SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Course Introduction The course comprises five units The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed. In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development, community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies and system of education like formal and non formal. Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and teacher education. In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population education and physical education. In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude among students and the institutional planning and application modern management techniques in educational institutions.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN COIMBATORE – 641 108.
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.
UNIT – I
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Education in Ancient and British Period The Progress of Education in Free India Education in Indian Constitution India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education Regional Educational Development In India 6 21 33 45 56
UNIT – II
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism Through Indian Education Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media Formal and non Formal System of Education Continuing Education and The Concepts of Open University
UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN
3.1 3.2 Primary Education Secondary Education
3.3 3.4 3.5
Higher Secondary Education Women Education Teacher Education
154 161 171
UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 School Health Education Programmes Nutrition Education Population Education Physical Education Environmental Education 183 195 207 220 233
UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF
5.1 5.2 Different Philosophies of Education Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda Curriculum Construction Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude among Students 5.5 Institutional Planning 284 294 247
UNIT – I
Lesson 5. The appointment of various committees and commissions and their major recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described In Lesson 3. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various commissions and committee during British Era.
. of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral education in Schools. Jainism and their educational implication. In. educational responsibilities of Central and State Government. and Jain system of education. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the creative influence of the west. we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles and important articles related to education.HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in the world. Lesson 2. aims and recommendations of Committee on Religious and Moral education has been dealt. Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education. Lesson 4. discusses the regional educational development in India. we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. The need. regional imbalances and variations in different environment.
5.3 Introduction Objectives Gurukula system of Education 1.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education 1.1.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education 22.214.171.124.1.4 Methods of Jain system of Education 126.96.36.199.6.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education 1.2 Aims of Jain system of Education 1.LESSON 1.5 Jain system of education 1.1.2 1.1.1 188.8.131.52.4.1
EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD
STRUCTURE 184.108.40.206 Education during British Era 1.1.4 Hunter Commission (1882) 1.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education 1.4 Buddhist system of Education 1.1.5 Hartog Committee (1929)
.1.1.1 Practical teachings of Jainism 1.5.1 Charter Act of 1813 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854) 1.1.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833) 1.5.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education 1.
3.1. “a class of persons. has a long past history starting in vedic education.1 INTRODUCTION The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day.1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Since time immemorial.9 1. you will be able to: 1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education 2. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was not knowledge as preparation for life.1.1.8 22.214.171.124 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 1. both present and future. Ai m o f Edu cati on Self Realizat io n.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1. in opinion. And even after half a century since the departure of British rulers from India.1. British system of education presented the modern western model. describe the Jain system of Education 4. in morals and in the intellect”. being one of the most ancient democratic in the world.7 Sargent Report (1944) 1. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education 3.1.1. Muslim and British periods.6.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1. but for complete realisation of self for liberation of the soul from fetters of life. elucidate the education during British Era. That
. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from Gurukula type of education. Education in India. 1. India. the Indian system of education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create.1. Indian in blood and colour.6.7 1. but English in taste. where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who taught what all things he knew for years together.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) 1. education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a holistic effort. while vedic education was the ancient Indian model.1. 1. The history of education passed through Buddhist.
The immediate aim of education. It was not merely intellectual. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher. Vashishtha and Vishwamitra. 6. with grants of land or money. managed entirely by Brahmans. Forests as Centres of Education. Where pupils were many. Teacher as Parents. Curriculum. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. 11. 14. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured even by kings. Immediate Aim Vocational. The medium of instruction in institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of Brahmans. not en masse by the class method. as it is generally considered to be at present. followed by explanation by the teacher. religious and spiritual. Religious and Spiritual. High Status of Teachers. arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas. from darkness. if they thought fit to do so. Education of Moral. to light.
. Method of Instruction. The attitude of the pupil was to be one of the complete submissions. It was also moral. generally. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less advanced. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a finishing touch of education. questioning by the pupil. 5. There was. from eternal to immorality 2. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as Narada. Residential Schools. They could impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of work. Role of Travel in Education. Education was free and accessible to all who sought it. Rulers of the country could subsidies it. individually. 12. Pupils were taught. 13. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. corporal punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best discipline. 3. Education was a private affair of the people. however. which led to emaciation led from unreality to realit y. 8. and to agriculture and trade. No State Control on Education. Free and Accessible. The place of education was generally the forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “ 15. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils behaved as members of the teacher’s family. reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision. to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas. 16.knowledge was real. Method of Study. Individual Teaching. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. 9. the monitorial plan was followed. 4. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified themselves with one another 7. 10. Education was not for a public examination or for paid public or private service.
2. It was suited to the needs of the society. girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education?
. There was no system of paying fees as we find it today.17. besides preparing for worldly pursuits. Wide-Spread Education in Women. It was aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum extent. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education?
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
1. It was freely available to all those who wanted. They were very cordial and intimate. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad times. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. lived a life of celebacy. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of Education?
3. The relations between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.3. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.1. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values. Vedangas and other subjects among with their brother pupils. studied Vedas. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION The system of education was well-organised.
and hence the emergence of Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their religion themselves. the student remained in a state of Shramana. accepting objects of gold and silver in alms. Right activity 5. Right thought 3. Brahmans deprived the common people of their right to education. Right knowledge 2. a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable to the common people. use of intoxicating things. dressed himself in yellow clothes. placed his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the following words thrice I take Refuge to Buddha. I take Refuge to Dharma. After attaining the age of 20. which included abstaining from theft. the most significant of which were the following 1.1. 1. Right contemplation 1. Buddha was concerned about the suffering. the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form. taking things without being offered. Education was imparted through the. killing of any living being. Right memory 8. every class in society. he had to perform the Pababja ritual. Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. 2. I take Refuge to Sangh. Right speech 4.C. It was denied only to the ill.
. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period. etc. partaking of food at prohibited times. medium of Pali. in which. After the performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’. except the Chandals.4
BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B. impure conduct. Education began at the age of 8 till the age of 12. Right endeavour 7. Right means of livelihood 6. He was then ordained to obey ten rules. the student had his head shaved of all hair. use of cosmetics. He suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Buddhist education had many notable features. disease and death of the human beings. he was qualified to become a monk. watching dances or listening to music.4. the handicapped. had the right to receive education. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter a monastery for receiving education. Consequently.
cottage industries. magic. military science. (Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results. approach. The education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly. beg for alms. 8. 7. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may. As reality is becoming. After this ritual. therefore. arithmetic and religious discussion. along with education in script writing. On this occasion. women occupied a position inferior to men. The entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their speculations. knowledge of reviving the dead. agriculture. wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine. the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. the presence of the monks was essential. archery. 4. and. geology.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious. it is regarded as true”. 2. they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. the male monks were called Bhikshu and the female monks Bhikshuni. composed of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada. archery. Later on. meaning. changing the goals. a continuous change creating
. Whatever its nature and extent. It comprehended education in writing.3. bathe themselves with pure water and live in discipline. the science of taming and training animals. Hence. much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later 1. nothing is of any permanent consequence. Life is in a flux. Initially. a change is not only total but also perpetual. however. etc.. etc. 1. handicrafts. eat food thrice a day. animal husbandry. almost sharing the pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education. Even at this stage. education was impart in art.4. commerce. bodily gestures. monks were required to eat in their begging bowls. depth and range. 6. giving birth to a variety of philosophical schools varying in their origin. 3. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was comprehensive. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years. elephant lore. medicine. These are called later Buddhist schools. control over sensuous activities. assumptions. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand of practical life. aspirations and. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age of twenty years. knowledge of animal cries and sounds. etc. 5. has no metaphysical value for life. of clothes. nature. knowledge is at the core as it “lights up the path of action. is the crux of all educational activities which are in and through life. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers. objectives of human life. they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine education progressed. which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period. so long as it successfully does so. be considered the aim of education It. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period. wear three items.
in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas. and Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. goes to Vardhaman. Validity is effective and consequences. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. such as. Its chief feature. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education?
1. i. however.1. and its refusal to believe in supreme God. Jainism insists
. In fact. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism. the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed. Derived from the word jina with root in it means ‘victor’.new and peculiar situations. its pessimistic outlook on life. such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter. In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism. whatever works are true and good. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals?
6. prepare a child to understand and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success. twenty three ‘teerthankars’ (prophets) had preceded him. it is much older than the latter.e.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects. therefore. the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself. 1. Education must.5. and to give it a shape that it has today.. is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. However. 5. But the differences it exhibits are equally noticeable. Write Eight fold path . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in Jainism. 9. Jainism emphasizes on the development of personality as the final aim. Hence. 5. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of life a) Right faith. thought and deed. rather than the interpretation of the universe. f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 1.5. more stress on individual aims. c) Not to steal. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva. but on both. and is to be redeemed and liberated. 2. They are: a) Not to injure. restoring the ideal character of the jiva. d) To lead a celibate life. it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in word. it has a foot in both the words. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect. 1.
. c) Right conduct. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. as a need to create the world would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. 3. 8. 3. 2. 10. 4. 1. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which are different for the monks and of lay life. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage. b) Not utter falsehood. 6. Development of personality as an individual. Jainism believes in the transmigration of soul.neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone. e) To renounce the world. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. and believe in happiness to all. Jainism looks upon man himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom. As such. 7. and considers those of the monk as superior to the other kind.1. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world. hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the metaphysical problem. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul. Jaina teachings are social and tolerant. b) Right knowledge. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the material objects.
Teaching should be social and tolerant. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. that would be socially desirable. 3.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
1. 3. What are Triratnas ?
. 2. Hence.5. 8.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Teaching must develop these faculties. success and love. 5. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas. therefore. the precious principles of life that bring happiness. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. here and now. education must be action based and ideally oriented. and should bring happiness to all.5. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the partnership between soul and matter. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education?
. Jiva is essentially karmic. education should develop sense of discrimination. hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world.
Knowledge is through senses and meditation.4. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue.
. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from Karma. practised and not only aspired for. Belief in transmigration of soul.
‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. 2. 1. 4.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833) Macaulay in 1833 published a report. 1953).3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854) In 1854. which they were incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of preparing pupils to join the service. a government communiqué (1835) expressed that “the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India”. philosophy and literature of Europe. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion.6. and not for life. In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows: 1.1. public instruction in the five provinces of Bengal.6. with rally and rout. Madras. Bombay.
1.6. 1. primary
. 1. The indigenous education came to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their own. much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. However. 2. “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the administrative machinery (Government of India. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854).4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882) Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”. Consequent to Macaulay's Minute. science. North West Province and Punjab. They promised to open schools and colleges to teach English to the local Indians. they proceeded to provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India. 1.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813 The Charter Act of 1813 stated.6. which prophesied that the government is going to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in their administrative work.1. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at different periods. To set up separate departments of. a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was inadequate.
5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929)
Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to prepare them for practical occupations. they named these schools as polytechnic schools. In 1882.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937) In 1937. This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. general education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical and vocational nature.6.K.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944) In 1944. and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies. At that time M. and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the schools. Then the prevalent education was anti-national. Following were the recommendations: The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. • Secondary education. Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education.6. 1. 1. To ensure qualitative improvement. the Government of India appointed an education commission to enquire into the existing education system. The decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially. namely. at the primary level. the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and secondary education. Later on. 1.6. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement. Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further expansion of education.education was neglected. Courses of studies remained unrelated to life. according to the ability and aptitude of the learners. The universities dominated the secondary education. The broad outlines of the report are as follows:
. secondary education became a step towards university. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education was suggested. self-respecting and competent. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937). godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success. • Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams. and make suitable recommendations (Hunter Commission). • Universal free primary education. Instead of being a self-sufficient course. He thought of replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant.
children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of 5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial.7 LET US SUM UP Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of British Empire.At the primary stage (6-11 years). The report suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or industry. Indian University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year
1. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and observing their qualities to develop our country as we want.1. After this stage. The report suggested development of adult education scheme. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year 11. The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of various commissions. The objective of education was to provide
. all children are to have a common curriculum. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing primary education to the Indians.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. 10. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813?
. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants Commission?
12. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 9.
. Right knowledge. 6. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government from running of the schools. 4.1. questioning by the pupil. The system of education was well-organised. was to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life. etc. geology. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education.. The immediate aim of education. Right endeavour. 5. a. arithmetic and religious discussion. instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the schools. 3. the science of taming and training animals. Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents. military science.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Hartog Commission (1929) suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses. followed by explanation by the teacher. along with education in script writing. During the Buddhist period.education of European literature. 2. Right speech. education was impart in art. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined. establishment of universities. 3. science and English language.1. setting up of Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India. Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of education. b. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education? Explain Jain system of education Trace out the development of education during British Era. so that the Indians can help the British rulers in their administration. It was suited to the needs of the society. Right thought. Right memory. 4. Right contemplation. 2. handicrafts. Right activity. 1. It suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Right means of livelihood. and discussion between the teacher and the pupil.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
. Y. J.1. 11. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. a. Singh.C.7. b. Hence. Ltd. 9. Land marks in the History of Modern Indian Education. R. 10. Sargent report 12. Sharma. Ltd. c. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva.K. (2007). Right conduct. Right faith. b. J. Aggarwal. Sociological & Philosophy of Education New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. Right knowledge. (2005). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. 8. more stress on individual aims. Development of Educational System in India. (2009). History of Indian Education System. Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science. 1882. (1984). Y. Development of personality as an individual. a.C. 1937 1. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.K. Improvement of Literature.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.
9 1.1 INTRODUCTION In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.6 1.2. There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented manner.126.96.36.199 1.2.5 1.2.3 Introduction Objectives Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India 1.4 National Policy on Education 1.2
THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA
STRUCTURE 1.2. The
.2.LESSON 1.3.2 1.2.1 1.2.1 University Education Commission 188.8.131.52 Vocationalisation of Education Socially Useful Productive Work Community and Social Service Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1.2.4 1.2. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed and desired manner through proper planning of educational development.3 Kothari Commission 184.108.40.206 Secondary Education Commission 1.7 1.2.2.
The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. The Commission was to study various aspects of university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and improvement. 2. 1986
1.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA AND COMMITTEES
The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India: 1. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and 11. expansion of vocational. vocational education. secondary and higher education. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 6. diversification of courses of studies. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53) 3. The Commission made important recommendations regarding various aspects of education such as – service. medical and legal education. standard of teaching. Post-graduate
.2. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 7. There had been vast institutional expansion. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university education but university education was so closely related to secondary education that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC) 4. National Board of Teacher Education 10. S. Radhakrishnan (1948-49) 2. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. explosion of enrolment. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 9. curriculum. New Educational Policy. examination system.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. National Council for Women’s Education 5. analyse the progress of education in free India.2. 1.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) After independence the Union Government appointed University Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr.3. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on education in Independent India. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. technological engineering. you will be able to: 1.conditions of the teachers. Kothari (1964-66) 8. girls and women education besides primary. 1. technical.2.
A meaningfully Partnership.2. quantity. Education for Equality. Lakshmana Swami Mudaliar. National System of Education. Provision of the National Policy of Education 1.3. the Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. quality.3. in January 1985. The national system of education envisages common educational structure. A status Paper Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education. D. The Essence and Role of Education.
1. The Commission is also known as Mudaliar Commission. There will be a meaningful partnership between the Centre and the States. 3.2. However. 2. Education is the key to our allround development. The Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian education and submitted its valuable report on June 29. Problems of access. the Government of India announced that a New Education Policy would be formulated in the country. Kothari. It was to study the present position of secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and re-organisation. A. This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. Therefore.3. was approved by the Parliament in May 1986.S. the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not translated into a detailed study of implementation.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986) Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. Government of India. 1966. 1952.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66) In 1964.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53) On September 23. 1986. accumulated over the years. research et. 1. the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. 1. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”. the chairman of University Grants commission. utility and financial outlay. There was a country – wide debate on educational reforms in the country. material and spiritual.teaching. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the existing system of education. 4.2. the New National Policy on Education. assumed such massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency. the Government of India appointed Indian education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. All possible efforts will be made on the removal
Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year
1. work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of education.of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of the women. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The UNESCO Report. the dichotomy between education and work should go through vocationalisation. understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission 2. the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills. Polytechnics or Industrial Training Institutes.” Thus. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and earning ability of the child. particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. It can train practical aptitudes. scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which involve in addition to general education. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for the world of work. attitudes. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary stage. By working with hands.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would facilitate the development of all round personality.
. needs and aspirations of pupils and national productivity. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. the concepts of work experience. facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better life and happier world. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and integrity the things of utility and beauty. adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative work. the minorities and the handicapped. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production. Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for vocations. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or vocational education imparted in Technical Schools. Thus.2.
This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the
. This resulted in the creation of multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop." It also suggested for diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. The Education Commission. 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of this period the student should be in a position.” T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit them into these vocations. it will conduce self. co-ordinations. “The aim of these colleges. would be to meet a var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses.” the Kothari Commission mentioned. “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a society launched on the road to industrialisation. the duration for college preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the vocational stream may range from one to three years or more. if he wishes.” The Mudaliar Commission. to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations. the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion of 10-years schooling. a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened.employment and promote economic independence of the youth. a number of polytechnics and junior or technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for certain types of operational jobs in industries. Besides.but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. co-operation and implementation of the scheme. 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general education. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between education and productivity. With adequate planning. “It may be described. the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. As such. In 1955. It was about the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the baselevel industrial workers was started. The Radhakrishnan Commission. 1948 recommends that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of class-X. According to. the Commission.
admission requirements to vocational courses. lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses. raising the special facilities.. Therefore. du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly technology-based society of the future. for quality of life in the rural areas. giving the impression that curriculum developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education. T h is Co mmit t ee
. “For harmonious development of the child’s personality. the. Subsequently. In addition. need for district-wise survey of eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work. This document contained many important and forward-looking features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations. but it was criticized that work experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all stages. determining vocations with reference to a district or a group of districts.” It was apprehended that this gap will widen further. the NCERT (1975) in “The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated. the rigid streaming of courses. needs and aspirat ions o f the societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission. it is necessary not only to expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper attitude towards manual labour. Its proposals also raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation. The Central Advisory Board of Education. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate restructures. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher secondary students. if no t co nt ro lle d ear ly. work experience was expected to constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach should permeate the entire school curriculum. micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs. As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education. etc.ot her. highest body concerned with educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on Vocational education. cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal Conference in 1976. did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that followed the introduction of the new pattern. the semester and credit system. there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the work of school and world of work. With a view to relating education to the life. the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted workexperience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). the NCERT published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation” resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n.
technological courses including Agriculture. etc. The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. which offer scientific..5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK There is obvious gulf between the world of education. The wave of Basic Education.and the world of work. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of education. But it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions. which are useful to the community. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed.
. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. The Father of Nation. The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a compulsory subject. aimed at this goal. NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. Commerce.defined S UP W as “purposive. In short. Such productive work related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically sound and its process must be educational in essence. giving importance to productivity in the national development. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to be retained. under the diversified curricula of seven streams. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive. preferably spinning and weaving. 1. meaningful. manual work resulting in either goods or services which are useful to the community”. According to committee.2. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. who conceived the System of Basic Education. Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. manual work resulting in either goods or services. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been offered in the past. its social usefulness was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji. felt that education should be centred around a craft. meaningful. Many educational commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to bridge the gulf. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level. It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. which swept the country for over two decades.
The criterion for selection of activities should thus. 2. This programme has two important components viz a common core programme and work practice. so that it is educational in essence. 4. Planning and criteria of Selection The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but must include planning. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes and prepares for work practice. Health and Hygiene 2. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they are meant. Shelter 4. Educative and 3. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry 2. Some Hints to Teachers 1. tools and techniques and 3. Socially useful Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW 1. From these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create productive manual work situations at home. Work practice. be that the work involved is: 1. The teachers should make use of. Culture and recreation 6. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised. in the school and also in the community the area are: 1. enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. Community work and social service.
Work areas in SUPW In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. Productive 2. locally available materials and tools. Food 3. as far as possible.The aim of SUPW according to the committee. 3. Clothing 5. is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom. Experimentation with materials. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and facilities.
. analysis and detailed preparation at every stage.
6. Education through work The SUPW should. Check on educated unemployed 4. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the community life by actively associating the school children with the community services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter. the concept of Community Service has been visualised. inculcate a faith. Merits of the Programme 1. work in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor. etc. 1. in the dignity of manual labour and develop a sense of social responsibility. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the school. improve discipline. Bridging gulf between rural and urban 3. The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimension by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Community Service In-1972. Schemes on this behalf may be submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration. removal of illiteracy. allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities available in the neighbourhood. It can become an instrument to build character. To make education more realistic. this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board of Education in the following terms The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu of or in addit ion to work experience. adoption of a a locality for its improvement. the local community should be actively associated.2.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent past. Such activities may include projects of village uplift. Community Work and Social Service Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an integral part of education at all stages. Reduction of gap in work and education 2. as far as possible. functional life oriented and to bring the school and community more closer to one another. Productive Work
. be allied to the elective chosen by the students. attending to the families of a group of workers of a factory.5. slum clearance.
and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.” On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour. AICTE was set up in year 4. if not productive. Define SUPW
. offering first aid.the teachers and parents cooperating in providing knowledge. etc. Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :Cleaning the neighbourhood. and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises and establishment will ensure success of the programme. helping the adults in festivals and Functions. What are the work areas in SUPW
6. Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as socially useful work. National Policy on Education and Community The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the community should help each other . In this manner social service is added in addition to production of socially useful goods. Which Commission recommended SUPW 5. in turn. traffic control. It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the development of the neighbourhood. helping the adults-in productive work. The community. skills and better future for the children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the Policy stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds of programmes and courses. The school should be closely associated with the developmental activities of the area. should involve itself in the educational effort.
6. Write short note on SUPW. meaningful. 1952 3. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive.
1. 2. e.
.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. a. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 5. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education. 1955 4.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to meet the needs of a developing nation.9
ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. which are useful to the community. 3. c.
1.2. f. manual work resulting in either goods or services. Radhakrishnan 2.2.2. d. Health and Hygiene Food Shelter Clothing Culture and recreation Community work and social service. Dr.
Y.P. New Delhi: A. Singh.
. Publishing Corporation. A. B. Rao. R. Anupama.1. J. (2009).D. Amala. Development of Educational System in India. and Rao. (2005). New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers History of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd.P.C. P. Y. V. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House.2. History of Indian Education System. (2007). History and Problems of Indian Education.H.K.K. : Sharma.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. History of Education. (2007).(2005).K. and Nath.. New Delhi Anmol Publications Pvt.
It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles.4 1. 12 schedules and 83 amendments.1 Significance of DPSP 1. assuring its citizens of justice.3.3.6 1. it came into effect on January 220.127.116.11 1.
. the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 of each year as Republic Day.LESSON 3
EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION
STRUCTURE 1.3.10 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications Responsibilities of central government of Education Functions of the state government on Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1.3. democratic republic.3 Introduction Objectives Directive principles of state policy 1. Besides the English version.3. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26.3.7 1.1 INTRODUCTION The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It declares The Union of India to be a sovereign.369 words in the English language version. containing 395 articles. for a total of 117. 1950.8 1. 1949.5 1.3. Being the supreme law of the country. directive principles and duties of citizens. and liberty. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. there is an official Hindi translation. procedures. establishing the structure.3.1 1.3. powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental rights. equality.3. every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.9 1.3.
1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution. 1947. administrative. economic. was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects. the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian lands. for 166 days. 1947 meeting of the Assembly. the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. describe the important constitutional articles related to education. understand our Indian constitution. with Dr. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. On August 29. in sessions open to public.3. political. spread over a period of 2 years. Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. legal and environmental. 2.3. 3. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4. 1. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense”. After many deliberations and some modifications. learn the role of central and state government on education. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. Two days later. the government should keep them in mind while framing laws. 4. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution. the Drafting Committee was appointed. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24.In the August 14. “The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. Dr. it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be achieved. 1. 1947. you will be able to: 1. a proposal for forming various committees-was presented. The Assembly met. 1. are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.3. According to the constitution. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy.3. Through them.
. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian. social. even though they are nonjustifiable in nature. 1950.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP) The Directive Principles of State Policy.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.
The State shall. Article 43. men and women. Condition for dignity of children. Minimising inequalities in status.
. Appropriate concentration of wealth. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. to education and to public assistance in certain cases. on the basis of equal opportunity. old age. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Article 41. Liking wage etc. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice. Equal pay for both sex. That the health and strength of workers. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. sickness and disablement. Article 42. and shall.The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State Policy: Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. in particular. and in other cases of undeserved want. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. Minimising inequalities of opportunities. by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. The Directive Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the welfare programmes: Minimising inequalities in incomes. Equal justice and free legal aid. for workers. provide free legal aid. The State shall endeavour to secure. make effective provision for securing the right to work. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Protecting children from exploitation. Article 39A. Protecting health of the workers. Right to work. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of' production to the common detriment. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self. Organisation of village panchayat. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women.government. No abuse of children. Article 40.
to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Article 47. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”. Uniform civil code for the citizens. in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. Article 45. by suitable legislation or in any other way. and. to all workers. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Participation of workers in management of industries. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Note: Subs. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. The State shall endeavour to provide. the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. See also Article 21A). Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Article 46. The State shall take steps. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Article 48A. industrial or otherwise. agricultural. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement of this Constitution. a living wage. in particular. the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. Article 48. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to Children below the age of six years. Article 49. Article 44.by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. in particular. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. in particular. work. The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six years. (Original Article 45. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 43A. establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and. [declared by or under law made by
. 2002 for “45.
maintain just and honourable relations between nations.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education After independence the Government of India realized the significance of elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article 45 in the Constitution.3. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the provisions of this Article. 2002. as the case may be. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. The State shall endeavour to promote international peace and security. Promotion of international peace and security. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood
. disfigurement. from spoliation. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was 2. may be law determine”. Article-21A Right to Education. it was considered necessary to amend it to give more impetus. Article 51. 2. Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002. Article 50. disposal or export. removal. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 45 . 1. Separation of judiciary from executive. destruction. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy?
1.Parliament] to be of national importance. and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State.
of the Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes. 5. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious Worship in Certain Educational Institutions i. caste. from justice and all forms of exploitations. and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities. his guardian has given his consent thereto. ii. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institutions. and shall protect them. and Administer Educational Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language. in granting aid to educational institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not. Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish. language or any of them”. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. if such person is a minor. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion. race. 6. iii. in particular. shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”. and. 2002. 7. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be denied. 3. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or. “The State shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Scheduled Castes. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act.
8.Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”.”
for its vocabulary. These recommendations have further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to implement the recommendations of the expert bodies. primarily in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”.5 RESPONSIBILITIES EDUCATION
1. It also formulates broad based policy regarding education. The central government determines targets and promotes education.9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Write Article 21 A and Article 45?
4. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language.3. 2. Educational Reforms From time to time. wherever necessary or desirable.
. Provision for Education for minorities is given in . &
1. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in 5. and by drawing. The MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. the forms. “It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 351 gives importance to 6.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without interfering with its genuis. Planning Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. the government of India has set up commissions which had gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided valuable recommendations and suggestions. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule.
