially plastics. Don’t burn any waste. it will cause pollution. If it is done. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so.Send their waste oil. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. or form a car pool for everyday travel. 5. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. World Environmental falls on 250 . Use public transport wherever it is possible. all these can cause serious pollution. 6. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.

The groups may exchange. loss of bio-diversity. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. Conservation of natural resources. Att itudes of balance towards nature. values and habits. Harmony with the nature .5. deforestation. To provide reference materials for children’s use. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. nuclear wars. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. viz. orderliness and beauty). To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. To arrange for visiting speakers. Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem.). Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere.mat erials. etc. potable water. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio . etc. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. depletion of ozone. CFCs. rather than conquest and mastery. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. (cleanliness.. To arrange visits or expeditions.4. developing desirable attitudes. Social responsibilit y (common good. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. To provide materials needed for practical work. concern for others). and 251 . The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems. Concern for species. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. dest roying nat ural habitats. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. diversity and stability.

Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield. 4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.5. interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. 4.5. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. 8.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. preserving natural cycles. 4. 252 .9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.

(2007).K. a. new problems from science and technology. water scarcity.5. over exploitation of ground water.2. relat ion between population and pollution. Ltd.. New Delhi : Sharma. explosion deforestation. Knowledge. To provide materials needed for practical work. Rapid population growth. b. b.\ 4. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. (ii) Air pollution. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. 3.K. a.K. group discussions and seminars. Ltd. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. reasons. Kuldeep. (1997). ozone layer deplet ion. Publications Pvt. Y.K. Udaiveer. 5. concern for others). To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems. a. S. (2007). sources of pollution. population. 8. air pollutants from industries. 4. 6. sources. Education for values. Organising conferences. a. Environmental Education. Anmol Publications Pvt. T. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. To provide reference materials for children’s use. Social responsibilit y (common good. New Delhi : Anmol 253 . specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. S. greenhouse effect.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. importance of nitrogen cycle. b. b. Nanda. June 5 7. Environment and Human Rights. Providing. Awareness. New Delhi : Authors Press. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. effects. acid rain. Modern Problems of Education. Environmental Education. (2004).

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UNIT – V

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PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

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LESSON 5.1
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education 5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum 5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching 5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education 5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum 5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching 5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism

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5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
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“The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure. Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is. should be universal in nature. Education must contribute to development of culture. It is self-realisation. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. in fact. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. enrichment and transmission of culture. Universal Education. man is essentially a moral being. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. promote and transmit it to rising generation. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. Spiritual Development. moral. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities 261 ." Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. The universe is regarded as a thought process.1.3.our life.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. Education according to idealism.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. the emancipation of spirit.” 5. According to Rusk'. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. Therefore.

while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all. so subjects like Religion. Science. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct.1.3. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man.the spiritual qualities of mankind. According to Frobel. subjects like Languages. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race.1.” 5. hygiene. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. Mathematics etc. a spiritual guide for the child. Herbert advocated instruction method. Learning through questioning.” He is thus. affecting (feeling). 2. History. So he should embody. For this no particular method has been suggested.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. Learning through lecturing. 3. Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. He sets the environment in which education takes place. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. For intellectual development. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. 5. the school is a garden. The plant can grow. and collation (striving) should find due place. Learning through discussion. It considers teacher as.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. Philosophy. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1. Learning through imitation. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to 262 . So cognition (knowing). Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. According to idealism. However. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. 4. Learning through reading.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. friend and guide. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. an indispensable necessity. should be there. no doubt. 5.3. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. He carries the child from darkness to light. So health. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. Ethics.

curricula. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Perfection of Human Machine. formal lessons or examinations. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism. 2.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. time tables. Ross explains. text books.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation. 5. 5.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. In the words of Ross. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.4.perfection and beauty. "Education should make 263 • . List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.preservation.1. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education.