Organisation For carrying out educational plans. 6. Training some experts in the field of AV Education e. 7. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools d. Intensive educational development in some selected areas b. 8. Direction To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the Ministry.. and the National Council of Educational Research and Training. to achieve the desired ends. 5. It gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring). standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the different states. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central Advisory Board of Education. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas
. etc. It has initiated a larger number of programme in this direction. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government. regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. Promoting Inter-state understanding g. All India Council of Medical Science. Equalisation of Educational opportunities Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities to the weaker sections of the society. were started in the field of education by the Ministry of Education a.3. the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all over the country. Production of suitable for children and adults f. So as to encourage education on right lines. government of India has set up institutions like All India Council of Technical Education. The following pilot projects. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc. By starting these projects. So that they may work well. Local bodies and private enterprise. 4. the state governments. which provide guidance to the status in the field of education. private agencies etc. Pilot Project The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural universities. Merit scholarships in the public schools c. Control The central government provides finances to the different central educational organizations the universities.
3. 9. research. Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms. education for women. It helps in the rerival of old culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world. The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay through which these programmes are organized. books. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. 3. are published by it. 10. Promotion of Cultural contact The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. 12. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education. 1. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION State governments have the following functions as far as education is concerned. 11. training and statistics. The
. Liason with UNESCO The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature. 4. Cultural programmes are organized and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the resources needed for elementary and secondary education 2. etc. Indian council for cultural relations has been set up for this purpose. handicapped. it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. The MHRD also publishes a few educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating information in the country.Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and other centrally administered areas. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. is the state responsibility. Opening Central Institutes The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities. From time to time it brings out useful information on various aspects of education. reports etc. Material concerning nation-wide interests. It makes efforts for the revival of old culture of the country. Clearing House The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education. 1.
Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. 1.
.3. Explain Directive principles 2. Write short notes on a.3. Discuss the important articles that are related to education 3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government. important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article 45. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education. articles in the Directive principles. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Article 21A c. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Article 45 b. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India?
8. 5. Write any two functions of State Government of Education?
. Article 46 4. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government?
9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.
b. 3. 1. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. Development of Hindi Language 6.Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. Describe the educational role of State Government.
. The Directive Principles of State Policy. a. Article 45 . are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country. 2002. 2002. may be law determine”. (Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years in such manner as the State. for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. Ambedkar 2. Article 29 and 30 7.
4. a.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Dr. Clearing House function 9. Ministry of Human Resource Development 8. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state. b. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers. Article 46 5. The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. embodied in Part IV of the constitution. (This Article was inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act. a.5. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally Administered areas b.3. Article-21A Right to Education.
New Delhi: Shipra Publications. (2007). B.3. L. (2008). (2004). Ghosh.
. K and Narang C.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Gupta. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. S. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. K. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Education in Emerging Indian Society. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society.
Bhatia. (2009). N. S. Education in Emerging Indian Society.1. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.
4.9 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1.3 Introduction Objectives Religion and Education 18.104.22.168.5 1.4.3 Precautions while introducing 1.4.4. Buddhism etc.4.8 1.1 1.4.1 INTRODUCTION In a secular country like India.4 Moral education 1.4.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India 1.LESSON 4 INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 22.214.171.124. The textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of the world—Hinduism.4. religious education should be broad based.1 Why Moral Education 1. Jainism.2 1. Islam.2 Aims of Religious Education 1.7 126.96.36.199. Christianity.6 1.2 What Constitutes Moral Education 188.8.131.52. Students should be
beauty and goodness so that
.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION There is a very intimate relation between religion and education.encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. state meaning and need for moral education 1.
1. India' can produce men of character. Thus. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66).D.” Education broadens human outlook. proper placing of religion in the system of education gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to which they belong. duty-consciousness. understand the relationship between religion and education 2. naturalism and pragmatism cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. enumerate the aims of religious education 4.and dedication. The teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. The need of the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher. Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system on democratic lines.4. integrity. Burton— “Religion and education are close and real friends.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals. religious education and the concept of secularism.4.. An effective educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. know the position of religious education in our country 3. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. It tries to modify human behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of worth and importance. Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of religion. It is why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline. and higher towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth. Both try to free the human being not from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical environment. According to E. sense of duty and responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication. "In A multireligious society like ours. In the complicated and complex society of today. Both are related to spiritualism in contrast to physical and material phenomenon. you will be able to: 1. Both these philosophies advocate material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. As result of which. it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion.
our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education. According to Article 22. Viewing the defects of religious education. religious hatred and bigotry should be discouraged. they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. "In view of the provision in the Constitution. As a matter of fact. castes and creeds. 1947 we achieved our freedom. our country is committed to the ideal of secularism. Thus. According to Article 19. at least occasionally. if not regularly. our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. Hence. No religious tax can be imposed on them.he leads a peaceful life and ultimately. Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full.3. it is clear that the State has no religion. In short. As our country is a country of diverse religions. religion and democracy are same.4. rancour.3. Both are committed to foster individual good and the good of the society. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines. through religious practices and
. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are found by some Trusts for this purpose. religious instruction cannot be given in schools except on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all unhealthy trends or disunity. bigoted and communal education would create divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be in jeopardy. realizes God in himself.” From the above.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Development of Moral and Spiritual Values Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as an agency of education. Children attend these organizations. They thought that any kind of narrow. no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. all citizens are free to follow any creed.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE LIKE INDIA On 15th August. 1. It is committed to democratic ideals and beliefs. This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. Even in such schools there is no compulsion on any child who does not like to opt for that education. The philosophy of idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational system should incorporate.4. 1. idealism is an integral part of religion and as such idealistic values are the real religious values.
He also learns about social. Sublimation is the device for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and spiritual values—what is good. In the centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. the energy associate with these repressed impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. aggressive. purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a socially desirable way. and what is evil. Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice. To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people
. intellectual and physical faculties of children. according to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual. which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct process of group thinking and co-operative action. Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time Training of Character “Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history of religion. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious organizations and instructions. Religious education can create an ideal man of the “Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna). It is religious education. If unreleased. when he becomes an adult. Preservation and Promotion of Culture The literary. one fully developed. for the development of the individual and the society. Development of Personality of the Child The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. temperament etc.. historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of cultural importance. moral and spiritual values.” Thus religious education helps for the development of character of the child. It helps to modify habits attitudes. what is done and what is not done etc. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es humility. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and try for its preservation and promotion.
Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts Because of their social implications sexual. and other impulses are often denied direct expression. As a result of which.teachings. Education should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. Good education. which help him for the development of his character. he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society. which can mould.
about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic education should be allowed at all 4. Life soul and action (Karma) are indestructible. It neglects the needs of individual and demands of society. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final end but also with a new beginning. Sometimes the sentimental and emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the life of an individual. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of man to the world and other human beings is eternal. Religious Education alone can set High Ideals The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character.
. religion as an agency of education can help to set up high ideals in the life of the educand. The present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is provided. It further preaches the idea of fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. But they differ from place to place and from culture to culture. Therefore. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive virtuous education in a natural way. 2.4. If we open the pages of history. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education directly or indirectly. towards the society. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a democratic way of life. one does not support a religious belief by reason or argument. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. They aim at teaching people how to develop a wider attitude towards life and. Development of Wide Attitude According to Russel.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in schools 1. This should not be allowed to happen. 1.3. “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for which there is no evidence?” Therefore. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided. 3. which is the basic need of a democratic life.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. For this. therefore. churches and mosques 7.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become temples. Since all religions have virtues.4.4 MORAL EDUCATION The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry
. List out any two aims of religious education?
3. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. fellow-feeling. examples of patriotism. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in schools?
1. 11. 9. service and sacrifice should find place in the educational system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write Article 22
2. Gurudwara as. Life histories of great persons of the world. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the ideals of good conduct and character in natural way: 6. 10.5. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. stories of moral greatness. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians
8. they should be discussed in the right earnest.
Purity. 5. 3. Self sacrifice. 6. They will play their role effectively. they are likely to grow into individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. Sincere performance of our duties in whatever position. Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. Cultivation of emotions. 1.4. 5. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness). students. Without moral values. Satyam (truth). Non-injury. 2. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration). 7. “Let all be happy and free from disease.of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that helps us to behave properly towards others. 2. Very beautifully expressed in one of our ancient prayers. 8. It they learn what morality is in their early years. 3. the methods of teaching. It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life tomorrow. Service to others. Asvada (Control of palate). in the home. an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”. is that which develops moral values. 4. Swadeshi (Patriotism). The content of the curriculum. Moral education. Nevertheless educational institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our. let there be no unhappiness” Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values: 1. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together.4. Brahmacharya (celebacy). Patriotism. personal as well as social such as no yielding to corruption. Ahimsa (Non-violence).5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION? Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. 4.
. Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values 1. 6. 7. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure our society on solid foundations.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION? The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all.acquisitiveness). therefore. 1. Fearlessness. 8. the school activities and above all the teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’. Aparigarha (Non. the neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels. let men see well of one another. Yet it is a matter of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to become corrupt and hypocrite. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate.
saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following suggestions: Elementary Stage 1 . The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values Mutual appreciation of various religions. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History.9. two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values: courage. Community singing should also be encouraged 2. Love for humanity and Self-discipline. Good manners. The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation.4. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION (1959) Sri Prakasa Committee. Good temper. Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations 5. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by readings from the scriptures and classics. loyalty and self-sacrifice. 11. discipline. religions may be included in the syllabus. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability). The School Assembly should be held for a few. Unity of mankind. 4. 10. Asatyam (Non-thieving). Sharivashram (Physical work). 2. 1.
. Simple texts and stories concerning different. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers may be invited. Discipline. Integrity. 3. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world should be included especially in the teaching of Geography. minutes in the morning for group singing. Efficiency. National unity and Spiritual values. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction. 3. The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of: Dignity of labour. In the school programme. Secondary Stage 1.
should form a normal part of school programme. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction?
. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of school programme.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 2. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year . In this connection. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all universities. love of humanity. the recommendations made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated.4. Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical education including sex education. Silent meditation should be encouraged. University Stage 1. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school. 5. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general education course in degree classes. In other words. patriotism and self-discipline. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity of manual labour. there should be University Department in the comparative study of religion. 3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction at the elementary stage. 4.
According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any Government school. 2. We see that in ancient times religious persons were teachers also. b.4. minutes in the morning for group singing.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets.4. a. Explain the need for moral education in schools? 3. Discuss the aims of Religious education. In short. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. b.4. the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values. 1. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values b.
. The School Assembly should be held for a few. saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and Moral education (1959) at different stages of education. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid
blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action. To achieve this aim religion and education are closely related from ancient times. 1959 5.8 LET US SUM UP From the above discussion.
4. a. it becomes clear that both religious and moral education aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes mental as well as spiritual development. aim of religion and education being the same both are very intimately related to each other. the.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to lead their lives happily and peacefully.1. Training of Character 3. 2. 1. a. Sri Prakasa 6 . For this.
Pahuja.H. L. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. Theory and Principles of Education. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. N.
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.H.P. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Publishing Corporation. (2003). (2004). M. J. N. K and Narang C. (2007). (2008).11 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.4. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi :
Siddiqui. Ltd. P. K.
. (2008). New Delhi: A.
13 Introduction Objectives Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity Important reasons for regional imbalance Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism Regional imbalances Educational Development in North Eastern Region Educational Development in North Region Education suited to different environment Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
1.11 1.12 1. but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context.1 INTRODUCTION Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.5.5.e.7 1.5. States like Punjab and Haryana have the lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively. there are regional imbalances in an individual state also.10 1.9 1.LESSON 5
REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
STRUCTURE 1.5.5. Although.8 1.5 1. disparities between provinces/States.3 1.5.4 1.1 184.108.40.206.5. i.2 1.5.5. Literacy rate in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and Rajasthan..6 1.5.5.
5.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE 1. roads. they take appropriate measures. 3.5. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and violence. Non-availability of natural resources Lack of educational facilities Lack of economic opportunities Lack of strong will among.
. Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist tendencies. Neglect of the region by the Central Government. etc. 6. Uttar Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of times. understand the regional educational development in India 3. state the meaning of regional imbalance 2. 1. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication.5. 2. energy. This leads to separatist movements. you will be able to: 1. for example. waters. 8. work hard towards this end.
1. 4. Accordingly. know the education suited to different environments.5 POSITIVE REGIONALISM AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF
Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about the development of their region.5. They therefore. The people for improvement and development Non-utilization of resources.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY • • • • • • • Growth of narrow loyalties Emergence of regional parties Discontentment and tensions Adverse effect on Centre-State relations Border disputes and political agitations Setback to national integration Domination of one or two regions in national politics. The people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and liabilities of their region. 1. Selfishness of the regional political leaders. 5. 7.
and clamor for education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II. it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of educational development still.5. some average. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets. • All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region. • Separate States (of course viable States). Therefore.
. education as a fundamental human right was recognized. Tight security arrangements should be made.Measures for Removing Disparities Following measures are suggested: • The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions. remained undeveloped there was no national planning for development of the country during the pre-independent period the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of independence. 3.
The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of disparities: 1. Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 1. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates funds accordingly. some States have become more developed than others some of areas which were under the native rulers. and. There are many reasons for this during the British rule. 4. • The country’s borders should be suitably protected. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions while recommending funds. some States became educationally far advanced. • Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned. which were made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative requirements national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the last century only . The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions. on the basis of regional development may be formed. while others remained educationally backward. 2. Secularism.
One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal educational opportunities. residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes.14.68 crore for the development of educational infrastructure in the NER. library buildings. Regional Centres of IGNOU. the improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums.480. approved proposals worth Rs.
. Even in each State. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East Region are IIT. efforts for the removal of regional disparities in educational development.392.” The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed: To promote social justice. Nagaland and NEHU.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. Central Universities of Assam. Itanagar. the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include construction of staff quarters. In the Central sector. Guwahati. the State Governments. and provision of informal education to enable those. books. incentives to help the enrolment and retention of the weaker sections in schools. remained under developed.. as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Jammu and Kashmir.5. Tezpur. freeships and remedial coaching for the disadvantaged. through their Departments of Education and Planning were making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education through the Five Year Plans. scholarships.came to be undertaken in a planned and phased manner. These projects are in various stages of implementation. the emphasis is being considerably increased on primary education and adult education. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has. However.81 crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District. certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of education e.g. Funds amounting to Rs. Mizoram. Silchar. NIT. etc. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy. 1. since its inception in 1998-99. while some States like Bihar. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. etc. NERIST.After the Planning Process has originated.84 crore was released in 2005-06. who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects. Rs. the region lacks infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a need to improve the quality of education imparted. Out of this. academic buildings. After the attainment of independence. the Union Government. administrative buildings and purchase of lab equipments.
Moreover.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE 2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy respectively.40 per cent in FY 05) on education compared to the India average (3. while the northern region has only 20 per cent.5. it is clear that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side. Reviewed on: 07-04-2010
1. A provision of Rs.501. The study notes that over the five-year period 2001-06.187. The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. With an overall literacy rate of 60 per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West.57 crore and Rs. there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern region.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION
The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country significantly in education and skill development. Tezpur University. too. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in the southern region (including South-west).261. the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows significant regional disparity. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education also released Rs. NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and Literacy till 31 January 2006.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of Assam University. Out of this an amount of Rs. Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East Region. Government expenditure on education.8 per cent in 05).
.40. the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States. Presently 76 JNVs have been sanctioned for the NE Region.500.In addition to the funds released under NLCPR. is declining in North Indian states as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Source: National Portal Content Management Team. During 2003-04.05 crore and Rs.
The number of teachers in most of the Northern states. measuring 6 acres each on long lease have been set aside.
1. Maharashtra and Southern states like Tamil Nadu. These states account for about 63 per cent of the total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats.
Moreover. is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level. pharma. A large number of medical colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra. is setting up a multiinstitutional Education City at Sarangpur. Andhra Pradesh. for which 16 sites. preference for science and math education is declining in North India which can hamber demands in field of IT. is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure human development.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all
. Karnataka. Bihar and Haryana where vocational education penetration is very low at the school level. And lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to education in north India. English. The Chandigarh Administration. Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). is not adequate to meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states.A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. too. the study notes that some steps have been taken in this direction. health services and welfare of the citizen population. engineering and R&D. notes the study. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also transforming itself into an education hub. too. North India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western and Southern states. telecom.
Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears to be low in North India as compared to South. The pupil–teacher ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states of Kerala (18). Tamil Nadu. there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself.5. and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab. Kerala and Gujarat. for instance. To add to the woes. is very low compared to Southern and western parts.
Listing the positives. Medical education. Teachers’ enrollment in the training programmes in the Northern region.
Providing uniform education for all people living under different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift them. the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be developed.year. Hence it should be given its due weight age in the educational programmes. the interests. in which the learners live. the needs. The working hours of educational institutions. when he will not be sure of time. the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people living in different environments vary widely. the teaching methods. the curricular subjects. Similarly for an urban learner telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible. Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking into consideration the environments. taking the average in the middle. the socio-physical conditions. life-oriented and environment slanted. which a rural learner can do without any difficulty and much hesitation. etc should take note of the environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and rewarding.
. even actually looking at the watch. They should be suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of great avail. a tribal learner may quickly identify different plants and flowers. while the former does not. which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see them in everyday life. Of course. and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. the working days: an academic . and so on. Hence it is called as need-based. But environment does play a big part in deciding the attainments of learners. which a non-tribal person cannot do. They will appropriately distributed according to the normal distribution curve only. Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors. Local environments may prove to be conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. For a learner living in a rural area. There are the following variations in environments the hilly versus the plain rural versus urban posh versus slum industrial versus agricultural tribal versus non-tribal. In the same manner. Uniformity of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life.people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the environmental needs. Then education become realistic and idealistic. there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. the vocations. The living conditions.
There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different environments of the country. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in different regions of the country.11 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education?
3.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.10 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of educational development in India. 1. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region?
1. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to remove them. What do you meant by regional imbalance?
.5.5. 2. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational development in India.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. to suit education to different environments? 1. 2. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional imbalances.
(2002).N. Education in Developmental Arena.K. during the British rule.5. remained undeveloped 3. (2001). New Delhi: Anmol Publications. S. a.
.G. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. New Delhi: Authors press. some States have become more developed than others b. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. (2008).H. Educational Development in India. R. Education Scenario in India. Giridhar. S. A.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. (2001). C. 60% 1. and Nair. some of areas which were under the native rulers. Dubey. Salim.2. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.
UNIT – II
community development. International understanding and elimination of social tensions and conflicts. semi literate and illiterates. Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like working people.
. The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing complexity of the school life and societal life. Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept. secularism and democracy through Indian education. Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived. National Integration. school community and mass media. the teachers occupy the key position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes place. Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development.ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Of all the human factors in the school system. Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism. You will also learn about the concept and characteristics of open university. characteristics and difference between formal and non formal education.
2 Present situation of Secularism in India 2.8 2.1.2 2.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism 2.9 220.127.116.11 Characteristics of Secular Outlook 2.1.1. SOCIALISM AND SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168 2.1.7 2.1.4 2.10 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.6.1 2.1.6 Education for Secularism 22.214.171.124.2 Implications of Socialism in Education 2.1.1
IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.LESSON 2.5 Introduction Objectives Democracy Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life Socialism 126.96.36.199.1 Main features of Socialism 2.1.6.
Group activities should be encouraged to provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group. 3) Provision of Manual Work. understand the concept of democracy.
. 2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. there should be made no distinction of caste. In the matter of admitting students in schools. 4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. They should know their right and responsibilities in a democratic. you will be able to: 1. socialism and secularism among teachers and pupils. socialism and secularism 2. creed. The extent to which the capacity to understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the efforts of the Indian people to achieve it. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy. 2.2. The students may be associated with the management of the school. Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and. social and intellectual qualities that cannot grow automatically. 5) Encouragement to Group Work. So they are to be trained in citizenship which involves many moral. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. socialism and secularism 2.1. colour or wealth. ‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’.1. socialistic and secular state.1 INTRODUCTION It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate awareness regarding the concepts of democracy.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE 1) Respect of Individual Personality. This is the political aspect of democracy.1. for the people by the people”.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students.1. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Democracy thus means power of the people. Abraham Lincoln. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.3 DEMOCRACY Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility.
debates. Social work will bring the students into direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its problems. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote learning’ should be aimed at. may be planned.
.5 SOCIALISM S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth century. Such visits provide the students first hand experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions. 11) Student Parliament. Democracy means 2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. 8) Opportunities for Social Service. With a view to promoting self-expression among the students. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life. 7) Promotion of Self-Expression. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to provide experience in the working of institutions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 12) Visits to Legislatures.. 9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. hostel opportunities should be provided to the students in the art of living together.
2. especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia. it soon spread all over the world. declamation contest etc. There are different brands of socialism. 10) Hostel Life Wherever possible. Mao in China and Gandhiji in India. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln?
3. These activities should form an integral part of curriculum.
2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION Following measures should be adopted towards this end 1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools. 4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. 2) Tuition free education 3) Provision of facilities like free books.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM 1) Socialism aims at social justice.
. In an editorial in 1947 under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote. 7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society. none high”. 7) Special facilities for girls.Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society. 2) Socialism aims at equality. free from exploitation.
2. Under it.5. oppression and disparity. the employer and the employee are all on the same level. stationary and uniforms to the needy students. service and cooperation. 5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses. 3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society. 8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes towards work.5. 5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production. “Under socialism all the members of society are equal -none low. but on the path of non-violence. 6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system.1.1. 6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities. 8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections. 4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and fellow feeling. 2. the prince and the peasant. the wealthy and the poor.
” In every political and educational corner. According to Holydake.9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States. the word secular means sceptical of religious truth. "which seeks the development of physical. The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. secularism is being propagated. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Theism or Bible which selects as its methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means” As per Oxford Dictionary.
5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.6 SECULARISM Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used very often by the national leaders.
. Write any two main features of socialism.1. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students. the concept of socialism may be defined as a system. moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural morality apart from Atheism. 11) State schools. “India is a secular-country. 10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children.
2. Let us now acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. Everyone says. 12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools. The word ‘secular’ has been derived from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’.
During the recent past. That is why.
. 4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations. Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different communities. 6) It has faith in rational thinking. In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values. 9) It stress free inquiry. In this type of prevailing situations. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or irreligiousness In fact. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity and emotional integrity. Moral values have to be imbibed. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the people can be ended. there is great need of educating the people on the right lines.1. 10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK Secular outlook implies the following: 1) It treats all religions on an equal footing. Value crises have also deteriorated the social set up of life. “Webster further says. trifles over petty religious matters are caused. 3) It permits freedom of worship. 2. the word secularism shows our broad mindedness. A large number of people is uneducated.opposed to religious education.” Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is. “the belief that religion and ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. People have different religions and they have different beliefs.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. the belief that the state morals. “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship” 2. fraternity. people started believing in regionalism. liberty. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase. 8) It believes in co-existence. Equality. narrow mindedness and selfishness spreading. should be independent of religion. 7) It encourages moral and spiritual values. people have narrow mindedness.6. Only a broad minded person is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. national outlook and international understanding need be propagated.6. 5) It implies tolerance. 2) It permits freedom of religion. education etc. There is need of making the people open minded.1.
There should be some internal checking of the material being. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make all efforts to maintain. Eminent scholars of different religions may be invited for giving lectures to the students. it must be ascertained that nothing happens which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. The very sight of the building. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be celebrated with equal pomp and show.presented by the students in the gathering. The students may be taken to different centers of religions. service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. education. students belonging to different religions should be associated.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL SECULARISM INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING
In the schools. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good examples for the students to follow. the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the institution. the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers community that can actually put those things in practical shape. 2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. The school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal importance. 2. Comparative Religious Studies should be entrusted to the matured teachers. Just possible some students may take up comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree 6) In different religions.Corruption and disbelief are rampant.6. In the hands of such teachers. While doing so. 4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools. Religious Education. there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and figures. 3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related to all religions. tours and trips may be organized. showing the studies of different religions and all ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the personalities of the children. that the central string of all religions is one. Once the dignity of social service is realized by the students. Only those persons should be invited who have made comparative study of different religions 5) In the institutions. Thus the students may be taken to see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University. In the celebration of each such function. How can all this be improved? Who can be entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable weapon for this is Education. Patiala. No doubt. many things are common such as social service at the time of celebrations. 1) Moral Education.1. it has then everlasting impact on their
. Now let us see how the schools can help in imparting secular based. Without their whole hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved.
our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For. The students can be encouraged to think of points common in different religions.personalities 7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies through informal type of instructions. this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved. No doubt. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. Those thoughts/ideas may be highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a gathering. Define Secularism
9. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
2. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among students. The term secularism was first used by 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1. The word “Seculum” means 7. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook
10.7 LET US SUM UP
secularist and socialistic attitude among students. 4. Provision of Manual Work. 3. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. In a vital sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. c. Respect of Individual Personality. a.1. Abraham Lincoln. the American President defined it as “Democracy is the government of the people. Socialism aims at social justice. The two can move only in the consonance with each other. for the people and the people”. d. The students may be associated with the management of the school. b. there should be made no distinction of caste. George Jacob Holydake
. it takes help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions. What are the implications of socialism on education
2. Explain the concept of Democracy in education. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic living? 2. Socialism aims at equality. Manual work goes a long way in making the students realise the dignity of labour. Power of the people 2.In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional in promoting democratic. 5. colour or wealth. 6. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice. a.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian society. Equal Opportunities for Admission. 3. 4. a. In the matter of admitting students in schools.1.
2. Since socialism stands for equality. Tuition free education b. This present age 7. creed.9
ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. 5. The school administrators should show regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a feeling of secularism. b.
K and Narang C. J. (2008). N. should be independent of religion. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be organised in the schools
2. Mohanty.C. K. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is. New Delhi :
Pahuja. (2005). Ltd. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. B. (2007).” 9. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. It treats all religions on an equal footing. Dash.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal.8. L. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Ltd. N. b. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different religions. (2004). J. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. P. Theory and Principles of Education. b. Modern Trends in Indian Education.1.
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. a. 10. the belief that the state morals. (2003). education etc. It permits freedom of religion. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian society.
Bhatia. Anmol Publications Pvt.
2.2 2.9 2. knowledge and experience of one
.2.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding 2.2.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration 2.1 Role of education in developing National Integration 2.2.1 INTRODUCTION The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom.2.2.LESSON 2.1 International understanding in the school 2.2.5 Introduction Objectives Teacher’s role towards pupils development Teacher’s role towards community development Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction 2.1 188.8.131.52 2.6.7 2.5.2
ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY
STRUCTURE 2.4 2.3 2.11 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding 2.2.2.
as workers. you will be able to: 1. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development 2. and 4. therefore.an instructor of school children. A teacher is not only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new values. emotional. But so far we have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower. moral. as persons. The developmental roles of children. social. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction.
. 3. It involves physical.generation to another.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all round development of his pupils. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and tension. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards it 4. application. development. 'He should help the students develop suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school. as it is t he aim o f modern education. For this he must have a clear understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms. 2. They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge. a r e 1. A teacher is first and foremost. esthetic and linguistic aspects of pupils. necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. mental. skills. They are always exposed to the influence of the teacher it is. It is his first task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the children.
2. attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental. The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization of ideals. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of developing National Integration 3. who are placed in his custody. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. aims and objectives of the school. as citizens. as learners.2.2. social and moral aspects. understandings.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. 2.
2.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT a. The following are some of such roles described in brief. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen. as they are becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching profession and parental communit y. vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative. a part of their day in
. Pupils development and Community development The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated as any teacher is a. socially.All education should lead to better behavioural development. inquisitive. The interdependence of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational administration are the progressive concepts of education. He has to look after their physical. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association
Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers. 1. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled with respect to the community to which they belong. of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. member of his community at the outset. any teacher has to fulfill certain social obligations. morally. economically effective.2. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social. experiences and acceptance. intellectually. teacher has to play the role of a citizen. physically fit for socially efficient. As a citizen and as a member of the community into which he is born. 3. The students live. social and emotional health. Hence teachers should help their children to develop physically. morally. mental. 2. Now-a-days the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence. He has certain functions to perform as the head of his family. Teacher as a Citizen
Next. emotionally. There are different roles they have to play in relation to community. Community maintains the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating future adult citizens. culturally confident. mentally. motivated. He is to become an active member. He has to strive to see that his familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and status in the society. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic needs. Teacher as a Parent
Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. and aesthetically to become.
2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. the teacher has to play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs. the acts as the point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. List out the role of teachers towards community development
. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency between the community of parents and the school. objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. helping them to solve their problems and breaking the growing isolation between them. there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems in a common endeavour to. creeds. It
. games clubs and the like in order to be a social being and to share with the social and cultural. science club. Dr. solve them. photographic clubs. This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. and most of hours. activities of the society into which he is born. 4. languages and religions. Radhakrishnan has aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. India is a land of many castes. Unless. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. faiths. They will be spending with their parents. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1.2. it is likely that the isolation of parents and schools become widened.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas. fine art associations. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs
In addition to the above cited roles in the community.the school being under the custody of teachers.
1. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. Let us. keeping our feet firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis.” Ways and Means of Developing National Integration. It should broaden the outlook. Sampurnanand remarked.2. stand up straight. It is felt that the school and college curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state.” Regarding the role of education.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL INTEGRATION In the words of Dr. The only process is the process of education. but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that . c. poems. a. moral and religious instruction and co-curricular activities. should be emphasised. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other things. the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) under the chairmanship of Dr. Daily morning prayer should be considered as an integral part of school programme. b. and tolerance so that narrow group interests are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country. communal and caste-minded because we have a great mission to perform.” 2. The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as when these were made in 1961.is. the citizens of the Republic of India. “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar. social studies. it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. narrow-minded provincial. maintaining at the same time all our wonderful diversity. Radhakrishnan. very important that the people of India think in terms of wider loyalties to the nation. therefore. with straight backs and look up at the skies. folklore and teaching of social studies. national anthem and other national songs. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of man. the study of language and literature.5. this integration of the Indian people. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of
. “Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional integration. It is felt that education should not only aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s personality. At the primary stage the importance of stories. Nehruji has explained this as.emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be welded into one. and make into one strong national unit. ‘We should not become parochial. Political integration has already taken place to some extent. foster a feeling of oneness and nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice.
Scouts and Guides. Students should be told the history of the National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for the National Flag. It is desirable to have a uniform for school children. National Days—January 26. militar y training like the NCC. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. 9. educational excursions. Co-Curricular Activities. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented. symposia. August 15 and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s. languages and literature. Reverence of National Flag. tours. The place of these activities in the curriculum is considered to be very important. Celebrations of National Days. 4.
. These activities include commo n observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national importance. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses. it is necessary that they be oriented and improved. and picnics. distorted or exaggerated to create prejudice. 10. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Special meetings of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness of the country.different social sciences. Books on social studies should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Children should be taught to sing the National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is sung. t he st udent s and t he community. Taking Pledge. ACC. 6. culture and art and also the exchange of teachers and students. 2. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen. one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not necessary. dramatics and youth festivals. 8. schools may have their own preference in regard to colour and pattern. sports. 5. Student Camps. Singing of National Anthem. 7. Uniform for School Children. Textbooks. 3. debates. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in strengthening emotional integration.
ways of thinking and doing things.5. At least one play should be based upon themes derived from the classics or from the history of ancient India. ii. flora and fauna. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging to different communities and regions etc. iv. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States in selected places.11. School Projects. 16. Recognition should not be given to institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged. v. Open-Air Dramas.2. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their democratic behaviour. 12. Such tours should be conducted from one State to another. 2. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste. In predominant Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives and vice versa. Recognition of Institutions. Educational and Travel Documentaries. For instance a ‘know your country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than their own. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of the country. colleges and other educational institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of means and .
. Admissions to schools. t he import ance o f interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted. 15. School may conduct several projects which improve students’ general knowledge of the country. language. 13. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year by every school. Students Exchange and Tours. region or religion. 14. colour. Following are the important measures which can prove very helpful in this regard: i. Educational and travel documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery. on various developmental and reconstruction programmes should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular feature of the schools. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PROMOTING
Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration among the students. iii. Admissions.
Students should be involved in organising various school programmes. educational excursions and tours may be organised so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and diversity. irrespective of national boundaries. Define National Integration
3. "There is no more dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’. cultures and races on equal bases.
All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking in the students. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year 4.vi. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students?
. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee?
5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be suitably explained. The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just
.6 TEACHER’S UNDERSTANDING ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL
International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's particular culture and national prejudices.2. camps. 2. Community dinners.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. vii. The Secondary Education Commission Report observes. It is the ability to work for the happiness of all human beings. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. It is the abilit y to observe men of all nationalities. ix.
will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.as important as that of a national citizenship. It is now conceivable that the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for it. 6.F. 4. therefore. “He and the curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas of education into practice”. that war.2. 2. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war. Radhakrishnan states. “We need today an adjustment of the human consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. we regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that educators should be more concerned with the child. if it happens. In a very real sense.” 2..” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism.6. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen. Therefore.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING Regarding the role of the teacher. than with the contents of the various subjects which go to make a school curriculum.2.” Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing an international outlook in the students1. and (e) telling about famous men and women of India and of other countries.friendships between children of different countries. and the healthy development.6. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of India and of other countries. (c) fairly tales. Organising of debates and. 2. patriotism is not enough. often in connection with anniversaries. exchange of delegations of teachers and students may be encouraged. C. Strong has observed. is a mental disorder strictly analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. Dr. lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies. of his body and mind. either plunged in or overshadowed by war. Teachers
. and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership implies. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs. (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the other countries. 5. This.e. the international level. A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real sense : wars begin in the minds of men” . (b) stories of children of other lands. 3.
They should be well informed about the contemporary world scene and its historical background. Russian.should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and cooperation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their students. While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing upon their minds that barnes of race. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds of pupils. They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is being born in one part or other. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among students
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or describing facts. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. a German. They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first and then he can be called a Jew. colour and distance do not stand in the way of uniting peoples of different countries. an Englishman. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding
7. and concerned about improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well informed. Indian and American.” Well Informed About World Situations. They should not be propagandists. Impartial in their Treatment. Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum.
A major criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. Devaluation of Values . understand and indiscipline: 1. It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than
. If this is done. majority of people are. leading to. they are duly reflected in the school society too-in teachers as well as in students. It does not prepare students for life.Even though more than three decades have lapsed since the attainment of freedom. The following are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned by educationists and experts It does not reflect the national goals and ideals.come them adopting rational thinking and reasonable solutions. As the school is but a miniature society. out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the predetermined educational objectives might be achieved fully. Chronic Poverty . 5. It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise among teachers on one band. Wide Spread Frustration . 3. factor for the growing indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee . which results in agitation and aggression language. and help the students to over . 2.2. Soon after they leave their educational institutions.Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause for the development of unrest among students.Due to the ever-Increasing economic difficulties. students are tending to be certificate conscious rather than knowledgeous. 4. It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies.For the lakhs and lakhs of students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. they are adding themselves to the educated unemployed population only.Another major.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts constantly. the education function can be carried.
Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools as well.2. Defects of the educational System . there is wide spread frustration among all people. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. living in the depressing conditions of chronic poverty.
It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and information Its is on final examination. etc.2.democratic nature. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. 2. List out six characteristics of a good teacher.
2. Schools have been created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. In this unit different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development. community development. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. National integration and International understanding and elimination of social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles. sympathy and good will among the nations. How would you develop National integration among your students? What is the role of the teacher in pupil development. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students. Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust. List out the factors causing social tension in schools
. 4. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote International Understanding.8 LET US SUM UP Man is a social being. 3. love. fellow feeling. co-operation.
2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the ParentTeacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs 2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties. 3. 1961 4. Dr. Sampurnanand 5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of National Days 6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations. 7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and Impartial in their Treatment. 8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System
2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS
Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Ghosh, S. (2009). Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Dash, B. N. (2007).
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004).
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA
STRUCTURE 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Introduction Objectives Home as an agency 18.104.22.168 Important educational functions of Home 2.3.4 School as an agency 22.214.171.124 Functions and role of schools in the society 126.96.36.199 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions 2.3.5 Community as an agency of education 188.8.131.52 Responsibility of the community in education 2.3.6 Mass media as an agency 184.108.40.206 Radio as an agency of education 220.127.116.11 Television as an agency of education 18.104.22.168 Press as a medium of education 22.214.171.124 Motion Pictures 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and development. 2.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community 2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and Motion Picture. 2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY
It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.
126.96.36.199 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical development of the child. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the child. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household responsibilities. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children and treating accordingly. Providing opportunities for self-expression. Following a proper code of discipline.
9. 10. 11.
Providing learning equipment at the proper time. Providing cooperation of the school. Providing vocational experiences,
In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.
2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of tomorrow and prepares them for the future life. P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength, to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect impulses”. 188.8.131.52 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the: 1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society. 2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society. 4. Connecting link between home and the community. 5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child. 6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child. 7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures. 8. Promoter of ideals of the State. 9. Promoter of social development of the child. 10. Promoter of democratic values in the child. 11. Promoter of secular values in the child. 12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child. 13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child. 14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child. 15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.
16. 17. 18.
Promoter of values of international understanding and peace. Centre of community. Trainer in the art of living together.
184.108.40.206 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised miniature community. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student selfgovernment. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop become the humble of stimulating activities. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó imbibe this attitude. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever considered necessary. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult education classes. It can take up community service programmes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. 3. 4. 5.
1. List any two education functions of Home.
2. Mention any two role of school in the society
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common sentiment”.
220.127.116.11 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education. According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing. If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by adopting the following methods: Control of Education Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community, which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system. Control of Schools The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society. Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.” On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that community should finance education and maintain high standards of education philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through education; to progressively greater heights.
They reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education.3. because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and ideals of children who are stimulated by them.” Provision of Informal Agencies of Education An individual. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the
. books. periodicals. it is the responsibility of the community to provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school educational stimulation. In fact. the invention of the printing press. During the course of time. education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building as in the regular class-room.Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. led to the printing of books. “All the citizens of the community. art galleries. Then came newspapers. Crow and Crow write. whether or not they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities.
2. are increasingly used in education. libraries and music and drama centers are some of the educational media that should be made available to children. Now internet is being used. NOW for quite sometime new mass media like radio and T. Local newspapers reflect not only the educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of communit y leaders. Define community. Hence. Educational programmes should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and organizations. He taught his students orally. the teacher was the only medium of communication for children. Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the teacher. the power of the press is rivaled only by the power of the radio. magazines and daily newspapers should be provided.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY In early times. Emphasising this thing.V. To make them achieve their aim. citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
3. Museums. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Moreover.
social studies.3. Expert teaching in such diverse fields of science. radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. programmes are especially designed for different age groups in the schools.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY In the words of R. The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning. for the teacher through school broadcasts. In the emphasis is on sound. Many gaps are to be filled up by them. Reynolds. political developments in other countries and current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom.G. In collaboration with the experts. politics. the place of importance. rather than on picture. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities are almost unlimited”. 2.telecast. A lot of work by way of pre. dram appreciation. Thus. during telecast and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. It is also an important source of entertainment. Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Various talks. current affairs and other areas. Students listen various talks. Effective means of presenting music. Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. Important happening inventions. Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world. Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures.
. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially the purpose of teaching. can provide information and enrichment for pupils and. discussions and debates from radio which are extremely important and useful for them. It broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. Thus. art.6. Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f teaching. Advantages Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education: 1. An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the guidance of the teacher. music. 2. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that they are supplementary media. “Radio is the most significant medium of education in its broadest sense. It stimulates curiosity and interests. “Listening participation” in current history. It enlightens public opinion. languages. Special events and occurrences ii world are immediately brought from the source into classroom. the teacher requires having pre-broad and postbroadcast discussion. the teacher still occupies. Fears about the replacement of teachers are unfounded.classroom teachers. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students.
informal and non-formal education. at drawing room. There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media. Before presenting the programme. 4. development of lessons. 3. at any place. projects or creative activities. Before broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic. The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for deschooling society. audibility and presentability. fol classical music. School concerts. It is laying more emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts. speech. 5. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social studies and English. but also a potential instructional tool in the formal.
. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can learn at any time. plays. at recreational centers. It has reached villages and is now available in every corner of the society. mathematics. Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up discussion. drama and discussion programmes of s local or from other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India. style. at play. travel talks. Participation of local teachers and pupils. Educational radio broadcasts play an important role towards a system of open learning. radio is not only one of the popular mass-media. Educational radio excels through dramatisation. projects and work programmes form of team teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in consultation with the special and some other subject experts.debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the children. Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. Team-teaching demonstrations. The radio opportunity for student participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions. the teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. Educational radio can offer corrective programmes for self-learning by the individuals. Making learning an open system. In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science. suitability for age groups and the methods are kept in mind. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised programmes. At present. dia musical features and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. They should utilise all possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of content. While accomplishing the programmes subject c curriculum validity. Breaking all boundaries and constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work. since learning directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education.
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However, a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school stage. Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene, nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation
Merits of School Broadcasts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. They enrich the school programmes. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students. They bring the school into contact with the world around. They develop leisure time interests among students. They provide opportunities for student participation. They impart vocational skills. They develop scientific temper of mind. They promote educational and national integration. They provide useful information on population education, energy conservation, preservation of wild life, etc 10. They serve as instruments of teacher training. 11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time. 12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes. 13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and provide informal but effective and meaningful education. Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps. Broadcast time may not be suitable. Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs. There is one-way communication. Individual differences are ignored. There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.
Types of Programmes At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani Stations: Programmes for children of primary classes. Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes. Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of annual examinations. Programmes for teachers. General enrichment programmes for children. Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life. The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the syllabus. Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant for the students. For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement of a country. 18.104.22.168 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning. Following are the important merits of T.V.:
1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the remote areas. 2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically. 4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom electronically. 6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment. 7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or immediately after they occur. 104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a process by dissolving one picture into another. 9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through the traditional system. 10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object. 11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or techniques into classroom instruction. 12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a large member of viewer students. 13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use. 14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or techniques on television. 15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.
5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television
22.214.171.124 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them. During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers were banned. Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government. Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy. Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before any action is initiated.
Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways: Students read important daily news in the morning assembly. Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board. Students can study weather reports. Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students. Special issues on examinations prove very useful. Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 126.96.36.199 THE MOTION PICTURES Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures, supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the class-room. Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion pictures.
Advantages of Motion Pictures 1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic. 2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature, reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life. 4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world to the classroom. 5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds. 6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where required. 7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments. 8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability groups. 9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and straight forward. They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on their imagination. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?
. 7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?
. 2.3.7 LET US SUM UP Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.3.9 Discuss the functions of home. In what way do society and school influence each other. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment Discuss the role of community in the education of the child. Explain the impact of mass media. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of discipline. 2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural heritage of the society. 3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by some degree of social coherence. 4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students. 5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the
remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful and Students get important information about courses available in different institutions. 7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions. 2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Panigrahi, M. (2007). Mohanty, J, (2005). Dash, B. N. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek Publications. Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007).
3 Advantages of formal education 188.8.131.52.4 Advantages of Non formal education 2.4 Non formal educational system 2.3 Introduction Objectives Formal system of education 2.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational 184.108.40.206.5 Agencies of Non formal education 220.127.116.11.4.4.1 Characteristics of formal education 2.4.2 Levels of formal education system 2.4.LESSON 18.104.22.168 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.3.4.1 2.7 22.214.171.124 2.4.2 Aims of Non formal education 2.2 2.6 2.4
FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 126.96.36.199.4 Limitations of formal education 2.4.5 2.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education 2.4.4.
3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. starting and ending at -a particular age. his mental alertness. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. Education. his moral excellence and his social adjustment. say the Government or the private enterprise.4. imparted at the residence of the teacher. the mass media et.4. you will be able to: 1.4. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education. 7. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.
. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and the taught. As such it is synonymous with educational institutions. Education organised by some agency.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Education associated with a degree or certificate. the family. 2. Formal education is imparted in an educational institution a school or college. To realize this objective of education.2.3. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises. the temple. 2. 3. the community. open school. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education system. society has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school. 8. 2. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and. 6.4. School is. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period. 5. It is consciously and deliberately planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner.1 INTRODUCTION It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Important characteristics of formal Education are: 1. compare formal and non formal system of education. In ancient time in India. open university. 2.. 9. the most important agency of formal education. 3. the learner are acquainted. it was mostly. 2. Such institution and organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. 4. 4.
diplomas. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. structured education. as well as vocational education and training. main education consists of five or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. It is only through the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of societal goals. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years.a secondary education. Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the world.4. or post secondary education. In general. Through early formal education. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them.4. Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate
. third stage. Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 58 years of formal. capacity.
2. depending on the jurisdiction. But it is generally ninth and tenth year of schooling.2.3. Higher education generally results in the receipt of certificates. Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love of country were instilled from the start. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen.3. Some education systems have separate middle schools. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills. Higher Education: Higher education. Schools that provide primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools. A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education is central to the development of a nation. usually between the ages of zero or three and five. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing . but it would also train them to become responsible and capable members of society. and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to perfection. such as a high school or secondary school.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education. or academic degrees. also called tertiary. and relations are formed and developed through normal play. the elements of language are first learned. Concepts of proportion.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit &
1.3. 4. Agencies can be classified as 2. What are levels of formal educational system?
3. 2. It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the method of teaching and atmosphere.which will help for nation's development. Write any two characteristics of formal education?
2. The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing needs.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power facilities.4. and remote dwellers.
is an important agency of formal education. Whether operating separately or as an important features of some broader activity. late beginners etc. children with disabilities. Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate children. that is intended to serve identifiable
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped.4. Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity outside the established formal system.
This is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word.” Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief. it has its own valid claim to reality. Thus. mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. It is much more responsive to needs and change. According to Malcolm A. financially supported life formal education.e..” Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the ‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’. Open university.” Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. It is deliberate.formal education. Therefore. planned. Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population.” Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling which imparts wider experience out of school.” La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific target population. critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn. Some of its definitions are as follows: Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. curriculum. etc. continuing education and on the job oriented education. i. place of instruction. non school educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population. “Non-formal education should
. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns. It is functional. open learning. one could say that non-formal education is an active.learning client take some learning objectives. work and the opportunity to put learning to use. systematic. The system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education. systematic. To develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of the society is the aim of Non-formal education. adding up to a true learning society. it is a more effective tool for rural development.” Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured.” Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of proximity to immediate action. It unlocks the doors of development plans. admissions. unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. staffed. Non-formal education includes adult education.” Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the regular graded school system. to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. However. adults as well as children. the correspondence courses and distant education are the various examples of such a system. Adiseshiah. until 1970 it had not been defined. to help themselves. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968.
learning pattern. 5.” 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs. 4. Preparation for future needs.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education: • Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V. Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. 7.
• • •
To help the student to acquire languages skills. • To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world. self.S. modes of teaching. socialism. To develop in the student. Flexibility in various aspects of education. Lawrence. 3. 2. • To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all other fields. analysing and judging with maximum participation of the learner. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved. Part-time education. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth. They can equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge. co-curricular activities. admissions. international understanding.
The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.4. secularism and a clear understanding of all of them. exploring.4. national integration. To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them.e. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further.renewal. age. evaluation etc. 6. Covering life span of an individual.4. the Ideas of citizenship. "Non-formal education system was not rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. • To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation. place of education.
• • • To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside. It should lay emphasis on the self. i.S. curriculum. Process of sharing.
.be marketable and vocationalised. 2. Every individual can be helped to improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status.4.
To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his daily needs. To help industrial workers to better their skills.” According to H.
3. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling 2. 4.4. • To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the backward in the society. 7. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge. Vocational and Life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods. 8. school dropouts. 10. To offer Secondary.4. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors of society. 4.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. • To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them. 2. Senior Secondary. housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of society living in remote areas of the country.4. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn. working adults. 5. • To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting rapidly industrialized. Universalisation of primary education. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research. in villages and those who live in towns.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION 1. 2. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances. Technical. Eradication of adult literacy. The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives. • To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the productivity and considerable profit aspects.4. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level country. 9. Meeting the omissions of formal education. publication and information dissemination. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because the formal education cannot be within their easy reach.
. 5. •
2. 6. 3.To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans.
Radio and television..5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are as follow: 1. To increase knowledge and 2. Therefore. effective in modern societal context. it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. 2. farm. non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community needs. To make if. training centres in factories.4.full time to learners – can be home. 2. open space. 4. To pursue studies for selfsatisfaction An educational institution No specific place is important school or college .4. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies. etc. It must be designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic environment. etc. centres of correspondence education. a more integrated community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. Institutions for formal education. public libraries.2. Again. All-round development i. Usually prescribed ages Any age Students are grouped into Usually no grouping classes
. It will prove an insufficient and an ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete goals. self-employment iii.4. library. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. It also includes learners who want to improve their qualifications by studying at home.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
Formal Education Non-Formal Education 1. It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped. 3. others are formal and informal. To get a certificate or skills degree needed for a job or ii. factory. if organised in isolation. Non-formal education is one of the modes of education. To better qualifications.
. Written tests.
Rigid and fixed Prescribed textbooks
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. institution. List out any two aims of non formal education. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
.V. radio. 9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers basis 10 Methods of Direct teaching methods. very little face to face teaching 11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par with formal education 12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning ‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work. Define non formal education. Face Contact programmes.
. Lecturing T. period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched imparted in educational by learning. 7. Give examples of non formal education?
Curriculum not fixed Usually no prescribed textbooks 8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination intervals. Teaching to face teaching. Correspondence lesson. Essay Assignments and short answer questions. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
The formal agencies of education are pre-conceived and preplanned.
7. Primary level. 2.2.
2. They are developed as a result of some of the needs of the society. a. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education.
b.4. Pre-school level. Open University.
.” 6. School 3. adults as well as children. 3. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary education classes I to V.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. is used by societies for preserving the values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution. Secondary level. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education.6 LET US SUM UP Education both formal and non formal. Explain the different levels of formal system of education. 4. Higher Secondary level and University level.
2. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even without that to learn outside.4. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss. Open learning and Correspondence Courses. a. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized. b.4. educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population. are to be helped to complete primary education and also help them to continue education further. 5. Formal and Non Formal 2. 4.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. the college and the university come under this category. Open School. The school. systematic.
J. L. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. Ltd. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. Dash.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Aggarwal. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. (2005). J. Pahuja. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. S. Bhatia. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. New Delhi :
.4. P. K. B. (2008). Mohanty.2. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. Anmol Publications Pvt. N. (2008). (2004). (2003). Theory and Principles of Education. Ltd. Gupta. N. Education in Emerging India. Modern Trends in Indian Education.C. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2007). K and Narang C.
5.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons 188.8.131.52.5 2.LESSON 184.108.40.206.2 Philosophy of Open University 220.127.116.11.1 18.104.22.168.6 2.5
CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
STRUCTURE 2.4 Agencies of continuing education 22.214.171.124 Objectives of Open University 126.96.36.199 Open University 2.7 188.8.131.52 Need for Open University 2.5.3 Continuing education for literate adults 2.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System 2.2 184.108.40.206.8 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.220.127.116.11 Introduction Objectives Continuing education 2.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business 2.1 Characteristic features of open University 2.
Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid some due to their bad companies.5.3.5. their desire to acquire further knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. Under these circumstances. An educated person is one who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit others by the same. sciences and different services are all contributing in the national development in one form or the other.5. 2. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools. Any person. people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in developed nations. give the meaning. farmers. This knowledge may be in political field. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural horizon. All the people employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development of the nation. Colleges and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the prescribed course of studies. economic field or such other fields.1 INTRODUCTION Education is the all round development of a person. However. Thus. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become enlightened. 2.3
In India. characteristics of open university 4. labourers and half educated individuals.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many things automatically. know the need and objectives of open university. Education is for refinement and enlightenment. industries.
2. engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not
. It is a continuous process. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be imparted to them. you will be able to: 1. It is a lifelong process. explain the continuing education for various categories of people 3. continuing education is a boon. understand the meaning of continuing education 2.2. No one becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. For them. it is the duty of the government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to dropouts.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR BUSINESS Persons engage in agriculture.5. there is a large number of persons who are not able to complete their formal education.
On the other hand. For them too continuing education is essential. thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. Block Development Officers. Radio and T. Throughout the country. if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he will waste it in reading some cheap literature. Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their specialized areas.5. The objectives of National Literacy Mission
. deteriorating to his character and personality. Through the continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more enlightened. They can be imparted knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures. A large number of libraries have been opened for the semi. Continuing education should be planned for literate and illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. family welfare enterprises and other types of social services can also be benefited by continuing education. 1986 (NPE) and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action.V. In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education. Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks. Doctors. if he gets opportunity to develop them. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get opportunity to develop them further. T. After the achievement of independence.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION LITERATE PERSONS FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI
As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semiliterates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of the nation. our government have started many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to produce some striking things in the area of his interest. are also contributing their might for the purpose. Persons engaged in health services.directly related to his job. If a person is provided with the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the society. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a creative manner. Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their environment in their jobs. A large number of programmes are relayed for the education of these persons. continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to put him on right path of further progress. cultured and progressive. the Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy Mission in the field of adult education. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of continuing education.3.literate person. 2.V. Thus. Many primary schools run the classes of adult and social education in the evening. Radio. On the other hand. Cinema.
5. It is the duty of the government and social workers to come forward for their continuing education.5. (15) music.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special interests in such subjects as.
. 2. 3. (14) information about bringing up young children. especially women. Of course. (4) the fundamentals of economics. 2. we have not been able to achieve our targets. (17) modern international and national events.3. (8) psychology of adults.V. In our country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. (5) short but healthy novels and interesting stories. 7. A network of Non formal centres of education Open schools and colleges Open Universities Distance learning District and mobile libraries Training – cum – production centres Mass media like T. The result is that there is quite a large number of persons. (10) first aid. (6) folk stories. (1) ancient history. It is through continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge. 5.3.are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. 6. who are keen for their education but they have no opportunities. 4. (12) matters regarding health and sanitation. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. there are some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all the persons. This list of subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. (13) psychology of child behaviour. The government and the educational agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education but also made them available to needy persons. and Radio. These books are not very useful. (7) folk songs. (9) fundamentals of philosophy. (2) basic religious matters. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. (16) liking. (11) prevention of ordinary diseases. (18) the modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements..3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school studies prematurely. Voluntary agencies have been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme. habits of people of other lands. 2. Inspite of the great efforts.
T he fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open University. The idea of National Open University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985. r est r ict io n on subject combination for a particular degree. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left
. lack of time etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. of educational opportunities. Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. NLM was launched in the year 2.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in nature admission restriction.4. restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n and t he didact ic tasks etc. restrict io n o n t he candidature for examinat io ns. r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e .