4. It is based on the psychology of the child. • • • Autonomous Development of Individuality. Punishment is given by nature in its own way. Education should. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. • 5. Arithmetic.1.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Chemistry. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. Therefore. In all. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts. It emphasises physical and health education 5.4. Zoology. useful and mature child. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose. education should develop the child into Joyous. rational harmoniously balanced. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. 264 . It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. There is no place for religious and moral education. Literature. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. It stresses basic sciences. Botany etc Language.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Naturalistic curriculum. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience. subjects like history. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. geography should also be included in the curriculum. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. therefore. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. is based on the nature of the child. “Education finds its purpose.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Education also aims at helping the individual t. Biology.

5. Dalton Plan. Heuristic method. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. 3. a provider of an ideal environment. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development.4. Rousseau says. the stage. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. It discards all rigid.1. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. a supplier of materials and opportunities.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer.4. he should be taught by experience alone. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method. Learning by doing.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. 2. Learning through observation. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. 4. In the . Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism.1.1.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. 5. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Learning through experience. and rebels against the academic and orthodox 265 . 5. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . The main aim of Naturalism is & 4.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology.

diversified and flexible. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems. Geography.5. Social Science. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning.1. is true. Continuous reconstruction of Experience.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. History. All Round Development of an Individual. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. intellectual.5. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment. It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices.absolutism of idealism. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Continuous Growth. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. The aim of educational development. Personal Social Adjustment. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience. social and moral aspects. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. of human personality is in terms of his physical. Social Efficiency. Subjects.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Physical training. Sciences.1. Agriculture. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. 5. Vocational and 266 . This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. 5.

efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles.5.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. He has to be active.1. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. a senior partner and a sincere guide. a teacher occupies an important position. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. Learning by Doing. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.” 5. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism 267 . a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. The subjects. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In different situations he remains a friend and helper.5.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. alert and resourceful. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life.Technical Education. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity.1. 5. activities and experience should be integrated properly. He must be trained. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. should find proper place.

Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life.1. Mathematics. Music and Dance. 4. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. 3. 2. Geography are unnecessary 268 . a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism. liberal. Crafts. Population Education. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. practical. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood. Astrology. literary or humanistic education. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable.1.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. Art. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. Literature. 5. Education is preparation for a complete living. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. 2.6. Study of Subjects like Language. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. specific.1. Chemistry.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1.6. Sex Education. Biography Philosophy. Psychology. It favours child-centered. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. 4. History. Biology. scientific and psychological education. rich and happy. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. The basic tenets of realism are 1. intellectual. 3.5. 5. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life. 5. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics.

6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly.1. certainly and clearly.5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. List out the methods of teaching in realism 269 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. easily and pleasantly.

Universal Education 2. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. a. Tours / Excursion e. Child centered c. Learning through discussion. 6. Self preservation & Self expression 4. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls.1. Education according to pragmatism. Sciences. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Social Science. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. 5. naturalism. b. Learning through reading. History. Learning through imitation. Learning through questioning. Demonstration and Observation 270 . Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. Learning through experience b.1. & curriculum. has no end other than growth. c. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. 3. Agriculture. e. Vocational and Technical Education. 5. Experimentation d. a. pragmatism and realism. a. Rousseau 5. d. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization.7 LET US SUM UP We have. in this lesson. Physical training. Self Realisation b.1. Geography. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Languages. 5. Learning through lecturing.5.

(2007). Publishing corporation. 271 . Foundations of Education. Narang C. L.P. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers. (2004).P. Ltd. N.5. (2003).10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. R. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Pahuja. K. O. P. Theory and Principles of Education.1. of Pathak. New Delhi : Bhatia. (2007). P.H. New Delhi : A. Anmol Publications Pvt. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education.

4.4 Views about teacher 5. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA STRUCTURE 5.2.2.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.2.5.2.2.3.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.2 Curriculum 5.2.2.3.LESSON 5.3 Methods of teaching 272 .2 Curriculum 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.4 Views about teacher 5.2.4.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.4.2.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.2.2.2.3.5.2.4.2.2.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.1 Aims of Education 5.4.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 5.3.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.2 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.3.3.1 5.1 Aims of Education 5.2.2.2 5. Idealist and Pragmatist 5.3 Methods of teaching 5.

explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.2. Gandhiji was primarily a social. mind and spirit. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. economic and political reconstruction in our country.2. an artist.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.2.5.2.2.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly.7 5. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education.2. 5.4 Role of the teacher 5. you will able to: 1.2. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country.5. content and methods. 2. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. Tagore was a poet.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.8 5.2. 5. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social. 3. According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. 273 .6 5.

strength of mind. 'Man is neither mere intellect. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji.3. development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. righteousness. In the words of Gandhiji. 5. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. It really provides opportunity for character building. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education. nor the gross animals body. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim.supporting. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. 274 . He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect." Dignity of Labour. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor. self-restraint and service of humanity. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. through life and for life. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education.2. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. "I attach more. mind and soul of children He further observed. it is education of life. His scheme of education is life centred.

Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. gardening.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self. Mother-tongue. Music. Art. Individual and Social Aims. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies.2.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . According to Gandhi. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. He suggested Home-Science for girls 275 . Only good individual forms a better society. the realization of the ultimate reality. 5.3. General Sciences. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. Drawing and Hindustani. metal work.Training for Leadership. "Development of the moral character. leather work have been suggested. wood work. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme.

3. men of 276 . What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji 5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.2. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2.3. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught. Basic education is other wise known as 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.trained. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. proficient. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.2. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity.

PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. “To develop the spirit is to build character 277 . That is why. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.knowledge. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist. 3. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji.3. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. He has an experimental approach towards life 2. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. Education must be child centered. He also advocates freedom for the child. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says.

2.3. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7.2.2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. He was deadly against untouchability.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. He was a true patriot.K. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under: 278 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. • Education should involve manual work.” Like all other ideals. he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides. 5. he was a true Vedantist 5. • Cult of non-violence.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. Gandhi in 1937. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. He believed in the oneness of humanity. • Ideal of citizenship. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. 5.

deeper in. Music. he said. "Mankind must realise a unity. sentiment. Therefore. Dance. That way only. complete manhood could be attained. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding.Language and Literature . wider in range. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. etc.2. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. stronger in power than ever before. 279 . It should help. the more dedicated and devoted.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. International understanding. Zoology.4. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History. Geography. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. It should help the learner have good physique. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. (vi) Philosophy. International Understanding. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Tagore said. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. them solve problems of day to day life. Botany. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in.Mother tongue and other Indian languages." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5. Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. Chemistry. Civics. Religion and Psychology. could help in forging unity among all.

The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. Activity Method Heuristic Method. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals.2.4. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. 280 .3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones. 5.4.2. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service." 5. Tagore rightly says.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service.” He further says. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.2. 5. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.4. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. In 1921. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame.

What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. 9. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12. race. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. 281 . Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1.Shanthiniketan has open spaces. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. 10.g. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. It is open to all irrespective of country.

“Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building. 3.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court.5. Education should make a person self-reliant. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues.2. He believed in to learning or selflearning. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only.” 5.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. Education for Self-reliance. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality 282 . Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. According to him. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself. 4. 2. Education for Self-realization. Freedom. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. man making. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking." He was against the theoretical type of education. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Concept of Education. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life.5. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. Education for strong Moral Character. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself.2. work and deeds come out of it. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. Book learning. Purity of thought. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education.

3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. 5.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. A physically strong person is the need of the society. 5. Discussion Method. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. Religion. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. And above all. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. That will serve the purpose of education fully. philosopher and guide to the students He. The teacher should be the facilitator. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta. 6. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.5. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. Only a selfless person can be good teacher. 283 . 5. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Education for Physical Development. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. Philosophy and Theology.5. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion.2.2. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth.5. engineering and technical subjects. Swami. Thirdly he wished that games. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya. Of course. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Every individual should be trained for concentration.5. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and .2.the learners on different students in the discussion. Secondly he wanted Science. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study.

Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. legs. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. Write short notes on Basic education. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. naturalist. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 12.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1.Substantiate your answer. of course. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice.6 LET US SUM UP We have. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. 284 .2. ears and eyes. and pragmatist . Gandhiji as a Idealist. Their educational ideas. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. in this lesson. 5. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands. 3. 5. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore.2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. We have seen that Tagore. 2. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man.

Teaching while Walking b. d. c. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. 2. 8. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Technique of Correlation 6. 5. leather work have been suggested. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. wood work. a. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. Activity Method d. 10. metal work. 5. b. Cult of non-violence. Basic education.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. a. Self realization.2. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. 1937 7. 11. Discussion Method 285 . gardening.4. Meditation and concentration c. Nai Talim 4. e. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man 12. Debate and Discussion Method. a. Explain Vishwabharathi. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. c. Education should involve manual work. Activity Method b. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. Learning by Doing c. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. 3. 5. 9. Self-Study b. Heuristic Method. Ideal of citizenship. f. a.

K and Narang C. Theory and Principles of Education. P. K. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. P. Ltd. Pahuja. Publishing Corporation. C. on Bhatia. N. (2004). L. (2002). New Delhi : Aggarwal. (2003). (2007).2. Dhiman. Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. 286 . Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Dash. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.H.P. N. B. O. Foundations of Education.5. Anmol Publications Pvt. (2007). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi : A. J. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.

3.6 5. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students 287 .3.8 5.3 5.4 5.3.3.2 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.10 5. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology.3.3.9 5.3.3. In this lesson.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5.1 5.3.3.11 5.3.7 5.3.3.LESSON 5. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.5 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE 5.

From the latter point of view.3. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. maintained or eliminated. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. 5. curriculum signifies situations for learning.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. the desert area.. living in the hilly area. in the U. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. is a means to the process. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. present behaviour may be modified. While education is learning.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. the plateau area and 288 . In it. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. in fact . the plain area. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. state the meaning of curriculum 2. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. While education is a process.3. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. Both the processes are integrated. you will be able to: 1. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. new behaviour may be acquired. there is a large number of communities.S. Curriculum is intimately related to education. in Russia or in Japan. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child.3. A g o o d curricu lu m. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. Then in a big country like India. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. it is identical wit h socializat ion.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.under the direction of the school. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely. In the words of Kerney and Cook. 5. in the form of new experience. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. In the former sense. Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. Since the demands.A. curriculum.

the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. according to modern trends in the educational process. differs from individual to individual. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. too. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. therefore. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. From a slave-country we became secular. Besides craft. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. It must differ from locality and from society to society. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. and 289 . aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. environment. However. democratic and socialistic country. Again. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. the learning capacity of children.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery. customs and needs. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. In fact . without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. studying therein. it is.3. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. irrespective of their needs and environment. 5. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. (i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs.

uninspiring and unscientific.(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. etc. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical.3. Goals of Secondary Education. individual or Social and so on. tangible. eg. 4. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. which may or may not be attained. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery.g. e. Knowledge Objective. aims. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS At this juncture. Goals of Primary Education.. 290 . They may be ultimate or proximate. They speak of perfect goals. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands. They speak of immediate purposes of education. 5. So it is inadequate. specific. The word “Curere” means 2. unambiguous and functional. unsatisfactory. of classroom.. 2. social.g.. 3. moral. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. remote or immediate.. emotional. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. Self Realisation. What is the meaning of curriculum ? 3. social. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. they depend on the political. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. Understanding Objective. in instructional objectives. Vocational Efficiency. Application Objective. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a..g. aesthetic and spiritual development. e. which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. 1. National Integration. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. etc. etc. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. They are achievable. They are visionary goals e. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. general or specific.