2. r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s given and t ak en in a year.5. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate?
2.5.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. attendance restrict ion. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open University and Maharashtra Open University.4
O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M
Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor economic background. What is the objectives of NLM?
3. It also attempts to pr ovide equality. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
3.5.unobserved. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making education relevant to national needs. The open university has been built on the principle that education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with the changing world. c. e. but
. 4. the higher the degree of openness. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience. No one is too old or too late to learn.4. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to learning. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education. 5. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system. Which was the first open university in India? . 2. d. Mention any two characteristics of Open University?
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and in teaching.
An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s co ur se st r uct ur e. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 2. Education is not a once for-all process. instead of depending mainly on the teacher lecturing. IGNOU was established in the year 6. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual student’s aspirations and requirements. its education is not class room based but home based.” Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open system of education which implies: a. b.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification. it makes use of educational techno logy. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course.
b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes. or who realised too late that they need it. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y co nd it io n. Mo re o ver.4.4. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . annu al wr it t en examinat io n.5. 6.
. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht o f ind iv idua l. met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc. c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and during contact programmes d) Wr it t en assignment s. 2. Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he people scattered t hrougho ut the country.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM 1. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large number of people including those in employment. 3. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his pr o ble m is opening more open universities. assessment t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work e) get a chance to continue their studies. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n. cho ice o f co ur ses. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to all.who did not get it. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of people. 2. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books. 2. who were deprived of t he same earlier. supplementing the existing provision. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”.5. 4. ho use wives and ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education. 2. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals. it a ims at wider and hig her. 3. 4. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is reduced.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The open universities have the following objectives: 1. 5.
5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of an individual. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h will. Tutor Comments.5. 6.
. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.2. 5. 2. In the present day world. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . 4. List out any four methods of Open University? . Pr int media Broad casting lectures Television Lessons. 8. a systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a necessity for effective living. Correspondence tuition. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. school drop outs. a society. beneficiaries and agencies of continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open University.no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome t he idea of o pen Universit y.5.
B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve .
1. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
7. learning about anything at a particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. 8. 7. semi – literates. you have learnt the concept. new avenues surrounding and pervading this world are getting explored. Laboratory works. Therefore.
2. Every day. Self instructional materials. cha ng e t heir life compet ence. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir hu nger for learning at a lower cost.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following. s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking. a state or nation. The cherished aim of continuing education can be achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and opportunities provided to millions of illiterates. Enlist any two objectives of Open University?
need and characteristics of Open University.5. unskilled workers and other professionals. a.6 UNIT END EXERCISES 6. 6. P r int med ia b. 2. 1985. a. 7. (3) the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening. Television Lessons. youth.
2. 4. Broad casting lectures c. Explain the objectives.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. cho ic e o f co u r ses. 1988. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. Write about the philosophy of Open University
2. Andhra Pradesh Open University 5. (1) ancient history. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal qualification.
. b.ambitious learners. a. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes. agricultural and industrial workers.5. (2) basic religious matters. 3. aspirants for continuing education. 8. d. b. met ho d o f le ar n ing age of entry etc.
8. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates. (4) the fundamentals of economics. its education is not class room based but home based. 9. 7. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r admis s io n. which may include house wives.
K.8 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Recent trends in Non Formal Education. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.
. K and Narang C. Ludhiana Tandon publication Bhatia. L. (2004). (2004). Reddy.K. Modern Problems of Education.S. (2007). Ltd. Udaiveer. New Delhi: Rajat Publication. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers. R..2. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.5. (2001). S.
UNIT – III
CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some problems should have arisen. New evaluation procedures and Inspection and supervision. its causes and remedial measures. Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference to wastage and stagnation. The problems pertaining to the aim of education. Training teachers for all levels of education. Examination reform. and teacher education. examination. pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for teacher. the focus is on the problems of secondary education-coeducation. the education of women. All which is the need of the hour.
. Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational needs of rural India. Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education. which may claim the attention of those concerned. In fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. wastage and stagnation. In Lesson 2. Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education especially the status of women in Higher education. We have discussed the strategies to achieve Education For.
3.3 Introduction Objectives Education for all 3.
.9 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3.3.1.LESSON 3.1.1. The student teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they would be able to face them in the professional life boldly.1.1.2 3.1 INTRODUCTION Primary education in the country is facing many problems.4 3.2 EFA – How? 3.1 3.1
STRUCTURE 3.1. schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA 18.104.22.168 EFA – For whom? 3.7 22.214.171.124 3.1.8 126.96.36.199 New initiatives. They have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and stagnation.1. Wastage and stagnation are the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education.5 3.
“The State shall
. Eradication of Illiteracy. so that every boy and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education.3. understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them boldly.1. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures. Therefore. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All 3.
3. if the people are illiterate there will be much of backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of our national development. therefore. The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing illiteracy rate. may be political. Universalization of primary Education (UPE) 3.1. On the other hand. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of Education for All (APPEAL). Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. understands the country. (EOI) 2. the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation. When the new Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. you will be able to: 1. There is much of exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in illiteracy. All the progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired results unless the masses are educated in the country. social. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity blooms when everybody is educated in the country. economic or cultural. education received added importance and significance. In spite of best efforts by the Government of India to remove illiteracy.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. know the concept and purpose of Education For All 2. directed that. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of all backwardness. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). the Concept of Education For All originated out of the combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May 1986. high priority was given to the programme of universalization of primary education.” This new programme “Education For All” is related to the following three broad areas: 1. The education of the people of this country became the responsibility of the people. 2. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI).3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) In recent years. Continuing Education (CE) 1.
. the administration of the country came in the hands of the people themselves. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society. In other words we must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Even then we have not yet achieved the target. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. it has been realized that the goal can be achieved through the following three stages: Universalization of Provision. From a study of the development of universal primary education in progressive countries of the world. it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. After the enrolment of the students in school is over. 3. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls . Universalization of Enrolment. This means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school. It means that primary schooling is to be provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school should be within walking distance from the home of every child. Due to the adoption of democratic system. Three Stages for Universalization. the national Government under. the responsibility of reconstruction and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration. It enables the parents to send their children to School. Universalization of Retention.endeavour to provide. After the attainment of independence. The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when the entire population was educated and understood their duties.” Since then constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our country by the Constitution. Therefore. rights and responsibilities. The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help of the above three areas. Again we must see that the child does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is no wastage. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. The programme o f cont inuing education has two-fold Purposes a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and b) to revise the quality of life of the people. Continuing Education (CE). After looking to the provision of school facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment.
we are not ashamed to continuously shift this target. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education?
2. We made a Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education by 1960. “Disparities between the education of the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. “Education has the dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind. present and future. and preparing it for the present and future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us.
3. UNESCO Bulletin states. 1995 (for upper primary stage). Give your answer as instructed in each question b. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational development. This target had to be revised to 1970.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM? Education is a human need. that we should increasingly expect the unexpected in every facet of existence.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. educational enterprise. later to 1988. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary education to the children in the country. inclusive of both the material world and all forms of life should be our goal. While recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with due regard to their environment.” Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing as also the number of children inside the schools. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 1990. So also the gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India.
.3. all the human resource utilised for the progress of the country through education. then to 1976. Write Article 45. for successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society. Therefore. It is safe to assure.1.
The Social Education. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas. 3. Apart from primary education. rural areas. creed. 3. Minimum Level of Learning (MLL). Emphasis must be given on health education. 12. the community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other programmes in the education center 7. NAEP. their enrolment and retention. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. slum areas. educational facilities available in the area and their cultural patterns. girls who have remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them. problem of literacy. FELF. In order to make the programme of education for all community.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ? So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. 11. Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. 8. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community 4. This programme also includes Early Childhood Education. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). their social economic status and occupations. To implement the programme of education for all UEE. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country.
. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop outs and non school attending children. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all.3. 9. and Women’s education programme should be improved. 6. adolescent and adult. where the rate of drop out among girls is high 2. colour and status must be enrolled to become literate. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education children irrespective of their caste. Education of the Impaired. Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement of the programme. Polyvalent Adult Education Centre. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis in the education for all centres. etc. The programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children.1. we can identify human as well as material resources and can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all. Jams and Jellies. 10. the art of preparing fruit-juice. 5. Disabled. sex. By undertaking survey. Early childhood education should be streamlined. Now we shall discuss how this program can be implemented 1. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women. nutrition education and sports and games.The programme of Education for All includes categories of human beingchildren. Education of Girls. we have to develop the programme of Adult education.
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003. SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS EFA 1. Expand MLL and SSA
3. Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all children by 2010. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular schools. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) 2. 4. If any child drops out from the school before completing the
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Wastage and Stagnation. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA?
4. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation and examination at the Elementary Stage 3. Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by 2007.1.3. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers 5.1.3.e. Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by 2010.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES REM EDIAL MEASURES
W AS TAG E
The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary Education i. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’.3 NEW INITIATIVES. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
it is considered as wastage.The personal factors responsible for wastage are
Physical handicaps Emotional difficulties
Social mal-adjustment Educational backwardness dissatisfaction at school lower achievement fear of punishments
lack of positive motivation and lack of proper attitude towards education
2.first stage of education. School Factors .The following community factors may be considered as causing wastage caste structure economic status of the community class and caste consciousness
(a) Causes The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas
1.The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the child cause wastage :
unfavourable attitudes of parents social backwardness of home migration of parents economic backwardness of family illness of parents dissatisfaction of parents with schools
parental opposition to education of their children low educational level of home non-recognition of value of education by home low cultural background of home
over-crowding in the home loss of parents less facilities at home and
excessive involvement of children in domestic work 3.community relationships and lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of country 4.The following factors are responsible for wastage from the side of the school
poor standard of institutions
higher pupil-teacher ratio inadequate physical facilities distance of school from the residence of pupils non-provision of mid-day meals non-provision of books and uniforms collection of more fees improper school . Wastage is more in girls than that in boys. Social Factors .
Personal Factors . Familial Factors .
Define Wastage. 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation?
6. Enumerate the causes of Wastage. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
.occupational patterns educational status of the community its material culture its provision for social participation its level of aspiration and early marriages Remedial Measures Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines — 1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration 2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II 3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools 4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary classes 5) securing parental cooperation and 6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health The goal of universalisation of primary education. can only be attained by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer natural wastage.
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.
1. It is due to detention of students because of low achievements. a) Causes The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself. School Factors .The following are the factors resident in the pupil that are responsible for stagnation low inte lligence physical handicaps irregularity of attendance lack of earnestness for learning illness or ill health unfavourable conditions for learning lack of proper guidance at home or in the school influence of undesirable associates and non-inculcation of love for learning 2. Personal Factors .3.The following factors of society are also responsible for the evil of stagnation
. relating to home.5 NATURE AND CAUSES REMEDIAL MEASURES
Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year. are also responsible for stagnation non-provision of educational aids absence of guidance unfavourable home environment over-crowding in home occupational status of the family and residential status of family.The educational factors that result in stagnation are as given below poor quality of teaching inefficient instruction indifferent attitude of teachers defective curriculum lack of graded curriculum defective examination system over-crowdedness in classes and schools heterogenity of age-composition of students poor school environment faulty admission policies making admission throughout the year lack of play-way techniques and adoption of non-promotion policy 4. in his home. They are described hereunder :1.The following factors. Family Factors . rural or urban 3. Societal Factors . school or society.
etc. Define Stagnation?
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. stationary. appoint school mothers give financial assistance to parents and develop proper articulation between life and the school system CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. casual labour absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs of the society education backwardness of the society existence of incomplete schools dull character of schools lack of capacity to attract and retain students and absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals Remedial Measures The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation in the primary stage of education the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools take up intensive programme of parental education. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation?
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. mid-day meals. —provide remedial instructional services introduce graded curriculum improve examination system organise parallel classes treat primary level as an ungraded unit provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books. uniforms.discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture artisanship.
3. Minimum Levels of Learning b. Universalization of Retention 2.1. and the implementation strategies to achieve EFA. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education. The state and central governments have taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment. a.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA. b.
3. 3. Hartog Committee. 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. 4. Universalization of Enrolment c. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the centres of education for all. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of the Primary course’. 6. 4.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution.
. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. “The State shall endeavour to provide. 2. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in consultation with the members of the community. you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA.1. to reduce the problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA. improvement of curriculum. therefore.” 3. developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. directed that. a. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA.1. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. Universalization of Provision b. a. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation.
a. New Delhi:
.K. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. T. Social Factors
8. 9. (2007). Crescent Publishing Corporation. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers.N. improve examination system. Problems of Elementary Education. (2008).1.9 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his failure for more than one year.K. Familial Factors c. (2001). Sharma. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication. School Factors d. 3. Personal Factor b. S. a.7. b. introduce graded curriculum. S. Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations. Hemchand.
2.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts 188.8.131.52.2.2.1 3.3.3 Introduction Objectives The problem of Co-education 3.1 Problems of examination 3.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 3.4 The problem of reform of Examination 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.3.7 Open book examination 3.2 18.104.22.168
STRUCTURE 3.2 Grade System 3.3 Modern reforms of examination 22.214.171.124.5.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection 3.2.5 New evaluation procedures 126.96.36.199.LESSON 3.2.7 Let us sum up
.2 Merits and demerits of examination 3.6 Inspection and Supervision 3.1 Choice Based Credit System 3.4 Question banks 3.6 Multiple sets of question paper 3.1 Advantages of Co-education 188.8.131.52.2.2.2 Disadvantages of Co-education 3.4.2.
2. it may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors.3. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.2. but on the other.8 3. 3.2. Girls and women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in this man-made world . analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages 2. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of examination.9 3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION
There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions.1 INTRODUCTION Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher Education. Even the minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education. They may be enumerated as hereunder 1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary Education.2. it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of education for the vast majority.
3.2. 3. 3. Besides. suggest the new evaluation procedures.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Establishment of special secondary schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side.10
Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher education. you will be able to: 1. 4. The question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether they should be educated in the mixed schools.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION
One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education.3.2. managing of co-educational schools is 148
.2. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the community.
4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated
5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and understand each. The following steps should be taken up. specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours. If the students are in sufficient number. The need to associate with the opposite sex is strongly felt.
3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional involvement. other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner. roadside Romeoism. about free mingling of boys and girls of adolescent age. hostel facilities. thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities to girls may be defeated. which lead to some kind of awkward movements and behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. 6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex. They may be described as follows 1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty. separate hostels and transport facilities should be provided.2. Romantic themes will dominate their mental life. They develop secondary sex characteristics. also act as handicaps for co-educational programmes. waiting rooms for girl students.
..2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. etc.3. which the educational authorities have to face. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. etc.
3. by providing free education and liberal scholarships. if co-education is to be encouraged More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools. They may cause problems relating to discipline. separate sections for girl students in different classes may be opened. boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour of students and teachers. etc. 3) The existing social taboos against sex education. schools for them wherever necessary. many of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational institutions. 2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the preadolescent stage or adolescent stage.
2. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. teachers.2. The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing programmes but to reform them. conduct of internal examinations. the net-work of examination system has also become vast. The problems of administration are conduct of public examinations. so that they become more functional and serviceable activities in the service of mankind.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS In the system of education in any country. With the mass growth of educational enterprise. This is because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. public administrators and statesmen. assessment and Finance.
. appointment of paper-setters. public interested in education. school organizers and educational administrators but also parents.4. 3.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such Administration. Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem concerning not only pupils. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Write any two advantages of Co-education?
3. the examination system has an important role to play. Instruction. It is considered as a major sub-system.
payment of remuneration to paper-setters. 5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content learning. 3.4. Demerits The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different
. etc. training of examiners. appointment of-examiners organisation of valuation and tabulation. 2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom. (d) The problems of finance are collection of examination fees. reducing the domination of knowledge objective. invigilators.printing and distribution of question papers. etc.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to other individual members. scrutinizers. validity and practicability. announcement of results. values. 4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the educational instructions comparatively. Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back answer-scripts. introducing objective-based testing. pursuing objective-oriented instruction. Merits Educational measurement is important from different angles1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further instruction or guidance. maintaining the process of continuous evaluation. etc. 3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of the teaching which they adopted. etc. The Problems of instruction are avoiding examination-oriented instruction. etc. 6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness.2. establishing reliability. tabulators. The problems of assessment are training of paper-setters. examiners.
. do not appeal to the students and parents. 3) With respect to method of teaching. stereotyped questions. The students are mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and are neglecting actual text books. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the real aim and purpose of education.
. 2) From the angle of content of education. inter-examiner variability and intra examiner variability etc. lack of objectivity etc. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the examinations that the children have to face in purview... as examinations have come to influence them abnormally. it has been noticed that examinations have come to dictate the content of education.2. it can be said that they don't help us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. not meant to be assessed in the examinations. Rote memorisation. lack of clear-cut limitation as to the scope of answers etc. They do not take into consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of education. may also discredit them.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below (a) Improvement of External Examinations The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of school education. 4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made. 5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also unsatisfactorily tested. it is noted that ambiguity 8) Of wording.
3. Vagaries in making. which they are expected to study. it s a common experience that subjectivity. Such subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public. it can be said that they become examination-oriented. instead of being satisfied with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. 7) In connection with the question papers.ways from different angles 1) From the view point of aims of education. Subjects. make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. also forbid the reliability of these examinations. The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external evaluation. takes the place of comprehensive learning.4. Dynamic teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is only aimed. halo-effect. 6) With reference to scoring procedure.
Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers. revaluation. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Question Books may be developed in all schools. List any two merits of examination. Spot valuation. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination. Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be insisted upon.. re-numbering of answer scripts. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
2. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the examinations. and quest io n papers used in the external examinations should be improved appropriately. (b) Improvement of Internal Examinations The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following steps :— Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures and techniques. Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in schools. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 4. Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in deciding annual promotions.a part of internal assessment.
.develop true love for education. Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator for each batch of 20 students. etc.
. What are the major areas of problems of examination?
3. Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests. may be introduced. Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely based on the results of the annual examinations in order t.Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing improved question papers.
More autonomy is given to students. When a person chooses to work extra.2.5. This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. the entire system of examination tends to focus on the score in the examination. The students can take any course offered in any department.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS) Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own curriculum to suite their needs for better success. skills are given importance. • To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the
. attitudes. Which has 2 credits is like a half paper.3. 3. Their interests. Reasons for introducing grading system: • Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Every paper is treated equal.5. he is given extra credit points. It is complicated. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. In actual practice. therefore aims at rationalization and imbibes the following features:
3. say 60% of their papers from core group and 40% from electives The electives could ideally come their or other department also Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.
Practical limitations are there. To declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority complex for life and stunt his growth. we divide the papers into core and elective groups and ask students to choose. In this system. Permitting to seek knowledge that suits her varied interests. The new scheme of assessment. aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary knowledge requirements of the present times. Bu t t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . especially in the view of shortage of teachers or infrastructure.2. Educationists all over the world are unanimous on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through examination.2 GRADE SYSTEM Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970.
instead of specifying number of paper/courses.2. The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v. courses can have weightages defined. Groupism is encouraged.good. • Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses. which can be earned in different ways such as • Five-4-credit courses. If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120. • Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course. A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4.poor. A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper. v.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE) The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided personality development.discipline. FIVE POINT SCALE 100-90 0 90-80 A 80-70 B 70-60 C 60-50 D
Avoids or less comparison. While designing syllabus. This system reduces comparison of marks. poor. In the new system. dissertation projects typically carry higher credits. • To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. An example is a seminar.5. The one shot written examination is not an effective
. One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated equal. Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester. These weightages are called credits. this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or for activities such as dissertation projects. Qualitative way of communicating results Students are motivated towards learning. 3. The human error of evaluation is ± 10. only the total credits to be earned is specified.
Less understanding by the parents. or as a 4 credit course.
This has resulted in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations.
. with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER SCRIPTS There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability. The facilities of the question banks should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.5.2. The greatest dilemma is whether such a scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and process the results of hundreds of thousands of students. It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. However.5. in some cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process more transparent and tangible. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. most of the Boards prepare and supply the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners.
3. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and retotalling. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. of varying difficulty levels and for all stages of education. With a view to ensuring objectivity and transparency. If the answer scripts are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to the marking scheme. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the teacher who knows the pupil best.measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple techniques of assessment. credibility and transparency in the evaluation process. there is a need to generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives.2. and it is through the teacher that we would get to know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier achievements. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this measure. the need for re-evaluation should not arise. 3.4 QUESTION BANKS In order to improve the quality of the question paper.5. 3.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992.2.
7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability and not mere memorization. and professional education of educational inspectors and supervisors. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
.2. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and
• • • • • •
. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately. 6. List any four new evaluation procedures. setting a question paper for open Book examinations is a very difficult task. Even now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard.
3. this innovation has remained a theoretical possibility in India. The defects in the pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below: • Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. However. Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships.2.3. There are no proper procedures for selection. Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid. What is the reason for introducing grade system?
. In the hierarchy. recruitment.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Therefore.5.
Periodicity of inspection is also less in number. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. etc. and give the freedom to experiment to the good schools. disciplinary problems. of late. 1. it may be hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now. laboratory equipment. playgrounds. finding out whether the prescribed text. wherever necessary. library books. lay down guidelines of progress for the average schools. is related to finding out of educational standards of the schools.2.• • •
• • •
administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to be inspected.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is.
3. providing necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools. in contrast. in a sense. When they are fully realised.qualified personnel. Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions from those of supervisory duties. assisting the schools in their qualitative development. Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect. complaints and compliments. finding out the adequacy of. It will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools. the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools.
. Academic inspection.. looking into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools. qualifications. requirements. There has been growing recognition for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate the effectiveness of existing procedures. interpersonal relationships and so on. etc. inspecting the class-room teaching. They are.6. books are followed. staff. There has been dearth of properly trained and well. Administrative supervision involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance. submitting of the inspection reports. school buildings. whether proper teaching methods have been followed. taking up the follow-up programmes. whether the syllabus has been covered. There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or administrative functioning. The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative work. helping to promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner. being realised as two different functions.. Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below which are still in the state of making.
M. There has been a revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives. at least. to afford a forum for discussing their problems and difficulties.Ed. bringing out special journals to disseminate findings in the field. or. courses. modern educational inspection is considered as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-today life. It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the selection. their professional knowledge. who are being promoted as educational supervisors and inspectors.Ed. and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as was previously thought. when special recruitment is being made for the purpose. Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school inspectors and educational supervisors. Similarly. In the light of these conceptualisation. educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles described above more efficiently and effectively. Periodical in-service education programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection.
. to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and techniques of educational inspection and supervision. 3.2. Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group discussions and decisions. course in either educational. In the case of departmental candidates.. recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational supervision and inspection. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and Inspectors. Insistence on specialisation in the B. giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments. administration or school administration or school organisation should be made. Hence there are contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational administrators of different types working at the national level and State level. educational supervisors are considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and guides of the teaching populace. attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State Institute of Education and for three months undo. once in five years. Similar training should be insisted for six months for the direct recruits as well.a senior administrative officer before independent charge is given to them. aptitude. modern. Being a special category of educational administrative officers..
Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper. assessment and Finance. 5.
3. Then we discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving expenditure on staff. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education What are the advantages of Co-education Enumerate the problems of examination in India. b.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. Administration. b.7 LET US SUM UP In this unit. b. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of teachers in the classroom.2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. a. 4. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country.
. 3. a. Grade System. Instruction. 3. examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
7.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 3. 2. our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like co-education.2.
3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further instruction or guidance. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation Explain the defects of supervision and inspection. d. a. c.
Multiple sets of question paper. (2002). Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal assessment. S.a part of internal assessment.4. Question banks. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications Private Ltd Sharma. b.
5. History and Problems of Education in India. Problems of Education in India.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Sharma. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly distinguished. K. K. and the persons were required to carry out both the functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded. (2005). c. New
. b. R and Sharma. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the discipline. Oral and practical tests may be taken as . a. 7. b. (2004). Educational Reforms. a. Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal Publishers.
Continuous and comprehensive evaluation 6. Open book examinations. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities. Vaidya.2.
.3.3 3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.6 3.3.3. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.3.LESSON 3.3.1 3.8 3.7 3. 3. 2.3. 3.11 Introduction Objectives History of Higher Secondary Education Objectives of Higher Secondary Education General and Vocational Spectra Needs of Rural India Social Impact Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 3. 5. impact of Higher Secondary Education.3.2 3. Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the school education and Higher education in Universities.3.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. identify the needs of rural India and social. you will be able to: 1.4 3.3.1 INTRODUCTION Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.9 3.5 3.3. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education. 4.
This pattern has some obvious advantages as described below :1. have been some of the earliest Colleges on modern lines.e. A Board of Intermediate Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates. 10 years of general Secondary Education. For High School students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter Higher Education. etc. the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta. 3 years of Higher Secondary Education.. which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be tagged on to School Education. the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges. University Education.3.e.. which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. the Banaras Sanskrit College. The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. The Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the Matriculation Examination. 8 years of general education. Also Boards of Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. and 3 years of First Degree Course. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively
.specialisation programmes 3.3. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to decide about their future careers and to choose some pre. i. 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3 years of First Degree Course. Consequent on the recommendations. 12 years schooling including two year Intermediate Education The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i. Commission emphasised to continue. Even today different nomenclatures are used in different stages. in Andhra Pradesh.. This shows that there is a variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari Education Commission. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses . Intermediate Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. e. The Calcutta Madras.. 2. The. Similar is the case with some other States.g. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education. Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919.
It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the economy through innovations and adventures. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students.
3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a. social.so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life 4. 7. who desire to change from one stream to another. 6. economical and political. 8.3. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes
.confidence in students.a sense of dignity of labour. Provision for transfer of credits to students. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self. general rise
in the standards of educational attainments 4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students. However. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved . to prepare. 2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to
Higher Education. Genera l Objectives are
1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country. it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage. 5) to help for the social. to prepare curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation. 5. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries 9. and. to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific manner to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical. b. reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities. is also a plus point . The Specific Objectives are to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal. historical.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given in the following way :a. 3. habits of hard work and develop . 10. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities . to imbibe. cultural and economic development of the country. educational channels.
1. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further vocational studies. Sociologically it is undesirable. on one hand. The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational Institutions. The General Educational Spectrum. Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to the optimum possible level. at the other. and that required to enter the tertiary level. Here the choice of subjects is provided for. This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be introduced after Class X only. social justice.. There are different walks of life into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities. The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary Stage of Education. it is not possible because of obvious individual differences in students.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely 1) General Educational Spectrum and 2) Vocational Sepctrum. Philosophically it is not the conception. Provision of equal educational opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter the gates of Universities. but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at the level of Class X. and. 3. to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating the developments taking place in other' parts of the world. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of
. to develop national character. cooperativeness.for themselves to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing.national integration. cultural and' religious tolerance. international understanding. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies. not only in accordance with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may desire to seek admission. democratic living. Psychologically. to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as.3. because the nation does not need all academically highly qualified individuals alone. etc.
horticulture. educational and cultural services. professional. In our country. In the matter of language. rural health. India is a land of villages. the needs of rural India are taken care of specially. physics or mathematics. or other machinery. For decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. commerce. Agriculture is the main occupation. it is proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even though a student may study any one of them.
. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the administrative. Commerce and other disciplines. Science. economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive to more intelligent students. technical. Biology.— tube-wells. As our education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on industry-cum-city-oriented vocations. semi-skilled and unskilled levels. such as Agriculture. Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-. commerce.3. the rural areas have suffered very much. Now there is need to pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas. fish culture.courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. Vocationalization of courses would be based on survey of economic activities. 3. the application of science and technology is opening up diverse fields of activity. Such a flexibility in the system is introduced. technological. potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or assessment of man-power needs.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education. chemistry. 2. and vocations based on dairy-farming. they may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. The general study is meant to enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage. In the vocational spectrum. medical plants. our history and the problems of growth and development in our society. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses. industrial agricultural production is growing. It includes practical training too to produce efficient vocational workers. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to be considered as technician training. the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are necessarily introduced. trade and public services are expanding rapidly. Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. vegetable growing. Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas. All these need for an. It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels.
should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely . List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary Stage?
. that the social impact has been favourable and encouraging. and the needs. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education? 2. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams is also being adopted in many States. social justice. In this way.3. can be ensured. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education? . There had been favourable reaction from the students. and
5. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. etc. In this it may be concluded.7 SOCIAL IMPACT The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost all the States of India. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education?
3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. interests and aptitudes of the students. 4. Many students are choosing the vocational stream in preference to the academic stream.. 3.etc. Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses. In time. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary Education can ultimately be realised. the scheme of vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted pal tern by one and all. the local resources available.. The NCERT at the Centre and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational courses keeping in view the needs of the society. the national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits.
10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1. Vocational Sepctrum. Ltd. to imbibe.3. J.K. Mohanty.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.a sense of dignity of labour. (2001). to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes for themselves 4. a. Anmol Publications Pvt. a.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. b. (2008). (2005). Calcutta University Commission 2. J. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.C. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. habits of hard work and develop . objectives. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. a. (2007). Dash. 3. Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society. b. 3. Modern Trends in Indian Education. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to Higher Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications. curriculum and need of curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage. we studied the history.3.3. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage?
3. S. General Educational Spectrum and b. 2. 3.3. 3.3. N. New Delhi :
. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education. B. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Aggarwal.
3 3.5 3.9 184.108.40.206 3. but the lighting of a fire”.14 Hurdles in the Higher education of women Suggestions of overcome the hurdles Women and distance education Empowerment of women through Higher Education Strategies for the empowerment of women Women in Higher Education – Global perspective Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3.1 3.4. social and
.4.10 3.4 Introduction Objectives Women in higher education – Indian context Enrolment of Female Students 3.2 3.4.12 3.4.4. skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal. Education provides the individuals with knowledge.2 Faculty wise enrolment 3.6 220.127.116.11 Gender wise and class wise enrolment 3.LESSON 3.8 3.4.4. Education contributes to human development.18.104.22.168.4
STRUCTURE 3.7 22.214.171.124 3.4.1
“Education is not the filling of a trail.4.
higher education of girls developed immensely.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence. you will be able to: 1. 3. analyze the women and distance education. a national system of education was established in 1986 through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far. the second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in 1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. Several education commissions and committees were appointed in different states. No society can prosper without making women educated and empowered.economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development. In the post —independence period. The commission recommended some special courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up. Home Economics. After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916. Teaching and Fine Arts.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . Nursing. These courses were. For the first time in the history of India. A recent World Bank Study says that educating women is not a charity. 3. Education . During the year 1937.higher education in particular. particularly
. it is a good economics and if developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. can be termed as a catalyst that moves individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of prosperity and wisdom. The relevance of women’s education to social. known as Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University. Dr.4.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. effective participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the future requirements of the country. family. economic.4.INDIAN CONTEXT The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877. understand the women in higher education – Indian context 2. the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades. although we have miles to go. suggest to overcome the hurdles 5. cultural and political development of the individual. women’s social status had begun to show an upward trend. Since a woman first entered the university we have come a long way. community and nation is universally acknowledged. state the hurdles in the higher education of women 4. While women constituted only 9. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise 3. With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century. There is a close connection between education and development. It is universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of women.
women. the number of female students in higher education has immensely increased.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT At every stage of education. The idea of women’s education for equality. Rajasthan and 1195 women’s colleges.2 29. there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in higher education. participation and empowerment was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. the number was about 43000 which increased to 20.0
Today.2 22. we have more than 1200 institutions. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S. Even today. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female students is above 40. out of 9200 and odd colleges.N. In 1950-51.T Women University. a sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.65 lakhs in 1994-95.1 24. Mother Teresa Women University. women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in higher education. in our country. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth.1 31. 3.4
ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS
In the post Independence period.4. In the ninth plan also emphasis was given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was encouraged. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya.9 14.D.4. Mumbai. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Yet. the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than
.9 27. ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION Year 50-51 55-59 60-61 70-71 75-79 80-81 85-86 87-88 90-91 00-01 Percentage of enrolment 10.
3. meant exclusively for women in different disciplines. Coimbatore.0 43. Kodaikanal. levels and professions. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most backward state and most populous state (83 millions).0 16.0 32.4. In the rest of the country.
27 89.66 66.4%) prefer Arts subjects.53 34.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that
.1 and 14.34 33. GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT Category UG PG Ph. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.1 respectively.4.D Teacher Training Polytechnic Engineering Medical Male % 65. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.54 12.
3.44 35. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education?
.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female students (54.that of boys.46 82.4. Which was the first Women’s University in our country?
.47 65. 2. The percentage in Science and Commerce are in 20.17 52. particularly in the technical and industrial streams. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. 3. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India?
3.56 64.63 Female % 34.73 10.83 47.
They gave up their studies to enter home life. particularly. Familial reasons There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of their daughters. which are the common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are. Also. and coeducation may spoil her character. Thus. financial difficulty of the parents. The major hurdles. higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle class families cannot afford it. The educational reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities.
. Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas. lower classes think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Whenever the purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of their daughters. Book banks should be established. 3. what is the need for higher education for her. In every third family. Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided. curriculum not suited to their requirements. Social reasons It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so. According to a survey. promoted and increased. most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. marriage is a very common I factor. Educational reasons The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. Incentives like scholarships and freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be organized in backward and Gender remote areas. They think it will lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. she will only learn fashion. etc. 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations. irrelevance of the content of education. In college.4.hinders the girls from getting higher education. amongst the hindrances to girls' higher education. The parents discriminate between their male and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education. distance of the college or university from home. we find girls who are not able to get education due to the. They argue that when their daughter need not earn. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to some other family. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove herself to be a modest daughter-in-law.
Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance learners are women. learn skills and take up vocations for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. resources and socio .economic disabilities faced by women.4. Full-time employment. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help them to overcome these constraints.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing world. Empowerment in a nutshell. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's development. is a way of defining challenging and overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape her life and environment.
3. There are constraints of time. It helps them to earn and learn simultaneously. It also brings about
.Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional curricular components in the existing regular courses.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly women’s development.4. Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender needs and interests. It enables to study. At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education institutions throughout the world. space. Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and colleges. because it can be made use of by women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face. Geographic distance of educational institutions. which is the most dynamic factor of development. Education. 3. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise their full identity and power in all spheres of life.
Distance education is a boon to women. is the only tool for realising empowerment. and the limitations of the conventional education system. It is a productive investment. Adult women face specific problems like Domestic preoccupation.
for the improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during their most impressionable years. multi-dimensional process which should enable women to realise their full identity and powers. and enable them to challenge and change not just the hierarchical gender relation. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media
. but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in society. Instead of depicting them as secondary citizens and the weaker sex. they should project them as self-confident individuals who understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them. education of women is of paramount importance. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education
system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the following action strategies:
Building a positive self image Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and action Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change and Providing the where withal for economic independence.conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment. As the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has indicated. Empowerment is an active. self-confident and an ability to manage gender-relations. 3. for full development of our human resources. higher learning. The major objectives of women's higher education. education of women must be given priority in national plans. individuals and society impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life give practical training to face the real life problems develop good personal habits inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and make a strong career for the future. empowerment means being assertive. legal awareness and economic independence. The economic and print media should focus on the issues related to women.4. which lead to women empowerment are to: create the right attitude towards life. Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity. They can play a more positive and active role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to use improved technology in their daily activities. This can be achieved through reflection.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN 1) Personal At the personal level. on their own. Women are partners in development.
10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION . The higher education institutions should work towards establishing network with many international institutions.
3) State / national level Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. which is pending for a long time. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena.4.2) Local level In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals and also the local community. Interaction with the global community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of problem solving. especially so in the developing countries. it has been a recognized fact that women have been more limited access to education than men. through their NSS/ Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide publicity and the international organizations like WHO. may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single village is left out. The local administration. who are eager to take up courses. will encourage them to venture new grounds. 3. More funds should be made available for women to participate in international conferences / seminars / workshops. which had been the sole domain of men. Scholarships and concessions for women. Reservation for women. The educational institutions. 4) International/global level We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain international acclaim. Universities and NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for aspiring women. But their number is small. more organized activities and better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of women to the local community. Media support will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures.
.GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE In the global scenario also. More opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in institutions abroad. Better opportunities. has to be implemented at the earliest. UNICEF and UNESCO should make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as contributors as well as beneficiaries. Each and every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the support extended should match their individual unique requirements.
Also. talents. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at higher levels and management. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education?
.8%).She also laments that even where there is near equality in enrolments. where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100.4. especially among students from the middle-east where it is 2. it has been found that there are low levels of female participation in international education.. It also must help women to discover their latent abilities. 3. capacities etc. The consequences are that women will continue to be under represented in key occupations. Women should be given the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. Such educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace
. there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information Technology (25. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. engineering and related technologies (16. International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will increase opportunities in the global workplace.11 LET US SUM UP To meet the challenges of the twenty first century. Their education should create such confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. Though the global focus is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to decrease illiteracy rates. According to Lindy Hyam.3 percent. the importance of tertiary education for women has also been recognised as it will promote their employability. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem.1%) and architecture and building (38. Chief Executive. especially in developing countries like African countries. Australia. participation rates for women in higher education are alarmingly low. But. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4. and India and Bangladesh where it is 10 percent. they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of management.000 women in the country. IDP Education. women’s education should aim at economic independence and self reliance.9%). although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and education (75%).
R. 4. Pattanaikj.12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
3. R. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education. Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth. a.4. Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya. (2000). create the right attitude towards life. individuals and society b. A. Women Education. Mumbai. 2. Centre for Women’s Studies. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life
3. 3.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. (2008). Coimbatore. Women and Education. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions Write a short note on women and distance education Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women. 3. (2005). Coimbatore. Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women. Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women. Mumbai.14 SUGGESTED READINGS Meera. New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication. A.K. 4. and Suryalatha. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation. S. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation.4. Rajasthan 5.
.C. Women Education. Mishra. Mother Teresa Women University. SNDT Women’s University.to the family. Rao. “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women and Development. and Swain. SNDT Women’s University. Kodaikanal. S.4. community and the nation. (2007). R. 43% 6.R. Annakodi.
1 3.5.5. whole.7 3. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient. Modern teaching is a field of specialisation.5.LESSON 3.4 3.6 3. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching. in order to make them as competent and efficient teachers.126.96.36.199.9 3.8 3.2 3.personality of children in and out of school. Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses Pre service and in service training facilities Code of conduct for teachers Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
3.10 3.5 3.11 188.8.131.52 INTRODUCTION Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils but it takes into its domain the task of developing the. so is the case with those pursuing t he teaching line. There are certain areas of professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given specialised training or education.5.5. As is the case with others pursuing different arts. so as to enable them to acquire
.3 3.5.5. They should be trained.12 Introduction Objectives Problems of teacher education Classification of teacher education Agencies of teacher education Training teachers for Primary.5
STRUCTURE 3. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers.
analyze the general problems of teacher education 2.5. All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students. Dearth of new technology of teaching. national consciousness. equality and justice. international. Shorter working hours.
.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. know the pre service and in service training facilities. Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational reconstruction in the country. The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes and attain the designed goals.the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field of teaching. They can play their due roles when they are professionally educated to do so. and national character. 4. 5. you will be able to: 1. It is the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned manner. list out the agencies of teachers education 3. social and emotional integration. understanding and strong desire for international peace. Lack of physical facilities. 3. understand the training teachers for Primary. Educational reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. which in turn becomes the basis for national reconstruction. Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different types of schools at different levels.5. After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has. Hence teacher education has to be properly planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Secondary and Higher Secondary level. 3.
Less qualified teacher educators.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION All the educational authorities. a Diploma course and a Degree course. the centre. levels. who have not been trained earlier.. The State Governments through the Departments of Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service. etc. higher secondary teacher education. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any training earlier. the Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing teacher Education at various levels. If the student teachers are working teachers. inservice and extension education programmes. Inadequate training in practical skills. the primary teacher education. Depending on the levels. The Central Government has been evincing keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and Training. it is designated as the Pre-Primar y teacher education. Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course. 2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years . Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities.Ed.. students.5. it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. and M.Ed. At the diploma level.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types of the student teachers. conduct examinations and issue certificates for B. teacher Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate. the secondary teacher education.5. Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work. Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching. the state Government. and the collegiate teacher education. Teacher-Education Teacher Education is offered in the following ways: 1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years. Graduate Institutions are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise. it is called the In-service teacher education.
3. Numerous educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and
. If the participants are trained earlier and if refresher courses are organised for them. and 3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years. Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools. Lop-sided curriculum. it is called the Extension teacher Education. Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community. Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors. (NCERT) New Delhi. 3.
etc.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY. state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational research and training. Also Guidance Bureaux.Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. non-formal. collegiate cells. extensio n service. state Institutes of Educat ion. depart ments etc. Education cells. Evaluation unit. • the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary teachers The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher training • pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate
.5. HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES (A) Training of Primary Teachers
The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country • no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools • the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing • the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory . are established. • good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are not attracted towards these jobs . Educational teehnology cells. Science Education units. Write any two problems of Teacher Education?
. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. For providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education research. • the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for the purpose .
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Expand NCERT 2.
3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department. to ensure teacher competence.post-graduate degree levels to break its isolation from the universities . material conditions relating to libraries. to improve curricular programmes.Ed.. which help breaking isolation from one another .•
• • • • (B)
manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be adequately qualified . The following defects are note-worthy
• • •
it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes: set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed . and
. and so on.
The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission. degree. every training institution should have an experimental school attached to it the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree course should be 240. the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life. a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas. the State Institutes of Education or the State Councils of Educational Research and Training . should be improved on a top priority basis.
Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and .. to prescribe conditions for recognition. Training of Secondary School Teachers
The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor or mediocre.Ed. Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from schools Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary. primary and secondary school teachers. for this the Kothari Education Commission has recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in Education or in an academic subject besides the B. laboratories. audio visual aids. they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers. schools and sister institutions. which should include experience in the primary schools too. through special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B. despite its vast expansion. All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing teacher training from pre-primary stage Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards.. to offer consultative services.
Organisation of Content Courses. has yet been contemplated to teachers of higher . efforts are going on to get technically trained personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of Regional Colleges of Education. etc. whether they should have professional education or. Modern Techniques of Teaching.
. Induction Courses. etc. though no pre-service training. the requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in the concerned subjects are being appointed. and XII. Hence. the problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once again arisen. not came up once again. Workshops. no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in the Colleges professionally. which are promising to meet the requirements of the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses. methodology and evaluation. (C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers
As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of University Education.secondary education. Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake research and publications. Psychology of Students. The problem.to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher education qualitatively and quanitatively. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical subjects such as Engineering. Meanwhile. it was felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know. in-service and extension education programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in content. With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure. To meet this exigency. the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of InService and Extension Education Programmes. Agriculture. With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education.Purpose Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission. it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of Higher Education.ledge of teachers handling Classes XI. With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi. Modern Methods of Evaluation. Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research and Training.
The ERIC of NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and organisations. Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar.. courses and M. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
3. Post-Graduates also undergo B.. There are varied levels of training facilities for different qualifications.Ed. and in-service candidates also of late Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities leading to B.5. Point out two defects in primary teacher training
. State Institutes of Education. in Education.A.. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional Colleges of Education. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education leading to B.. Degree to both pre-service and inservice candidates. training.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. M.. (CASE) attached to the Facult y of Psychology and Education..’s for Ph.Ed. University of Baroda and Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. Degree. Ajmer.A. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.Ed.Ed. These facilities are available for regular students. Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school teachers throughout the country.. (Education) and M.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier. (Education) are organized by
. Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented. In the field of educational research in Teacher Education.Ed. (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore. All B Ed.
3. for the respective States coming into their jurisdictions.Ed. Pre-service training is for those. Courses leading to B.D. the Centre for Advanced Study in Education.’s are elig ible for M.S. State Councils of Educational Research and Training. Degree and M. who opt to take up the profession of teaching as their career.. For re-orienting the teachers. inservice and extension education programmes are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.
So it is high time they develop a sort of professional ethics. . of conduct—written or unwritten.List any two code of conduct for teachers?
.some Faculties of Education of some Universities. 6. and B. Hence the employability of M. 4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face.A. 2) They should adhere strictly to the rule. established by tradition and teachers of the past.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional organisations of their own. code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and prestige of their profession. Some of the items are suggested below 1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the profession collectively. this is considered to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional preparation. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned.). as teachers directly without professional preparation is being questioned. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit . 6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or evil of them.. 3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them. 3. However. What is the role of ERIC?
4. (Ed). they should be conscientious . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.A.. (Ed.5. 5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of professional training to be eligible to join the profession. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at and .
Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities. The role of teacher is most significant in educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and efficient training.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
3. 2. Dearth of new technology of teaching.
. b.5.3.9 LET US SUM UP
The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country and its utility is also doubtful. Shorter working hours. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to teachers of pre-primary schools b. Explain code of conduct for teachers. 5.5. 2. National Council of Educational Research and Training. a. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and purposes that are expected of them.
3. Bhubhaneshwar The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial assistance to the individuals and the organizations. they should be conscientious. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face. Bhopal.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing Mysore.
3. and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are concerned. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education. However. 4. The necessity is however this. that the educationists of the country should compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher education within the shortest possible time. these problems are not as such cannot be solved.5. a. Discuss the problems of teacher education. a. b. Ajmer. 3.
Teacher Education.3. Corporation. Mohanty. Teacher Education. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing House.N. (2003). J. Tewari. Publication Pvt. and Teacher Education. (2009). P. Ltd Aggarwal.D.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Panda. New Delhi : Deep and Deep New Delhi : APH Publishing
.5. A. (2010). B.
UNIT – IV
The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean and free from harmful germs. economic and educational developments. balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits. The person’s environment is equally important. Lesson 3 discusses the meaning. scope of environmental education and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental conservation. our attention shifts to physical education – its need. ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients. need for population education and impact of population growth on social. objectives and role of the physical education.HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual. consuming the right amounts becomes important. common ailments of children. nutritional deficiency diseases. Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described in this lesson. Lesson 5 explains the meaning. preservation of nutrients. communicable diseases and their prevention. objectives. Since food is the source of nutrients. objectives. If the diet is poor. the focus is on the school health programmes. In lesson 1. In lesson 4. first aid and need for sex education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients.
. They have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large. for the medical examination of the school children from time to time.1.8 4.1. for giving health education to the children under its custody.12 Introduction Objectives General aims and objectives of Health education in schools Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education Common ailments of Children Communicable diseases and their prevention First Aid Sex Education Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
4.1.4 4.1.1. The programmes of school health education are quite important.1. A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its premises. for providing medical and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services.1.3 4. emotional and social.1.1 INTRODUCTION The school is a powerful force of the community.6 184.108.40.206
SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES
STRUCTURE 4. physical.5 4. It should take care of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.1 4.7 4.1. It is a miniature society.e.LESSON 4.1.11 4. It is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the community.2 4.9 4.10 4. mental.
1. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and community as well as the school itself. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases. e.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools: 1. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation. 11. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and spread of diseases..2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner. 4. Instruction. training of teachers and evaluation. 4. you will be able to: 1. School health education has as its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the community. To develop certain skills concerning health. To give information regarding health rules. 9. 8.School health education is very important for it goes to the individual student. training in first aid and etc.1. 3. 7. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and 12. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health. to his family and to the community at large. know the need for sex education. understand school health programmes 2. cleanliness and healthful living. practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part of the schools. 4. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students. content of health education. To develop healthy health habits among children.
.g. 5. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health. explain the importance of First aid 5. list the common ailments of children 3. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive measures 4. 2. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health. 6. 10.
The surroundings of schools should be clean. (viii) first aid. Arranging better transportation facilities. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of different games. Spit bins and dustbins should be provided. (vii) physio logy o f exercises. minimizing the travelling distance. (iv) co mmunicable diseases. (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human body. excusing late. 4. Proper ventilation and lighting should be provided. Vaccination for small pox. play festivals. There should be good drainage facilities. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living conditions in the school premises.G. cleanliness weeks.. (xii) smoking education etc.C.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH EDUCATION A. (v) safety education. First aid facilities should be made readily available. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular programmes. There should be regular water supply. ( iii) sanit at io n. The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes • Control of Communicable Diseases It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school children against communicable diseases.1. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene. The schools should be situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. 2. vaccination. suitable furniture. typhoid.. permission to retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to
. • Care programmes for the Handicapped The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the handicapped children and the crippled. B.coming or absence. (xl) mental health. (x) choice aid use of health services and products. The school buildings should be spacious. proper doors and windows. 5. training in the use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities of school hygiene programmes. Organisation of Activities and Instruction 1. as described below 1. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as to involve all the students. (ii) communit y healt h.4. The rooms should also be spacious with leak proof roofs. Triple Antigen Vaccination. 2. “Play-for-all” programmes. etc. organisation of school health days. (vi) nutrition education. B. direct lighting. The flooring should not be damp. 3. is imperative. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp. arranging class rooms in the ground floors. inoculation against cholera. Toilet rooms should be amply provided.
dislocations. insect stings.. • Don’t use articles used by the infected persons. • Close the schools. • Compel vaccination and immunization programmes. burns. • Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms. Emergency Services Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains. poisons. fainting (epileptic fit). • Re-admit when the child is free of the disease. They are also concerned with the after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage. • Take nutritious food. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness Schemes. D. sports and games in the interest of their health.•
afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles. • Find out the cases. The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes. isolate and notify. • Have adequate rest and sleep. • When sleeping in groups. fractures. Physical Education Programmes The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is obvious. scalds. and other accidents. Role of the Teachers and Schools Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which period symptoms show off themselves. etc. cuts. alter the beds in such a way that the heads come alternatively in a row. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections • Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing. drowning.
C. bleeding. Students should be encouraged to take active part in the athletics. if epidemic is wide-spread. • Keep all rooms clean. wounds.
measles etc. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. Another kind of diseases called deficiency diseases are also common in children. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Mention the school health programmes. water or bodily contact.
4. fever.. The period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is called the incubation stage. pain in the joints. These diseases are called communicable diseases. These are caused by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. So they easily get illnesses. cough. asthma. backache.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN • Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school. tuberculosis. The School children also suffer from some ilnesses.
4. headache. They are: i) The incubation stage.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION • A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection.1. they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of the particular disease. From the infected person these germs are spread to others through air. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and
. ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. Once these germs get into the body. They have less resistence to diseases than adults.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
2. polio.1. which are – cold. chicken pox. List out the Health curriculum
3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. There are three stages in any communicable disease. The saliva and other excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs.
Throat is affected.It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear. Important salts and water are lost in this process. One dose of measles vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease.This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck as a result of infection by virus. The symptoms include cold. head-ache and cough. cough and fever. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow. The following are the common communicable diseases. nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Children should not be allowed to play in dirty soil. Common Cold . There may also be fever accompanied by cough. This is caused by cold virus.is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to infection of the digestive system.This disease is caused by bacteria.When a child suffers from scabies. Children who inhale infected air will get it immediately. eating food which is not clean. Gargling with hot water containing salt gives relief. The period of actual suffering is called the acute stage. Tonsilitis . Others make the children very weak.One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. Some of the communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children. Diarrhoea . Cold is usually accompanied by running nose. unhygienic living conditions. Applying hot pad and giving aspirin may give temporary relief. sugar and water. The duration of these three varies depending upon the illness.•
start affecting the body systems. He may not be able to eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands.
. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum discomfort. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child. After three or four days of fever. Ear Infections . etc. The common causes of diarrhoea include drinking impure water. rashes appear first behind the ears and then slowly spread to the face and all over the body. Some suffer cold due to allergy. Children catch cold from persons having cold. This solution must be given little by little whenever the child is willing to drink.It is caused by measles virus. The child may have fever. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches of sugar are added. Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. The virus is present in the secretions of throat. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold. Mumps . Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. Treatment consists of applying Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or four days after a bath. Measles . there is generalized itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. Scabies . The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. Hence liquid diet is recommended. unhygienic bottle feeding. There is no special medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by keeping his nose open with nose drops. Hence it is called a killer disease.
. What are communicable diseases?
6. A child can get this disease by being close with the patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings. They increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within about seven days. As the disease progresses. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. raised pink spots appear on head. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and throat of the infected child. The child may also have diarrhoea. the child may die. Diphtheria . The disease is accompanied by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. By scratching he causes secondary infections. The pox may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless.This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It begins with fever. If proper treatment is not given.
5. the child is not able to breathe. Typhoid has a tendency to and so great care must be taken of the child. So the child's hands should be washed with soap several times a day. Enlist the common ailments of children. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in swallowing. Expand DPT . The disease can be prevented by giving three doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given.•
Chicken Pox . Typhoid . The intestines are inflamed and so only diet is advisable. separate. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. Shortly.Chicken pox is caused by the germ 7.This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by eating food or drinking water infected organism. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. face and waist.
Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts. It has its rightful place in education too. Young generation was deprived of getting direct education on sex.
4. The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful Productive Work. Sprains . scorpion stings. bruises. cuts. 2. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for giving sex education to children. bleeding. so-called sex books and periodicals. 4.4. simple fractures.Reconciliation of personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human cultures. Hence the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life related to only adult generation.8 SEX EDUCATION Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in.
. films and jokes.7 FIRST AID Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e. eye injury. sprains. 3. 5. Drowning . It is essential for ensuring better family life in future. fainting. Cuts and Bruises . Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied sources such as peer groups. It is both biological and psychological. man-woman behaviours.1. wounds. Wounds . swelling. head injury. and films. etc. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water. In such cases. exciting and body-oriented. fiction. sprains.g. snakebites. Sex is but an integral part of human personality. and Community Work and Social Service. Sex is popular.Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin or Dettol Ointment. dislocation. it is a subject of art.Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful. drowning.Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.” The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated below 1. It is concerned with human relationships boy girl.It is not desirable to leave children completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge regarding sex. which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological.1. which is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual.
Need for Sex Education Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. Should the boys and girls. and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community. the school. that the Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. in their ignorance. Sex education has the major components as follows:
1.old values. In secondary schools.Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. We can arm people with knowledge about sex. There is another reason for making children aware of their bodies.