age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum. but it includes the totality of experiences.5. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children.” 291 . abilities.3. heavy fire. According to Crow and Crow. on the playing fields. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. The interests. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. finding them very interesting and captivating. Crow and Crow remarks. educationists.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit.” Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit. capacities. in the class rooms. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns. needs. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. Raymont rightly says.

mental. aptitudes. They often waste it or rather kill it. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. capacities and abilities. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment according to his needs Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. urges. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new 292 . “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic. Due to these variations and differences. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. time in a useful manner. tendencies. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. moral. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children.

phased preparation. To ensure success of the process. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. administrative programme need be planned.curricular. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. Similarly. 3.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. organized. development of professional capability at all levels. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. 2. 293 . elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials.

5. 18. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. 11. 17. library.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. 5. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. 1937 19.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. a. principles of curriculum construction.3.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Child Centred Education b.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 12. Relation with Life c. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum? 5. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum. in the class room.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. workshop. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation. Run. 10. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities 294 . Give your answer as instructed in each question b. laboratory.3.

P. 295 . Curriculum and Instruction. and Sarita Kumari. New Delhi : Authorspress.K. Bhalla.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited. (2007). Innovations in Education.5. S. D.3. (2007). S.S. (2001). Lakshmi. Curriculum Development. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. New Delhi : Isha Books. (2007). N. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.

2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.1 5.4.5 5.7.4.6.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.4 PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS STRUCTURE 5.4.4.4.10 5.4.4.LESSON 5.7 Scientific Attitude 5.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 5.6.4.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 296 .9 5.2 5.4.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.4.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4.7.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude 5.4.3 5.4.4.4 5.7.7.4.8 5.4.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.

Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4. 3. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. newer and newer industries started growing.during the second half of this century. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life. 5. 297 .5. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. explain the concept of scientific attitude. open-mindedness. superstition or emotion. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . tolerance for the opinions of others. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. 4.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. We mean curiosity.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. 2.4. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. honesty. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. know the importance of science education. you will be able to: 1. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth . 5. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student.4. in the economic reconstruction of society. Gradually.

science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. 6. Through newspapers. 3. Schemes of teaching science. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 6. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs. Central science workshop. seminars and symposiums. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. 4. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children.4. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. Promotion of science clubs.So that. 5. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO.4. 2. 2. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction. 5. Thinking and memory develops. Selection for science education. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. Devotion towards nature increases.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. After such experience and training. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. stipends and appreciations in various ways.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Love for truth enhances. 4. 5. as well as of the society. 5. 7. Through examinations. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian 298 . teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. Principles are formulated. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 3. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Organisation of science fairs.

a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. 7. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. In the inquiry approach. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations.4. should provide opportunities to. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. For laboratory and workshop techniques. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource 299 . 5.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. essential that teachers. 5. Training of science teachers. objectivity.6. Enquiry teaching is. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. each child to “enquiry skill building”. It is. They encounter many social events as they grow. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. After presenting the problem. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils.needs and conditions. sex or religion.4. Write any two advantages of Science Education. They experience natural phenomenon. They ask many questions about the objects they see. therefore. the pupils are encouraged to ask questions.

stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Giving less directions. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues. . 300 . test.4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. commands or orders. 4. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook.6.books. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook? . proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. 5. . Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. It requires consistent thinking. 5.4.Herma Wouk. 5. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe. Appreciating pupils ideas. 3. to ask questions and experience things. Adopting creative models of teaching. Evidence. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. 3.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. stern pursuit of accurate data. Social sciences. 6. if they like. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions.

Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. These include open mindedness. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. of vast resources running waste. critical thinking and suspended judgments. They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”. neighbourhood. keen observation. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. it must be encouraged. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. to develop among the learners. therefore should be unbiased and objective. These characteristics of any scientific 301 . A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. school and society at large. To achieve this we should understand what it means.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. (Vaidya 2007).7. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits.(Smith 2008). In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students.4. and emphasized during the learning process . 5. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. For instance. friends. practiced. The students observation. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. see and feel the need of developing this attitude.

the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. rumor. understanding and logic. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. or superstitions. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions.4. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country. 5. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups.7. 2007). He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. The intention to respect another’s point of view. In considering a situation or a problem. 302 .2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. think and work it”. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. (Das. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. he studies all aspects of it. intuition or wishful thinking”. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them.

• • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading 303 . Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.4. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. 5. but to begin only after careful planning. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.7.7. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.• • The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.4. • 5.

Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude. practiced and emphasized during the learning process.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.• • • • • • • Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory. it must be encourages. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. 5. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. 304 . 5. manuals and reading materials available in school CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.4. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook.

A text book on Science Teaching in Schools.5. N. Planning of activities 5. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility. S. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. b. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. 16. a. Proper example of the teacher c. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. Discuss the importance of science education 14. Reflections on Scientific attitude. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity. a. b. 2. D. (2008). New Delhi : Anmol Publications. Love for truth enhances.4. 4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. objectivity. A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. The intention to respect another’s point of view.4. Study of superstitions d. 3. 5. Yadav. Adopting creative models of teaching. Vaidya. 305 . It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. a. Rao. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. 5. b. (2006).10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.S.B (2008). (2000). a. M.4. Wide reading b. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students.

5.5.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently.9 5.1 5.5.5.7 5. state the concept. actively. objectives and characteristics.5 INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING STRUCTURE 5.11 5.5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.2 5.6 5. 2.5.5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings 5. 306 .5. areas of institutional planning.5.4 5.5. 5.5.5.LESSON 5.8 5. you will be able to: 1.5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.10 5.5.3 5.5 5.

It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n. in the task of educational planning. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. every teacher.3. • to make planning development-oriented.5. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner. executive as well as public. and each student are regarded as separate entities. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. each teacher. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. and every student in the process of educational planning. teachers and students is not lost sight of. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. • to involve teachers and school administrators. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and 307 . and supplement planning from above. 5. which become the bases for further planning at the district. 5.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Institution should be regarded as the unit.5. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. State and national levels from below. • To make institutional planning more successful. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. every parent. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. and.

and Personnel services. Classwork. etc. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans 5. 308 . The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions. having the following areas of operation • • • • • • Instruction. Examinations.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. Syllabus. 5.5. (2) Co. council and. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services.• implemented. approved after making necessary modifications. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans.curricular Activities. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members. The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. Co-curricular activities. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. which will be discussed in the general. it becomes the basis for school inspection.5. Preparation of an Institutional Plan The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan.

Organisation of Students’ Association. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. Preparation of models. etc.No. Organisation of Pupils. Organisation of class-room libraries. Conducting of educational. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Running science clubs. Courts. hobby-centres.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. Organising play-for-all programmes. 2 Co-curricular 3 Instructional Aids 4 Discipline and Welfare. Equipping of laboratory and library. Organisation of Self-Government Days. 2. Fair distribution of syllabi. etc. scientific and historical excursions. etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Editing the school magazine. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children. Celebrating of national and international festivals. etc. 3. What are the areas of Institutional Planning? 309 . Improving the subject competence of teachers. Preparation of instructional material. 1. Undertaking remedial instruction services. etc. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. charts and apparatus. Improving the internal assessment.

and solidarity. which are divided as the in. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. teacher-managing body. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. students’ associations. parent-teacher associations. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. science teachers’ associations. co-operation. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. ii. teacher-State. pupils. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. and —pupil-pupil. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. etc. administrator-administrator. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. teachers. understanding. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators.5. involving mainly human materials. Administrator-State. administrator-pupil. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. pupil310 . The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. teacher-teacher. administrator-supervisor. parents.” The human relationships in.5.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. headmasters associations. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. teacherinspector. teacher-pupil. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal.

supervision and superintendence. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. Good. and pupil- The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. to carry out. now-a-days. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into & 5.State. According to C. It relates to administration of a single educational institution.5. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer. supervision. 311 . It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. teacher-parent. pupil-community leader. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. It is also being modernized to become a technique. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and to serve. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. to attend. V. pupil-non-official functionaries. organisation. pupil-inspector. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. administrator. teacher-community leader. It covers personnel and material management. pupil-parent. superintendence. To administer means to manage. etc. organisation and management. control. to accomplish. social sciences and other disciplines. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes.