Human physiology and reproduction Contraception Social interaction associated with sex
A.. the religious organisations. Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. 2.co-operatively to give sex education to the young. The values of life. 3. who again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. the state and the private and public enterprises should work together. Hence. sex education is being recommended in schools. The modern age brought along with its glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. In today's liberal and interactive society. We Lave inherited a world with a new malady namely AIDS. try experimenting with their bodies. The home. Sex education in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. We have mentioned in the chapter on environmental education. This malady has no cure but we can help prevent it. have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of life. but preserve them from disaster and disease. health. B. And here is where some protests would be inevitable. The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers. It should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge. Freedom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen the problems. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. celibacy are age. and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. NCERT held several training programmes for the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life. Sex Education Programmes The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?” These are the following alternatives
. they would be treading the path of sure doom. it is carried through sexually transmitted disease.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. For the working teachers extension education programmes will have to be organised. offering sex education as a part of their curricula. the school health programmes. common ailments of children. Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions.
4.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health education. The is need to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the programme. Otherwise it can be integrated with other subjects. first aid and sex education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. If the parents and community members know of the nature and content of sex education. Teacher education institutions are. C. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future. there will no crisis in its implementation. and as a part of health education: and as an integrated approach. What are the major components of Sex Education. Sex Education and the Teachers Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. communicable diseases and their prevention.1) 2) 3)
as a separate course. 3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others. hence. when the courses are already overloaded.1.
It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now. it will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values.
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures Why should sex education be introduced in schools? What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?
4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health, b. To give information regarding health rules, 9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h, (iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking education etc., 10. a. b. c. d. Control of Communicable Diseases Care programmes for the Handicapped. Physical Education Programmes. Emergency Services.
11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles 12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable diseases. 13. Variola minor 14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus 15. a. Human physiology and reproduction b. Contraception c. Social interaction associated with sex.
SUGGESTED READINGS Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication
Murthy, S.K. (2001).
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008).
Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008).
A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001).
Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009).
Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.
LESSON 4.2 NUTRITION EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 Introduction Objectives Food Nutrients Nutritional deficiency diseases Preservation of Nutrients Balanced diet 220.127.116.11 Planning balanced diets 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 Healthy Food Habits Let us sum up Unit – End Exercise Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. know about the food nutrients, 2. identify nutritional deficiencies 3. understand the preservation of nutrients 4. plan a balanced diet 5. list out the healthy habits.
4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS (i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy. There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste. (ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin. They are easily digested. (iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish liver oils are good for health. (iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium, phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen bones and teeth and red corpuscles. (v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.
4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found among Indian students are discussed as follows:
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only method of preventing vitamin A deficiency. Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine. Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help. Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced. Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency. Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies S um ma ry of Vit am in Def icie ncy
Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients. Rickets is the deficiency of
5. Mention the food nutrients
2. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
a. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to
4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia
. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency?
U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s . Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d 4. Including items from each food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied. Wa s h i n g o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s.6 BALANCED DIET A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g lo s s . A balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods. Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a. This can be achieved by first classifying food into groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the nutrient should be consumed per day. A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected.2.
Let us talk about each of these aspects. Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. minerals. If you look at the definition carefully. These RDIs must be taken into consideration so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet.4. How much should a person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the diet is planned. C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s. is to ensure that all nutrients are supplied. you would realize that a balanced diet • • • meets the need for nutrients consists of different types of food items and provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not supply adequate amounts of all nutrients. But how do we select these foods? The major aim.
.2. E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd fr u it s.
Preferences/customs are also important.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS As we mentioned earlier.6. A balanced diet is specific firstly. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra” for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. A normal individual consumes a variety of foods. In other words. Seasonal factors also come into play especially in the case of fruits and vegetables. A diet for an adolescent girl would be different compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex).g. People in the east of our country prefer rice. Rice or rice preparations such as idli. it is also specific to a given activity level . So the meal pattern you select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are
. to an individual of a given age (age-range) and sex. The North Indian prefers wheat based preparations such as chapati. Those in the west also tend to eat rice.Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to have two full meals .sedentary. sex. moderate or heavy work. Using others would be impractical and unsuitable. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as age. A balanced diet for a sedentary worker (e. the social and religious practices of that region. The particular foods available in a region should be used in planning. for example. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e. This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or suitable for all individuals. A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns. a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the amounts needed by the body. paratha and poori.one in the morning and the other at night. construction labourer). But such an individual would not develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. In Andhra Pradesh there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal. This is because RDIs already include a margin of safety. It is possible that on a given day he may not consume foods in the amounts he requires. dosa are typical of the south. A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from that of an adult (influence of age). activity level and physiological stress.2. Even within given States there is considerable variation. in including a cereal like ragi in a diet meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south. In the case of adults. A pregnant or lactating woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating (influence of physiological stress). There is no point. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause problems. where does the person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. Balanced diets also provide for periods of leanness. Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. 4.g. These are: region where the person resides and income.
enables a person to add more variety to the diet. However. Among the social factors. consumption of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods. you would have realised the importance of both region (and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. These determine the acceptability of foods. One person may be fond of milk products. Having more money does not mean spending more on fat. In addition to these. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other flesh foods. It means consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. As income increases. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity level where relevant) vary depending on income. While planning balanced diets for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and sugar are not recommended. Having more money. body-building and protective/regulatory in each and every meal. Unusual foods or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. income plays a vital role. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not like. Even among flesh foods. Balanced diets should also be income-specific. As you read this discussion. fat and sugar tend to increase. however. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food items is religion. you would probably be able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of fasting. If you think of your own religious group. One must. taboos related to food may play an important role. as important for the rich as for the poor. the selection of foods and the amounts in which they are consumed would vary depending on income. try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such as milk or milk products. customs. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. attitudes prevalent in a particular region. They would also have helped you to appreciate the importance of using locally available foods. The ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements.planning the diet. sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese. however. eating of beef is forbidden in one community and pork in another. A pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family believes that this would result in an abortion. nuts and dry fruits. vegetables and fruits. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar with the practices. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a problem. for example. while another may hate them. Including these
. A balanced diet would imply the use of all food groups — energy-giving. however. Judicious selection of food is. This is not scientifically proven but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to convince the individual. Another crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other words personal preferences.
For this. 10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed .eating is hazardous.milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make the diet acceptable too. 3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished. over-eating or under. 5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables. 9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food. Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students cultivate healthy food habits. Following healthy food habits is another equally important aspect. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7. mouth. which they will imbibe into themselves by introjections. green leaves.
. 6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only. don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the food. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. but they should be thrown away. Define balanced diet. fruits. 2) Food should be consumed after eating well. meat. 4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because during frying some of the nutrients are lost. 17.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. if the teachers have good food habits. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. etc.
8. eggs . they can stand as symbols of identification to their students. List out any two healthy food habits. 7) One should eat what is needed to live . Here under are given some of the healthy food habits 1) Hands. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. 8) Walk a while after eating.
2. A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A. Corneal xerosis. Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. b. 4. When the diet is inadequate. Bitot’s spots. Beri Beri 4. 4. c. good nutrition is essential for good health. Fatigue and Giddiness
. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children 5. Vitamin D 5. there are chances that individual’s health would suffer.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies. Conjuctival xerosis. Nutrition is closely interlinked with health. a. preservation of nutrients.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. d. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum? 2. e. Explain food nutrients 4. planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2. the likelihood that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease. Discuss good food habits. How will you plan a balanced diet? 3. Keratomalacia 3.2.4. In fact. Proteins Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Inorganic Salts Vitamins
2. Night blindness.
minerals. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mishra.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Begum. Food and Nutrition Education. Nutrition and Dietetics. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation Mahindru. a. plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly before taking food. Hands. (2008). R. a . New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. b. U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s .M. Chopra.
4. A Text Book of Foods. (2005). vitamins and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. Food should be consumed after eating well.6. P. S. Food and Nutrition Education. Nutrition Science. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s.N. Health and Nutrition Education.C. 8. 7. (2009). A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories. b. mouth. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers. Sri Lakshmi B. New Delhi : APH Publishing Corporation
.2. R. (2004). (2008).
4 4.3.2 Impact on economic development 4.3.6 Introduction Objectives Meaning of Population Education Objectives of Population Education Need for Population Education Impact of Population growth 4.1 4.3.13 18.104.22.168.9 4.3
STRUCTURE 4.10 4.3 Impact on Education 4.6.3 4.14 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes Learning exercises for Population Education Small Family Norm Family welfare programmes Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings.5 22.214.171.124.12 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 Impact on social development 4.LESSON 4.11 4.7 4.2 184.108.40.206.8 4.3.
on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning. you will be able to: 1. population characteristics. his societ y and the world. nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation. held at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. objectives and need for population education 2. family planning and sex education etc. and the consequences of these processes.
. Population Education. with factual knowledge about population dynamics and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population. aims at providing the younger generation. understand the importance of small family norm 5. It is not sex education. 4. state the meaning.
4. “It is an educational programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family.1 INTRODUCTION Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate the need for family planning. community. therefore. Whenever we talk of sex education.4. economic and educational development 3. describe the impact of population growth on social. characteristics and changes for himself.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth control. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India.” “Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this regard Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education.” Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. his family. the causes of population change.3. There is some difference. A UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education.3. The growing generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent dangers as a result of over population. It is a much wider co ncept. adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. the stress is.3. correlate school subjects with population education programme 4.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. the family.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION 1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship between population change and the process of socio-economic development vis-a-vis the individual.3.
4. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points:
. 6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of living. Define Population Education
2. the society. 2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. 3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades.4. List out any two objectives of Population Education. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. 5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in bringing down the birth rate as well.3. the nation and the world. 4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of life that suits them best.
If they enter into reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it will be hazardous. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems.Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country. With the larger families. They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in their adulthood. which will not be possible without population control. Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it.
. Family is considered as a social unit. Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the nation specially to those who are living in poverty. health and happiness of its citizens. Any modern state is responsible for the welfare. The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries. When the family is small. 4.3.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social development.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of future. Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue of population control.6. No social welfare can be conceived without family welfare. economic and educational development of the country. With the enormous and unhindered growth of population. Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to either developed or developing countries. the family programmes are also handicapped. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. social welfare schemes can be implemented well. the social welfare schemes fail to attain the desired goals in the designed manner. About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age.3. An addition of more than one million to our legion is nullifying our efforts for planned progress. 4. Every second two thousand children are being born. Population growth has obviously its impact on the social. Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into the school curriculum. They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing doom. This global catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race.
The gulf between them is widening further. 4. and so on. organization index and material index. possibility of sickness and poor health among the pupils. teacher index. Many students herded in a small room. The world is divided between ‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. 2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. more than 50 pupils to 1 teacher. in buses and trains.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious. But a developed country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. pollution of the environment.6.
. are the results of demographic pressures on social life.” Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children? We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be measured by four indices such as student index. Swollen cities.The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets. The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be rightly attributed to population. facility for drinking water. unemployment. 4. In developing countries. improvement in the quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends. will have scant motivation to stay in the classroom.3. i. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. lack of proper health care.. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt.3. It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting the world economic development. there is an inverse relationship between population and development. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the mentioned areas as follows: 1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio. heavy intern I migration etc.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. in cinema halls and theatres. This will be one of the reasons for steady dropout of the pupils.e. toilets. leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching.6. in parks and other places of public gatherings. huge problem of numbers affects economic planning too. The economic upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more effective. The rate of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population production.
Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Already a good deal of material exists in various school subjects. A large number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population education programme. and laboratory equipments. There would be very few audiovisual aids.
. can be studied in science and health education. The following examples will illustrate the scope of population education in different subject are as: Languages Material in the form of stories.3. less budget for education. thus.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION PROGRAMME Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners.. 4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. can be taken up. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education
4. can be incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue. less space facilities. Social Studies Statistics on population education. Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. essays. Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility. There would be poor library facilities. there will be lacuna in many other spheres. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge numbers. blank verses etc. material on the impact of population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place in the social studies. bar graphs etc. all teachers are expected to be involved in the population programme. Hindi and English. family planning etc. even text books would be in short supply. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. less administrative initiative and leadership talents. It has got to be integrated with other subjects. reproduction. Regional Language.3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff.
Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying sizes. grand-parents and old persons or relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the familybirths. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala. They may help them to draw some inferences about population trends. 8. 9.3. Children with the help of parents. They may draw inferences after discussing the facts among themselves. United States of America. 10. China. deaths. area and average density of population. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences 6. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban situation. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when its population is likely to be doubled. 14. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big towns and small villages. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. Canada. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. 5. 15. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population. 12. 2. 7. one with one earning member and five dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant young children. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of living. West Bengal. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. 11. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to
. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their inferences.4. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if every year additional 10 million students join the primary school. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for certain diseases during their times. the childhood of their parents and those of grand-parents. Holding debate and discussion on how and at what cost can this be achieved. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying family size (children can also be asked to collect data). 3. Bihar. 13. causes of deaths etc.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION
1. Brazil. They may arrange them as per average density of population. Uttar Pradesh. Children may compare two families. 4.
Comparing life in various respects in two families. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his wish. The present slogan regarding norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education?
4.be opened in their schools. These behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage. 16. It may be considered as the chief objective of population education in the school education. The question. 17.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the family depends upon small families. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a village. one with a working woman and the other only a house wife. How will you correlate Population Education?
5. 18. how many children a couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every family and the society as a whole. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be one doctor for every 500 people. The importance of inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of primary is very important.3. values and role children etc. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. automatically result in ensuring the normatively desired family size. Every society therefore should develop definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. how can the amount which was otherwise spent on new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised. preferences for sex. age at marriage. Also negative attitudes towards such superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children. we have no right to stop
. 4. The Family Welfare Program. India became the first country in the developing world to initiate a state . The socio-economic and cultural advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be inducted into the minds of school children. The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include • Provision of contraceptive measures • Medical Termination of pregnancy • Maternal and Child Health • Education and Motivation • Research and Trainee The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial stages and are not upto the required level.sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility and slowing the population growth rate. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy. Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain desired coverage..to emphasize family planning services. which education can only do. should be overcome at the intellectual levels. The Primary Health Care System developed on a threetier structure of Sub centers (SCs). at varying places in different regions. the total fertility rate decreased from 6. continued . is also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc.their entry into the world”. More than 45 years ago. on an overall basis. fertility levels have declined throughout the country. Since the program's inception. and the child survival components of the news: program. In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce maternal and child mortality.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. especially the expansion of child immunization services . however.4-6. need based training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.6 lifetime births per woman in the early 1970s to 3. “He who is responsible for population growth.4 births per woman in mid-1990s. Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a phased manner by 1998-2000.3.
Moreover. However programs run by local non-governmental organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding. These programmes include attention to clinical services and counseling. Local programs vary in their approaches. various stakeholders have voiced concern about the National Family Planning Program. which took place in Beijing generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and approach of the Indian family planning program. In October 1997. the government launched the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) program. women’s groups from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's needs better. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but in management and implementation as well. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers. This decision also was made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995. and the World Conference on Women. In April 1996. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. At these meetings. the overall national program still offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for women. men. and it focuses on improving the quality of care by
. the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women. innovative and repeated training of workers using folk and other media.earlier than the safe motherhood components. expansion of services to unmarried women. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. a focus on health promotion. Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend reproductive health services. Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted sterilization as a means of population control. the community appears willing to pay for services. Therefore. reliance on local women as community health workers. and nominal fees for services. The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more responsive to local needs. but they are similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their focus on women’s rights and choice. allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without costs becoming prohibitive. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among women and condom use has risen among men.
12 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How should it be correlated with different school subjects? 2.emphasizing the needs of the client.
. 4. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion. 3. family. improving the clientreferral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. involving the community. nation and the world. so that workers can provide better information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.3. to provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future. The programme strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of drugs and equipment and enhancing training.3. economic and educational development 4. Its main purposes are to create awareness. Describe the impact of population growth on social. community. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum. which helps students to learn about population and particularly the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual.11 LET US SUM UP The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an educational process. What are the goals of RCH?
4. 1997). What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme?
7. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
4.3. less space facilities. and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector providers.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. less administrative initiative and leadership talents.” 2. They will have meagre motivation on their part and get less social recognition. 7. and the consequences of these processes. area and average density of population. a. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures. 6. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet this critical situation. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to draw their inferences b. b. China. 5. his society and the world. United States of America. a. characteristics and changes for himself. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff. less budget for education.
. a. 3. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process. 4. increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures. bar graphs. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet Union. his family. Brazil. To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate over the past few decades. Australia and India and compare them in terms of population. the causes of population change. b. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning methods. population characteristics. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages. Canada.
Modern Problems of Education. T. Centre for Women’s Studies. (2004). Coimbatore.4. Reddy. N. Ltd. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi : Himalaya Publishing House.
“Population Education” in Text book on Women and Development. (2002). Kantikar.3. Ltd.14 SUGGESTED READING
Mohanty. J.K. (1992).
Jayapoorni. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. (2005). Bhende.
Modern Trends in Indian Education.
Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women.
Udaiveer. A. Changing attitudes to Education in India. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt. V. (2005). Principles of Population Studies.
STRUCTURE 4.8 Introduction Objectives Meanings of Physical Education Importance of Physical Education Aims and Objectives of Physical Education Functions of Physical Education Teachers Hints to Physical Education Teachers Games 4.2 Major games 4.4.3 4.4 Lead up games 4.10 4.4.1 Minor games 4.4.11 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168.4.7 22.214.171.124.4.LESSON 4.8.6 126.96.36.199 4.2 4.4 4.1 4.3 Indigenous games 4.12 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested readings
moral fitness and emotional fitness. will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”. leadership and balance in defect. The concept of physical education has been made broader.1 INTRODUCTION Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as of the country. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of the body and mind. the youth of the country.4. The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value. classify the different types of games. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.4.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated exercises has been rejected. you will be able to: 1. 4. Physical Education is education through Physical activity. understand the importance of Physical Education 4. which forms its most valuable assets. It contributes to the development of physical fit ness.” The Commission recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. 4. teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of similar qualifications. mental alertness. state the meaning of Physical Education 2.4. and other teachers of the school along with the physical instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students. perseverance. social fitness. as it should
. and the educational authorities recognize its need in all schools. A balanced Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education 3. team spirit. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency. Physical education is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound body. full records of physical activities should be maintained. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless physical education is accepted as an integral part of education.4.
It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the group. team spirit. obedience to rules. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique only. Physical Education without Education is a trunkated cone” Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total personality of the child. school and in society are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in thought and practice. develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of the society. The educational efforts at home. Physical Education is different from Physical culture Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical Education. To be more precise. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term. Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. mental alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance. “Education without Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. They are inseparably united together. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of Physical Education. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s
. Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and scientific. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and good of the society. Education should aim at the development of an integrated and controlled personality. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning. Therefore.contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency. Physical Education is different from Physical Training: Likewise. They go hand in hand. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to the training aspect of the body. Education and Physical Education: Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round development o f man. moderation in victory and balance in defeat. leadership. Physical training should not be confused with Physical Education. education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of culture and morality. Every individual is a part of society. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the development of the individual. Education is defined as a series of experiences which enables one to better understand new experiences’.
physical education also is mainly responsible fo r t he attainment of physical. A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work with a high degree of efficiency.” The Secondary Education Commission.” observed: The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of wellbuilt bodies when he remarks. game and sports.” Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education. 4. a sound health. Just like Education. Rousseau states. nor body but the whole man.” Montaigue writes. There is no denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side. H. “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the operation of the mind easy and certain. “Physical education does neither train up the soul. Buck has observed that
.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Importance of physical education for the all round development of an individual is recognised by all thinkers. Regarding the significance of physical education. C. There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India. though it appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. Here we quote the views of some prominent thinkers including educators and philosophers. pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to develop a sound mind. “The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious consequences. mo ral.P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it. Both Education and Physical Education more or less tend towards the same goal. social and emotional benefits for the development of a well-balanced personality.4. pleasing manners. “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but the football field. ment al. recreative activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group practices enable one to gain efficiency in action. Physical exercises.
strength. Froebel says. endurance.
. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises. coordinative abilities. “If we wish to develop the whole being. initiative. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. elegance.” 4. we must exercise the whole human being. flexibility and power.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The General objectives of physical education are given in brief. Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. etc. Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal physical growth and development. without feeling undue strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and organic systems. happiness. in developing endurance and strength to do normal tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life. “Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. Such activities are developed only through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent. Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor qualities such as endurance. resourcefulness and smartness. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. speed.” In brief. efficiency and character. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. Through physical education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages of developments.a properly directed physical education should result in health.4. physical education is important on account of the following benefits: It helps in building individual and national character and strength. It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society.
including all racial groups and historical ages. poetry and painting. Such activities have formed a basic part of all cultures. Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities. its adherents and its enemies. students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work. Tournaments foster this sentiment. If no opportunity is provided to the students.Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt. Objectives of Physical Education The objectives of Physical. Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an integral part of the total educational processes. have come and gone in the long record of mankind. should help in the spiritual development of the student. Physical activities enable them to work in appropriate groups. Education may be classified to be belonging to two areas: Physical and Social A. Physical objectives These may be described as follows to secure physical health to develop physical stamina. Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at developing the sense of loyalty among the students. they may form gangs. in greater or lesser degree. these fundamental things have always been present. because they are as fundamental a form of human experience as music. plagues and famines. “Sports and physical activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups.” Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant. Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills which prepare students for a vocation. While wars. Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours of adult life and make life fuller and richer. Every age has its artists.
. systems of government.
B. to inculcate patriotic spirit to train in leadership qualities to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit.
3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. to develop socially acceptable behaviour to develop judicious behaviour.
2. respect for rules. and to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x)
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.\ to develop perseverance. self.sacrifice. etc.(iii) (iv) (v)
to develop rhythmic bodily movements. Write any two importance of Physical Education. to ensure neuro-muscular coordination . bravery and interest in games and sports. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education. Social Objectives These can be narrated in the following way to develop social virtues such as discipline. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education. to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems. to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly. obedience. to develop tolerance.
Always keep the whistle ready. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. At least now its importance should be duly recognized. 4. Be punctual. 4.4. students. Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade classification is needed. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. 13. Be in the uniform. Perhaps parental education in this matter is also essential. 10. and. Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. 9. 14. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or cultural activities. 2.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school health programme as suggested by J. 5. 3.H. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration. Emergency care procedures should be followed. Pay individual attention to backward children: Enquire about their health. Be self-confident. 8. Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed. injuries among pupils should be made.4.
1. Act as a leader.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons Go to the field before the students assemble there. Keep the field ready for the activities. and Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of pupils should be ensured. teachers and administrators give undue prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. Posture screening should be done. Be sportive. 12. Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of. Inform health principles. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. 15. 6. are indicated as below Observation of signs of possible diseases. Haag. and readmission after they have recovered.4.
. defects. 11. 7. Usually parents. 16. is essential. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students. Be well-prepared.
Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers. less equipment and less expense. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.8. Moreover. instinct is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Indigenous games. The term minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
. They are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors. frolic and jo y. their development is handicapped.
4. Types of Games Games may be classified into the following categories: Minor games Major games.
1. They are purely recreational games and provide a lot of fun. Lead up games.4. 2. Such inst incts as imitation. 3.4. Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be allowed to play freely.1 MINOR GAMES All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of boys and girls before the age of ten.
4. chasing. fighting and catching make their appearance at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play. As such they are well enjoyed by children. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. 4.8 GAMES Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. the play.
with implements or without implements. skipping. the play equipment. They are tag games and relay games such as simple tag. zig zag relay. Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball. snatching the kerchief. dribbling. Khokho. They are rules approved by the International Associations. Cricket. pitching. Jumping. catching. Jump the stick clay and so on. Hockey. spiking.
. the number of players and substitutes.. Tennikoit. Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels and also for grown up people. bowling etc. Shuttle Badminton. Volley Ball. stopping. Imitative activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Kabaddy etc. over ball pass Relay. muffling. Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions with markings and equipment as per international specifications. Hopping. boosting.4. Most of the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools. Soft Ball. heading. These games require varied skills such as running. on hard courts. They are played for a shorter duration. the duration and extension times are all approved internationally. 4. Throwing. on sea-shore. on mountain tops and on river beds. Except a few games.8. Dodging. On lawns. These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. couple tag. The dimension of the posts and nets. Ball Badminton.With a very few rules. women take part most of the games. finding the partner. driving. Almost every game involves chasing and tagging.2 MAJOR GAMES Major games are games of higher organisation. wherever the kids assemble. the games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children. trapping. Basket Ball. Tennis. leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. benefit in playing minor games. some of them are played indoors. While many of them are played in the open playfields. These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the boys and girls of high schools and Colleges. hitting. under ball pass Relay. Nursery schools and Elementary schools are nothing but minor games. the games can be modified according to convenience. They are classified under games because all the movements involved are natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the richest. For each game the rules are many.
All the fundamental tactics.4. Each lead up game of any particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one. these games being popular. What do you mean by lead up games?
. An example for indigenous game is 8.4 LEAD UP GAMES Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games. the captain ball is a lead up game for Basket Ball. death.8.4. they are in existence. and . Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. They have an abundant social value.8. festivals connected with religion and public functions. Novices and beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master the skills required for any particular game. They are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. Games may be classified as 6. birth. These games find their places in the high school activity programmes. skills and stunts are put together to gain practice of major games. Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. While observing the players in action. List out some major games.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. village folk take a very keen interest and participate.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES Chedu gudu. 4. in these games with zeal and enthusiasm. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.
7. For example. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.4. Kho-kho. the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot by tentatively stopping and starting the game. They appeal to our taste and from times immemorial. On occasions like marriage.
Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large measure to slow down the degenerative process. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose. 5. 2. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education. a.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discusses the concept. 4. b. Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the individual.4. Minor and Major
. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education. a. 3.4. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged. a. d. aims and objectives and need of physical education. to develop physical stamina. b. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual. c.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical education activities.4. a.4. the role of physical education teachers and types of games. to secure physical health b. Schools should help students to keep them mentally. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to physical exercises.
4. physically and emotionally fit and alert. 3. 4. 4. Posture screening should be done. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual. b. 2. Briefly discuss the different types of games.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.
. Shuttle Badminton. Modern Trends in Indian Education. Handbook of Physical Education. Soft Ball. Basket Ball. Tennikoit. New Delhi : Anmol Publications Pvt.C.6. Health. J.12 SUGGESTED READING Mathews. Cricket. Volley Ball. Khokho. Aggarwal. Kabaddy 7. Krishna murthy. Education in the Emerging Indian Society. (2008). Ltd. Khokho 8. Foot-ball.
4. Tennis. Physical Education and Sports. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills of major games.4. J. G. Hockey. J. Mohanty. (2009). New Delhi : Crescent Publishing Corporation.K. Ball Badminton. (2005). New Delhi : Common Wealth Publishers. (2008). New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
1 INTRODUCTION Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ilibrium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also control of environment pollution.5.1 Natural Environment 4.2 188.8.131.52 4.2 Manmade Environment 4.3 4.6 4. Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as
.LESSON 4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 4.1 184.108.40.206 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
4.5. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s problems.5.10 4.8 4.9 220.127.116.11.5.5.11 4.5 Introduction Objectives Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education Scope of Environmental Education Kinds of Environment 4.5.7 18.104.22.168. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o underst and enviro nment .5.
The best place to start such learning is school. 2. 3. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The scope of environmental education is very vast. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values. 5. Essential knowledge about the Environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.
4. Knowledge. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment. 4.5. Awareness. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. correlate environmental education with school subjects 4. 3. Participation. Essential Knowledge About the Environment A. 2.5. education about the environment and education through the environment. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving environment problems. aesthetic and educational factors. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system • Types of Eco-system • Concept of limiting factors. role of teacher in environmental conservation. Broadly. political. social. list out the types of environment 3. economic.educat ion for the environment. population explosion and resource depletion could be.
. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems 4. Environmental educat ion will enable the pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. To help individuals and social groups evaluate environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological. Skills.
4. it covers the following elements: 1. you will able to: 1. Attitude. strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively participat ing in its protection and improvement.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 1. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education 2. 6.5. Details are given below: I. Evaluation Ability.
their role in nutrients flow • Water cycle. heat sink and wind flow in cities. Air pollution Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Oxides of sulphur Oxides of nitrogen. its role in nutrient flow • The gaseous cycle: Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Oxygen cycle. its role in energy flow • Energy transformations and eventual “lost” • Energy from the earth’s interior C. a. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • The earth’s ultimate source of energy • Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system • Water cycle. mortality and dispersal • Age structure • Population growth form • Regulation of population size • Natural selection and evaluation. Population Dynamics • Population density • Natality. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system • Photosynthesis • Respiration • Food chain and food web • Tropic levels • The ten percent law. • Sedimentary cycles Phosphorus Sulphur.
. • Biological magnification E. soot and other particulate matter • Ozone • Concentration of human population. D. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system: • Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog. Oxidants Other pollutants. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles • Earth processes. 2. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system.B. F. Human Intervention in Natural Processes 1.
B. c. Use of medical science i. Intrauterine device iii. Rapid population growth Food shortage Decreasing surface area Water shortage Energy crisis Scarcity of the earth's material. Persuasion: i. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources
. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment A. The pill ii. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem The physical. Socio-economic measures.3. Control of population growth a. 3. and social consequences of environmental problems The graphical scale of environmental problems The time scale of environmental problems The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems. New problems from development and industrialisation Cost of development Development in developing countries Increased waste production and pollution Cost of pollution. 4. 2. economic. 2. Major Causes of Environment Problems 1. Sterilisation. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem 1. Concentration of human population (urbanisation) Unemployment and poverty Concentration of wastes High incidence of diseases Conflicting land uses. Birth control through education b. Family planning ii. The human ecosystem II. Abortion iv. New problems from science and technology Medical technology Agricultural technology Energy technology Food technology Materials substitution technology. III.
3. Air pollution abatement ii. List out the major causes of Environmental problems.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Define Environmental Education. 1983). Write any two objectives of Environmental Education.
. Water pollution abatement. e) Recycling. Broadly speaking following may be the major topics of environmental education: • Purpose and Role of the Biosphere • The Environment and its Elements • Reserve of Natural Resources • Man and Ecological Balance • Atmospheric Exploitation • Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources • Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources • Population Problem • The Environment.
2. (UNESCO. Public HealthCare and The Food Problem • Environmental and Economic Development • Environmental Management Control • International Cooperation and Environmental Protection.b) Developing new and unconventional food sources c) Treatment of malnutrition d) Pollution abatement: i.
Any constituent or condition of the environment. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds. -other. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution communication networks like telephone.1 Natural environment The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is called natural environment. way is called environmental or ecological factor.other components of the environment. a. any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components of the environment.5. fax agricultural apparatus. satellite and energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc 4.5. Biological environment The biological environment. They interact with each. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism called homoeostat ic environment mechanism. includes the plants. b. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the . (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil and water. 4.5. Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and biotic (living) environment. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment mechanism. A change in one brings about a change in the other. which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the organism in any specific. These are biotic components. He modifies according”. The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions.5.5. telex.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT Environment can be divided into two categories 4. to his needs. animals and other organisms (biotic).5.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A BIOTIC COMPONENT) The environment which is modified by human activities is called anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through scientific technology which is the product of human brain.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS EDUCATION
The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following
. Physical environment Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity conditions like temperature and light.4.
At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. are the topics which may be taught in History. are the topics which may find place in Zoology. (ii) Air pollution. excellent recreation sites. reasons. evolution. balance of nature. acid rain. use of pesticides. noise control. relation between population and pollution. sources of pollut ion. industrial survey. windmills. trees reducing noise pollution. change in climate may be added. t heir role in preventing pollution. food chain and food-web. water scarcity. explosion deforestation. noise pollution. importance of nitrogen cycle.. preserving the watersheds. of civilizations. ozone depletion.either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach and teaching it as a part of science. extinction of species. desertification
. use of medicinal plants. effects o f CFC. river systems. role of trees in building economy. ozone layer deplet ion. need for conservation. Physics Topics like conservation of energy. nuclear energy. etc. greenhouse effect. supplying timber for various uses. etc. Zoology Protection and preservation of wildlife. History The rise and fall. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. languages and other subjects (ii) By t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . wars and hazards of war. sources. over exploitation of ground water. industrial pollut io n. air pollutants from industries. maintaining the ecological diversity.
Geography Topics like importance of forest areas. The integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below: Botany Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees. need for bio-diversity. effects. natural way of controlling pests. Chemistry Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion. harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics. nuclear warfare. population. biogas plants. alternate sources of energy. preventing siltation of dams. solar cookers. social studies. mineral survey.
group discussions and seminars. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues. Sociology It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd interdependence of man. Developing habits of cleanliness among students.
.5. 6. 14. Developing awareness about environmental issues. Health and Hygiene Education Meaning of health and hygiene. 4. Start a compost heap or use a compost bin.
Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and improving the environment. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs. 4.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND
P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to the conservation issues and sustainable development:
1. Peepal and Tulsi. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control. 2. 3. 9. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes. This can be used to recycle waste food and other biodegradable materials. aims and scope. 13. role of plants and animals to make the healthy environment.
Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and nonbiodegradable waste material. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres. 5. Social norms and traditions which help in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan. 10. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’. treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under Sociology. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’. 8. 12. animal and plants. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene Education. 7. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. Providing. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and protection of environment. 11. need of social life to live in cooperation with vegetation and animals.may be inc ded in Geography. Organising conferences.
Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. World Environmental falls on
. Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Walking and cycling can help to keep you fit. as the smoke may contain polluting gases. Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy. or form a car pool for everyday travel. it will cause pollution. Observe World Environment Day on 5th June. If it is done. Reuse carrier bags. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry. Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide. Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products. Use public transport wherever it is possible. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
6. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of Environment. all these can cause serious pollution. especially plastics. so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles. Never put any left over chemicals. used oils down the drain.Send their waste oil. Don’t burn any waste. old batteries and used tyres to a garage for recycling or safe disposal. and keep the engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right pressure.
5. toilet or dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden.
CFCs. rather than conquest and mastery. (cleanliness. The students can be divided into small groups to conduct the invest igat ion. To discuss the approach to problems or topics. To arrange visits or expeditions.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f gathering information. The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and prepare the points of enquiry. According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values related to environment like: Interrelatedness of nature. Social responsibilit y (common good. disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio .5. loss of bio-diversity.mat erials. minimizing loss of natural capital (topsoil. Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem. diversity and stability. The funct ions o f the teacher may be summarized as: To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise challenging problems.4. Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of industrial wastes. developing desirable attitudes. etc. To arrange for visiting speakers. Systematic and holistic thinking about nature. Concern for species.). Conservation of natural resources. viz. and To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions. values and habits. deforestation. Att itudes of balance towards nature. To provide reference materials for children’s use.. Harmony with the nature . To provide materials needed for practical work. To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards the lines of enquiry. potable water. Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind posed by harming the biosphere. nuclear wars. their experiences in the general class and enter into discussions. To initiate and develop discussion and debate. concern for physical limits of nonrenewable and slowly renewable natural resources. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection. and
. depletion of ozone. etc. prevention of irretrievable loss of species. orderliness and beauty). dest roying nat ural habitats. The groups may exchange. concern for others). Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use their abilities to acquire information.
interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or ecology. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of environment 3. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for developing skills. 4. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 7.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting environment protection.
4. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education 2. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.5.Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than sustainable yield.
8. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.
. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.5.
4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.5. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education. preserving natural cycles.
Organising conferences. New Delhi : Deep & Deep Publications. Publications Pvt. air pollutants from industries. b. To provide reference materials for children’s use. (2007). To provide materials needed for practical work. (2007). To help individuals and social groups acquire basic understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.K. 5. Environmental Education. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems. Nanda. new problems from science and technology. b. a. population. importance of nitrogen cycle. New Delhi : Anmol
. Environmental Education. (ii) Air pollution. b. ozone layer deplet ion. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection.2.. Environment and Human Rights. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion. explosion deforestation. New Delhi :
Sharma. Providing. 6.K. b. Ltd.\ 4. Education for values. Awareness. importance of trees in the production of oxygen. Rapid population growth.K. greenhouse effect. S. Social responsibilit y (common good. sources. 4. Y. water scarcity. relat ion between population and pollution.12 SUGGESTED READING Chitrabhanu. specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise. (2004). Knowledge. Anmol Publications Pvt. reasons. (1997). Kuldeep. new problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human population. 8. effects.5. Udaiveer. concern for others). Ltd. 3. T. S. over exploitation of ground water. group discussions and seminars. a. a. acid rain. New Delhi : Authors Press.K. June 5 7. a. Modern Problems of Education. sources of pollution.
UNIT – V
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy, educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning. In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher. Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda. The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles, flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is also discussed. Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among students. Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
STRUCTURE 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Introduction Objectives Idealism 22.214.171.124 Idealism and aims of Education 126.96.36.199 Idealism and Curriculum 188.8.131.52 Idealism and methods of teaching 184.108.40.206 Idealism and the teacher 5.1.4 Naturalism 220.127.116.11 Naturalism and aims of Education 18.104.22.168 Naturalism and Curriculum 22.214.171.124 Naturalism and methods of teaching 126.96.36.199 Naturalism and the teacher 5.1.5 Pragmatism 5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 188.8.131.52 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.6 Realism
184.108.40.206 Pragmatism and aims of Education 5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum 5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching 5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’, it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and values without education. 5.1.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson, you will able to: 1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism 2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum, methods, and teacher. 5.1.3 IDEALISM The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education. 220.127.116.11 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man. making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self.
Spiritual Development. and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm. should be universal in nature.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below: Self realisation According to idealism. Education should be based on the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe. promote and transmit it to rising generation. the emancipation of spirit.1. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable him to conserve. enrichment and transmission of culture. man is essentially a moral being. "Education/must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm.” 5."
Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. It is self-realisation. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher till self-realisation is achieved It is.3. moral.our life. Education according to idealism. intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments.
Universal Education. man is the most beautiful creation of God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm. The aim of idealistic education is the preservation. Therefore. inviolable and hence holy life” In short. Education must contribute to development of culture.
Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life Froebel says. “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure.
Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism. the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind. According to Rusk'. The universe is regarded as a thought process.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM While developing curriculum. in fact. idealists give more importance to thought feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It must consist of humanities
Literature etc should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. 5. Learning through discussion. An idealist teacher is a philosopher. Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. hygiene. an indispensable necessity.The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection.” He is thus. games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum. Science. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct. According to Frobel. “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods not devotees of some one method. 2. the following methods have been advocated by different idealists 1.3. He sets the environment in which education takes place. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection. no doubt. Learning through imitation.3.” 5. a spiritual guide for the child. 5. Learning through lecturing. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. should be there. Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism Butlei4rightly remarked. Learning through questioning. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. Through teacher's guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to
. class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. a meeting place of human mindsa place for self education. the school is a garden. friend and guide. and collation (striving) should find due place. Sciences and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of human race. the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. 4. subjects like Languages. Philosophy. so subjects like Religion. Ethics. However. Herbert advocated instruction method.1. affecting (feeling).the spiritual qualities of mankind. while Froebel insisted upon Play way method In all.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. So cognition (knowing). Mathematics etc. 3.1. He carries the child from darkness to light. The plant can grow. History. According to idealism. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of reality. For this no particular method has been suggested. It considers teacher as. For intellectual development. So he should embody.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. Learning through reading. So health.
formal lessons or examinations. Perfection of Human Machine.
2.4.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under: • Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation.
5. In the naturalistic system of educatin there is no place for class rooms.1. text books.perfection and beauty. 5.preservation.” Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of education. time tables. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.1. whereas the main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism. Ross explains. It exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. "Education should make
. Naturalism believes that formal education was the invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature.4 NATURALISM Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. In the words of Ross. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist wants fine roses. curricula.
Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as Physics. The past experiences explain the origin of the present ones. therefore. The aim of Naturalistic education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any interference by the society. Botany etc Language. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. Art etc are subsidiary subjects. is based on the nature of the child. Therefore. Zoology. Biology. In all. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man as the prime movers of his behaviour.4.
Autonomous Development of Individuality. It stresses basic sciences. Arithmetic. Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that. rational harmoniously balanced. Education also aims at helping the individual t. “Education finds its purpose.1. Naturalistic curriculum. education should develop the child into Joyous. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. There is no place for religious and moral education. 4. subjects like history. aim at the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival Education for Adjustment. Chemistry.o secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the process of adjustment to environment. Education should. Its firm belief is that child teams best in natural settings: 1. Literature. its process and its means within the child-life and child-experience.
. by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more complicated tasks • Re-direction and Human instincts.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. It is based on the psychology of the child.
5. Such education is a matter of experiences rather than of instruction. Punishment is given by nature in its own way.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this purpose.the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its constitution. Spencer contends that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in selfpreservation 3. his interests and inborn tendencies 2. It emphasises physical and health education 5. geography should also be included in the curriculum. useful and mature child.
3. Learning through observation.4.1. In the . uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. The main aim of Naturalism is &
4. Learning by doing.” Naturalism lays stress on: 1. a creator of conditions under which natural development takes place. His job is to facilitate the process of child's growth as well as Learning.
5. a provider of an ideal environment.5 PRAGMATISM Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Here the emphasis is on the individual method. he should be taught by experience alone. 4. and rebels against the academic and orthodox
.naturalistic scheme of education the teacher plays the role of an observer. he should be taught by experience alone” – said by . Dalton Plan. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 3. Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER Nature is a great teacher. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Naturalism has made very significant contribution. Learning through experience. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING In the field of methodology.1. Pragmatism is a midway between naturalism and idealism.5. the stage. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of existence as forwarded by naturalism. Rousseau says. Naturalists do not like that children should be taught in classes by teachers. 2. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson. Teaching in classrooms does not find favour with the naturalists. a supplier of materials and opportunities.1. Heuristic method. Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. It discards all rigid.4. 5. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. The teacher is only a means to assist child's full and free development.
It is philosophy which emerges from educational practices. Learning takes place through experiences transmitted as well as shared. social and moral aspects.1. In the over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages. but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and problems.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not fixed. Continuous reconstruction of Experience.5. The individual has not only to adjust himself. Social Efficiency. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and develops his life. Education is a process of living through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Geography. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient persons. All Round Development of an Individual. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism.absolutism of idealism.1. Physical training. Education leads to more education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means of new learning. History. This growth takes place through mutual interactions and changing social order. is true. immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be wholly within the child’s experience.5. of human personality is in terms of his physical. 5. Subjects. Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. intellectual. Vocational and
. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses. The most important aim of education according to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. 5. Agriculture. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an individual to grow continuously. diversified and flexible. Continuous Growth. Personal Social Adjustment. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are given below: The Aim of Education is More Education. The aim of educational development.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based. Social Science. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic and cultural efficiency. Sciences. interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in his environment.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. activities and experience should be integrated properly. He has to be active. It seeks to maintain unity in diversity. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom. The child gains insight and capacities to face and solve the problems of life.” 5.5. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher. According to this principle education should be imparted through activities and practical experiences.1.5. In different situations he remains a friend and helper.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER In a pragmatic system of education. He must be trained.Technical Education.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching. On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment. alert and resourceful. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. a teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism. Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. a senior partner and a sincere guide. Methods of teaching should not be fixed. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
5. a teacher occupies an important position. Pragmatism believes in action and actual participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely.1. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism
. should find proper place. Methods must be useful and related to the interest of the child. The subjects. They must involve practical work activities and productive experiences. efficient and a man of foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. Learning by Doing.
intellectual. Chemistry.1. 4. Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic. Crafts. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire knowledge of definite and real objects.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM This assumes a central part of their education. “Seeing is believing” Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life.1. Psychology. Education must enable man to adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things. Biology.6 REALISM Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism. Population Education. 3. The basic tenets of realism are 1. History. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education according to realism.6.
5. Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the conditions that are existing. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an individual to earn his livelihood.6. Art. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to make human life comfortable. Education must cultivate scientific outlook. It favours child-centered.1.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION 1. rich and happy.5. liberal. Study of Subjects like Language. Astrology. Biography Philosophy. but like pragmatism it is an attitude of mind. 4. 5. scientific and psychological education. Geography are unnecessary
. 3. literary or humanistic education. Literature. The child should be provided complete knowledge of society. practical. 2. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived by mind. Mathematics. Satisfaction of individual and social needs. 5. Education is preparation for a complete living. This should consist of instruments of knowledge like Physics. specific. 2. Material world or objective world is real Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist Experience is the touch stone of what is real. Music and Dance. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by the facts of life as they exist. Sex Education.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the methods of teaching in realism
.1.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER • • • • • • Teacher must be a scholar Teacher must know the child Teacher must show sympathy towards the child Teacher should have an integrated personality Teacher must be an trained or experienced person Teacher should have firm faith in science. easily and pleasantly.6. certainly and clearly.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6. They recommended • Learning through experience • Child centered • Experimentation • Tours / Excursion • Demonstration and Observation 5.6.
Social Science. Self preservation & Self expression 4. 5. a. Education according to pragmatism. e.1. pragmatism and realism. d. History. Learning through experience b. We have seen that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization. Tours / Excursion e.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS 1. in this lesson. Geography. 6. 5. & curriculum. Learning through questioning. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and practice 3. discussed the philosophical concepts of four major schools of philosophy – idealism.1. Rousseau 5. c. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education 2. for naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. 3. Learning through imitation. has no end other than growth. Agriculture. Learning through lecturing. Vocational and Technical Education. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to aim. Child centered c. 5.5. Self Realisation b. a. Experimentation d. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss. a. Physical training. Demonstration and Observation
. whereas according to realism it is preparation for a happy life. Learning through reading. Sciences. Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls. b. Learning through discussion.7 LET US SUM UP We have. Universal Education 2. naturalism. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism 4.1. Languages.
10 SUGGESTED READINGS Dhiman. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ludhiana :Parkash Brothers.P. K and
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. (2004).P. Ltd. (2003). Narang C. P.1. New Delhi : A. (2007). Foundations of Education.H. R. K.
Theory and Principles of Education. O. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.
New Delhi :
. L. P. Publishing corporation. of
Pathak. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Perspective Education.
2.1 Aims of Education 5.3. TAGORE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA
STRUCTURE 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.3 Introduction Objectives Educational philosophy of Gandhiji 5.4 Views about teacher 5.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi 5.2.LESSON 5.1 Aims of Education 126.96.36.199. Idealist and Pragmatist 188.8.131.52
EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI.4 Views about teacher 5.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore 5.1 184.108.40.206.2 Curriculum 5.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda 5.1 Aims of Education 220.127.116.11.2.3 Methods of teaching
.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education 5.3 Methods of Teaching 5.2 Curriculum 18.104.22.168.3.3 Methods of teaching 5.2.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum 22.214.171.124.2.2 5.3.3.
According to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual.4 Role of the teacher 5. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.
. you will able to: 1. Gandhiji is considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East Gandhiji observes. The doctrines of Great Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated. we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of certain selected educational philosophers from our country. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education.2. 3.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his philosophy of life.5.2.2. political leader who planned a system of National Education intended for the masses in rural areas. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to educational aims. 5. Gandhiji was primarily a social.5. an artist. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and social ideas.8 5. 2.
5. mind and spirit.2. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary context. Tagore was a poet. content and methods.2. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme was the result of his thinking in the lines of social.” This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body.7 5. economic and political reconstruction in our country.2.6 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational thoughts as glimpses.2.9 Let us sum up Unit End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5. a painter and a philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.2.
development of all round personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and real life situations. through life and for life. He considered the cultural aspect of education as more essential than its academic aspect. it is education of life. He advocated that vocational education and cultural advancement should go side by side. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development of human personality. "I attach more.intellectual and physical faculties of the children. Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote. 'Man is neither mere intellect. nor heart or soul alone A proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the whole man and constitutes the true economics of education." Dignity of Labour. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students must learn the dignity of labour. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such as courage. He advocated education for selfreliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words. 'The real education is that which fully develops the body. mind and soul of children He further observed. Culture is the main foundation and an essential part of education. In the words of Gandhiji.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education. Culture Is primary and basic thing which the girls should receive from school Character Aim According to Gandhiji. Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life and become self.” The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below: A new concept of education. It really provides opportunity for character building. self-restraint and service of humanity. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. 5. righteousness. strength of mind.3. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education.
. They should not feel shy while doing some work with their hands. importance to cultural factor of education than its literary factor.supporting. "Education ought to be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment Cultural Aim. the end of all knowledge should be the building up of character. Immediate Aims Vocational Aim. His scheme of education is life centred. nor the gross animals body.2.
Art. The proper teaching of mothertongue is the foundation of all education. the realization of the ultimate reality. He suggested Home-Science for girls
. Only good individual forms a better society.3. According to Gandhi. Mother-tongue. leather work have been suggested. General Sciences. gardening. other subjects to be included in the curriculum are Social Studies. Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations.Training for Leadership. 5. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. That way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory manner. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education. "Development of the moral character.2. development of the whole all were directed: towards. Music.Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find perfect support in Gandhian scheme. wood work. good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. Drawing and Hindustani. Individual and Social Aims. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy. Ultimate Aim of Education Spiritual Development . Gandhiji stressed that education should equip the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched.the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing Godliness in his self.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity centered. metal work.
3 METHODS OF TEACHING Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of Gandhian scheme of education.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.trained. proficient. Basic education is other wise known as 4.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is 3.3. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through experiences Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji
5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.2.2. men of
. expenence or craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation 5. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as 2. all education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the process of education natural and meaningful Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature Education is imparted through creative and productive activities Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system of education. Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji.3. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the school will be taught.
5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST. men of character and nationalists CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have many common points Gandhiji as an Idealist Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as can be seen from his upbringing and early education. PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST
On the basis of Gandhian approach to education. he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in natural surroundings He equally decried book learning Gandhiji as Pragmatist Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons: 1. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real experiments of life and through life problems and situations. He has an experimental approach towards life 2.
5. “To develop the spirit is to build character
. 3.3. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5. Gandhi as Naturalist Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were important educative agencies. He also advocates freedom for the child.2. That is why.knowledge. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good by nature. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji. Education must be child centered. faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Gandhiji attached great importance to the training of spirit He says. Gandhi has been described as a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist.
he believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all. • Ideal of citizenship.2. His name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides.K. He believed in the oneness of humanity. he was a true Vedantist 5.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION Aims of Education. The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed here • Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. • Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality. • Education should involve manual work.2. as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under:
. He was a true patriot.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION Basic education was advocated by M. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.2. 5.3.and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful.” Like all other ideals. • Cult of non-violence.
5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 6.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. Gandhi in 1937.4. • Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. He was deadly against untouchability. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year 7. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching.
Language and Literature . Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the learners. The more a person is morally and spiritually sounds. deeper in. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the students. sentiment. (vi) Philosophy. wider in range. Zoology. Dance. That way only. etc. Chemistry. Tagore said. English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences like Physics. "Mankind must realise a unity." The main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the unification of mankind” 5.4. It should help the learner have good physique. It should help. complete manhood could be attained. Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help the individual have harmonious development of personality. Education must help the learner to grow and develop fully.Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for the learner.
. Therefore. he advocated that education should help in more and more international understanding. Economics and Sociology (v) Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts. International Understanding. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress on cramming by the learners. Purposeful and Meaningful Education. He becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education. General Science and Health Education (iv) Social sciences like History.2 CURRICULUM Subject of Study . Geography. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and oneness of all human beings On this earth. Botany. the more dedicated and devoted. Education which is imparted to the students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the situation they are ever placed in. Civics. he said. International understanding. He advocated that type of education which would help the-individual. Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish knowledge.2. Music. a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. stronger in power than ever before. could help in forging unity among all. Religion and Psychology.Mother tongue and other Indian languages. them solve problems of day to day life. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. Physical development leads to all round development of the personality.
2. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to guide his students. That helps in proper growth and development of each individual. “He who has lost the child in himself is absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international Unviersity.2. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for everyone there. A teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. In 1921. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all this.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape to his ideas In 1901.4.” He further says. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit of perfect comradeship.2. 5. The curriculum revolves round actual living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render social service. The following methods of teaching were recommended • • • • Teaching while Walking Debate and Discussion Method. His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs of the individuals. He is a Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms its one single nest”. Activity Method Heuristic Method.
5." 5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-Government Actual Living and Community Service.4. Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles from Bolpur in Bengal. Only a good learner can be a good teacher. Let individualised methods be used for teaching.
.4. Tagore rightly says.
Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching) 6. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and Research) 5. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore.g. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance) 7. race. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance) 8. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education) 4. It is open to all irrespective of country. Hindi Bhavan CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction) 9. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination) 3. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training) 11. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi. Constituent Units of Vishvabharati A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below: 1. atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural environment.
. religion and politics It is a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore.Shanthiniketan has open spaces.
9. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 8. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School) 2. Sika Satra (Rural High School) 10. Chinese Tibetan etc) 12.
who are engaged in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under 1.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an individual Further he rightly says. He believed in to learning or selflearning. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man. liberty and salvation are the hall marks of life. Education should help an individual so that he/she is to realise about himself.2. who possess sweet and amicable tempers. Self reliance is the most important thing for everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every way within his ownself. It should not be just filling in the mind of the learner with all type of so called knowledge only.” 5. 2. Book learning. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is very essential for peace. The teacher only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues. man making. prosperity and progress of an individual Education should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda' Through education. Education for Self-realization. Freedom." He was against the theoretical type of education.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High Court.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be manmaking. rote learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at all. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. work and deeds come out of it. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life. “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is life building.5. “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are centered on the acquisition of knowledge. 3. 4.2. Purity of thought. According to him.5. character forming and assimilation of ideas. Concept of Education. Education should make a person self-reliant. Education should develop strong moral character of the individual. The whole beauty of life is linked with it. Education for strong Moral Character. Education for Self-reliance. we should gradually reach the idea of universal brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality
5. sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the curriculum.2 CURRUCULUM Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta.the learners on different students in the discussion. Of course. with his Own example imbibes in the students all good things. The teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. That will serve the purpose of education fully.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher is a friend. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. And above all. Swami.5. The real example of the teacher with this regard will also do Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. The teacher should be the facilitator. 6.2. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. There the teacher provided just guidance to them. concentration depends upon Brahamcharya.2. philosopher and guide to the students He. Thirdly he wished that games.
. He should help in creating the environment which will help the student do self study. engineering and technical subjects. Education should help in the physical development of an individual. he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and requirements of the masses. Education for Physical Development. Thus we find that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts.3 METHODS OF TEACHING The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji Self-Study. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more. Every individual should be trained for concentration.5. 5. Secondly he wanted Science. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and . 5. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout. Discussion Method.5. Philosophy and Theology.2. 5. The personal life of the teacher is of much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Religion. That education is worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one. A physically strong person is the need of the society. There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on different topics of study. Only a selfless person can be good teacher.