Economic Management .The manager should have leadership traits.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees. Motiviation . who occupy the managerial positions.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees.Any good management will always have good public relations. Democratic Management . 3. low. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts . The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. 13.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. without this the efficacy will be handicapped. Leadership . He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work.Of all the approaches.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. 8. The relationship should change from master. Liasion with the Public . 4. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established. Decision Making . If it is more. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. 11.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. 6. Worker Participation . 9.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. it is not worth-while. Communication .Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . He should be an artist in human relationships. Rapport between the Management and Employees . He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels.Management should be efficient and economical 312 . Cost-Benefit Analysis . should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making.He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. Socio-Scientific Approach . 10. 2. 7. Those. Better Human Relationships . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. 12. This is the latest democratic trend in management.The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. If the cost benefit ratio is less. 5.

Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions. enrichment of curricula. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 5. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e. objective.too. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. improvement of teaching methods. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. 5. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17.g. to improve the quality of education it provides.5.These two are. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. 14. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 313 . reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. 18. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. and cooperative performance should be ensured. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . 19. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too.

f. d.5. Instruction.5. 4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. a. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House.5. c. Educational Administration. Communication 5. Examinations. b. b. (2003). Syllabus. R. H. (1995). to introduce decentralization of educational planning. e. it becomes the basis for school inspection. S. Fundamental of Educational Management. Motiviation d. and Personnel services.K. Co-curricular activities. (2001). APH Publishing Corporation. a. Singh. a. In group and Out group 5. Decision Making b. a. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Leadership c. Tarachand and Prakash. 2.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. NUEPA. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. 314 . Teacher and Education in Indian Society. b. Classwork.M.

Article 45 .4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. nutritional requirement. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service .Pre-service and In-services facilities. higher education.3 Educational Influences of Home.CORE PAPER . Buddhist and Jain system of education. Preservation of nutrients.Preventive measures.5 Regional Educational Development in India .3 Directive Principles .Imbalances and Variations in different environment. 4.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.Religious and Modern Education 1. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.2 Secondary Education : Co-education. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. Common ailments of Children.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India.4 India's Secular Policy . Community and Mass Media 2. Sex-education 4. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes. New evaluation procedures. physical education and environmental education 5. Balanced diet. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2. Examination reforms.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .teachers should have : 1. First Aid. Communicable diseases .3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social. School. 1. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2. Realized the problems of school education. Code of conduct for teachers.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. Healthy Food Habit 4. social Impact 3. Inspection and Supervision 3. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.I. women education and teacher education in India.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. 2. population education.1 Inculcation of Socialism. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.1 Gurukula system of education. wastage and Stagnation 3. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1.1 School Health Programme. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student .2 Nutritional deficiencies.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education .Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. Economic 315 .1 Primary Education : Education for all.

2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda. Ram S.N. Delhi : University Publications 2.K.K.K. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society. Curriculum and national goals . Kalan Paper Packs 10. Hemchand. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education 5. Meerut : Surya Publication 6. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. 7. and Dash B.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9.4 4. Naturalism and Pragmatism . (1999) Culture. R. and Mohanty R. T. and Human Development. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.R. Saraswathi T.Aim. curriculum and teacher's role 5. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education.5 and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms. Mahatma Gandhi. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. Tagore 5.4. Prof.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils. 5.C. New Delhi: NCERT 3. Mishra.N. Realism. Taneja V. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4. Ghanta R. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications. (2005) Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. and Sharma R. Pandy V. Sharma.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. (2004) Problems of Education in India. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education.K. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice.S. and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. REFERENCE 1.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. B.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . 316 . Socialization.1 Idealism.

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