2. begin with a critique of the existing educational system and practice. 3. ears and eyes. naturalist. 2. broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern Indian educational thinkers. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore. We have seen that Tagore. Vivekananda and Gandhiji not only articulated their views on the aims. in this lesson.7 UINT END EXERCISES 1. Their educational ideas. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 11. Write short notes on Basic education. of course.
. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that every one was his own teacher. curriculum and methods of teaching but also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action. Gandhiji as a Idealist.6 LET US SUM UP We have. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda. They were concerned with total education and the full development of man. and pragmatist .
5.2.Substantiate your answer. If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues of education and life. legs. 5. The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands.
12.Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular education to the people. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child takes place according to their nature.” CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
Teaching while Walking b.2.4. Nai Talim 4. leather work have been suggested. 1937 7. c. Activity Method
b. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving. a. Cult of non-violence. 2. 8. Self-Study
b. e. a. 9. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction. d. Where the whole world forms its one single nest. productive work or vocational work through art and craft methods of teaching. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda. wood work. 5. Self realization. c. Activity Method d. metal work. a. 3. Education should involve manual work. 11. Meditation and concentration c. 10. Heuristic Method. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view. Ideal of citizenship. Debate and Discussion Method.
5. 5. Explain Vishwabharathi. f. Technique of Correlation 6. b. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man
12.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Discussion Method
. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children. Basic education. Learning by Doing c. gardening. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) SelfGovernment. a.
9 SUGGESTED READINGS
Theory and Principles of Education. Publishing Corporation. Ltd. New Delhi : A.H. P. L. C.5.P.
Philosophical and Sociological perspectives Education. K. O.2. (2007). (2003). New Delhi : Shipra Publications. J. K and Narang C.
Dhiman. N. B. (2002). Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.
Bhatia. Foundations of Education.
. (2007). New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.
Pahuja. N. Anmol Publications Pvt. P. (2004).
Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian Society.
New Delhi :
9 5.5 5.LESSON 5.11 5.12 Introduction Objectives Curriculum and education Flexibility of the curriculum Curriculum Reconstruction in India Curriculum and National goals Principles of curriculum construction Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
5.3.2 126.96.36.199. we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in recent educational terminology. Certain planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible.3.3.3 5.3. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.4 188.8.131.52 5.3.7 5.1 INTRODUCTION Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum.1 5.8 5.3. In this lesson.3.3. Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’. The term curriculum in recent years has come to mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students
.10 5.3 CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION
In the words of Kerney and Cook. curriculum also offers a wide contrast. In it.3. adjust ment to environment and imbibing o f culture. there is a large number of communities. “It is a complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. it is identical wit h socializat ion. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India 3. Since the demands. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . 5. The functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives of educat ion. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation 5. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction 5. ideals and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely.A. Education is the product and curriculum is the plan. and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. present behaviour may be modified. in Russia or in Japan.S. Curriculum is intimately related to education.3.. While education is learning. While education is a process. you will be able to: 1. in fact . Curriculum in schools in Independent India can never remain the same as it used. is a means to the process. 5. the plateau area and
. in the U. Educatio n deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. analyse the curriculum and national goals 4.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM Curriculum is not rigid and static. in the form of new experience. Both the processes are integrated. the plain area. A g o o d curricu lu m. Then in a big country like India. the desert area. It is dynamic and flexible and changes constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society.3. new behaviour may be acquired.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION Education has to integrate the two processes. curriculum signifies situations for learning. to be in schools during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. In the former sense. One is the individual process and the other is the social process. state the meaning of curriculum 2. is t he su m t ot al o f goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences. curriculum. Similarly curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same as in India. maintained or eliminated. living in the hilly area.under the direction of the school.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. From the latter point of view.
(i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived (ii) it is bookish and theoretical (iii) it is overcrowded. therefore. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be gained. We also need a curriculum which could help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors in the curriculum. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our country and also its pressing needs. After independence the Basic System of education was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. So the curriculum may also vary from school to school. The entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. In fact . The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary Education Commission. environment.3. according to modern trends in the educational process. customs and needs. 5. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and Dr. Again. too. and
. if it is to educate the whole of the personality. democratic and socialistic country. A balanced and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through craft and social and physical environment. without providing rich and significant contents (iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities which should reasonably find room in it. It must differ from locality and from society to society. (v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents (vi) it is dominated too much by examinations. from and even fro m scho lar to scholar.coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality. the learning capacity of children. A number of attempts were made to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs. the curriculum “can be outlined only in a general way. that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all. also differ according to the resources of different schools and the characteristics of pupils. Besides craft. irrespective of their needs and environment. allo wing enough scope for variat io n wit hin the general frame work”. much work in this direction could not be done as India was under the British rule. it is. From a slave-country we became secular. aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic Education. However. differs from individual to individual. studying therein.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the shackles of slavery.
which the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. etc. and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. They are achievable.. unsatisfactory.
. 3. Vocational Efficiency.. T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes. Self Realisation. tangible. e. They are achievable through better organisation of educational process. The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly conceived. unambiguous and functional. They speak of perfect goals.. e.
5. objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national goals. Knowledge Objective. moral. social. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of lear ning outcomes. Understanding Objective. specific. The word “Curere” means 2. social. 1. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and.g.(vii)
it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic development of the country. individual or Social and so on. which may or may not be attained.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS
At this juncture. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. So it is inadequate.g. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. They are visionary goals e. They speak of immediate purposes of education. It leads only to intellectual development at the cost of physical. Goals of Primary Education. 2. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
1. Goals of Secondary Education. there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals. What is the meaning of curriculum ?
3.. eg. 4. aims. Application Objective.3. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made
. general or specific.. uninspiring and unscientific. etc. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception.g. remote or immediate. aesthetic and spiritual development. in instructional objectives. National Integration. of classroom. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. they depend on the political. unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed. They may be ultimate or proximate. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a level of education. emotional. etc. Every nation develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and demands.
The interests. should be made so much interesting while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them in the play way spirit.” Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern Curriculum subjects. in the libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers and other. as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced. Crow and Crow remarks. activities and experiences should inculcate in the children social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others.”
Interrelation of Play and Work Activities The learning activities and experiences. “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns.3. “Curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects. activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their cultural values and civilization. Totality of Experience The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the curriculum as one unit. finding them very interesting and captivating. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. educationists. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and civilization. there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects. age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close attention while constructing a suitable curriculum.
Raymont rightly says. heavy fire.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Child Centred Education Curriculum should be child centred. abilities.”
. needs. The curriculum should include both the literary and academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a child receives in the school campus. on the playing fields. “The aim of those who guide the learning process should be so. Relation with Life Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of children. capacities. The old and prevalent curriculum is under. “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future. in the class rooms.5.” Knowledge of Culture and Civilization Those subjects. but it includes the totality of experiences. According to Crow and Crow.
Hence all those activities and subjects should be included in the curriculum which promote physical. tendencies. time in a useful manner. moral. activities and experiences which are useful to the present as well as the future life of children. there should be enough flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties. “The curriculum should be vitally and organially related to community life. Inclusion of All Life Activities According to Herbert Spencer. Forward Look Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well as remote future. capacities and abilities. Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new
. The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down. “There should be enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and adaptation to individual needs and interests. the prime aim of education is to achieve complete development of individuality. curriculum should contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways. mental. urges. The dead wood in the present curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials. A good curriculum should develop capacities in the children to spend their leisure. aptitudes. They often waste it or rather kill it. Irrelevant and useless material should find no place in the curriculum. This integrated curriculum is made compulsory for all children. This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment
according to his needs
Variety and Flexibility Different children have different inherent interests. Due to these variations and differences. The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says. Relationship with Community Life Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of community life should be given due place to make children understand them well and realize their responsibility towards them.” Developing Democratic Spirit As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic.” Education for Leisure The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time effectively.Utility Curriculum should include those subjects. social and political development of a child in a harmonious manner.
According to POA (1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by simultaneously launching three programmes. infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel.curricular. administrative programme need be planned. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning. provide relevant learning experiences adopting various teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives. organized. In order to provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation. The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal levels. 2. analysis and concretise the curricular elements. To ensure success of the process. Implementation Strategies Educational technology support for communication efficacy.
. a good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the NCERT and other organizations. development of professional capability at all levels.: The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with 1. With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers and supervisors. supervision and for provision of technical and logistical support. there is a need to reorient the educational personnel responsible for management. production and distribution of textbooks and other instructional materials. learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum framework. Similarly. The present organization structure should be made more efficient through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. The approach to be followed in the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching. 3. produce teaching aids from locally available low cost materials. make effective utilization of various mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and continuously. elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books. evaluated and coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional guidance at different level of implementation”. In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of the programmes with reasonable flexibility. phased preparation.
It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school. Child Centred Education b. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’. It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens. 11. 17. 5. curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers in curriculum planning. a. library. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education committee. 10. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities
.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. Run. 12. workshop. 18. laboratory. principles of curriculum construction.
5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.3. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 9. The curriculum of a country like its constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments. 1937 19. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum?
5. in the class room. playground and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit
4.3.3. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its implementation.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers d. Relation with Life c. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals.CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a.
N. New Delhi : Authorspress. Teacher and Education in Indian Society.K. P. Lakshmi. and Sarita Kumari.3. S. (2007). New Delhi : Sterling Publishers Private Limited.S.5. D. Curriculum Development. Innovations in Education. Bhalla. (2001). New Delhi : Isha Books. Curriculum and Instruction. (2007).
.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy. Ludhiana : Tandon Publication Srivastava. (2007). S.
7 Scientific Attitude 5.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude 5.4.4
PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE AMONG STUDENTS
STRUCTURE 5.4.2 5.11 Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
.4.1 184.108.40.206 5.4.LESSON 5.3 5.4.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude 220.127.116.11.4 18.104.22.168 Importance of developing scientific attitude 22.214.171.124.8 5.1 Developing scientific outlook 5.4.10 5.7.6 Introduction Objectives Importance of science education Advantages of science education Schemes for improvement of science Scientific outlook 5.5 126.96.36.199.4.4.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook 5.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude 5.7.
3.4. yet real advancement in this area was achieved . understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student. we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few seriously devoted persons. Gradually. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific attitude among students. honesty.
5. All our educational endeavor eventually are concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners. Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of judgement among human beings. which we sometimes call scientific attitudes.5. 2. open-mindedness. superstition or emotion.
.1 INTRODUCTION Ours is an age of science. It is essential for every individual to have a correct knowledge of this scientific age. Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century.4.
5. know the importance of science education. They should try to develop themselves technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.side by side with the growth of agriculture and allied vocations. We mean curiosity. willingness to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of evidence rather than tradition. explain the concept of scientific attitude. Living in the present world invariably warrants the knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees.4. newer and newer industries started growing.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson. By process of science we mean the patterns of thinking. Education should be organized in such a way that each child is inspired to participate actively. in the economic reconstruction of society. When India attained independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth .during the second half of this century. They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the development of science and technology. you will be able to: 1. importance and techniques of developing scientific attitude.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Whether we like it or not. tolerance for the opinions of others. 4.
5. they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to solve the various problems of their own life. 2. Some of its working schemes are as follows: 1. Organisation of science fairs. Principles are formulated.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION Following are the advantages of scientific education: 1. 3. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. Thinking and memory develops. 7. On the advice and under the guidance of talented and learned members of UNESCO. Promotion of science clubs. teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of teaching. 6.
5. 2. workshop methods together with techniques of work and instruction.5
SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION
NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Through newspapers. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the urge for scientific education among school children. talented and gifted children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of scholarships. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to popularise scientific education among common people. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases. science council has established a central science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in practical investigations. as well as of the society. Central science workshop. 4. Class-room teaching is augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental work. seminars and symposiums. These clubs are provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical work. Devotion towards nature increases.4. Schemes of teaching science. Through examinations. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian
. stipends and appreciations in various ways. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations.So that. models and scientific instruments for laboratories. 6. teachers as well as students are encouraged to prepare designs.4. Selection for science education. 5. Love for truth enhances. After such experience and training. 5. 4.
the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. which is essential for developing scientific outlook. Enquiry teaching is. each child to “enquiry skill building”.4. They encounter many social events as they grow. After presenting the problem. It helps to reduce obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste. sex or religion. Practice develops inquiry skills in the pupils. In the inquiry approach. based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. They ask many questions about the objects they see. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Children are curious by nature. Training of science teachers. The pupils can be allowed to consult each other. essential that teachers. They experience natural phenomenon. Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. For laboratory and workshop techniques. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.needs and conditions. objectivity. 7. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. should provide opportunities to.
5. It is. Write any two advantages of Science Education. • • Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in different aspects of life. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force. Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing beliefs.
5. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.4. They ask questions to understand all these events and phenomenon. therefore. a part time curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in the country to prepare CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource
stubborn determination of analyze one’s own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted.4. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook?
. if they like. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook. 3. offer numerous possibilities for developing scientific outlook.
.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. 6.books. stern pursuit of accurate data. test. 4.
5. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. 5. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom discussions. 3. Social sciences. commands or orders. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by providing cues.4. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. Adopting creative models of teaching. to ask questions and experience things. 2. proof are the pillars of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. . Evidence.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. It requires consistent thinking. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.6.
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 2. Appreciating pupils ideas. Giving less directions. Scientific outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe.Herma Wouk.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK 1. 5.
neighbourhood. of a rich country inhabited by the starving people”.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of science. (Vaidya 2007). These characteristics of any scientific
. There is no place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. It also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. The development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to make it happen. friends. open mindedness of the learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. To achieve this we should understand what it means. The students observation. and emphasized during the learning process . They should learn to observe and think critically and accurately. Scientific attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. practiced. critical thinking and suspended judgments.(Smith 2008). The teacher will have to provide situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience. The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents. to develop among the learners. For instance. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”. keen observation. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific experimentation. therefore should be unbiased and objective. In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way.Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and traditions. They should respect others opinion but at the same time believe only in verifies facts. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. see and feel the need of developing this attitude. The teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude. school and society at large. In order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role.4. These include open mindedness. Scientific attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient citizen in a scientific society. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. 5. A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen observation in the process of science learning. it must be encouraged. of vast resources running waste.7.
5. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties to different groups. understanding and logic. understand and logic rather than one based on superstitions. Our future citizens should not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. In considering a situation or a problem. rumor. he studies all aspects of it. (Das. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusions. or superstitions.pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are developed as a metal attitude in them. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid. The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales. The intention to respect another’s point of view.7. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural country.4. they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences. An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by convincing proof. Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is reflected as: • • • • • • Curiosity to know about one’s environment Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information related to his problem. Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained. the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal philosophy of life based on truth. The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of science education. think and work it”. Science teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study of science. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. intuition or wishful thinking”.
. looking at every side of it before approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias. 2007). Individual without a proper attitude toward the application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from their education. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does not jump to conclusions. Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live.
Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school experience.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific attitude in the pupil. Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in science.7. but to begin only after careful planning.4. Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude among the pupils.
5.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.
5. By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in a particular direction.• •
The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows that it is wrong. They are summarized below:• • • The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil.4. The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations. The students will learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of human curiosity. • • Making use of planned exercise Wide reading
. An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly. Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion.7. The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude. He is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can accept as valid.
Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching.4. practiced and emphasized during the learning process. manuals and reading materials available in school
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where the students can experience. see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and outlook. it must be encourages. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude.
5. The scientific attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude. and fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook.
.8 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education.• • • • • • •
Proper example of the teacher Study of superstitions Planning of activities Preparing the students for activities Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory.
5. Give your answer as instructed in each question b.
b. a.4. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop. (2008). Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among students. Rao. Study of superstitions d.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
1.B (2008). b. A text book on modern methods of teaching physics. (2000). A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in Secondary Schools. Love for truth enhances. 4. S. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions. The intention to respect another’s point of view. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students 15. a. New Delhi : Deep and Deep Publications.4. 5. N.5. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving and discovering skills. M. 16. Vaidya. (2006). b.
. 3. objectivity. Discuss the importance of science education 14. 5. a.4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES 13. Reflections on Scientific attitude. D. 2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Wadhwa. A text book on Science Teaching in Schools. Planning of activities
5. New Delhi : Discovery Publishing House. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as spirit of inquiry creativity.S. Yadav. Wide reading b. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude. a. New Delhi : Anmol Publications. New Delhi : Karon Paper Backs. Proper example of the teacher c. Adopting creative models of teaching. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort. the courage to question and aesthetic sensibility.
5. areas of institutional planning.10 5. 5. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the concerned population.5. you will be able to: 1.5.1 5.3 5.
.5. 2.5.2 5.4 5.9 5. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.7 188.8.131.52.8 5. state the concept.5
STRUCTURE 5. actively.5.5.LESSON 5.11 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning presently. objectives and characteristics.5 5.6 184.108.40.206.12 Introduction Objectives Concept of Institutional Educational Planning Objectives of Institutional Planning Characteristics of Institutional Planning Areas of Institutional Planning The Human relationships in Educational Institution Modern management techniques in educational institutions Let us sum up Unit – End Exercises Answers to check your progress Suggested Readings
• to make planning development-oriented. students organisations and parents associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education. every teacher. It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and school or educational administrators. which become the bases for further planning at the district. • to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below • to introduce decentralization of educational planning.3. By recognizing each institution as a separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans. to attempt at the institutional development through adequate perspective planning of each of the educational institution. and every student in the process of educational planning. In such a scheme of things the individuality of the institutions. every parent. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator. 5. schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake improvement programmes at their own level. • To make institutional planning more successful. • to involve teachers and school administrators. Teachers should be trained to assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective plans for their institutions. and each student are regarded as separate entities. 5. State and national levels from below. the following prerequisites are to be satisfied • institutions should have adequate academic freedom • inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and
. because democratic educational planning administration presupposes popular participation just as any other process of democracy. Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. and supplement planning from above. and. executive as well as public. and educational development programmes should be prepared and implemented in a planned and phased manner.5. teachers and students is not lost sight of. each teacher. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions. Institution should be regarded as the unit.5.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational planning. in the task of educational planning. It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n.
The Committees should be headed by the senior teachers.5. and minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans
5. etc. having the following areas of operation • •
• • • •
Administrative Pattern Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the Institution and all teachers should be its members.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING Institutional planning can be conceive& as. and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services. 5.•
implemented. it becomes the basis for school inspection.5.curricular Activities. Examinations. it is prepared as the annual and five-years plans. The annual plan should be submitted to the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis for inspect ion. approved after making necessary modifications.
. Classwork. council and. heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented as to the techniques of instructional planning. The Standing Committees will work out the details in their sessions.
Preparation of an Institutional Plan
The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of the academic year to prepare the annual plan. which will be discussed in the general. who are usually in charge of those programmes in routine work. and it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes. Co-curricular activities.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING The institutional planning has the following characteristics it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers. (3) TeachingLearning Aids. and Personnel services. There should be some Standing Committees for (1) Academic Affairs. (2) Co.
Organising play-for-all programmes. Conducting of educational. etc. What are the areas of Institutional Planning?
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 1. Undertaking remedial instruction services. Celebrating of national and international festivals. Subject Curricular Items to be involved in Institutional Plans Improving methods of teaching. hobby-centres. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning. Equipping of laboratory and library. Organisation of Self-Government Days. Courts. Organisation of cultural and literary activities. etc. 1.
3. Improving the internal assessment. Organisation of class-room libraries. Improving the subject competence of teachers. Editing the school magazine. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning. etc.No. etc.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings. Running science clubs. charts and apparatus. Organisation of Pupils. etc. Organisation of Students’ Association. Preparation of audio-visual aids. Preparation of models. Preparation of instructional material. Fair distribution of syllabi. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. Holding special classes to the educationally retarded children.
Discipline and Welfare.
2.THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING S. scientific and historical excursions.
The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher. pupils. Amicable and adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system would go a long way to establish international peace. If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can properly be tackled and solved.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS The school system is a system. teacher-State. teacher-managing body. and —pupil-pupil. teacher-teacher. the same will have its concomitant effect on the larger society and on the world at large also. educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. The art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning. The Formal interpersonal Relationships The formal interpersonal relationships. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. Administrator-State. administrator-pupil. The formal interpersonal relationships can again be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships. science teachers’ associations. involving mainly human materials. teacher-nonofficial functionaries. which are divided as the in. teacherinspector. administrator-nonofficial functionaries administrator-managing body. Hence Pounds and Garretson observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe. parents.5. The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered as the Formal and as the Informal. and solidarity. students’ associations. the school system are of great significance and consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. parent-teacher associations. teachers. The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as teachers associations. co-operation. A number of human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of social system. headmasters associations. etc. pupil310
.group and out-group relationships are as given below i. Interpersonal Relationships There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators. administrator-supervisor.5. understanding. administrator-administrator.” The human relationships in. teacher-pupil. ii.
Good. and procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and learning”. To administer means to manage. teacher-community leader.
The Informal Interpersonal Relationships The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent. control. It is related to the executive activity and all its processes. to carry out. pupil-community leader. and to serve. organisation.5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. have become complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences. teacher-parent. administrator. organisation and management. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 4. etc. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing management. now-a-days. It relates to administration of a single educational institution.
functionaries. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. superintendence. pupil-parent. It covers personnel and material management. educational administration is “facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning." Meaning of Educational Management According to Campbell and Ramseyer.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS Administration. V.State. pupil-inspector.
. supervision and superintendence. to attend. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into &
5. It is also being modernized to become a technique. It covers all the managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational institutions. Educational administration includes all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation in accordance with established policies. social sciences and other disciplines. supervision. Management may be taken as a narrow concept. to accomplish. According to C. As in the case with Public Administration so is the case with Educational Administration.
6. The status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow. 10. 4. 7.Of all the approaches. The relationship should change from master. If the cost benefit ratio is less. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical Accounts .He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable manner. 2. 11. Socio-Scientific Approach . If it is more. 5. This is the latest democratic trend in management. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with the subordinates or superior. Better Human Relationships . without this the efficacy will be handicapped.The manager should be capable of having better communication with his employees.Management should be efficient and economical
. 13. Decision Making .The modern manager should be very good in inter-personal relationships. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the enterprise. Communication . Rapport between the Management and Employees . He must be capable of impressing them with his approach and actions. Cost-Benefit Analysis . should be quite apt and adept in the task of decision-making. 8. 3. Economic Management . He should be an artist in human relationships.Any good management allows its workers to actively participate in the administration of affairs. 9. Worker Participation . low.lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . it is not worth-while. Those.sla ve t o t hat o f a demo cr at ic. Leadership . the socio scientific approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques. the worth whileness of the enterprise is well established.This coordination should be ensured to have better results from the managerial endeavours. T he d ecis io ns should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. He should be able to command the employees that are placed under his control and make them carry but the decisions that have been taken.Modern Management Techniques At this juncture.The manager should have leadership traits. 12.Any management is also concerned with the cost-benefit analysis.There is need to establish full rapport between the management and the employees. He should be able to provide his instructions through proper communication channels. it is essential to know about the modern management techniques 1.The manager should take his subordinates into confidence. who occupy the managerial positions.Any good management will always have good public relations.This is an important aspect of modern management techniques. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of efficient work. Democratic Management . Liasion with the Public . Motiviation .
to improve the quality of education it provides. Things should be done as quickly as possible and quite successfully too. the human relationships in educational institutions and modern management techniques in educational institutions. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson you have learnt the concept. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.10 UNIT END EXERCISES 17. characteristics and areas of institutional planning. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution. reduction of wastage and stagnation etc. and cooperative performance should be ensured. The institutional plans can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better planning and harder work.5. indications of a good management The managers should seek collaboration of their subordinates in planning. improvement of teaching methods. Wastage and duplication should be avoided.5.These two are. 5. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance . 19. Our educational management still follows the old bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational goals visualized are remaining unattained. 14.
5. Hence there is need to apply these modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question b. 18. It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in educational management.too.
. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit 5.g. The emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human resources for improvement of education. objective. enrichment of curricula. There are large number of programmes which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.
b.5. (2001).11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level planning. Leadership c. In group and Out group 5. APH Publishing Corporation.
c. Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Motiviation d. H. Syllabus. Educational Administration. and Personnel services. to introduce decentralization of educational planning. (2003).
. it becomes the basis for school inspection. f. Fundamental of Educational Management. Co-curricular activities. S. Singh. Classwork. Examinations. Decision Making b.M. b.12 SUGGESTED READINGS Murthy.K. NUEPA. a. e.
4. New Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. a. New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers. R. Tarachand and Prakash. Ludhiana : Tando Publication Advanced Educational Administration. a. Instruction. d.5. Communication
5. 2. a. (1995).5. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State 3. b.
Preventive measures.Religious and Modern Education 1.1 Inculcation of Socialism. Common ailments of Children. Inspection and Supervision 3. population education.1 Gurukula system of education. 2. UNIT I : History of Indian Education 1. higher education. Education by Christian Missionaries 1. nutritional requirement. School.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education . UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education 2.1 Primary Education : Education for all.2 Nutritional deficiencies. Code of conduct for teachers. 1.3 Educational Influences of Home. Realized the problems of school education. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education 3.4 India's Secular Policy .3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social.3 Directive Principles . Balanced diet. Preservation of nutrients. Secularism and Democracy through Indian education 2.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education 3. Examination reforms. CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION Objectives : On successful completion of the course the student . First Aid. Economic
. wastage and Stagnation 3. Healthy Food Habit 4. Sex-education 4.Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) 1. Communicable diseases .Article 45 .2 Secondary Education : Co-education.1 School Health Programme.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on vocationalisation community and Social Service . women education and teacher education in India. physical education and environmental education 5.CORE PAPER . Buddhist and Jain system of education.Imbalances and Variations in different environment. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time. (b) Community development (c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and (e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts 2.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education 2. UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education 4.5 Regional Educational Development in India .Responsibilities of State and Central Governments on Education. Community and Mass Media 2.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural India. social Impact 3. New evaluation procedures. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential implications.teachers should have : 1. 4.Pre-service and In-services facilities.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development .4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education 3.I. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes.
(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi 9. Meerut : Surya Publication 6.N.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students 5. and Sharma R. Kalan Paper Packs 10.Aim. hyderabad : Neelkamal Publications. Teacher's role UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education
5. Sharma. and Dash B. New Delhi : Crescent Publisher Corporation 11. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice. 7.K. Hydrabad : Neelkamal Publications.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern management techniques in educational institutions. Mishra.4. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education. curriculum and teacher's role 5. Tagore 5. T.improvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation 5. R. Curriculum and national goals . Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society.4 4.R. Pandy V. (2004) Problems of Education in India. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society. Ram S. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian Education.
.N. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. (2005) Foundations of Education. Mahatma Gandhi. 5. and Human Development. Naturalism and Pragmatism . New Delhi: NCERT 3.K.K. Delhi : University Publications 2. Realism. New Delhi: Sge Publications 4.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles . and (c) Correlating school subjects with population problems Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers Environmental Education : Types of environment. Hemchand. and Mohanty R. Socialization. Saraswathi T. REFERENCE 1. Taneja V. Ghanta R. Prof.1
Idealism.flexibility and sensitivity to the need and and differences of pupils.C.K. B. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication 8. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education. (1999) Culture.5
and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government Small family norms.S.